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SEPTEMBER/
OCTOBER 2009
$4.99
ON DISPLAY
UNTI L
OCTOBER 19,
2009
SPECIAL
PORTFOLIO
CONTROVERSY
AND HOW IT
SHAPED
PHOTOGRAPHY
AN EXPLOSIVE
HISTORY OF
SHOCK AND
CENSORSHIP
PLUS
THE LEGACY OF
AN ICON NAMED
FARRAH
JOE MCNALLY’S
COOLEST
LIGHTING TRICK
THE BEST-DESIGNED PHOTO GEAR!
page 45
TM
N
othing captures the spirit of the American West like desert sunsets,
geological wonders and Old West gunfights. Saddle up for a memorable
trek through the Sonoran Desert as the Mentor Series discovers the vast beau-
ty and intricate curiosities of Tucson, Arizona. From panoramic, sun-drenched
horizons to hidden locations the sun has never reached, you’ll discover the
true extremes of light and dark.
We’ll head to Gates Pass, revered by professional photographers world-
wide. It offers a vantage point unmatched for dazzling images of the setting
sun. If you’ve ever had a “sunset screensaver,” it’s likely that the images fea-
turing dark silhouettes of cacti against a brilliant orange and yellow sky were
taken at Gates Pass. We’ll help you capture amazing shots of the tranquil
sunlight reflected off of the desert hills, the constantly shifting clouds on the
horizon, and the glowing, backlit needles of the saguaro cactus.
We’ll start the next day at the Sonora Desert Museum. This world-
renowned zoo, natural history museum and botanical garden will bring
your lens within inches of more than 1,200 types of plants and more than
300 desert animals, 20 of which are endangered. You’ll capture desert
life of all shapes, sizes and colors—from the imposing American Black
Bear to the delicate leaf-cutter ant, from a hillside of wildflowers to a
red rock canyon. In addition, the museum possesses an extensive gem,
mineral and fossil collection—and the only significant dinosaur skeleton
ever found in southern Arizona.
Next we’ll crank the way-back machine and give you a glimpse of the
Old West through the lens of the film industry. At the base of the Tucson
Mountains lies the Old Tucson Studios, where such classics as “Gunfight
at the O.K. Corral,” “3:10 to Yuma,” and “The Lone Ranger and the Lost
City of Gold” were filmed. Now restored, the same sets and streets where
such legends as John Wayne and Clint Eastwood faced off with bad guys
is a piece of living history. A live cast of character, complete with brilliantly
colored costumes, will recreate stunts and shootouts that will challenge your
shutter speed and your reaction times.
Afterward, we’ll return to Gates Pass for another opportunity to
capture that perfect sunset shot (and perfect replacement photo for your
desktop’s background).
To conclude our desert journey, we’ll spend our last day at Mission San Xavier
del Bac. Completed in 1797, it is one of the finest examples of mission architec-
ture in the U.S. Set against the warm browns of the distant hills, it stands like a
white beacon against the desert backdrop. Find the perfect angle to capture the
imposing dome and the lofty towers of this graceful blend of Moorish, Byzantine
and late-Mexican design as the morning sun graces its pristine facade.
No matter what path you ride on, Tucson and the Sonoran Desert offer
eye-popping vistas and awesome close-ups. Sign up today and hitch a ride
with the experts who will broaden your range by bringing you face-to-face
with a slice of America you won’t soon forget.
November 13 – 15, 2009
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Photography has been defined by
a number of images that have raised
ethical and legal issues concerning
fakery, censorship, artistic ownership,
and exploitation. Here we examine
16 controversial photos that shaped
the medium we know today.
departments portfolio
Public Eye 14
The icon with extravagant
hair, by Vicki Goldberg.
New Books 20
A breathtaking new
volume combines NASA
photography with
Norman Mailer’s account
of the Apollo 11 mission.
Art 26
German photographer
Andreas Gefeller focuses
on the floor—the entire
floor—of a Berlin building.
Inside American Photo 4
How French journalist
Regis Le Sommier learned
about the value of small-town
American photojournalism.
Editor’s Note 8
What is a high-impact
photograph? They all are,
by definition, and it
pays to understand that
kind of power.
Inside Photography 13
How Farrah
changed photography.
Pictures That Shocked The World 57
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On the cover:
Images from our portfolio
on the world’s most
controversial photos
20
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14 45
contents
Vol ume XX Number 5 September/October 2009
AmericanPhotoMag.com
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In Print 28
Antoine Verglas makes model
Julie Henderson look sexy
by making her feel sexy. And
there is his special light, too.
Witness 35
How three combat photog-
raphers got their start
shooting local news at a
small newspaper in Ohio.
Editor’s Choice 45
The world’s most stylish
cameras, and more.
Flickr Creative
Showcase 49
Our new feature presents big
talents from the world’s
biggest photo community. In
this issue: Maciej Dakowicz
of Cardiff, Wales.
The Law 55
New orphan works legislation
isn’t necessarily bad for
photographers, and it might
bring some big benefits.
Master Class 77
Andreas Gefeller explains how
he creates his ultra-detailed
views of the world at our feet,
and overhead.
Skills 82
Available light isn’t always
the right light. Photographer
Joe McNally explains
how to get rid of it so you
can make your own.
See It Now 93
New photo exhibitions, from
coast to coast, as well
as our pick for the month.
Publ i cati ons Mai l Agreement
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bkolb@wrightsreprints.com. American Photo, September/ October 2009,
Vol. XX, No. 5. Entire contents © 2009 Bonnier Corporation.
Vice President/Editor in Chief David Schonauer
Art Director Deborah Mauro
Executive Editor Russell Hart
Associate Editor Lindsay Sakraida
Copy Editor Judy Myers
Assistant Art Director Andy Kropa
Editor at Large Jean-Jacques Naudet
Contributing Editors: Jonathan Barkey, Vicki Goldberg,
Dirck Halstead, Eliane Laffont, Jack Crager
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ON THE TRAIL
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CONTRIBUTORS
Jonas Bonnier, Chairman;
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COPYRIGHT © 2009, BONNIER CORPORATION AMERICAN PHOTO®
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Writer
Le Sommier
(left) and
photographer
Hondros
in Iraq in
2006
that Hondros told Regis a remarkable
tale—how he and two other prize-
winning photojournalists, Tyler Hicks and
Spencer Platt, launched their careers at
the same small newspaper in Troy, Ohio.
As Le Sommier explains on page 35,
the three noted photographers learned
their most important lessons by covering
fires and car accidents in small-town
America. He wonders whether these
lessons will continue to be passed
along, as newspapers face declining
readerships and budgets. Nonetheless,
Le Sommier notes that the idea of a
talented kid emerging from a small news-
paper and climbing to the top of the pro-
fession represents a particular American
notion of destiny. “America is still a place
where people believe they can do
anything they put their minds to,” he says.
F
rench journalist Regis Le Sommier
has worked side by side with photo-
journalists around the globe. Until late
last year he was the United States bureau
chief for Paris Match, a news magazine
that has long championed great photog-
raphy. In December, Le Sommier returned
to Paris to serve as the deputy managing
editor for Match, but he recently called
us to tell us of a story he thought would
be great for American Photo. Back in
2004, while covering the U.S. presidential
election campaign in Ohio, he worked
with a young photographer named Chris
Hondros, and they later teamed up on
several other big stories. (In the photo
here, you see Le Sommier and Hondros
when they were covering the most
violent days of the Iraq war in the city of
Khadamiyah.) It was around that time
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Get ready for the photographic journey of a lifetime as the Mentor
Series heads to Egypt, a land of archaeological and cultural
riches. Shoot alongside Nikon professional photographers Mark
Alberhasky and Reed Hoffmann while photographing dynamic
landscapes, spectacular pyramids and the glorious Nile river.
Visit the three Great Pyramids of Giza near Cairo, a glorious
backdrop to capture camel drivers and their camels. Want to
see the symbol that has represented the essence of Egypt for
thousands of years? Nothing can prepare you for seeing the
Sphinx the first time, in its massive splendor. The photos you
take here are ones you’ll cherish for many years. From the
deserts to the Nile, the pyramids to the temples, Egypt’s eye-
catching views will stimulate your senses and provide you with
fantastic photos. Sign up today for a memorable trek that will
bring out the adventurer in you.
EGYPT º 'eo¦. 27 - Cc¦. 7, 2009
Pack up your camera gear for a weekend on the eastern shores of Long
Island with the Mentor Series! Join Nikon professional photographers
Reed Hoffmann & Rob Van Petten to experience the abundance of photo
opportunities within the quaint villages of the North Fork and along the
miles of beautiful, pristine beaches on the South Fork. Get ready for a truly
authentic view of this age-old vacationing destination while discovering
the locations in a new light with world-class instructors by your side. A
visit to a private full-service horse farm provides an exclusive tour and the
occasion to photograph the beauty of these gentle animals. Visit charming
Sag Harbor, an enchanting town that boasts its strong maritime flavor and
holds tight to its history. Experience the magnificent Peconic Estuary System
by boat, the quiet beauty of a stunning vineyard, and beach activities
which offer the chance to capture recreation and lifestyle shots as the light
changes. Get ready to be enchanted by this part of America and wrap up
your summer by joining the Mentor Series when we take to Long Island
in September!
LONG ISLAND, NY º 'eo¦. 11 - 13, 2009
REGISTER ONLINE AT WWW.MENTORSERIES.COM
For more information, call toll-free at 888-676-6468.
®
© Michele Lugaresi © Holger Mette
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FOR THE PAST 11 YEARS, the Mentor Series program has taken photo
enthusiasts to destinations across the country and around the world. With top
Nikon professional photographers accompanying participants every day and
teaching them how and what to shoot, there’s nothing like a Mentor Series trek.
You and your photography will never be the same!
®
Philadelphia will provide the perfect backdrop to learn the rewards of
using light to create an intentional effect in your photos, as well as
explore the history and culture this city has to offer. This trek includes
a Master Class on Lighting, providing an exclusive opportunity to
determine how luminosity can shape the mood and color of the
photographs you create. Visit the stunning Longwood Gardens, one
of the world’s premier horticultural display gardens. Travel on to the
infamous Eastern State Penitentiary, and explore what lighting is best
suited to subject and scene as we shoot models and further practice
learned techniques “on location.” Later, photograph along a tour of
Philadelphia’s remarkable landmarks from the top of our own double-
decker bus. Everywhere you go in Philadelphia, you’ll find a piece
of America’s past and continually discover the chance to utilize the
lighting techniques you’ve learned to capture these historic landmarks.
PHILADELPHIA, PA º Cc¦. 30 - No.. 1, 2009
Grab your camera and join the Mentor Series as we head to the
Great Smoky Mountains, a renowned mountain range rising along
the Tennessee–North Carolina border. Let our team help you capture
these stunning shots as you explore this magnificent National Park in
autumn. At 6,643 feet, Clingmans Dome is the highest point in the
Great Smoky Mountains national park. The observation tower on the
summit offers a remarkable 360° lookout of the Smokies where, on
a clear day, the view expands over 100 miles and into seven states,
making for a spectacular, unmatched perspective. In contrast, you’ll
fill your frame as the sun rises at Cades Cove, a lush valley with
preserved homesteads, scenic mountain vistas and an abundant display
of wildlife. Journey back to the beautiful Clingmans Dome at sunrise
to photograph the dramatic vistas. Everywhere you go in the Great
Smoky Mountains, you’ll find exceptional prospects. Don’t miss this
opportunity to expand your horizons and your portfolio in the Great
Smoky Mountains with expert photographers by your side.
SMOKY MTNS. º Cc¦. 1o- 18, 2009
Special thanks to our premier sponsor:
With additional support from:
NEW MASTER CLASS: LIGHTING
© William Britten © Chun Han
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8 AmericanPhotoMag.com
W
hat is high-impact photography? In
a general sense, most photography
is, by definition. Still images create indeli-
ble memories in a way that no other
medium can. Words enhance pictures and
fill in the information that photos cannot
supply. Motion photography’s power
comes from its narrative possibilities. But
photographs go to the heart of an issue, cap-
ture something essential in a face, surprise
us with the detail of a scene, and create
popular icons that can define an age.
In this issue we explore just how still
imagery makes its impact. And we start
with a beautiful blonde in a red one-piece
swimming suit. The blonde, of course, is
Farrah Fawcett, who changed the cultural
landscape when she posed for photogra-
pher Bruce McBroom one afternoon in Los
Angeles in 1976. The poster they produced
has, as of today, sold over 12 million cop-
ies, still a record, though it’s been boot-
legged billions of times all over the globe. It
has decorated the dorm walls of countless
young men and populated the dreams of
many more. What accounts for its enduring
appeal? American Photo contributing
editor Vicki Goldberg looks for an answer in
our special feature on page 14. You’ll also
find outtakes from the shoot and a memoir
from McBroom, who helped create glamour
photography history that day in L.A.
Our special portfolio comes from an
exhibition that debuted earlier this year at
the Musée de l’Elysée in Lausanne, Switzer-
land. Titled Controverses, the show (which
has also been re-created as a French-
language book) considers the ethical and
legal issues raised by a number of images—
issues of fakery, censorship, ownership, and
exploitation. In other words, the very issues
photographers must come to grips with
today. Reviewing the exhibition in the New
York Times, critic Michael Kimmelman
wrote, “By virtue of its economy and prolif-
eration, photography has been one of the
most convenient weapons of the powerless
even while it serves the powers that be.” I
think you’ll find our portfolio to be a fasci-
nating look at the power of photography.
I’m also sure you’ll find the imagery
of Andreas Gefeller (page 26) to be spec-
tacular, and confusing (in a good way).
Gefeller uses a digital SLR in a unique
way to explore what lies below us—floors,
beaches, park meadows. You’ll see the
world in a new way, which is another def-
inition of high-impact photography. By
the way, Gefeller leads an American Photo
Master Class on page 77.
David Schonauer, EDITOR IN CHIEF
Above: Outtakes
from Bruce
McBroom’s 1976
session with
Farrah Fawcett.
©

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WHAT MAKES
A PICTURE
POWERFUL?
HIGH IMPACT
E D I T O R ’ S N O T E
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SUPPORTTHE EXPERIENCE
PHOTOANDVIDEOEQUIPMENT
A Walkabout with the NEWcollection!
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Experience the National Geographic Channel. Call your cable or satellite provider for availability. Visit our website: www.nationalgeographic.com
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support vital exploration, conservation,
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The 2009 LUMIX line offers a high-perform-
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Panasonic expands its popular FZ-Series
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successor to the FZ28. The LUMIX FZ35
maintains its 18x optical zoom while adding
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tion video, which means it has double the
recordi ng ti me i n HD qual i ty compared
wi th the Moti on JPEG format. Wi th the
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and these i ntui ti ve features are now
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This hybrid digital camera that can shoot
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Whether the FZ35 will be used on an
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the FZ35’s flexibility makes it the perfect
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The LUMIX ZR1, a completely new model
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Available in four stylish colors, (blue, red,
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The ZR1 is the ideal camera for the person
Panasonic’s Versatile Line
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looking for a high-performing, everyday
camera that can slip in their purse or
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The LUMIX DMC-FP8 features a stylish
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With the three new LUMIX models this fall,
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13 AmericanPhotoMag.com
The famous
Farrah
poster, shot
by Bruce
McBroom in
1976.
RECONSIDERING
THE IMPORTANCE OF FARRAH
P H O T O G R A P H Y
I NS I DE
14
PUBLIC
EYE
20
NEW
BOOKS
26
ART
28
IN
PRINT
THE ICON WITH EXTRAVAGANT HAIR
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I N S I D E P H O T O G R A P H Y
14
I
n 1976, Farrah Fawcett was
just another nobody trying to
become a somebody. Though she
had only a few commercials and
some print advertisements on
her resumé, her hair was about to
become as famous as Samson’s:
Teenage boys were secretly snap-
ping up women’s magazines for
her picture in a shampoo ad. A
poster producer smelled money
and commissioned the photo-
graph that would establish Farrah
as the number-one somebody
of the 1970s. Soon afterward, she
was cast as one of three detec-
tives, all equipped with martial
arts skills and dynamite bodies,
when Charlie’s Angels pre-
miered on TV. They all had long
hair too, but gentlemen prefer
blondes, and Farrah was golden.
She once said, “When the
show was number three, I thought
it was our acting. When we got
to be number one, I decided it
could only be because none of us
wears a bra.” (She later went on
to be nominated three times for
Emmys.) The poster went off like
a rocket and became the best-
selling pinup of all time, pushing
Marilyn Monroe into second
place. Farrah earned so much
more in poster royalties than she
did from Angels that she walked
out on the show after a year. In
1977 NASA sent that poster into
space in a time capsule on its
Oblio probe, and today it hangs
in the Smithsonian.
Pinups have a long history, but
back in the era when Betty Grable
in a bathing suit was big news,
society mandated a certain pre-
tense to respectability. Andre
Bazin, the noted film critic, wrote
in 1946 that the pinup “is noth-
ing more than chewing gum for
the imagination. Manufactured
on the assembly line, standard-
ized by Vargas, sterilized by cen-
sorship.” (Vargas was the Esquire
magazine illustrator who drew
provocatively posed and anatom-
ically impossible women who
kept covered—sort of—in abbre-
viated outfits that were appar-
ently glued on.) Then, in 1947
and 1953, the Kinsey Reports
were published; in 1960 the Pill
guaranteed women a new sexual
openness; and in 1963 Betty
Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique
HOW
FARRAH
SAVED THE
CULTURE.
ESSAY BY
VICKI
GOLDBERG
PUBLIC
EYE
PHOTOGRAPHS BY
BRUCE MCBROOM
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15 AmericanPhotoMag.com
One of Bruce
McBroom’s
contact sheets
from the Farrah
poster shoot
©

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I N S I D E P H O T O G R A P H Y
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17 AmericanPhotoMag.com
Opposite
and here:
Two outtakes
from the
poster shoot
FARRAH
REWROTE
THE
IDEAL
sparked the feminist movement.
Actors took off their clothes
on stage and screen, while the
girl next door doffed them
in Playboy. In the early 1970s,
Penthouse and Hustler gave
new scope to the word explicit.
B
y that time feminism had
decreed that women could
enjoy both sex and their own
bodies. (See Erica Jong’s Fear of
Flying, 1973.) But Farrah rewrote
that ideal in capital letters. She
remained tantalizing, refusing to
pose nude (until 1995, when she
made an issue of Playboy the
best-selling issue of the decade).
In the 1976 poster, her bathing
suit coolly covers her, but her
erect nipple turns the heat up.
She radiates high-voltage good
health, with a smile so large it
could rival the white keys of a
piano. Her extravagant hair, which
inspired women all over the map
to try (and fail) to match her allure,
broadcasts female sexuality, as
abundant hair always has. And
the Indian blanket behind her, a
seat cover grabbed from his car
by Bruce McBroom, the photog-
rapher, tilts the image toward
a symbol of the all-American
young woman—a Yankee Venus
transplanted from Olympus to
the walls of a dorm near you. N
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I N S I D E P H O T O G R A P H Y
18
O
n a summer day in 1976,
I photographed Farrah
Fawcett for her famous poster,
which has since sold more
than 12 million copies. At the
time, I was freelancing in Los
Angeles by photographing celeb-
rities and rock-and-roll groups
like The Doors, The Mamas and
the Papas, Frank Zappa, and
The Beatles. I had photographed
Farrah before, when she first
came to Hollywood, and a few
years later, when publisher Pro
Arts wanted to make a poster with
her, she specifically requested
that I be the photographer.
The shoot was very simple—
just Farrah and I, at the home
she shared with her husband,
Lee Majors. I used a 1973
Nikon F with a 50mm lens and
Kodachrome 25 film. I had no
artificial lighting, just the
California sun and a white bounce
card. I supplied the Indian
blanket, an impromptu set dress-
McBroom
preferred the
water shots.
Farrah over-
ruled him.
ing from my car. Farrah did her
own hair and supplied the now-
famous “wardrobe.”
We tried several swimsuits,
and, of course, she looked great
in all of them. But I felt I didn’t
quite have “The Poster” until
Farrah finally came out of the
house wearing the red suit. I
looked through the camera and
knew—this was the one!
At the end of that long, hot
day, while I was packing up my
gear, Farrah said to me, “I’m so
tired of looking perfect.” She
walked over and turned on the
hose and drenched herself
with water. I ran for my camera
and shot a sequence of her
with mascara running and hair
dripping wet—very sexy.
The final image for the poster
wasn’t my first choice, but
Farrah personally selected it. I
shot many rolls of film that
day, and Farrah picked that one;
her instincts about her image
were always correct.
T
he poster started Farrah’s
career, and when Charlie’s
Angels debuted on TV, the com-
bination of the two made her
famous overnight. The success
of the poster didn’t really help
my career, though, because the
publisher refused to give me a
photo credit. It was only after
the poster became a news story
and cultural phenomenon that
journalists began asking, “Who
shot the poster?”
I have tried over the years to
understand why it has attracted so
much interest from so many peo-
ple. No one had heard of Farrah
Fawcett when Pro Arts asked
me to photograph her, and at that
time, the idea of charging money
for a poster of a relatively anon-
ymous model was unheard of.
Though some rock-and-roll posters
of famous bands were selling,
they were usually given away for
free, as a form of publicity.
I think the image was a lucky
combination of this whole-
some, beautiful all-American girl
looking directly at you with a
dazzling smile and a red suit that
covered a lot but revealed a
little—just enough.
I have been told that Farrah
and I created an “iconic” image
that day, and I am proud that it
stands tall with the classic pinups
of Rita Hayworth, Betty Grable,
and Marilyn Monroe. In my
long career as a still photogra-
pher on motion pictures, I have
photographed many posters—
featuring Eddie Murphy, Harrison
Ford, Arnold Schwarzenegger,
and Clint Eastwood, to name a
few—but the poster that every-
one remembers me for is Farrah.
In the thirty-three years
since I took the photo, it has
hung in museums and has
appeared in the background of
scenes from popular movies.
And people continue to buy it
on eBay—including me.
BRUCE
MCBROOM
RECALLS
THE
FAMOUS
LADY IN RED
MEMOIR
©

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Open your image and select the gender
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I N S I D E P H O T O G R A P H Y
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21 AmericanPhotoMag.com
Left: Buzz Aldrin on
the moon, 1969, photo
by Neil Armstrong.
Below: New astronaut
Aldrin (left) in
training in 1964.
W
ith the heart of a novel-
ist, Norman Mailer knew
that mankind was transformed
in the instant that the Lunar
Landing Module, nicknamed
Eagle, came to rest in the Sea of
Tranquility, on July 20, 1969. In
his 1970 book Of a Fire on the
Moon, Mailer told the tale of the
Apollo 11 mission, in his own
fashion. He saw the greatness
of the endeavor, but was aston-
ished by the corporate blandness
of NASA. In Neil Armstrong,
Mailer found a character whose
goal was not individual glory,
but a team player whose dry
scientific jargon undercut the
drama of the moment.
Mailer understood that it
would require storytellers, him-
self foremost, to put the grand
adventure of Apollo 11 into a
human context. In one respect,
however, astronauts Armstrong
and Buzz Aldrin did capture and
communicate the astounding
nature of their feat: The photo-
graphs they made on the moon
40 years ago remain powerful
statements about human spirit
and vulnerability.
In August, Taschen Books
released a remarkable photo-
graphy book combining
images from NASA’s archive
and other private collections
with the text from Mailer’s
book. The 350-page Norman
Mailer, MoonFire: The Epic
Journey of Apollo 11, will
come with a signed, framed,
and numbered image of Buzz
Aldrin. The price? $1,000,
except for the as-yet unpriced
final 12 copies of the 1,969
limited edition, which will con-
tain fragments of actual moon
rocks. On the following pages
we present Mailer’s account of
the landing. —DAVID SCHONAUER
AN ASTONISHING
LI MI TED- EDITION
VOLUME TELLS THE EPIC
STORY OF THE
JOURNEY OF APOLLO 11
IN PHOTOS AND THE
WORDS OF
NORMAN MAILER
NEW BOOKS
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I N S I D E P H O T O G R A P H Y
22
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23 AmericanPhotoMag.com
S
o one got ready for the
climax of the greatest week
since Christ was born….The LEM
having flown around the moon
and gone behind it again, the
braking burn for the Descent
Orbit Initiation would be begun
in radio silence….
Phrases came through the
general static of the public
address system. “Eagle looking
great, you’re go,” came through,
and statements of altitude.
“You’re go for landing, over!”
“Roger, understand. Go for land-
ing. 3,000 feet.” “We’re go,
hang tight, we’re go. 2,000 feet.”
So the voice came out of the box.
Somewhere a quarter of a
million miles away, ten years of
engineering and training, a thou-
sand processes and a million
parts, a huge swatch out of 25
billion dollars and a hovering of
machinery were preparing to
THE
APOLLO
LANDING
TEXT BY
NORMAN
MAILER
Left: The Lunar Module
“Eagle” lifts off from the
moon, July 21, 1969. Below:
A historic footprint and
President Kennedy in 1962.
DESTINY
WITH
HISTORY
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I N S I D E P H O T O G R A P H Y
24
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25 AmericanPhotoMag.com
go through the funnel of a his-
torical event whose significance
might yet be next to death itself,
and the reporters who would
interpret this information for the
newsprint readers of the world
were now stirring in polite, if
mounting, absorption with the
calm cryptic technological
voices which came droning out
of the box. Was it like that as
one was waiting to be born? Did
one wait in a modern room with
strangers while numbers were
announced—“Soul 77-48-16—
you are on call. Proceed to Stag-
ing Area CX—at 16:04 you will
be conceived.”
So the words came. And the
moon came nearer. “3½ down,
220 feet, 13 forward, 11 for-
ward, coming down nicely, 200
feet, 4½ down, 5½ down, 160,
6½ down, 5½ down, 9 forward,
5 percent. Quantity light. 75
feet. Things looking good. Down
a half. 6 forward.
“Sixty seconds,” said
another voice.
Was that a reference to fuel?
Had that been the Capcom? Or
was it Aldrin or Armstrong? Who
was speaking now? The static
was a presence. The voice was
almost dreamy. Only the thin-
nest reed of excitement quivered
in the voice.
“Lights on. Down 2½. Forward.
Forward. Good. 40 feet down.
Down 2½. Picking up some dust.
30 feet, 2½ down. Faint shadow.
4 forward. Drifting to the right a
little. 6…down a half.”
Another voice said, “Thirty sec-
onds.” Was that thirty seconds of
fuel? A modest stirring of antici-
pation came from the audience.
“Drifting right. Contact light.
Okay,” said the voice as even
as before, “engine stop. ACA
out of détente. Modes control
both auto, descent engine
command override, off. Engine
arm, off. 423 is in.”
A cry went up, half jubilant,
half confused. Had they actu-
ally landed?
The Capcom spoke. “We
copy you down, Eagle.” But it
was a question.
“Houston, Tranquility Base
here. The Eagle has landed.” It
was Armstrong’s voice, the quiet
voice of the best boy in town,
the one who pulls you drowning
from the sea and walks off
before you can offer a reward.
The Eagle has landed.
Excerpt from Norman Mailer,
MoonFire: The Epic Journey of
Apollo 11, courtesy Taschen Books.
IT WAS
THE VOICE
OF THE
BEST BOY
IN
TOWN
Left: Armstrong
photographs
the Sea of Tran-
quility. Below:
An early space
program image.
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26
“Untitled
(Panel
Building 1)
Berlin,
2004”
©

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27 AmericanPhotoMag.com
PHOTOGRAPH BY
ANDREAS GEFELLER
S
ometimes photographers are
so busy looking out at the
world that they forget to look up,
or down. Andreas Gefeller is
certainly interested in what is
overhead, but he’s totally tuned
into what’s underfoot.
Here, for example, you see
an image he created in 2004,
showing what appears to be the
floor plan of a building in Ber-
lin, Germany. Gefeller creates
such mind-bending visual puz-
zles as this in a relatively simple,
but painstaking, way. In this
case, he photographed every
square inch of one floor of the
building using a Canon EOS 5D
with a 35mm focal-length lens,
which he supports at a height
of five or six feet with an
unsplayed tripod that serves as a
sort of boom. Then he stitches
all the images together in Photo-
shop. “I like to make people
think about whether the images
are truth or fiction,” he says.
Gefeller’s latest series, called
Supervisions, was on exhibition
at the Hasted Hunt Gallery in
Manhattan earlier this year. For
more, visit andreasgefeller.com,
or see Master Class on page 77.
A VISUAL
PUZZLE
MADE
ONE STEP
AT A TIME
ART
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I N S I D E P H O T O G R A P H Y
28
Antoine Verglas’s
airy photos
of model Julie
Henderson,
for Italian GQ
©

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29 AmericanPhotoMag.com
A
ntoine Verglas’s resume is
enough to make any man
jealous. The New York-based pho-
tographer has been a mainstay
imagemaker in men’s magazines
since their heyday in the late ‘90s,
shooting for Maxim, GQ, FHM,
and the much-anticipated swim-
suit edition of Sports Illustrated.
And from this enviable career
of working intimately with the
world’s most stunning women,
Verglas has discovered the key
to creating alluring photographs
(to which his pictures of model
Julie Henderson, taken for
Italian GQ, can attest). The trick
is to remember that a model
may look sexy, but ultimately she
must feel sexy too.
“If you want a woman to look
relaxed in a picture,” Verglas
muses, “you cannot put her on a
cement floor. Cement will make
her body language look hard.
If you put her on a bed, it’s going
to get softer. And if you put her
on a very luxurious rug, it’ll be
even softer still.” He smiles. “I
have used so many white rugs
over the years because a woman
just feels more sensual with
something thick and fluffy.”
No need to take his word for
PHOTOGRAPHS BY
ANTOINE VERGLAS
J
ULIE
HENDERSON
LOOKS
SEXY AND
FEELS SEXY
IN PRINT
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I N S I D E P H O T O G R A P H Y
30
©

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31 AmericanPhotoMag.com
it, though; his photos of the cap-
tivating Henderson—occasionally
modeling with that omnipresent
rug—are carefree and undeni-
ably sexy, easily proving his
theory. Verglas is quick to note,
however, that Henderson is no
novice at being in front of the
camera. She has modeled since
the age of 13 and has found
a solid fan base in recent years
with three consecutive Sports
Illustrated swimsuit editions, for
which Verglas first photographed
her. “Julie knows which poses
and expressions work for her,” he
says, “and I was very happy to
work with her again [for GQ].”
A
lthough men’s magazines
have taken a blow in recent
years due to the availability of
material on the Internet, Verglas
has no intention of abandoning
his sensual aesthetic. Instead
he’s expanding the scope of his
photography to include fashion
and portraiture, for both celebri-
ties and everyday women.
“I have clients who see my pho-
tos in magazines, and they say,
‘Oh, I would love to have a sexy
portrait session,’ or sometimes a
husband will give a session to
his wife as a gift,” Verglas explains
of this new chapter. “When you
get known for a particular style,
people start seeking you out.
And when you enjoy it like I do,
you do it well.” —LINDSAY SAKRAIDA
“I’VE USED
MANY
WHITE
RUGS
OVER THE
YEARS”
“Julie knows
which poses and
expressions
work for her,”
Verglas says.
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
32 AmericanPhotoMag.com
H
ard lighting is au courant,
often sacrificing beauty for
a sense of realism or a more
graphic image quality. But
Antoine Verglas is not one for
fashion—at least not in its trendy
sense. “I like soft lighting,” says
the classically minded photogra-
pher. “I think it’s flattering.”
The effectiveness of soft light
depends on “the girl and the
situation,” says Verglas. For his
backlit photographs of model
Julie Henderson, soft light was
ideal. In fact he made the back-
light doubly soft, placing two
3x4-foot Chimera softboxes
directly behind the model, then
setting up a 12x12-foot “silk”
in front of them. Each softbox
was powered by a 3200 watt-
second Broncolor Grafit A4
pack set to 2500 watt-seconds.
Front lighting was also doubly
softened by a 7-foot-diameter
Westcott Octabank, an eight-
sided softbox that incorporates
two internal diffusion layers,
also powered by a Grafit A4.
The Octabank was positioned
behind and slightly to the right
of Verglas’s 17-megapixel Canon
EOS-1Ds Mark II; standing light-
ing flats off-camera to the left
bounced additional light in from
the side. The model’s skin was
well-moisturized so that her
“curves,” as Verglas puts it,
would reflect the strong backlight
more brightly. “We just wanted
to make it look like she was in
front of a big window,” says the
photographer. —RUSSELL HART
KEEP
IT SOFT
©

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Here: Henderson
glows with Ver-
glas’s signature
lighting. Bottom
right: Verglas’s
sketch of the
photo shoot’s
lighting scheme.
VERGLAS
ON
LIGHT
I N S I D E P H O T O G R A P H Y
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35 AmericanPhotoMag.com
BAND
OF
BROTHERS
T
Y
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New York Times photojournalist Tyler Hicks made this image during a firefight in the Korangal Valley of Afghanistan in April.
WHILE
SHOOTING THE
STORIES OF
THEIR LIVES
IN IRAQ AND
AFGHANISTAN,
THREE
PHOTOGRAPHERS
KNOW THEY
CAN DEPEND ON
EACH OTHER
AND THE
LESSONS THEY
LEARNED
LONG AGO
AT A SMALL
NEWSPAPER IN
OHIO.
WHILE
SHOOTING THE
STORIES OF
THEIR LIVES
IN IRAQ AND
AFGHANISTAN,
THREE
PHOTOGRAPHERS
KNOW THEY
CAN DEPEND ON
EACH OTHER
AND THE
LESSONS THEY
LEARNED
LONG AGO
AT A SMALL
NEWSPAPER IN
OHIO.
TEXT BY
REGIS LE SOMMIER
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
W I T N E S S
36
Tyler Hicks, left,
in Afghanistan
in 2006
SMALL
NEWSPAPERS
BECAME THE
GENERATORS OF
PHOTOGRAPHIC
TALENT BECAUSE
OF THE VITAL
CONNECTION
THEY HAVE
TRADITIONALLY
MAINTAINED
WITH LOCAL
COMMUNITIES.


M
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Spencer Platt
in Basra,
Iraq, 2003
PHOTOGRAPHS BY
TYLER HICKS,
CHRIS HONDROS,
AND
SPENCER PLATT
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37 AmericanPhotoMag.com
I
met Chris Hondros on a freez-
ing day in February 2004 in
Toledo, Ohio. At the time, I was
the U.S. bureau chief of Paris
Match, and I was covering presi-
dential candidate John Kerry as
he campaigned through this
important swing state. For me, the
trip was an opportunity to learn
about what middle America was
really like, and I was getting
quite a view, crisscrossing the
state from Poland to Cleveland,
Canton to Columbus, and south
to the outskirts of Cincinnati.
I needed a good photographer
to help me cover the story, and
Hondros, a photojournalist with
Getty Images, had been sent. We
immediately got along. He knew
the shots I needed for the story
and seemed to have a real sense
of the place and a rapport with its
people. We completed the story
and sent it off to France, where it
was well received by my editors.
Later, Chris and I hooked up
again on a far different story. He
was based in Iraq, and when I
went there to work on a story
about the American military I
asked him to shoot the pictures.
In 2006 we traveled to New
Orleans to cover the aftermath of
Hurricane Katrina. Shortly after
that we got together for lunch in
New York and began reminisc-
ing about our first assignment
together, back in Ohio. Chris
finally explained to me why he
knew the state so well: He had
started his photography career at
Ohio’s Troy Daily News, a clas-
sic small-town newspaper.
That was back in 1991, when
Hondros, then 20 years old, was
about to graduate from North
Carolina State University in
Raleigh, up the road from his
hometown of Fayetteville. He was
looking for an internship and
had applied to almost 30 news-
papers all over the country. “I
didn’t get anything,” he recalled.
“I still have 30 rejection letters
somewhere.” Then he heard from
Jim Witmer, the photo editor
of the
The darkroom
at the Troy
Daily News,
circa 1994
C
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IS

H
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Chris Hondros
in Monrovia,
Liberia, 2003
(continued on page 42)
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
W I T N E S S
38
T
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www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
39 AmericanPhotoMag.com
THE
PHOTOS
ALMOST
COST
HIM
HIS LIFE


Tyler Hicks has been covering the
war in Afghanistan off and on since
2001. In April, embedded with
a group of American soldiers in the
Korangal Valley, he produced what
may be his most dramatic combat
images, and it almost cost him his life.
The image at left shows Private
First Class Richard Dewater, 21, as
he walked across a plank over a rain-
swollen river. After taking the pic-
ture, Hicks reviewed it on the LCD
screen of his D-SLR and decided the
composition wasn’t correct. He waited
and photographed another soldier
on the plank, then ran to catch
up with Dewater. As Hicks ran toward
the soldier, a bomb exploded under
Dewater, killing him. It was an ambush
by Taliban fighters.
Hicks and another soldier ran
downstream and tried to ford
the river. With his 40 pounds of body
armor and camera gear, Hicks was
submerged and realized his cameras
were out of commission. Times
correspondent C. J. Chivers lent him
a point-and-shoot, and Hicks con-
tinued to cover the firefight. His
pictures were published on April 20.
TYLER HICKS
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
40
C
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W I T N E S S
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
41 AmericanPhotoMag.com
On January 18, 2005, Hondros
snapped a series of images that
seemed to sum up the troubled
American occupation of Iraq. An Iraqi
family traveling in a car through the
city of Tel Afar failed to stop at a
U.S. military checkpoint. American
soldiers, always aware that such
cars might be filled with explosives,
opened fire on the vehicle. Both
parents in the car were killed, and
one of the family’s five children
was seriously injured. After the car
stopped, a young girl emerged, cov-
ered with her parents’ blood. The
images generated a storm of interest
around the world, and the injured
boy was flown to the United States
for treatment.
CHRIS HONDROS
BOTH
PARENTS
IN THE
CAR
WERE
KILLED


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42 AmericanPhotoMag.com
S
P
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IM
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SPENCER PLATT
Troy Daily News at the time, who
offered him an internship for the
following January. Hondros
started with a salary of $200 a
week, not enough to get a motel
room. Instead, he found a win-
dowless room above the local
photo store for $45 a week. The
job required him to shoot two
feature pictures every day, one in
color for the front page, one in
black and white for the inside.
“It could be children playing,
people working, just anything,”
recalled Hondros. “The picture
had to stand on its own. There
had to be a certain flare to it.
We were pushing ourselves.
That’s where I learned about
light. It was before computers,
so we were printing pictures in
the darkroom. The deadline was
9:00 a.m., and the paper came
out at 2:00 p.m. You would
mostly shoot pictures the day
before and leave them on the
editor’s desk. One day a week
the photographers would have
an entire page for themselves.”
I
n 1994, the newspaper’s
photo editor left, and the job
of finding new interns was given
to Hondros. One of the portfo-
lios he looked at came from a
young photographer named
Tyler Hicks. “He had one of the
best,” says Hondros. “Stuff from
Guatemala…crazy stuff.”
Shortly after Hicks arrived at
the newspaper for his internship,
Hondros left to continue his
studies at Ohio University in
Athens, two hours away. Hicks
eventually ended up taking over
Hondros’s job, then filled the
intern slot with a friend, Spencer
Platt, whom he’d known from
Staples High School in West-
port, Connecticut.
“My introduction to the news-
paper was on a sultry Ohio
evening,” recalls Platt. “The
darkroom was a world of chem-
istry, film dryers, blaring radios,
and snapshots pinned to a
wall from dozens of photogra-
phers who had made brief stays
in Troy.”
Like Hondros, Hicks and Platt
used their brief stays in Troy to
launch their careers. Hicks now
works for the New York Times
and has (continued on page 86)
THE
PICTURE
HAD
TO STAND
ON ITS
OWN
““

Left: Hicks in
Ohio, circa
1994. Below
left: Hondros at
the Troy Daily
News. Center:
Spencer Platt.
C
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C
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IS

H
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D
R
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G
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IM
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S
(continued from page 37)
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
W I T N E S S
43
On August 15, 2006, Platt spent the
morning walking through a bombed-
out neighborhood in Beirut, photo-
graphing people returning to what
was left of their homes. Out of the
corner of his eye he saw a red con-
vertible full of attractive young Leb-
anese dart into the scene. He had
only a moment to take this picture,
which captured the surreal nature of
modern lifestyle and ancient antag-
onisms. The remarkable image won
first place in the 2008 World Press
Photo of the Year competition. Platt,
who graduated from Clark University
with a degree in English, has during
his photography career also worked in
Liberia, Albania, Congo, and Iraq.
HE HAD ONLY
A MOMENT
TO SHOOT

””
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Sign up today for our free
weekly e-newsletter!
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Newsletter Features:
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EDITOR

S CHOICE
45 AmericanPhotoMag.com
Olympus E-P1
Form and function are equal part-
ners in this remarkable inter-
changeable-lens camera. Like
Olympus D-SLRs, it incorporates a
full-size Four Thirds–format image
sensor; like Panasonic’s Lumix
GH1, it dispenses with a reflex
mirror and pentaprism, substitut-
ing an electronic viewfinder for
optical TTL viewing. And the
much smaller dimensions
permitted by the absence
of a mirror box and prism
housing have allowed
Olympus to make this new
12.3-megapixel model a
clear homage to 1963’s
Olympus Pen F—a cele-
brated SLR that stayed
small by shooting half
frames on 35mm film. But
the stainless-steel E-P1,
which also comes in white
with tan trim, is only half the
size equation. The shortened lens-
to-sensor distance and a smaller
mount diameter allow its Micro
Four Thirds–format lenses to be
much more compact, though with
adapters you can mount existing
Zuiko Digital optics (for other
E-series models) and OM-series
lenses from Olympus’s 35mm
days. And while the E-P1 may look
old-fashioned, it shoots 720p HD
video. Stay tuned for a full field
test of this surprising, classy cam-
era. About $800 (with 14-42mm).
Art of the Product “Good design is a Renaissance attitude that combines technology, cognitive science, human
need, and beauty to produce something the world didn’t know it was missing.”—PAOLA ANTONELLI, DESIGN CURATOR, MOMA
Right: The Olympus E-P1
with the 17mm
M.Zuiko Digital and
dedicated viewfinder.
Below: Its 14-42mm
standard zoom.
Bottom: The 17mm and
finder, FL-14 flash, and
lens adapter.
WINNERS OF OUR NEW
EDITOR’S CHOICE
DESIGN AWARDS
SHOW THAT
BEAUTY CAN MAKE A
GOOD THING
WORK BETTER.
FORM FLATTERS
FUNCTION
S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 0 9
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
E D I T O R ’ S C H O I C E
DESIGN AWARDS
46
Wacom Intuos4
Wacom’s next-generation pen tablet
features the greatest pressure-sen-
sitivity range yet—2,048 levels,
detecting the slightest touch of the
pen tip. (The pen itself has a pres-
sure-sensitive eraser and two side
switches for customized com-
mands.) But the Intuos4’s indus-
trial-chic design places all the
Express Keys and new four-way
Touch Ring to one side of its wide-
format working surface, so that all
can be operated with the nonpen
hand. (Left-handers simply rotate
the tablet.) New illuminated dis-
plays on all but the smallest tab-
let—active areas on the four
available sizes range from 3.9x6.2-
to 12x18.2 inches—remind you
what each key and the ring do,
even changing automatically when
you switch applications. About
$425 (Large/8x12.8 inches).
BlueLounge CableDrop
The size of a big coat button, this
sculpted rubbery clip is entirely
practical. Uncover its adhesive
backing and stick it wherever you
need to keep a computer cable
and plug (USB or otherwise) in
position. Then you simply push the
cable into its slot. The CableDrop
clip is especially handy with
devices you’re always unplugging,
whether a laptop or a card
reader—preventing the plug from
dropping behind your desk. It
comes in either a muted
color scheme (two
each of off-
white, rusty
Microsoft
Arc
Mouse
Sony
Cyber-shot
DSC-T900
BlueLounge
CableDrop clips
Wacom
Intuos4
pen
tablet
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
DESIGN AWARDS
47 AmericanPhotoMag.com
red, and warm gray) or a bright
one (two each of orange, pink, and
green). About $10 for six.
Microsoft Arc Mouse
The most elegant computer mouse
we’ve seen, Microsoft’s wireless Arc
Mouse uses its arched design to
give you the comfortable grip of a
full-sized mouse, but it folds in the
middle so it’s the size of a note-
book mouse for transport. Folding it
also turns off power to preserve its
two AAA batteries. The body of its
wireless transceiver, which slips
into a computer’s USB port, isn’t
much bigger than its own plug, and
fits snugly inside the folded mouse
when not in use. Color choices now
range from eggplant purple to green
emerald. About $35.
Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T900
Sony’s sleek 12-megapixel touch-
screen compact is all you could
want in a pocket camera. Its half-
inch-thick stainless-steel body is a
handsome brushed silver, though
fashion-conscious photographers
may prefer it in red, brown, or
black. And its 3.5-inch, 921,000-
dot LCD is spectacularly crisp; in
addition to providing touch control
of camera settings, it allows you
to choose what part of the subject
you want to focus on simply by
touching it on the screen. (In
playback, touch any part of the
screen to zoom into that area of
the image.) Touch-focusing the 4X
zoom could be the closest you
come to manual control, however,
because the T900 automates
everything—with scene recogni-
tion, face and smile detection,
and the ability to identify and save
the less squinty of two sequential
shots. And, duh, it shoots 720p
HD video. About $325.
Ipevo Kaleido R7
Digital picture frames are now as
affordable as they are tacky—and
often disappointing in their display
quality. The Kaleido changes the
picture with a modern, computer-
inspired design that incorporates a
brilliant 480x800-pixel LCD. The
screen tilts and can be quickly
rotated on its smooth-operating
hinge from “landscape” to “por-
trait” orientation, so that verticals
fill its full seven-inch, 16:9-format
image area. (An automatic sensor
orients the pictures properly.) The
Kaleido displays pictures stored on
its 512MB internal memory, a
small-format memory card, or a
USB flash drive—but the differ-
ence is that you can also stream
photographs and other content
from your computer (local or RSS)
directly to the frame via your
home’s wireless network. Separate
channels for iPhoto albums can
even be set up. Imagine cycling
through your entire archive before
repeating a picture! About $200.
Canon PowerShot D10
Canon’s first waterproof digital com-
pact reminds us of the erstwhile
futuristic camera designs created
for the company by Luigi Colani,
stylist of the fabled Canon T90. This
12-megapixel model’s submarine
shape isn’t just for looks, though:
It’s rated to operate as deep as 33
feet, lower than its competitors. Its
2.5-inch LCD and optically stabi-
lized 35-105mm (equivalent) zoom
are modest for use underwater,
where a bigger screen and shorter
focal length would be more help.
But the D10 is also freezeproof to
14 degrees Fahrenheit, and shock-
proof for drops of up to four feet.
About $300.
SanDisk ImageMate Readers
SanDisk’s new memory card read-
ers are faster at reading and writing,
as you’d expect, but they’re also
Ipevo Kaleido R7
SanDisk card
readers
Canon
PowerShot
D10
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
E D I T O R ’ S C H O I C E
48 AmericanPhotoMag.com
DESIGN AWARDS
much smaller and have been ele-
gantly restyled. Featuring a mod-
ernist, square-edged design with a
glossy black finish, the readers
attach magnetically to an angled,
three-footed metallic base for
space-saving upright use, but they
can be lifted off for transport or
flat placement. The All-in-One ver-
sion accepts virtually all card for-
mats and tops out at a 34MB/
second transfer speed with SanDisk’s
Extreme IV (45MB/second) CF
card. The diminutive Multi-Format
version is designed for smaller
card formats, including SD, SDHC,
Memory Stick, and xD, and achieves
30MB/second reading with an
SDHC card of equal speed. About
$30 and $20.
Littman 45 Single Hog Ranch
The maker of the world’s first and
only single-window, coupled-
rangefinder, parallax-free 4x5 has
brought fashion to its product’s
large-format functionality. The
custom-designed models in the
Littman Opus + Arte Collection pick
up on the retro-chic style of its
retooled Polaroid 110 instant film
cameras. One of our favorites is the
Hog Ranch (shown here), an hom-
age to photographer Peter Beard’s
famous Kenyan compound. Its
warm color scheme and exotic
materials—including Noble African
woods such as Ambonya burl and
tigered bamboo—recall the wooden
“tropical” cameras of yore. Many
of those models were built as much
for show as for their woods’ resis-
tance to tropical climes, so it’s
fitting that the Hog Ranch (now
being used on the set of TV’s Bones
by photo director Gordon Lonsdale)
has a leopard-skin bellows and tor-
toise-shell accents. Fortunately,
both are faux. About, gulp, $20,000.
Pentax K2000 Limited Edition
Not only is this stylish version of
the compact, lightweight Pentax
K2000 finished in clean white,
but the 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 and
50-200mm f/4-5.6 zooms in its
“kit” are a matching white—all the
better to stay cool in hot sun. (The
camera’s grip and the lenses’
zoom ring and front are a contrast-
ing black.) Don’t let the
10.2-megapixel resolution or 2.7-
inch LCD screen prevent you from
being fashion-forward: That’s plenty
of resolution for most printing pur-
poses, and there’s no LCD live view
anyway. Plus you get automatic
sensor dust removal and sensor-
shifting shake compensation, which
steadies the image with either lens
—and lots of other Pentax K-mount
optics. About $700 (including the
two lenses!).
Sony HVL-F20 flash
A pop of flash can save even the
most well-lighted subject, filling in
shadows or, in a dimmer setting,
mixing with low ambient light for
slow-sync effects. But the built-in
flash on typical D-SLRs can be too
weak for effective fill at all but the
closest distances, and it’s so close
to the lens that it risks red-eye in
low light. Sony’s ingenious pocket-
sized flash is a compromise between
built-in units and a full-sized shoe-
mount strobe. It’s twice as powerful
as the former, and you can leave it
comfortably mounted in the hot-
shoe because a clever hinge allows
it to fold flat against the camera’s
prism. Lift it into shooting position
and the tube is displaced enough
from the lens to greatly reduce red-
eye. About $100. —RUSSELL HART
Sony
HVL-
F20
Littman
45 Single
Hog
Ranch
Pentax
K2000
Limited
Edition
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
49 AmericanPhotoMag.com
FLICKR CREATIVE
SHOWCASE
M
A
C
IE
J

D
A
K
O
W
IC
Z
S P E C I A L G A T E F O L D
P
hotography has always been considered a democratic medium of expression. But the Flickr
photo-sharing website has transformed photography into a global community that, perhaps more
than any other phenomenon in history, embodies the idea of art for the masses. And that art can be
surprisingly fine. Here we inaugurate our Flickr Creative Showcase, in which we profile a talented
photographer from the ranks of Flickr’s millions of members. Look for our special gatefold in each issue.
Above: a photo from
“Cardiff at Night,”
by Maciej Dakowicz
WI NNER
S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 0 9
MACIEJ DAKOWICZ
CARDIFF, WALES
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F L I C K R C R E A T I V E S H O W C A S E
50
Maciej Dakowicz
Cardiff, Wales
http://www.flickr.com/
photos/maciejdakowicz/
M
agazines love to make
lists. The top ten of this or
the five best of that are powerful
ways to engage readers. So when
American Photo featured the work
of 12 “Flickr Superstars” in our
May/June issue, the story created
quite a buzz on the massively
popular photo-sharing website.
Some Flickrites seemed pleased
by our choices, or at least happy
that we’d done a story about Flickr.
Others complained vigorously.
We were happy when member
Kara Baker started a new Flickr
group in response to our story—
a group in which members (now
nearing 1,000) submit their
own 12 Flickr Superstars. (Now
that’s democracy!) “The whole
point of the group is to celebrate
who inspires you, who intrigues
you, and who you’re learning
from,” says the Brooklyn, New
York-based Baker. “I now have a
whole new and brilliant group of
friends, and we go on photo walks
and mini shoots. I’ve learned so
much.” You’ll see that for yourself
if you visit Baker’s excellent photo-
stream at flickr.com; her screen
name is Omeyisland.
The first photographer we fea-
ture in our new Flickr Creative
Showcase is someone whose
name comes up again and again
in the 12 Flickr Superstars group An image
from “Cardiff at
Night” by
Maciej Dakowicz
M
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www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
F L I C K R C R E A T I V E S H O W C A S E
and elsewhere on the site: Cardiff,
Wales-based Maciej Dakowicz.
Dakowicz’s huge body of work
exports a Raghubir Singh–like
sensibility to the most far-flung
parts of the globe, which he
often travels to with the help of
NGOs. “I’m drawn to complex
compositions, photos with sev-
eral layers in them,” he says.
“When I travel, I spend most of
my time in cities, photographing
street life.” The 33-year-old
photographer, who was born in
Poland, has created some of his
strongest work in his new home-
town, brilliantly capturing Cardiff’s
lively youth culture and raucous
nightlife, and that’s what we
feature here. Check out Dakow-
icz’s Flickr photostream and
website (maciejdakowicz.com) to
see more of this fine work.
And while you’re at it please visit
Flickr’s new American Photo
group. There you’ll be able to
weigh in on who we feature in
the Flickr Creative Showcase and
to learn how to get your own
work considered for publication.
“I’m drawn to
complex compositions,”
says Dakowicz of his
Cardiff work, below.
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everyone is photogenic.
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55 AmericanPhotoMag.com
C L O S E U P
D
o a Google search for
“orphan works” and you’ll
get nearly half a million hits.
Yet most photographers don’t
know the meaning of this
strange phrase, nor that it has
important legal implications. In
fact, it’s the focus of a raging
battle over copyright.
An orphan work is a docu-
ment, artwork, photograph, or
other creation that is protected
by copyright law against unau-
thorized use but whose owner is
either unknown or cannot be
found—making it virtually
impossible for someone to get
permission to use the work. As
the law currently stands, anyone
who uses a copyrighted work
without the owner’s permission,
including an orphan work, can
be held fully liable for infringe-
ment, even if he or she made
every effort to locate the copy-
right holder. Such statutory dam-
ages can range from $750 to
$150,000 if the copyrighted
work was registered with the
U.S. Copyright Office before
the infringement or within 30
days of its creation and/or pub-
lication. (If the work wasn’t reg-
istered, the infringer is only
liable for “actual damages,”
such as the amount the photog-
rapher might have realized from
selling his image. Actual dam-
ages are usually far smaller than
statutory damages.)
Proposed congressional legis-
lation that will more than likely
become law limits this liability. It
says that if someone who wants
to use an orphan work conducts
a “qualifying search”—defined
as a reasonable and “diligent”
search using every available
source and technology, includ-
ing printed material and elec-
tronic databases—that person is
protected from statutory dam-
ages. If the copyright holder
eventually appears, the infringer
has to pay the owner only an
amount that a “willing buyer and
willing seller” would have agreed
on before the infringement.
M
any photographers and
artists are up in arms
about a possible orphan works
law. Alarmist headlines and
subject lines litter the Internet,
compelling people to sign peti-
tions, forward e-mails, and
urge friends and colleagues to
oppose orphan works legisla-
tion. Unfortunately most of
these missives contain mislead-
ing, inaccurate, and, in some
cases, false information. Among
the misinformation are varia-
tions of a few claims: that
orphan works legislation will
“rob” photographers of copy-
right; that it will allow users to
pay “whatever they consider
reasonable”; that it allows users
to “escape all legal liability by
claiming they didn’t know who
they were stealing from.”
The legislation as currently
written isn’t perfect, but it’s not
the disaster that many portray it
to be. And it is inevitable that an
orphan works bill will be passed
by Congress because it addresses
the pervasive difficulties faced by
publishers, libraries, museums,
universities, and filmmakers who
want to use an orphan work but
can’t or don’t because of the risk
and liability of statutory damages
if the copyright owner does
appear. “We’ve never thought that
an orphan works law would be
Armageddon for photographers,”
says Eugene Mopsik, executive
director of the American Society
of Media Photographers. “If
there is room for reasonable
compensation once the artist is
located, we can live with that.”
If user/infringers have not
conducted a diligent search or do
not negotiate a reasonable fee in
good faith, they lose the protec-
tion of the proposed legislation
and will be liable for statutory or
actual damages. So practically
speaking, those artists who have
not registered their work in a
timely fashion would be no worse
off, and in some cases they would
be better off, because the user
has a legal obligation to try to
find them before using the work.
“The idea that you have to look
for someone is a new concept
that will benefit photographers
who haven’t registered their
work,” says Nancy Wolff, noted
copyright lawyer and author of
The Professional Photographer’s
Legal Handbook (Allworth Press).
However, the photographer who
has registered an orphan work
in a timely fashion will lose the
right to sue for statutory damages.
That could mean a potential loss
of revenue.
This proposed legislation does
a good job of balancing the needs
of copyright owners with the
very real need to limit liability for
some uses of orphan works. Both
House and Senate versions
require that the copyright office
certify two databases that can be
searchable by image.
When orphan works legislation
passes, it will encourage many
productive uses that aren’t possi-
ble now. Maybe the curators at
the Holocaust Museum finally
will be able to use the millions
of pages of archival documents,
photographs, oral histories, and
reels of film that, as they have
stated before Congress, now just
sit in their archives because
they can’t afford the liability of
damages under the existing law.
AN ORPHAN WORKS
LAW MIGHT NOT
BE AS BAD
AS YOU THINK.
BY MICHELLE BOGRE
THE LAW
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57 AmericanPhotoMag.com
S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 0 9
Photographs have always had the power to cause
trouble. More than books, more than painting, photo-
graphic images create a visceral response in viewers.
Over the years, that has led to censorship by
governments, legal battles in courts, and struggles to
establish codes of proper behavior by imagemakers.
A brilliant exhibition at the Musée de l’Elysée in
Switzerland earlier this year, and a related new book
available only in French, explore the various contro-
versies associated with photographs. On the
following pages, we present a glimpse at the issues
the show raised. They are worth understanding,
because photography remains
a powerful, and
troublesome,
medium.
I MAGES THAT
HAVE DEFI NED THE
ETHICS OF
PHOTOGRAPHY
CONTROVERSIES
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P O R T F O L I O
58 AmericanPhotoMag.com
CREATION
AND
CONSEQUENCE
ESSAY BY
DANI EL
GI RARDI N
laced at the intersection of private and public worlds, a photograph elicits
an eminently subjective response. Photographs are therefore a source of endless
debates and conflicts. Laws, attitudes, and the limits of what is acceptable in
terms of representation vary from one country or culture to another. This makes the
question all the more complex, but it is also what makes it so interesting. The numerous
controversies associated with photography throughout its history highlight the diversity
of possible interpretations and the insoluble paradox of freedom and constraint that
constitutes photography itself.
Photographers, whatever their field of activity, are bound by a series of laws the limits
of which are constantly being tested, with jurisprudence usually lagging behind the
evolution of attitudes and techniques. Certain laws are not enforced since they no longer
correspond to practice at a particular time, whereas others evolve as a result of court
decisions. Photographs that have been published for many years can suddenly be for-
bidden, while others begin to circulate freely after a long period underground. It is all
a question of how the pictures are interpreted, of the meaning that is read into them.
Ever since 1839, when photography is officially considered to have been invented, pho-
tographers have had to fight for their images to be acknowledged
If artist Andres Serrano
had painted his infamous
image titled “Piss Christ,”
instead of producing it as a
photograph, would the work
have become the focus
of so much controversy?
Serrano made the image
in 1987 by photographing
a small plastic crucifix sub-
merged in a transparent
container filled with urine—
likely his own—and cow’s
blood. The image, he
said, explored obsessions
about sex and religion. The
piece was a winner of the
Southeastern Center for
Contemporary Art’s “Awards
in the Visual Arts” competi-
tion, and Serrano was
awarded $15,000. The
competition, as it turned
out, was sponsored in part
by the National Endowment
for the Arts. When “Piss
Christ” was exhibited in
1989, two United States
senators, Alphonse D’Amato
and Jesse Helms, were
outraged. The NEA’s budget
was slashed and funding
was directed at less contro-
versial art. In the years
since, the image has con-
tinued to be a focal point for
issues of censorship
and publicly funded art.
SYMBOL OF
DISTRUST
(continued on page 88)
P
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©

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60 AmericanPhotoMag.com
LEWIS
CARROLL
AND
ALICE
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, a.k.a. Lewis Carroll,
was a mathematician at Oxford University, a writer
of children’s literature, and a passionate photogra-
pher. He met Alice Liddell, the daughter of an asso-
ciate at Oxford, when she was five years old. She
inspired his tale of Wonderland, published in 1865,
and, along with other young girls, was the subject
of many of his photos. Largely because of his
images, there has long been speculation that Car-
roll’s interest in Alice was sexual in nature. The
ambiguous nature of photographs often invites such
debate; people have layered onto Carroll’s images
facts about the man himself—he was single and shy
and suffered from epilepsy—to arrive at conclusions
that have not and ultimately cannot be proven.
Photography’s ability
to capture reality in great
detail has produced a
powerful belief system—
one illustrated by two girls
who used photographs
to convince an entire
country that they had
seen fairies.
In 1917, Frances Grif-
fiths and her cousin Elsie
Wright, age 10 and 16
respectively, spent the
summer in Elsie’s family
home in Cottingley, Great
Britain. They played for
hours in the countryside
behind the house, return-
ing with tales of fairies
and imps that they encoun-
tered there. Later, Elsie
borrowed her father’s
camera, and the photo-
graphs the girls made
revealed the fairies with
great realism. The story
spread and was eventually
heard by Arthur Conan
Doyle, creator of Sherlock
Holmes. Doyle had the
images examined by
experts at Kodak, who
could not guarantee fakery.
He then published them
in Strand magazine, and in
1922 he published a book
on the subject. Through-
out the decades the two
girls held that the images
were authentic, until
1981, when they admitted
fabricating the images by
copying book illustrations.
THE FAIRIES OF
COTTINGLEY
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P O R T F O L I O
61
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63 AmericanPhotoMag.com
Can a persona created for the camera be copyrighted? The issue was not entirely
clear in 1925, when film star Charlie Chaplin sued the company that had released a
film called The Race Track, starring a Mexican actor named Charles Amador, who
had changed his name to “Charlie Aplin” and begun imitating the famous persona of
The Little Tramp created by Charlie Chaplin. Chaplin charged plagiarism, and his
lawyers presented photos of the Tramp character as evidence.The defense claimed
that Chaplin himself had borrowed ideas from other actors, but Chaplin won.
R
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Thanks to a photo of Oscar Wilde
taken by a man named Napoleon
Sarony, photographers today enjoy
legal rights that were once very
much in question.
In the 1860s, the theater become
widely popular in America, giving
birth to a cult of celebrity. Performers
like Lily Langtry and Sarah Bern-
hardt needed photos for promotion,
and they went to Sarony, who opened
a studio on Broadway in New York
City in 1866. He soon realized that
he could make money by selling
his images of celebrities to the public
at large and began paying stars for
the rights to their images. In 1883
Sarony learned that a portrait he
had made of Oscar Wilde had been
copied and sold to the public by the
Burrow-Giles Lithographic Company.
Sarony sued, maintaining that his
direction of the subject, the décor,
and the lighting amounted to intel-
lectual and artistic ownership of
the image. He prevailed and helped
establish the photographer as an
auteur and photography as an art.
CULT OF
CELEBRITY
CHARACTER
AS ICON
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64 AmericanPhotoMag.com
On October 26, 1941,
Lithuanian soldiers collab-
orating with the German
army executed three
Soviet resistance fighters
in the streets of Minsk.
After the war, the two
hanged men were cele-
brated as heroes of the
Soviet Union. The young
girl executed with them
remained anonymous.
In 1968, a Russian jour-
nalist identified her as
Masha Bruskina, just 17
when she was killed. Her
identity was not fully
accepted until 1996, how-
ever, probably because she
was a Jew. The cover-up
resulted from Joseph Stal-
in’s post-war anti-Semitic
campaigns. But the photo
remained as evidence.
THE HEROINE OF MINSK
AWASH IN EVIL
When the world saw David E. Scherman’s photo of Lee Miller
in Adolf Hitler’s Munich bathtub, controversy erupted. Was this
an act of subversive art, or was it a tasteless joke?
Miller was one of the few women journalists accredited to
cover the war in Europe, and Scherman was a photographer
for Life magazine. Both were present on April 29, 1945, when
the Dachau concentration camp was liberated. That night, in
Munich, they discovered an apartment belonging to the führer.
The photo they shot the following day was carefully arranged.
The symbolism—Miller is literally washing away Hitler’s evil—is
clear. She had been inculcated in the ideas of surrealism
years before, when she was the muse of Man Ray, but many
people found this image of her to be offensive. Ultimately, the
picture was, for Miller, a macabre memory: She told friends that,
in spite of her bath, the odor of Dachau remained on her skin.
U
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65
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66
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67 AmericanPhotoMag.com
Fashion photographer
Oliviero Toscani is probably
most famous as the cre-
ative genius behind an
18-year-long ad campaign
that turned Benetton into
one of the most famous
brand names in the world.
The campaign was also
controversial, proving once
again that creating shock
and sales are not mutually
exclusive goals.
Toscani’s images illus-
trated the company’s
“United Colors of Benetton”
slogan. In one famous
photograph, he showed a
black woman breastfeed-
ing a white baby. But per-
haps his most controversial
picture showed a priest
and nun kissing. By chal-
lenging the principle of
religious celibacy, the
image encourages viewers
to think about traditional
constraints. It was also
seen as an attack against
the basic notions of
Roman Catholicism. The
Italian government, facing
pressure from the Vatican,
banned the ad. In France,
the Office for the Sur-
veillance of Advertising
Practices demanded the
withdrawal of posters
featuring the image. So
who was the winner in this
battle of ideas?
THE KISSING NUN
A commercial photo-
graph’s success or failure
can depend on three
little words: location, loca-
tion, location.
A case in point was the
print ad campaign for the
popular Yves Saint Laurent
fragrance named Opium.
Photographer Steven Mei-
sel’s images appeared in
magazines around the
world without causing a
commotion. But when his
shot of model Sophie Dahl
lying on her back wearing
jewelery and stilettos
was featured on street signs
in Britain, there was an
outcry. What was accept-
able in one context seemed
too explicit in another.
The British Advertising
Standards Authority eventu-
ally demanded removal
of the street ad panels.
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69 AmericanPhotoMag.com
The car crash that took the life of Diana Spencer,
Dodi Al-Fayed, and their chauffeur on the night
of August 31, 1997 unleashed a series of law-
suits and criticism focusing on photographers.
After the accident, it was announced that the
driver of the car, Henri Paul, was drunk when
he struck a pillar of a tunnel in Paris at high speed.
Nonetheless, nine photographers who were
part of the fatal street race were charged with
manslaughter. In 1999 the case was dropped,
but the image of celebrity photographers—espe-
cially aggressive paparazzi—was darkened.
Respected Sygma photojournalist Jacques
Langevin, who had covered events like the
uprising in Tiananmen Square in 1989, made
this image outside Diana’s hotel as the chase
began. He was later charged with violating “the
private life” of the deceased and was ordered to
pay one euro to Mohammed Al-Fayed, Dodi’s
father. In the end, the role of the photographers
became a complex ethical puzzle, with news-
papers, magazines, and television condemning
the photographers while eagerly publishing
their shots to the delight of an avid audience.
LADY DIANA

S
LAST PHOTO
I N THE
END, I T
WAS AN
ETHICAL
PUZZLE.
©

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70
TALE OF OMAYRA
Frank Fournier, a photographer with with
the Contact Press Images agency, was in
Colombia on Saturday, November 16,
1985, covering the eruption of the Nevado
del Ruiz volcano, when he encountered
Omayra Sánchez in the town of Armero.
The girl had been trapped by debris from
a massive mudslide. For two days and
three nights, rescuers tried to release
her, creating a media side-show in which
Fournier had a front-row seat. Omayra
finally succumbed to a heart attack.
Fournier won the World Press Photo
award in 1985 for his picture of Omayra,
but he faced lingering moral doubts about
his role in the drama. Is it enough for
photographers to simply tell the story of
people in distress? Was Omayra exploited
as the media moved in to record her final
hours? “Three times, I wanted to stop,”
Fournier says. He did not, and the world
could not stop looking at his work. Looking
back, Fournier says photographers must
simply testify to the dignity of his subjects.
THREE
TI MES I
WANTED
TO
STOP.
©

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71 AmericanPhotoMag.com
THE GIRL AND THE VULTURE
When he photographed this starving
Sudanese girl in 1993, Kevin Carter faced
a moral question similar to the one that
Fournier faced in Colombia. A native of
South Africa, Carter had risen to the top of
his field documenting the battle against
apartheid. Covering civil war and famine in
Sudan, he found the starving girl near the
village of Ayod, as she was dragging herself
toward an aid station, a vulture behind
her, seemingly waiting for her death. Carter
got the shot, then chased the vulture away.
The photo was published in The New
York Times on March 26 and instantly
became a symbol of human misery. Thou-
sands of readers wrote to ask about the
fate of the girl. In an editorial, the newspa-
per explained that the photographer
didn’t know if she had or had not survived.
Carter, a sensitive man, immediately faced
withering criticism, though his image
brought him celebrity. He committed sui-
cide in 1994, two months after receiving
the Pulitzer Prize for his picture.
HE KI LLED
HI MSELF
AFTER
HE WON
THE
PULI TZER
PRI ZE.
C
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©

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Can the act of photography
be barbaric? If so, can the bar-
barism be redeemed by the
sensitivity of the imagemaker?
In 1960, Frenchman Marc
Garanger, then 25, was sent to
the town of Aïn Terzine in
Algeria to carry out his military
service. His job was to take pic-
tures of some 2,000 Algerians
for use on ID cards. For women
like Cherid Barkaoun, the act
of being photographed in pub-
lic, being made to expose their
naked faces, was a personal
violation. The pain and the con-
tempt Barkaoun felt is apparent
in her portrait, and it could
be found in many of the faces
Garanger documented. The
contempt was returned by the
French military: “Come see,
come see how ugly they are!
Come see these macaques,
these monkeys!” said Garang-
er’s captain when he viewed
the images.
Revolted, Garanger deter-
mined that his photographs could
be used to expose the racism of
the French military. In 1961 he
clandestinely entered Switzer-
land and offered the photos to
the newspaper L’Illustré Suisse.
He later had them exhibited
throughout France. In this con-
text, images that were meant
simply to catalog a people had
the reverse effect of showcasing
their humanity.
PORTRAIT OF
CHERID
BARKAOUN
Few images better illustrate the shifting photographic
ideas of taste and exploitation than Garry Gross’s 1975
nude portrait of Brooke Shields, then 10 years old. A New
York-based advertising photographer, Gross was regularly
employed by Shields’s mother to photograph her daughter,
then a model with the Ford agency. He was also working
on a personal project called “The Woman in the Child.”
Shields posed both as a normal young girl and in the nude,
heavily made up and oiled. Her mother signed a contract
giving Gross full rights to the images, which were first pub-
lished in a book called Little Women, then in a Playboy
Press publication called Sugar and Spice.
By 1981, Shields tried unsuccessfully to buy back the
negatives. She then sued Gross, claiming that her mother
had signed away her rights for onetime publication only.
The court disagreed. Later, Shields sued again. The court
ruled that “these photographs are not sexually suggestive,
provocative, or pornographic.”
Though Gross won the case, he was financially ruined by
the legal battle, and his reputation was tarnished as social
tastes changed and he was seen as an exploiter of chil-
dren. Later, however, he sold the rights to the pictures to
artist Richard Prince, who rephotographed and recontextu-
alized the images. In 1999, his image of Shields, named
“Spiritual America,” sold at Christie’s for $151,000.
SHIELDS
VERSUS
GROSS
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74 AmericanPhotoMag.com
Photographers and news editors constantly grapple with notions of
decency, and the events of September 11, 2001, presented journalists
with plenty of tough judgment calls. Most media outlets made the
decision not to show the dead, the major exception being the images of
people falling from the twin towers of the World Trade Center. Those
pictures in themselves raised important questions of journalistic ethics.
While some viewers were offended, newspapers like The New York
Times explained that it was important to report the reality of the event.
Another newspaper, the New York Daily News, also published this
image, made by photographer Todd Maisel shortly after the terrorist
attacks. It was indeed a shocking reminder of the carnage, and for
many—even other journalists—it exceeded the bounds of proper report-
ing. The difficulty, of course, is determining where those boundaries lie.
THE HIDDEN 9/11
The images of Abu Ghraib prison that
emerged in 2004 changed the history
of photography, and American attitudes
toward the war in Iraq. They also
showed, perhaps more than any other
pictures ever taken, the power that
photography can wield.
It was on April 28, 2004, that CBS
aired six photos of Iraqi prisoners being
tortured in Abu Ghraib prison by Amer-
ican soldiers. These explosive images
were taken not by a professional jour-
nalist seeking a “scoop” but by the
American soldiers themselves, using
cell phone cameras. The New Yorker
magazine then published nine more
Abu Ghraib images accompanying an
article by Seymour Hersh. In a month,
close to 30 photographs were revealed
to the public—a fraction of the images
collected by the military, many of
which have never been made public.
The impact of the photographs was
enormous. They discredited the Ameri-
can military and undercut the Bush
administration’s assertion of moral author-
ity in Iraq. In Arab countries, anger was
immense. A number of the soldiers
who were pictured torturing prisoners
were eventually tried in military courts,
but their superiors, who condoned the
torture, were left unpunished.
After losing several legal battles, the
U.S. military seemed prepared in recent
months to release more of the photos
made at Abu Ghraib, which had been
collected as part of the investigation of
prisoner abuse. President Obama
blocked the release because, he said,
they might further incite anger among
America’s enemies and endanger Amer-
ican soldiers serving in the Middle East.
ABU GHRAIB
©

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75
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77 AmericanPhotoMag.com
T
he bird’s-eye view has been
a source of photographic
fascination ever since Nadar
shot Paris from a hot air balloon
in 1858. To see earth from
above, whether in flight or in
photographs, is a transformative
experience. While giving com-
plex ground-level relationships
a maplike simplicity, such views
also reveal previously unseen
relationships and afford infor-
mation not visible from a side-
long perspective.
All but the most elevated
aerial images still retain a single
perspective—the sense of a
viewer’s position in space. Not
ANDREAS GEFELLER’S
DIZZY
,
DUMBFOUNDING
BIRD’S- EYE VIEWS
HIGH EYEPOINT
“Untitled (Office Floor)
Dusseldorf, 2003”
©

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78 I N S I D E P H O T O G R A P H Y
“Untitled
(Kunstakademie,
room 220)
Dusseldorf,
2009”
so with the “Supervisions” series
of German photographer
Andreas Gefeller. He has arrived
at a remarkable, labor-intensive
methodology that creates stun-
ningly detailed images of large,
flat surfaces indoors and out,
from parking lots to office ceil-
ings to fields of vegetables.
These images seem to exist in a
wholly abstract realm, with no
apparent point of view, yet
record their contents with a clar-
ity that unaided human vision
could never achieve. It is as if
Gefeller had somehow scanned
these enormous surfaces at
ultrahigh resolution. Yet while
the photographer acknowledges
that the details of his images are
faithful, he describes the final
result as a “construction.”
That construction results from
Gefeller’s methodical process of
shooting his subject—the paint-
splattered floor of an art-school
studio, the dense pattern of
shoe imprints on a well-traveled
beach—square by square. He
mounts his Canon EOS 5D digi-
tal SLR on a tripod that has been
extended but with the legs
unsplayed so that he can wedge
its feet into his belt; the tripod
is aimed up at an angle, with
the head tilted down to keep
the camera parallel to the sur-
face he’s photographing. After
each cable-released shot, he
takes a step (or three, or four)
before shooting again. “When
I started this series I actually
measured the squares, but
©

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(
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“Sometimes I set up a grid to do the shooting, but often I don’t.
The reason for this is interesting: Many of my subjects are urban places,
which means they’re man-made. Humans put everything in strict order
and in rows, which makes the photography process easier. I can use
the grid created by tiles, paving slabs, or other regular patterns to orient
myself, for example. This fact tells a lot about human character—about
man’s will to control nature and his environment.”
LESSON 1 ON PRECISION
C
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79 AmericanPhotoMag.com
now it’s just a matter of feel-
ing,” Gefeller explains. “I know
the length of my feet and how
many steps I have to make.”
G
efeller shoots with a
35mm lens, a moderately-
wide focal length that captures
a little over a square yard from
about eye level. For outdoor
subjects he often extends his
improvised boom so that it’s as
high as nine or ten feet. It can
take many hours, if not days, to
photograph the whole surface
he has chosen, and Gefeller
may shoot hundreds if not thou-
sands of overlapping frames.
For his recent image of an entire
floor of the Art Academy in his
native Dusseldorf (below),
Gefeller made approximately
10,000 separate exposures.
Though the process of shoot-
ing is arduously systematic, the
digital stitching—done without
the help of dedicated stitching
programs—is even more so.
Sometimes Gefeller creates, or
simply leaves intact, a seamless
transition from frame to frame;
other times he leaves unaltered
a more abrupt transition. “I
think this is one of the main
creative aspects of the work, to
decide where you leave some
seams in the picture and where
it’s unnecessary,” he says. “Nat-
urally, it’s very easy to remove
seams in Photoshop. But for
me, these little ‘mistakes’ are
very important for the viewer
so that he can try to understand
what he is looking at.”
The result is reminiscent of
the digital pastiche produced
LESSON 2 ON PRINT SCALE
“There is no one ideal size for the ‘Supervisions’ prints. Some must have
a minimum size or else you wouldn’t even understand what they are
showing. I did an image of a golf driving range, and although this print is
quite large, the golf balls on it are still tiny; if it were any smaller, the
viewer wouldn’t be able to identify the golf balls. Other prints don’t need
to be so large—images of paving slabs, for example. The sections remind
me of pixels, an effect you’d lose if you made the prints really big.
“Sometimes I downsample the individual frames before I put them
together. But in general, I try to leave them at full resolution and down-
sample the whole image to suit the particular print size. That means
of course that the files are massive. I could produce the prints in dimen-
sions that would fill huge temples.”
“Untitled
(Kunstakademie)
Dusseldorf,
2009”
“Untitled
(Kunstakademie,
room 209)
Dusseldorf,
2009”
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80
I N S I D E P H O T O G R A P H Y
by robotic space landing crafts
such as the Mars rovers, and
indeed, Gefeller often photo-
graphed the night sky with his
grandfather’s camera when he
was a child. And while Gefeller
points out that for him the com-
puter is not an instrument of
manipulation, it is on the com-
puter that the real artistic trans-
formation occurs. “The more
frames I put together, the greater
the distance to a surface appears
to be,” says Gefeller. “When
I’m working on images of the
ground, I start flying! In the case
of photographs that show ceil-
ings from below I find myself in
a position that isn’t possible—
one that seems to be dozens of
meters under the earth.”
I
t would be easy to place
Gefeller’s work in the mold
of the Becher-inspired, descrip-
tively neutral genre of current
German photography. Gefeller
applies that school’s rigor not to
a literal record of his subjects
but to what ultimately becomes,
as a very large print on a gallery
wall, a highly abstract represen-
tation. And while abstraction
is usually achieved with a
reduction of detail, Gefeller’s
“Supervisions” work is teeming
with detail. In that respect, and
in its challenge to photogra-
phy’s one-eyed ethos, his work
is subversive. “The main object
of my work is not to manipulate
the world,” Gefeller recently
explained in a BBC broadcast.
“It’s to change the way of look-
ing at it.” —RUSSELL HART
Below:
“Untitled (Park)
Dusseldorf,
2007”
©

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www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
S K I L L S
82
©

J
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(
4
)
McNally shot
this cowboy first
by available light
(1, below), then
with flash mixed in
(2), but ended
up stopping
down to cut back
the available light
(3) so that he
could use flash
alone to light his
subject (here).
WHY WOULD YOU MAKE
AVAILABLE LIGHT UNAVAILABLE? TO
LIGHT YOUR SUB
J
ECT
J
UST THE
WAY YOU WANT. BY JOE MCNALLY
OUT OF THE DARK
W
hy would any sane photog-
rapher go from the the safe
haven of existing light—light you
can see, touch, and feel—into the
mysterious, uncertain, and possi-
bly dangerous land of flash? Think
of it this way. That available light,
as it’s commonly known, isn’t just
available to you; it’s available to
every other photographer. You can
make a picture that will look kind
1 2 3
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84 AmericanPhotoMag.com
S K I L L S
of the same as the one the guy next to you is
shooting. And if both of you submit your
pictures to the same magazine, or agent, or
stock house, or photo-sharing website, the
reaction will be, “Hey, wait a minute, these
pictures all look...the same.” It’s like Ange-
lina Jolie and Reese Witherspoon showing
up on Oscar night wearing the same dress.
Quelle embarrassment!
In a world of sameness, where there’s a
Starbucks, a Gap, a Barnes & Noble, and a
Pizza Hut on every other block of every
other town you’ve ever been to, there is
vibrance and joy in difference. In an era of
royalty-free, rights-free, by-the-pound pho-
tography, it just might pay to step back and
try to make your pictures the equivalent of a
mom-and-pop shop or the place where the
locals really eat. And one path to making
your work different is to use light in creative
and unexpected ways.
Take this photograph of a well-appointed
cowboy. I was on the road, in the middle of
Noplace, Utah, and the sun had gone down.
There was still plenty of light, but it was
cool, subdued, and expressionless. It was
available but unexciting. I put my actor-
cowboy Chris up against an old barn that
had lots of cool stuff stuck on it, and I made
a picture. A very average picture (1). It was
a record of the scene, not an interpretation,
shot at 1/80 second at f/2.8.
B
ut what lingered in my head was the
sun that had set over the distant hills on
camera left. Its light was just getting interest-
ing when it disappeared. (Available light will
do that to you.) So I got out a flash, put a
full-strength CTO warming filter on it, and
placed it on a stand at about the angle
where the sun had been. The filter turned
the clean, neutral white light of the strobe, a
Nikon SB-900 Speedlight, into the color of
sunset. The SB-900 was advantageous here
because of its ability to zoom its beam angle
to match a 200mm focal length. When you
zoom the flash head to 200mm but shoot
with a shorter focal length (here, a 24-70mm
f/2.8 Nikkor zoom set to 24mm), you con-
centrate the light. It gets punchy and direct,
like late-afternoon light.
I triggered the off-camera flash with another
SB-900 that was hotshoed to the camera,
using the same exposure (2). It warmed the
scene just a touch. The camera was doing its
job, mixing the flash and the available light
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85
in a reasonable way. But remember, it’s a
machine. Like a food processor, it chops,
slices, dices, and blends, all with the aim of
uniformity. It plays it safe, in a word.
Safe, as in…blah. A smooth, publishable
exposure, but nothing with an edge or dif-
ference. So I took over the controls, putting
the camera into manual mode and dialing in
1/125 second at f/5.6—settings that under-
exposed the scene’s available light by about
three stops (3) without the flash firing. Ordi-
narily these results would make you check
your settings. But here, in this dark place, is
where I wanted to be. Now I had control.
What happens when you open a camera
shutter in a totally dark room? Nothing, until
you add light. I had turned this roadside
scene into a dark room by means of shutter
speed and f-stop. The camera sees almost
nothing now. It is waiting for input. It is
waiting for light.
So I made another exposure, this time with
the flash firing and hitting the cowboy and
the wall in a hard, intense way—creating lots
of highlight and shadow areas. The result
gives the formerly dull scene life, dimension,
and color. Which proves you can do a lot
with one flash and a light stand by the side of
the road. You can make the sun come back.
“I TOOK OVER
THE CONTROLS,
USING
MANUAL
SETTINGS THAT
UNDEREXPOSED
THE
AVAILABLE
LIGHT BY
THREE STOPS.”
©

A
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C
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IL
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Lighting
maven
Joe
McNally
adorama.com
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WI T NE SS
BAND
OF
BROTHERS
WHILE
SHOOTING THE
STORIES OF
THEIR LIVES
IN IRAQ AND
AFGHANISTAN,
THREE
PHOTOGRAPHERS
KNOW THEY
CAN DEPEND ON
EACH OTHER
AND THE
LESSONS THEY
LEARNED
LONG AGO
AT A SMALL
NEWSPAPER IN
OHIO.
TEXT BY
REGIS LE SOMMIER
in the city of Tal Afar. Gunfire from Ameri-
can troops killed the mother and father and
seriously wounded a son. A young girl
emerged from the car covered in her parents’
blood. Hondros won the 2006 Robert Capa
Gold Medal Award for the work.
R
elatively speaking, the world of photo-
journalism is small, and to some extent
it’s not so very interesting that three of the
world’s finest photojournalists all emerged
from the same small newspaper. (The world is
even smaller than you might think: another
prize-winning New York Times photogra-
pher, Lynsey Addario, also attended Staples
High School with Platt and Hicks.) What is
very interesting, I think, is the particularly
American sense of destiny—or perhaps self-
invention is a better term—that underlies the
story of Hondros, Hicks, and Platt.
As a Frenchman in America, I was always
fascinated by the fact that a guy from Mis-
soula, Montana, could become filmmaker
David Lynch, or that a geek working as a
clerk at the video store down the street of
my in-laws in Manhattan Beach, California,
could become Quentin Tarantino.
I’ve learned over the years that it’s the
same with photography. Small-town Amer-
ica remains the place where great news
photographers learn their craft while cover-
ing the staples of local news—fires, car
accidents, high school sports, city council
meetings, and Labor Day parades. Hon-
dros, Hicks, and Platt all came to Troy
because of work opportunity, because
opportunity thrived in those midwestern
towns. It’s a phenomenon that happens far
less frequently in my native country. There,
talented journalists or photographers rarely
climb the ladder of success after starting at
a local paper. In France, unfortunately,
everything starts and ends in Paris. In
America the ranks of photojournalism are
filled with people like Samantha Appleton,
one of the founding photographers of the
Noor agency; Todd Heisler, now a staff
photographer with the New York Times;
and Scott Strazzante, a photographer with
the Chicago Tribune, all of whom started
their careers at small newspapers in the
Chicago suburbs.
Spencer Platt believes that small newspa-
pers became the generators of photojournal-
istic talent because of the vital and intimate
connection they have traditionally main-
tained with local communities. “In the days
before Google,” he theorizes, “newspapers
were the bond of American communities.
They provided information about high
school sports, gave the latest news about a
burglary, and provided an overview of world
events. Every lunch counter, barbershop,
and auto repair shop had a newspaper wait-
ing to be devoured by someone with some
time to kill. As these papers were usually
thin on stories, photographs often got signifi-
cant exposure. A photo, regardless of how
good, was judged on the space given to it.
At the Troy Daily News, a photographer
shared the paper with only two other photo
staff members. We awoke each morning
excitedly going through the paper to see
how big our images appeared. Front page, a
photo spread, a bad crop, six columns,
color, black and white. We were either mor-
tified or euphoric.”
Platt’s memories raise some inevitable
questions: Where will future generations of
photojournalists learn their craft? As he
notes, the American small-town newspaper
business is far different now, in the age of
Google and Facebook, than it was then.
Online communities have replaced real
communities, and the role that newspapers
once played—the way they brought every-
one in town together on the same page, as it
were—is less vital.
W
hen I was working with Chris
Hondros in Iraq, the soldiers we
met knew the power of photography. They
asked Chris to take pictures of them in
action, and he obliged. At first we were
embedded with Colonel Steve Miska’s unit
in Baghdad during the winter of 2006, dur-
ing the height of the civil war. After we left,
Spencer came to cover the unit. Then in
June of 2007, in Baghdad again, we met
Captain George Feese and his men from
covered the
wars in Afghanistan and Iraq on and off
since 2001. Earlier this year he was traveling
with a company of U.S. soldiers that was
ambushed by the Taliban in a remote valley
in Afghanistan. One of the soldiers was
killed. Hicks’s images captured the desper-
ate moments and the vulnerability of the
baby-faced soldiers—you understand the
reality of war in those faces. Next year’s
Pulitzer Prize committee will surely be look-
ing seriously at the pictures.
Platt, who now shoots for Getty Images,
covered the chaotic Israel-Lebanon conflict
of 2006. There he snapped a picture of a
sleek convertible filled with pretty, carefree
Lebanese girls posing, cell phones in hand,
in front of a devastated Beirut suburb. The
photo won the World Press Photo of the Year
award in 2006. He has also worked in Iraq,
Liberia, Congo, and Indonesia.
Hondros’s work in Iraq has also been
honored. One of his most famous sets of
images, made on January 18, 2005, docu-
mented the shooting of an Iraqi family whose
car failed to stop at an American checkpoint
(continued from page 42)
BAND OF BROTHERS
AFTER ALL THAT TIME,
THE PHOTOGRAPHERS FIND
THEIR PATHS CROSSING.
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
W I T N E S S
87
the 82nd Airborne. Spencer was there, too,
following the paratroopers throughout the
summer. His e-mails helped me keep a
sense of what was going on in the troubled
neighborhood of Ghazaliyah after I had
left. Tyler was in Afghanistan, and I met
with him in Perpignan, France, in September
2007 at the Visa pour l’Image photojournal-
ism festival, where he had an exhibition.
That’s where I discovered his impressive set
of combat pictures. Photojournalism is
most certainly a small world: After all that
time, so far from Troy, Ohio, these three
photographers find their paths crossing
again and again, and they have continued
to support each other.
I have yet to visit Troy. I now live in Paris,
and chances are I may never see the town
that launched the careers of Chris, Spencer,
and Tyler. But I know this: It is a place, like
every other place, where life is lived, where
tragedies and triumphs follow one another.
It is the perfect place to learn about the pos-
sibilities of photojournalism.
When I asked Spencer about Troy, he
e-mailed back this description of his life there:
“I had never viewed a dead body before. I
had just started working at the paper, and
the morning ritual consisted of drinking
coffee and listening to the police radio. With
a crackle and a long series of beeps the radio
came alive. A call came in about a car acci-
dent outside of town along some farm roads.
We quickly consulted a map and made a
dash for the car. It was summer, and the heat
was shimmering along the black tarmac of
the endless straight roads. Driving fast, we
came up to a lone fire truck idling along the
side of the road. In the middle of a freshly
cut meadow was an old red American car,
the kind that teenagers buy after years of
mowing lawns. Next to the car was the body
of a young man. No sheet had been placed
on him and no one was attempting to
resuscitate him. A woman arrived who I pre-
sumed to be his mother, and she became
hysterical. We took some pictures and headed
back to the paper in silence. In my years
since leaving the Troy Daily News, I have
worked at a series of newspapers and trav-
eled the world covering wars and disasters. I
have seen people shot and people dying and
people dead. But the one person I will
never forget is that young man spread out in
the field under a beautiful blue sky. It was
my first introduction to the news.” N
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at a time when photography was still new—
even as it became clear that the medium
would drastically change artistic traditions and
the consumption of imagery. With its unrivaled
ability to reproduce reality and the produc-
tion of multiple prints, photography raised a
series of questions that were completely new.
From the mid-1850s on, several major
philosophical and cultural issues focusing on
photography were dealt with in courts of law.
Judges found it difficult to relate photography
to a legal framework since two distinct areas
were involved in the process—that of the
law and that of ethics. Considering photog-
raphy from the point of view of the law or of
ethics illustrates its extraordinary ability to
represent reality and to create meaning, or
meanings. A photograph is interpreted accord-
ing to the cultural conventions associated
with its creation or distribution. Reading an
image in this way is something each individual
does in accordance with his personal moral
or philosophical convictions. It is also what
society as a whole does by referring to the
laws and ethics that form the foundations of
a particular culture. The conventions of rep-
resentation change at the same time as the
techniques used for the creation or the distri-
bution of photographs. They also change by
following the evolution of attitudes and ways
of thought in a particular society.
A review of the main cases that have seen
photographers taken to court or that have
led to the censuring of images and their pro-
hibition reveals that the issues involved are
associated with money, politics, morality (both
lay and religious), sexuality, or the acknowl-
edgement of the artistic status of the author.

A
t the end of the 1960s, Guy Debord,
the French thinker and founder of the
Marxist Situationist International group,
published The Society of the Spectacle. In
this book, he develops a critical analysis of
how social relationships are increasingly
determined by the images that have become
the main means through which individuals
relate to the world. He also denounces the
cult of commerce in consumer society. Bill
Gates, the owner of Corbis, echoed this
analysis when he stated, “Whoever controls
images, controls minds.” The political power
of images influences our understanding of
reality, providing a single and often uncriti-
cal point of view on what occurs in the
world. This phenomenon, which generates
feelings of guilt and repression, contributes
to an acculturation of our perception of real-
ity. The danger involved is that of visual con-
formism and ready-made beliefs.
Authority is also exercised through the con-
trol of reproduction rights. Nowadays, pho-
tographic collections and archives of 19th-
as artistic
creations justifying protection by copyright.
Recognition of their rights has developed
gradually in Europe and the United States as a
result of jurisprudence established after a
wide-ranging debate on the status of the pho-
tographic image. This process was not easy
(continued from page 58)
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S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 0 9
Photographs have always had the power to cause
trouble. More than books, more than painting, photo-
graphic images create a visceral response in viewers.
Over the years, that has led to censorship by gov-
ernments, legal battles in courts, and struggles to
establish codes of proper behavior by imagemakers.
A brilliant exhibition at the Musée de l’Elysée in
Switzerland earlier this year, and a related new book
available only in French, explore the various contro-
versies associated with photographs, and, on the
following pages, we present a glimpse at the issues
the show raised. They are worth understanding
because photography remains
a powerful, and
troublesome,
medium.
I MAGES THAT
HAVE DEFI NED THE
ETHICS OF
PHOTOGRAPHY
CONTROVERSIES
PORTFOLIO
and 20th-century work have become financial
and historical treasure troves involving origi-
nal prints bought by museums and private
collectors that are part of a thriving market.
Inevitably, accusations of forgery have arisen.
It also involves archives and documentary
collections that are often in the hands of com-
panies like Corbis and Getty, or of a variety
of public and private museums and institu-
tions. These collections bring together millions
of images that are controlled through the use
of reproduction rights. For several years now,
museums and institutions all over the world
have tended to transform the photographs in
their possession into commercial assets,
thereby seriously affecting the laws and ethical
principles that govern public policy. Most
museums demand payment for access to
images in their collections even when these
pictures are not protected by copyright. This
practice has become widespread institutional
policy. It is true that museums face heavy
financial burdens for the scanning and storage
of their collections and that they suffer from
the reduction of support from state and local
authorities. However, the high prices
involved have become an obstacle for scien-
tific and cultural publications. They make
research difficult and have a direct influence
on the cost of both books and access to
culture. Surprisingly, prices are often higher
for a photograph that is not protected
by copyright than for contemporary work.
Why are certain images appreciated, or
even venerated, while others are censored?
Why are some freely distributed in certain
circumstances but prohibited in others?
The photographs in this portfolio illustrate
many of the ethical and legal questions
peculiar to the medium. The exhibition and
book they are drawn from are the result of
many years of research, but neither is
exclusively concerned with legal or ethical
issues. Above all, the aim has been to show
how a given society relates to images of
itself at a particular historical moment. This
is an attempt to grasp how these represen-
tations have been perceived and the inter-
pretations they have been given. The
examples that have been chosen give a clear
understanding of the principles underlying
photographic practice in a wide variety of
fields, from the middle of the 19th-century
to the present day.
Daniel Girardin is a curator at the Musée
de l’Elysée in Lausanne, Switzerland.




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SEE IT NOW
IDENTITY, FASHION,
HISTORY, AND
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC
MEDIUM
Girls Just Wanna Have Fun
From October 10 to January 3,
the Art Institute of Chicago will
display Playing with Pictures,
a collection of unusual photo
collages crafted by Victorian
aristocratic women. Combining
watercolor paintings, photo-
graphic portraits, and fantastical
imagery, the collages are an early
example of the traditionally
serious medium being repurposed
for personal whims.
National Character
During Chaotic Harmony: Con-
temporary Korean Photography,
the Museum of Fine Arts Hous-
ton presents photos from 40
artists that embody the evolving
South Korean identity. The
photographers (all of whom were
born after the Korean War) aptly
depict the complex social and
cultural developments that have
occurred in the past 45 years,
while also offering a captivating
look at the country’s future. Begin-
ning October 18 to January 3.
As Time Goes By
Visitors to the National Gallery
of Art in Washington, D.C. will
receive a thorough education on
photo history during In the Dark-
room: Photographic Processes.
From October 25 until March 14,
the museum will exhibit an up-
close look at (and explanation of)
every major technology in image
making, from photogravures
to the recently extinct Polaroid.
Fresh Photography
Keep abreast of the contemporary
art photography scene during
the New York Museum of Modern
Art’s thoughtfully curated New
Photography 2009. From Sep-
tember 16 to January 10, the
exhibit will present recent signifi-
cant work from six artists (includ-
ing Leslie Hewitt and Daniel
Gordon) with distinct aesthetic
views on the state of photography
and its technologies.
Photography A La Mode
Ending the International Center
of Photography’s “Year of
Fashion” is the exhibition Dress
Codes, a global survey of
photography exploring the con-
ventions of style and personal
presentation. From haute
couture to everyday dress, the
collection offers a comprehen-
sive examination of our
sartorial choices. Beginning
September 18 until January 17.
Documenting History
The legends of the Wild West
will come alive on September
25 (until January 24) during the
Washington, D.C. National
Portrait Gallery’s Frontier
Encounters. Both photography
and history buffs should take note,
as the exhibition will display
snapshots of the major historical
figures (including Annie Oakley,
Brigham Young, and Geronimo)
that influenced the development
of the western territories.
J
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From top: Sungsoo Koo’s “Tour Bus,” at the Museum of Fine Arts Houston;
Carter Mull’s “Eleven,” at the MOMA; a photo collage at the Art Institute of Chi-
cago; and John Wood’s portrait of Annie Oakley, at the National Portrait Gallery.
www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com
94 AmericanPhotoMag.com
O
n September 9 (until Janu-
ary 10) the Los Angeles
Getty Center will unveil for the
first time its collection of more
than 250 prints from Irving Penn’s
series, Small Trades. The set of
theatrical portraits of common
tradesmen with their career
accoutrements was originally part
of an assignment for Vogue in
the 1950s. The Getty’s collection
of photos (which were hand-
picked by Penn himself) treat
even the most mundane jobs with
honor and reverence. For
more exhibitions, see page 93.
SEE IT NOW
EXHIBITION
OF THE MONTH
©

C
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IN
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Irving Penn’s
“Steel Mill
Firefighter,
New York,”
taken in 1951
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LOSE A HOBBY.
GAIN A PASSION.
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www.storemags.com & www.fantamag.com

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