This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

ELCT 301

Project 4

**BUTTERWORTH FILTER DESIGN
**

Objective The main purpose of this laboratory exercise is to learn the procedures for designing Butterworth and Chebyshev filters. In addition, the theory behind these procedures will be discussed in recitation and the hands-on methods practiced in the laboratory. This exercise will focus on the fourth order filter but the methods are valid regardless of the order of the filter. In this lab only even order filters will be considered Background Read pgg.728-738 Hambley. The Butterworth and Chebyshev filters are high order filter designs which have significantly different characteristics, but both can be realized by using simple first order or biquad stages cascaded together to achieve the desired order, passband response, and cut-off frequency. The Butterworth filter has a maximally flat response, i.e., no passband ripple and a roll-off of -20dB per pole. In the Butterworth scheme the designer is usually optimizing the flatness of the passband response at the expense of roll-off. The Chebyshev filter displays a much steeper roll-off, but the gain in the passband is not constant. The Chebyshev filter is characterized by a significant passband ripple that often can be ignored. The designer in this case is optimizing roll-off at the expense of passband ripple. Both filter types can be implemented using the simple Sallen-Key configuration. The Sallen-Key design (shown in Figure A-1) is a biquadratic or biquad type filter, meaning there are two poles defined by the circuit transfer function

H ( s) =

H0 , ( s / ω 0 ) + (1 / Q )( s / ω 0 ) + 1

2

(1)

where H0 is the DC gain of the biquad circuit and is a function only of the op-amp gain and the value of Rf. The quantity Q is called the quality factor and is a direct measure of the flatness of the passband. When C1 = C2 and R1 = R2 for the Sallen-Key design, the value of Q depends exclusively on the gain of the op-amp stage and the cut-off frequency on R and C, or

Q=

1 , (3 − H 0 ) 1 2π RC .

and

(2)

fC =

(3)

Clearly there are many values of Q that will satisfy (1), but the designer must consider, both the quality and the stability of the circuit. Calculations with different values of Q

© 2001, by T.C. Chandler

1

1+ (f ) 2n (4) where n is the order of the filter and fc is the cutoff frequency .. is found to be 1. Apply a 1 volt sinusoidal input and observe both the input and output waveforms for ten frequencies equally spaced on the logarithmic scale and measure the response magnitude and phase of each.. The gain values required to cascade biquad sections to achieve even-order filters are shown in Table A-I. 3.707. © 2001. In the case of a fourth order Butterworth filter (n = 4). Each stage must be characterized by a specific value of gain (or Q) that achieves both a flat response and stability. Other types of filters such as high pass. In addition the circuit is only stable when H0 < 3.235.707. Chandler 2 . one stage must have a gain of 1. Compare the response to the model predictions from the prelab.707. For a single biquad section. The high pass dual to the Sallen-Key low pass filter can be realized by simply exchanging the positions of R and C in the circuit of Figure A-1. Higher values will result in poles in the right half-plane and an unstable circuit. i. and bandpass filters can be designed the same way.152 and the other stage a gain of 2.USC Electrical Engineering 44#1 ELCT 301 Project 4 will demonstrate that for the second order case the flattest response occurs when Q = . the gain for which Q will equal . 2. i.e.e. by cascading the appropriate filter sections to achieve the desired bandpass and roll-off. hence the maximally flat response of the Butterworth filter will also be realized when Q = . For a fourth order Butterworth filter. by T. the correct response can be achieved by cascading two biquad stages. The magnitude of the frequency response of this family of filters can be written as H( f ) = H0 / fC .C. The Butterworth filter is an optimal filter with maximally flat response in the passband. Note that the number of biquad stages needed to realize a filter of order n is n/2. and hence yield a Butterworth type response.586. Lab Project 1. n = 2. Build the Butterworth filters you designed for the Prelab and measure their frequency response.

586 1.316 1.C.846 0.471 1.USC Electrical Engineering 44#1 ELCT 301 Project 4 Appendix C1 + VIN R1 R2 (H0 – 1)Rf C2 Rf VOUT For R1 = R2 and C1 = C2 H ( s) = H0 ( RC ) s + RCs(3 − H 0 ) + 1 2 2 Q= 1 (3 − H 0 ) ω0 = 1 RC or fC = 1 2π RC Figure A-1 The Sallen-Key low pass filter Poles 2 4 6 8 Butterworth (Gain) 1.983 2.599 2.448 1.537 0.038 1.946 © 2001.907 2.610 Chebyshev (0.572 2.238 1.842 0.582 1. Chandler 3 .904 0.891 0.605 0.114 0.379 0.5dB) λn Gain 1.821 0.011 2.235 1.861 2.842 2.782 0.586 2.730 2.031 2.483 1.0dB) λn Gain 0.231 1.297 1.768 2.068 1.924 0.711 1.913 Chebyshev (2.879 0.152 2.337 1.660 0.597 1.648 0.889 2.006 2.396 1. by T.990 2.522 0.964 2.

Vo. by T. and Vnrms is the rms amplitude of the nth harmonic of the output voltage.C. = V12 + ∑ Vnrms rms rms rms n ≠1 where V1rms is the rms amplitude of the fundamental component of the output voltage.. 2 Vorms − V12 rms THD = = 2 V1rms ∑V n ≠1 2 nrms V12 rms and 2 2 Vorms = V12 + V22rms + V32 + . Remember your trigonometric Fourier series is: ∞ vo (t ) = a o + ∑ a n cos(nω o t ) + bn sin( nω o t ) n =1 Vorms ≡ 1 2 ∫ vo (t )dt TT ωo = V12 rms 2π T a 2 + b12 = 1 2 © 2001..USC Electrical Engineering 44#1 ELCT 301 Project 4 Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Total harmonic distortion is a measure of the signal energy in the second and higher harmonics as compared to the energy in the fundamental.. Chandler 4 ..

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd