Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Technical meaning of project Starting the project we should fully know about the meaning of project. There are seven letters in the word “PROJECT” each character has its own technical meaning. Planning :-This deal with the idea at thinking and which are required for the project. Resource :-The money problem will be solved and resources from which collected. Operating :- The procedure from which the getting job is prepared in a systematic way is known as operation. Joint effort :- This is directly proper to a operation output is made of several person working sincerely is known as JOINT EFFORT. Engineering: - A well-educated engineer can do this work in a better way to find out better result. Hence the project is as engineering function. Co-operation:- To make the project successfully, it is necessary for its success and completion of project. Technique: - It must as it gives a better shape. It is not possible to complete the project without technique.
The project is a system that gives the systematic way of planning and working.
The main goal is to get rid of the immense and inefficient manual work involved in conducting an examination. It does so by utilizing the vast capabilities offered by the present digital computing era. Also, the system gives easy access to the data as per their convenience to each of its members.
Scope of this project is very broad in terms of other manually taking exams. Few of them are:• This can be used in educational institutions as well as in corporate world.
Can be used for online entrance examinations. Can be used for various certification exams with some modifications.
• Customizable question database for exam questions. • Access anywhere, anytime application. • Exam format intuitive and easy to navigate. • Teachers load questions in the database.
Sample Questions for student.
• Online study material for students to study, they can also download them. • Discussion forum to discuss questions and answers. • Message Board to get information of latest events
1.5 Existing Systems
The whole process of assigning test and evaluating their scores after the test, was done manually till date. Processing the test paper i.e. checking and distributing respective scores used to take time when the software was not installed. Students have to buy study material on there on for preparation. Take tuition for guidance and may miss important topics if he/she is unable to attend classes.
Some of the negative aspects of the existing system are as follows: • Course of action is time consuming. Wherever a need for search arises, the process evolves search through paper records. • Readability of records is constrained. All the records may not be handled or written by the same person. So the format and style of records differ and hence it is difficult to understand.
Paper records are easily damaged in course of time. The life time of paper record is unreliable less that it easily gets spoiled.
• Expenditure is high. Manual system needs added man power. Prone to corruption by unauthorized users. Securing of manual system is not fully guaranteed. Inaccuracy can be expected. Data can get easily scratched. • Study material to all the student not available due to different reasons. • Timely information is not available to all the students. • May not get proper guidance of how to attempt the paper and what is the correct answer to a question.
The pre examination and post examination paper work is greatly reduced thus reducing the usage of paper and thus helping in keeping the planet green. therefore the user account is safe. • The logs of appeared candidates and their marks are stored and can be backup for future use • Sufficient study material provided online to all the students preparing for the exam. • There are sample paper and questions available for the students to understand the pattern of the paper and prepare accordingly.6 Characteristics Of The Proposed System
• In comparison to the present system the proposed system will be less time consuming and is more efficient.
• Since the user has its unique user id and password combination. The study material could be downloaded by the university students for further references also. • Message board available to all users to get the latest information regarding various academic activities such as schedule of exam.
The database is password protected and only administrator is allowed to access it therefore user data is safe.1. • Analysis will be very easy in proposed system as it is automated • Result will be very precise and accurate and will be declared in very short span of time because calculation and evaluations are done by the simulator itself.
. placement related news etc. • The proposed system is very secure as no chances of leakage of question paper as it is dependent on the administrator only.
Chapter 2 STAKEHOLDERS OF THE SOFTWARE
The main stakeholders of the project are the students. They will give their examination using this software. they are to provide online study material also so it is important for the software to satisfy this class of users as well.
The examinations that the students are going to give will be conducted by this class of user called Faculty. Faculty will use this software to get rid of the work of analyzing the performance of each and every user.
. who would be using it most often. Access all the study material and sample paper. So the requirements of the students have to be taken care off.
Web security staff
Since Examinations are very sensitive.
Web maintenance Staff
This class of user will make sure that the software is behaving in a proper way.
The information which will be stored in the database of the software which comprises of users profile and the questions for the examinations is highly confidential and must not be accessible by any outside authority. as per the security issues are concerned. few modifications for institute authentication may be needed. who are responsible for the database security
. it is the responsibility of web maintenance staff to rectify it as soon as possible. So this class of user which comprises of web security staff will make sure that the software should be completely secure to any outside threat and could be trusted by other group of users easily. This would be done by keeping a regular check on the accounts created by users and the activities performed by them.This class of user will keep on monitoring the usage of the software and will ensure that no one misuses the software features. All the networking and system shortcoming are to be handled by them . Presently only a single institution or university can apply this system. so it is upon this class of users. which comprise of database administrators. so that their examinations could be conducted as per their needs.
Different Institutions / Organizations
Since this software is customized to be used by different Institutions and Organizations. so these classes of users will be able to upload their database of questions. In case of any malfunctions. He has to keep track of all the activities being performed by all the users accessing the system. but if number of institute want to join to the system.
technically and behaviorally feasible.Chapter 3 FEASIBILITY STUDY
Feasibility Study determines whether the project is economically. If feasibility is not done carefully the project may be a failure as there may be no taker of it in the market as it may not be as useful as it should have been. decisions is made to design and implement the system.1 Economic Feasibility
Economic analysis is most frequently used for evaluation of the effectiveness of the system. The procedure is to determine the benefit and saving that are expected from a system and compare them with costs. This is an important input to the management the management. More commonly knows as cost/benefit analysis.
3. For a project to be successful it is needed that feasibility study of the project is to be done carefully and taking all the aspects into consideration. This part of feasibility study gives the top management the economic justification for the new system.
if the organization implements this system. The system offers greater levels of user friendliness combined with greater processing speed. processing speed is very high and the work is reduced in the maintenance point of view management convince that the project is operationally feasible.3 Behavioral Feasibility
People are inherently resistant to change and computer has been known to facilitate changes. These are various levels of users in order to ensure proper authentication and authorization and security of sensitive data of the organization.
3.4 Operational Feasibility
• The system will be used if it is developed well then be resistance for users that undetermined • No major training and new skills are required as it is based on DBMS model. An estimate should be made of how strong the user is likely to move towards the development of computerized system.
3. According to feasibility analysis procedure the technical feasibility of the system is analyzed and the technical requirements such as software facilities. In the system. the cost of maintenance can be reduced.
3.2 Technical Feasibility
Technical feasibility centers on the existing manual system of the test management process and to what extent it can support the system. the organization is most satisfied by economic feasibility. Therefore. inputs are identified. Because.because very often the top management does not like to get confounded by the various technicalities that bound to be associated with a project of this kind. Since. it need not require any additional hardware resources as well as it will be saving lot of time. procedures. It is also one of the important phases of the system development activities. A simple economic analysis that gives the actual comparison of costs and benefits is much more meaningful in such cases.
Improved information. user profile are made available at the click of a button.
• User support.
• New product will provide all the benefits of present system with better performance.
• User involvement in the building of present system is sought to keep in mind the user specific requirement and needs. Important information such as results. better management and collection of the data.•
It will help in the time saving and fast processing and dispersal of user information and exam paper n result.
User will have control over their own information.
the System Concept Development Phase begins.Chapter 4 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY
System Development Life Cycle:
PHASES: 4. This business need is documented in a Concept Proposal. After the Concept Proposal is approved. A Project Manager should be appointed to manage the project.
.1 Initiation Phase The initiation of a system (or project) begins when a business need or opportunity is identified.
4.2 System Concept Development Phase Once a business need is approved, the approaches for accomplishing the concept are reviewed for feasibility and appropriateness. The Systems Boundary Document identifies the scope of the system and requires Senior Official approval and funding before beginning the Planning Phase. 4.3 Planning Phase The concept is further developed to describe how the business will operate once the approved system is implemented, and to assess how the system will impact employee and customer privacy. To ensure the products and /or services provide the required capability on-time and within budget, project resources, activities, schedules, tools, and reviews are defined. Additionally, security certification and accreditation activities begin with the identification of system security requirements and the completion of a high level vulnerability assessment. 4.4 Requirements Analysis Phase Functional user requirements are formally defined and delineate the requirements in terms of data, system performance, security, and maintainability requirements for the system. All requirements are defined to a level of detail sufficient for systems design to proceed. All requirements need to be measurable and testable and relate to the business need or opportunity identified in the Initiation Phase. 4.5 Design Phase The physical characteristics of the system are designed during this phase. The operating environment is established, major subsystems and their inputs and outputs are defined, and processes are allocated to resources. Everything requiring user input or approval must be documented and reviewed by the user. The physical characteristics of the system are specified and a detailed design is prepared. Subsystems identified during design are used to create a detailed structure of the
system. Each subsystem is partitioned into one or more design units or modules. Detailed logic specifications are prepared for each software module. 4.6 Development Phase The detailed specifications produced during the design phase are translated into hardware, communications, and executable software. Software shall be unit tested, integrated, and retested in a systematic manner. Hardware is assembled and tested. 4.7 Integration and Test Phase The various components of the system are integrated and systematically tested. The user tests the system to ensure that the functional requirements, as defined in the functional requirements document, are satisfied by the developed or modified system. Prior to installing and operating the system in a production environment, the system must undergo certification and accreditation activities. 4.8 Implementation Phase The system or system modifications are installed and made operational in a production environment. The phase is initiated after the system has been tested and accepted by the user. This phase continues until the system is operating in production in accordance with the defined user requirements. 4.9 Operations and Maintenance Phase The system operation is ongoing. The system is monitored for continued performance in accordance with user requirements, and needed system modifications are incorporated. The operational system is periodically assessed through In-Process Reviews to determine how the system can be made more efficient and effective. Operations continue as long as the system can be effectively adapted to respond to an organization’s needs. When modifications or changes are identified as necessary, the system may reenter the planning phase.
4.10 Disposition Phase The disposition activities ensure the orderly termination of the system and preserve the vital information about the system so that some or all of the information may be reactivated in the future if necessary. Particular emphasis is given to proper preservation of the data processed by the system, so that the data is effectively migrated to another system or archived in accordance with applicable records management regulations and policies, for potential future access.
Chapter 5 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
Software requirement specification (SRS) is the starting point of the software development activity. Little importance was given to this phase in the early days of software development. The emphasis was first on coding and then shifted to design.
As systems grew more complex, it became evident that the goals of the entire system cannot be easily comprehended. Hence the need for the requirement analysis phase arose. Now, for large software systems, requirements analysis is perhaps the most difficult activity and also the most error prone.
into formal document (the output of the requirements phase). James Gosling did not design java for the
Chapter 6 PLATEFORM (Technology/Tool Selection)
6. the same year the World Wide Web was conceived. while the input has none of these properties. It is a platform for distributed computing – a development and run-time environment that contains built-in support for the World Wide Web. In the beginning these needs are in the minds of various people in the client organization. most of the needs can be understood by observing the current practice.Some of the difficulty is due to the scope of this phase. The software project is initiated by the client’s needs. Java’s creator. Perl and many others. FORTRAN. which hopefully are complete and consistent. In situations where the software is to automate a currently manual process. Thus. third-generation programming language like C. the output of the phase is a set of formally specified requirements. The requirement analyst has to identify the requirements by talking to these people and understanding their needs.2 History of Java Java development began at Sun Microsystems in 1991.
The SRS is a means of translating the ideas in the minds of the clients (the input).1 Introduction to Java
Java is a high-level.
6. His Objective was to create a common development environment for consumer electronic devices which was easily portable from one device to another. This effort evolved into a language.3 Java Features
Some of the important features of Java are as follows:
• Simplicity • Orientation • Platform Independence • Security • High Performance • Multi Threading • Dynamic linking. but is simpler and more platformindependent.
Garbage Collection. code named Oak and later renamed Java that retains much of the syntax and power of c++.Internet.
One of the most important features of Java is platform independence.4 Why Java is Platform Independent?
Java is Platform Independent because of Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The JVM interprets the byte code into native code and is available on platforms that support Java. When a browser invokes the JVM to run a Java program. it is up to the JVM to load. which makes it famous and suitable language for World Wide Web. When the user runs a Java program.
Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
The client application or operating system must have a java byte-code interpreter to execute byte-code instructions. The interpreter is a part of a larger program called the JVM.
6. The JVM can perform this function from within a browser or any other container program or directly on top of the operating system. and then execute it. possibly verify. the JVM does a number of things:
verifying that they pass various It allocates memory for the incoming java class files and guarantees that the It interprets the byte code instructions found in the class files to execute the
formatting and security checks.
6. The bridge translates the standard JDBC calls to corresponding ODBC calls. security of JVM is not violated.5 Connectivity using JDBC
There are four kinds of drivers available in Jdbc: -
• • • •
Jdbc-Odbc Bridge Driver Partly Java Driver Native Driver Pure Java Driver
This provides a bridge between the Jdbc APIs and the Odbc APIs.• • •
It validates the requested byte-code. This is known as the class loader module. and sends them to the ODBC data source via ODBC libraries. This configuration requires every client
. The database will process the request & send the result back through the API. As a result this kind of driver is most appropriate on a corporate network where client installations are not a major problem. All the mechanism of the client access is coded completely in java.
Partly Java Driver:
Jdbc database calls are translated into vendor-specific API calls. The concentrator or access server in turn uses ODBC (or) vendor specific protocol to talk to the actual database. Type 4 drivers are different for different RDBMS and are available for almost all major RDBMS vendors. This kind of driver is provided by third party vendor. These are really non-drivers.
These are true 100% pure java real JDBC drivers. which in turn forwards them back to the Jdbc drivers. This middle-ware server is able to connect its java clients to many different databases. the ODBC driver and the native language-level APIs.that will run the application to have the JDBC-ODBC bridge API. For ex: The proxy driver talks to the middle tier concentrator or access server.
Pure Java Driver:
This is a platform independent driver as this kind of driver remains on server. There are no calls out off or into the virtual machine and native code and there is no need for some costly server in the middle. The requirement for collaborating middle tier server is often cumbersome and very expensive too. hence this kind of driver has same problem that was with Jdbc-Odbc driver and is mostly used in Intranet. The Jdbc driver translates the result to the Jdbc standard & returns them to the Java application. They are front end for database access servers and connectors.
Servlet / JSP are middle-ware technologies which are used in web based projects because they use:-
• • • •
HTTP Protocol to handle Request and Response. They need Browser Support. performance and reliability.6 About J2EE
Introduction to J2EE:
The multi-tier architecture such as COBRA has got its own advantages in terms of scalability. They are invoked through Browser. All the mechanism of the client access is coded completely in java. There are no calls out off or into the virtual machine and native code and there is no need for some costly server in the middle.
6. Client Side Interface: In client side interface we are using:• Servlet / JSP – for Internet Based Application. Type 4 drivers are different for different RDBMS and are available for almost all major RDBMS vendors.
. These are true 100% pure java real JDBC drivers. They give output in HTML format. This allows a direct call from client machine to the Database server.This kind of driver converts JDBC calls into the network protocol used by Database directly.
For this purpose. XML data being stored is verified against the schema.
6. SQL Server 2005 added some extensions to the T-SQL language to allow embedding XQuery queries in T-SQL. in addition to relational data. In addition. XML is converted to an internal binary data type before being stored in the database.1 Introduction
SQL Server 2005 (codenamed Yukon).• Interact with applets • Manipulate Embedded Images 6. released in October 2005.9 Backend SQL SERVER 2005
. is the successor to SQL Server 2000. XML columns can be associated with XSD schemas. It included native support for managing XML data. it defined an xml data type that could be used either as a data type in database columns or as literals in queries.
NET Framework. which runs as a part of the database engine. T-SQL has been augmented with error handling features (try/catch) and support for recursive queries (Common Table Expressions). via exchange of messages. Partitions on tables and indexes are supported natively. 6. over TCP/IP and allows the different components to be synchronized together. i. SQL CLR was introduced with SQL Server 2005 to let it integrate with the . Service Broker communicates The Service Broker. they provide value added services on top of the core database management system. or database caches on the client side.allows query-based modifications to XML data. These services either run as a part of some SQL Server component or out-of-process as Windows Service and presents their own API to control and interact with them. When the data is accessed over web services. and optimistic concurrency support has been added for better performance. Replication follows a publisher/subscriber model. SQL Server 2005 introduced "MARS" (Multiple Active Results Sets). results are returned as XML. the changes are sent out by one database server ("publisher") and are received by others ("subscribers"). a method of allowing usage of database connections for multiple purposes.. across replication agents. Data pages are checksummed for better error resiliency. SQL Server 2005 also allows a database server to be exposed over web services using TDS packets encapsulated within SOAP (protocol) requests. For relational data. so scaling out a database onto a cluster is easier. Replication Services SQL Server Replication Services are used by SQL Server to replicate and synchronize database objects.2 Services SQL Server also includes an assortment of add-on services. provides a reliable messaging and message queuing platform for SQL Server applications. SQL Server 2005 has also been enhanced with new indexing algorithms and better error recovery systems. SQL Server supports three different types of replication: Transaction replication
.e.9. which might be other database servers across the network. either in entirety or a subset of the objects present. While these are not essential for the operation of the database system.
Service Broker Used inside an instance. For cross instance applications. Permissions and access control have been made more granular and the query processor handles concurrent execution of queries in a more efficient way. it is used to provide an asynchronous programming environment.
 Reports can be designed using recent versions of Microsoft Visual Studio (Visual Studio. Notification Services Main article: SQL Server Notification Services
. ROLAP and HOLAP storage modes for data. CSV. XML.Decision trees. 2005. and HTML Web Archive. Further changes to the snapshot are not tracked. Reports are created as RDL files. The OLAP engine supports MOLAP. The cube data can be accessed using MDX queries. If the same data has been modified differently in both the publisher and the subscriber databases. installed or with the included Report Builder. synchronization will result in a conflict which has to be resolved . Reporting services features a web services interface to support the development of custom reporting applications. and neural networks . sequence clustering algorithm. Data mining specific functionality is exposed via the DMX query language.for use in data mining. TIFF (and other image formats). and periodically the changes are synchronized bi-directionally between the publisher and the subscribers. PDF.Each transaction made to the publisher database (master database) is synced out to subscribers. and 2008) with Business Intelligence Development Studio. Snapshot replication Snapshot replication published a copy of the entire database (the then-snapshot of the data) and replicates out to the subscribers. who update their databases with the transaction. Analysis Services Main article: SQL Server Analysis Services SQL Server Analysis Services adds OLAP and data mining capabilities for SQL Server databases. time series analysis. Merge replication Changes made at both the publisher and subscriber databases are tracked. It is administered via a web interface. Analysis Services supports the XML for Analysis standard as the underlying communication protocol. RDL files can be rendered in a variety of formats including Excel. clustering algorithm. Reporting Services Main article: SQL Server Reporting Services SQL Server Reporting Services is a report generation environment for data gathered from SQL Server databases. rowguid needs to be configured on a column if merge replication is configured. Naive Bayes algorithm.either manually or by using pre-defined policies.NET 2003. linear and logistic regression analysis. Analysis Services includes various algorithms . Transactional replication synchronizes databases in near real time. Once created.
3 Tools SQLCMD SQLCMD is a command line application that comes with Microsoft SQL Server. with Sql Server 2005. or sending e-mails detailing the status of the operation as defined by the user. Full Text Search (FTS) allows for inexact matching of the source string. It allows SQL queries to be written and executed from the command prompt. It allows for words to be searched for in the text columns. The full text search index can be created on any column with character based text data. indicated by a Rank value which can range from 0 to 1000 . querying data. SOAP. It is used for the ETL capabilities for SQL Server for data warehousing needs. and is no longer an officially supported component of the SQL Server database platform. SQL Server Notification Services is a mechanism for generating data-driven notifications. linguistic variants of a word (such as a verb in a different tense) will also be a match for a given word (but with a lower rank than an exact match). using SQL Server Full Text Search service can be more efficient. Notification Services can use one of three methods to send a message to the subscriber informing about the occurrence of the event.a higher rank means a more accurate match. Notification Services was bundled as part of the Microsoft SQL Server platform for the first and only time with SQL Server 2005. i.Originally introduced as a post-release add-on for SQL Server 2000. transforming data including aggregating. and exposes the management features of SQL Server. which are sent to Notification Services subscribers. or by writing to a file in the filesystem. Proximity searches are also supported. Notification Services was discontinued by Microsoft with the release of SQL Server 2008 in August 2008..e. i. It can also act as a scripting language to create and run a set of
. if the words searched for do not occur in the sequence they are specified in the query but are near each other. when the event occurs. While it can be performed with the SQL LIKE operator. It also allows linguistic matching ("inflectional search"). and then loading the transformed data onto other sources. Integration Services includes GUI tools to build data extraction workflows integration various functionality such as extracting data from various sources.
Full Text Search Service Main article: SQL Server Full Text Search The SQL Server Full Text Search service architecture SQL Server Full Text Search service is a specialized indexing and querying service for unstructured text stored in SQL Server databases..9. Integration Services Main article: SQL Server Integration Services SQL Server Integration Services is used to integrate data from different data sources.e. duplication and merging data. These methods include SMTP. A subscriber registers for a specific event or transaction (which is registered on the database server as a trigger). T-SQL exposes special operators that can be used to access the FTS capabilities. they are also considered a match. 6.
Cubes and data mining structures (using Analysis Services). It is based on the Microsoft Visual Studio development environment but customizes with the SQL Server services-specific extensions and project types. A version of SQL Server Management Studio is also available for SQL Server Express Edition. SQL Server Management Studio SQL Server Management Studio is a GUI tool included with SQL Server 2005 and later for configuring. for which it is known as SQL Server Management Studio Express (SSMSE). and are used either for management of databases or to create the database schema during the deployment of a database. select. which allows the user to browse.4 Some high points
Easy to Use
. SQL Server Management Studio can also be used to create a new database. It includes the query windows which provide a GUI based interface to write and execute queries. and act upon any of the objects within the server. Its predecessor for earlier versions was OSQL. SQL Server Management Studio replaces Enterprise Manager as the primary management interface for Microsoft SQL Server since SQL Server 2005. The tool includes both script editors and graphical tools that work with objects and features of the server. SQLCMD was introduced with SQL Server 2005 and this continues with SQL Server 2008. Visual Studio Microsoft Visual Studio includes native support for data programming with Microsoft SQL Server.9. or analyze performance. Reporting Services and Integration Services. Queries can be created either visually or using code. Such scripts are stored as a . view or edit database schemas. managing. alter any existing database schema by adding or modifying tables and indexes. It can be used to visually observe and analyze query plans and optimize the database performance. 6. It also includes a data designer that can be used to graphically create. including tools. SSMS 2008 onwards. A central feature of SQL Server Management Studio is the Object Explorer. which is functionally equivalent and many of the command line parameters are identical. and administering all components within Microsoft SQL Server. provides intellisense for SQL queries as well. among others.SQL statements as a script. Business Intelligence Development Studio Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS) is the IDE from Microsoft used for developing data analysis and Business Intelligence solutions utilizing the Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services. controls and projects for reports (using Reporting Services). It can be used to write and debug code to be executed by SQL CLR.sql file.
and easy for new developers to use immediately. Use Microsoft Update to automatically receive the latest patches and updates.
Fast to download Compact download. enabling a high level of security and the latest features.
Easy to deploy Easily move or copy your SQL Server Express databases to another computer or hosted server using XCopy and ClickOnce deployment. SQL Server Express includes powerful features such as SQL Server Management Studio Express.
Simplified administration Automatically tune your database for optimal performance.
Easy to Learn Get started fast Starter Kits provide fully functional sample applications designed to help you learn. With SQL Server Management Studio you enjoy a consistent management experience across all SQL Server 2005 Editions. for easily managing a database.
Seamless integration with Visual Studio Express Editions Seamlessly integrated data experience for building Windows applications and Web sites.Free to download.
Free management tool: SQL Server Management Studio You can download the SQL Server Management Studio Express (separate download below). free to embed. an easy and efficient management tool for SQL Server Express. Get up and running in as little as 20 minutes. free to redistribute. Starter database schemas covering a wide-range of scenarios.
use the Common Language Runtime (CLR) to write stored procedures and other database code in languages such as C#. Maintain copies of data at multiple sites with SQL Server Express’ support for merging subscriptions. Utilize native XML capabilities to help seamlessly connect internal and external systems. functions. or managed C++.Get help fast Take advantage of rich documentation. Create databases up to 4 GB in size. authentication. Use advanced auditing. Powerful
Full compatibility Transfer any database created in SQL Express to other editions of SQL Server 2005. 28
. Get data in and out of other systems quickly with Integration Services. including samples and walkthroughs. Take comfort in knowing that the full power of SQL Server is available as your needs grow. Access a vast community of experts via the online SQL Server Forums or Visual Studio Express Edition Forums.
Tight integration with Visual Studio Create and deploy database code such as stored procedures. user-defined types. and userdefined aggregates from directly within the Visual Studio development environment. and transactional publications. Use full text search for powerful query capability over textual data. Visual Basic. Use debugging that is seamless across the application and database. Learning Express means you’re learning SQL Server Learn skills that are entirely transferable to all other editions of SQL Server 2005.
Innovative features typically found in higher-end products In addition to traditional T-SQL. snapshot. and authorization capabilities.
Industry-leading data security Maintain high levels of security by encrypting data directly in the database.
Chapter 7 SYSTEM DESIGN
7. management.1 Introduction System design provides the understandings and procedural details necessary for implementing the system recommended in the system study. Emphasis is on the translating the performance requirements into design specifications. and delivery with the complete. Embed sophisticated tables. System design goes through two phases of development:
. The design phase is a transition from a user-oriented document (System proposal) to a document oriented to the programmers or database personnel. charts. Use with both traditional and interactive reports.Reporting Services Simplify report creation. server-based platform. and graphics into applications.
data stores. and data sources/destination. they specify the user needs at a level of detail that virtually determines the information flow into an out of the system and the required data resources. no time or timing. file and a working system. or steps to get somewhere. database (data stores) and procedures (data flows) all in a format that meets the user’s requirement. The data flow diagram is analogous to a road map. For a system it describes the input (source).2 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
Data Flow Diagramming is a means of representing a system at any level of detail with a graphic network of symbols showing data flows. The logical design also specifies input forms and screen layouts. When analysis prepare the logical system design. there is no starting point or stop point.1) 2)
Logical Design Physical Design
A data flow diagram shows the logical flow of the system. data processes. Like a road map. This processes of representing different details level is called “leveling” or “partitioning” by some data flow diagram advocates. We just know that the data
.g. The activities following logical design are the procedure followed in the physical design e. It is a network model of all possibilities with different detail shown on different hierarchical levels. Design specifications instruct the user about what the system should do. output (destination). software.. producing programs.
So it is the starting point of the design phase that functionally decomposes the requirements specifications down to the level of details. Data Flow Diagram also known as ‘Bubble Chart’ is used to clarify system requirements and identifying the major transformations that will become programs in system design. Data Flow Diagram (DFD) uses a number of symbols to represent the systems.path must exist because at some point it will be needed. Details that is not shown on the different levels of the data flow diagram such as volumes. A road map shows all existing or planned roads because the road is needed. The lowest level processes are pure functions without side effects.
Terms used in DFD • Process A process transforms data values. frequency. An entire data flow graphics high level process. data store contents may be shown in the data dictionary. etc.
. timing. is shown on supplementary diagrams or in the data dictionary. For example.
a library member. usually its name or type.
Graphical Representation: 32
An actor is active object that drives the data flow graph by producing or consuming values. It is represented by an arrow and labeled with a description of data.
• External Entity A rectangle represents an external entity such as a librarian .• Data flows
A data flow connects the output of an object or process to input of another object or process. It represents the intermediate data value within a computation.
Data store A data store is a passive object with in a data flow diagram that stores data for later
• OutPut Symbol
This box represented data production during human computer interaction
Update/register profile FACULT Y
ONLINE STUDENT RESOURCE SYSTEM
STUDENT Take test View result
View result View profile
Update msg board Update/register profile
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.3 0 LEVEL DFD
LEVEL 1 DFD
STUDENT SIGN UP TEACHER DATABASE
DFD MODEL FOR SIGN IN AND SIGN IN MODULE.3
RESULT STUDENT TEACHER VIEW RESULT
DFD FOR EXAM RESULT FIG 7.
DFD FOR CREATING PAPER FIG 7.5
PAPER DETAI TEACHER
PAPER DETAIL CREATE PAPER
VIEW PAPER GIVE PAPER
ADMIN STUDENT TEACHER ADMIN VIEW COMMENT
DFD FOR DISCUSSION FORUM FIG 7.
6 DETAIL UPDATE PROFILE
7.STUDENT TEACHER ADMIN TEACHER STUDENT ADMIN DFD FOR UPDATING PROFILE FIG 7.5 E-R DIAGRAM
timing. A road map shows all existing or planned roads because the road is needed.Definition:-An entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a database. no time or timing. We just know that the data path must exist because at some point it will be needed. or steps to get somewhere. frequency. Like a road map. etc. The below E-R Diagram illustrates the relationship between an users and an forum. is shown on supplementary diagrams or in
. Data Flow Diagramming is a means of representing a system at any level of detail with a graphic network of symbols showing data flows.
Details that is not shown on the different levels of the data flow diagram such as volumes. The data flow diagram is analogous to a road map. taking test handling queries. The diagram documents the entities and relationships involved in the user information and on-line test system. It is a network model of all possibilities with different detail shown on different hierarchical levels. there is no starting point or stop point. and data sources/destination. ER diagrams often use symbols to represent three different types of information. It depicts the fundamental relations like recording personnel information. only then we would be able to design the process that needs to be computerized to build the system. Boxes are commonly used to represent entities. Introduction Without understanding the relationship between an users with the system we cannot build the on-line test and forum system. The E-R Diagram for the system can be simple as well as complex. data stores. This processes of representing different details level is called “leveling” or “partitioning” by some data flow diagram advocates. data processes. Diamonds are normally used to represent relationships and ovals are used to represent attributes.
the data dictionary. data store contents may be shown in the data dictionary. Data Flow Diagram also known as ‘Bubble Chart’ is used to clarify system requirements and identifying the major transformations that will become programs in system design. Data Flow Diagram (DFD) uses a number of symbols to represent the systems. For example. So it is the starting point of the design phase that functionally decomposes the requirements specifications down to the level of details
and contract.7. project.6 WORK BREAKDOWN SYSTEM
A work breakdown structure (WBS) in project management and systems engineering. and labor hour reporting can be established. is a tool used to define and group a project's discrete work elements (or tasks) in a way that helps organize and define the total work scope of the project A work breakdown structure element may be a product. It has been defined as follows: The 100% Rule.
. data. components.. subtasks.states that the WBS includes 100% of the work defined by the project scope and captures all deliverables – internal. external. A WBS also provides the necessary framework for detailed cost estimating and control along with providing guidance for schedule development and control.. duration. The work represented by the activities in each work package must add up to 100% of the work necessary to complete the work package. The rule applies at all levels within the hierarchy: the sum of the work at the “child” level must equal 100% of the work represented by the “parent” and the WBS should not include any work that falls outside the actual scope of the project. the WBS is developed by starting with the end objective and successively subdividing it into manageable components in terms of size. The Work Breakdown Structure provides a common framework for the natural development of the overall planning and control of a contract and is the basis for dividing work into definable increments from which the statement of work can be developed and technical. interim – in terms of the work to be completed. cost. a service. The 100% rule is one of the most important principles guiding the development. decomposition and evaluation of the WBS. ] In a project or contract. it cannot include more than 100% of the work… It is important to remember that the 100% rule also applies to the activity level. that is.. subsystems. including project management. Additionally the WBS is a dynamic tool and can be revised and updated as needed by the project manager. or any combination.
The 100% rule
One of the most important Work Breakdown Structure design principles is called the 100% Rule. tasks. schedule. systems.g. The Work Breakdown Structure is a tree structure. for example a program. and responsibility (e. and work packages) which include all steps necessary to achieve the objective. which shows a subdivision of effort required to achieve an objective.
working closely with the employees and managers.Chapter 8 REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS
8. must study the business process to answer these key questions: • What is being done? • How is it being done? • How frequent does it occur? • How great is the volume of transaction or decisions? • How well is the task being performed? • Does a problem exist? • If a problem exist. These include:
• Interview • Questionnaires • Record inspection • On-site observation
. the process of acquiring this is often termed the detailed investigation) Analyst. how serious is it? • If a problem exists.1 Introduction
• At the heart of system analysis is a detailed understanding of all important facts of business area under investigation. (For this reason. what is the underlying cause?
Requirement analysis relies on fact-finding techniques.
0 The system will be developed with Java Technologies using J2SE (JDK and JRE). Server side Application Software: Java Server Pages (JSP) Client Side Application Software: Java Script.
Client Browsers: Internet Explorer 5.0/ Front Page 2003 as HTML editor.1 Application Server to serve as Servlet/JSP engine.2 Software and Hardware Tools
Development Environment: • Operating System: Windows XP The system will be built on windows compatible environment.
Dream Weaver 8. The system requires Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator browser for client side.
Web Server: BEA’s WebLogic 8.0 or Netscape Navigator 4. however the system will be ODBC complaint to work on any standard database. The application will be web based developed using Java technology. Dream Weaver 8. HTML
Data Base: SQL Server 2005 The system requires Oracle as a database. The system requires WebLogic Application Server for serving the requests for Servlet.7 or higher.
Apart from the mentioned users.1
PENTIUM II PROCESSOR AT 500 MHERTZ PENTIUM III AT 1GB GHERTZ PENTIUM III AT 1GB GHERTZ
SQL SERVER 2005 FIG 8. the system can be broadly classified into several modules based on the user types being Administrator.1
RAM 64 MB RAM 512 MB
DISK SPACE 512 MB DISK SPACE 512 MB
INTERNET EXPLORER 6.0 OR WEBLOGIC HIGER 8. Teacher and Student.8. database of the system provides a backbone for proper functioning of the system.1
Chapter 9 MODULE DESCRIPTION
To understand the functionality of “ONLINE STUDENT RESORCE SYSTEM”. The brief
.3 Hardware & Software Requirements PROCESSOR CLIENT SIDE SERVER SIDE
Database forms the back-bone for proper functioning of the system. It is the only user having the privilege of creating and deleting a teacher’s account.
The teacher is entrusted with the responsibility of creating test papers each having a unique id. the teacher has to insert the questions. Having to create an objective paper. choices and correct answers at the time of paper creation itself.
This is the most privileged user among the three. It has access to every record in the system. Student can appear for a test only once. His right of access is limited to only the papers created by him. Student access rights are limited to giving the activated test only. It is the only user who can create his login account without the administrator or teacher’s permission.description is provided here and and modules will be discussed in greater detail in later chapters. it co-ordinates the whole system. There can be only one administrator in the system.
Student is the user type with least set of privileges only concerned with giving the test paper and viewing his own result. In short. Teachers have to request the administrator to activate/deactivate any paper. Database consists of the following tables: • Pass
. He doesn’t have access to any record apart from his own result.
.• Member • Paper • Pdetails • Paperact • Temp • Result • Thread
Details and purpose of the tables will be discussed in later chapters.
9. He is entrusted with the responsibility of correct and efficient functioning of the system.1 ADMINISTRATOR
The administrator is the controller of the system.
• All profiles in the system can be viewed and managed by the administrator. He can create. It is his sole decision to allow or deny a teacher to become a member. • He can delete and modify any profile.
. • It is his responsibility to maintain and carry out discussion threads in discussion forum .
The Adminstrator has the following functionality: • Profile management The administrator manages all the profiles. as per requirement. • He activates/deactivates the papers at the specific centers.Privileges
• The administrator is the backbone of the system. responsible for maintaining the consistency of the system. modify and delete any user type. • He is the sole user having access to complete database of the system. • He is the only user capable of registering teachers into the system. • Administrator has the authority to upload any information on the message board.
The administrator can take part and manage discussion.
Administrator’s interaction with database
The administrator interacts with the following tables
. • View result He can view results of all the student. • Deactivate Paper The administrator deactivates the activated paper to activate a new paper. • Activate Paper Administrator is responsible for activation of paper to be conducted.• View Paper He can view all papers irrespective of the teacher who created it.
The administrator can view detailed information about each paper from this table. The authenticity of the Administrator is verified by this table. He has following rights on the user profile: • • • • Create Delete Modify View
2. He may make changes to his password which is subsequently updated in this table. He can view the personal details of the members through this table.
3.Pass The administrator has to first validate his identity in order to gain access to the system. The table has the following details:
• • • • •
The paper id Subject of the paper Total number of questions in each paper Duration of each paper The id of the creator of the paper
.Paper The administrator accesses this table to obtain any of these information: • • • • The unique paper id allotted to each paper Questions and their numbering Options to each question The correct answer to each question
4.The administrator has access to each member’s profile.
of questions Questions answered correctly Test date Percentage obtained
7-Thread The administrator with this table maintains the thread of the discussion forum. It contains the following information that the administrator might be interested in:
• • • • • • •
Student id paper id Subject Total no. the user id of the person posted the thread is maintained in the table.Paperact
The administrator interacts with this table to activate or deactivate any Paper according to teacher requirement.
6.5. The date on which the thread was posted. It presents information ordered according to the student’s id.Result
This table maintains the results of all the students.
ADMINISTRATOR’S DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTIONALITY
this may be done to ensure that the updates made by the administrator are being reflected and no discrepancy is present.
The viewing of the list is sorted according to the different user levels in the system.
. It also keeps the knowledge of the administrator regarding the members of the system updated.
Administrator also has the right to drop any teacher or student he might feel appropriate to remove from the system. From time to time it is the responsibility of the administrator to update the personal details of each user part of the system as and when changes occur. the whole profile having complete personal details of the selected user is displayed. This feature assists the administrator to appoint subject teachers required in the system. he needs to request the administrator to do the same. Once selected. Since the administrator has a broader view of the system in comparison to other users it helps him keep track of the up-dations and ensure that no conflicts occur. The centralized administration helps ensure unambiguous co-ordination and prevent confusion. the administrator can do the same to that of the students and the teachers registered with the system.
The administrator can at any time view the list of all the registered members in the system. Apart from having the privilege to update and modify his own profile. This way he can ensure that only appropriate and well-qualified teachers get registered into the system. Also if a student or a teacher wishes to unregister from the system.
The administrators can at any time make modifications to every user’s profile be it he. the teachers or the students. It is the administrator’s choice which level users he wishes to view. This is done to ensure that the data is up to date and consistent.
He is the central authority to register a teacher into the system. It informs him of the total number of the teachers of the various subjects and students who might be appearing in one or more papers.The administrator is the supreme user of the system. This improves the overall staffing quality of the system.
. This feature enables the administrator to crosscheck the answers specified by the teachers and also the difficulty level of the paper to assess the overall performance of the teacher as well as the maintenance of the standard of the paper. Hence the administrator can view the results according to his needs and desire. the creating teacher’s id. the profile management is an essential feature of the administrator’s functionality since it ensures security and quality of the system.
VIEW PAPER The administrator has the authority to view all the papers created and submitted by any teacher in the system. the subject. The results of the students can be viewed in two ways. Also the duration for the paper is visible to the administrator. their multiple choices and the correct answers to each question are displayed to the the administrator.
VIEW RESULT The administrator has the authority to view any student’s result registered with the system.He can evaluate each student’s performance through this. either according to the subject or for each student. It is only the administrator who can do so others can only view their own accounts . the questions. which helps him in keeping track of him each student is performing individually and how each is performing in a specific subject. Once the id is selected by the administrator. This gives him the power to ensure that only a registered teacher has created the paper and that he satisfies all the constraints needed to be fulfilled in creating a paper.Hence.
The paper may be viewed as sorted by their unique id.
student or teacher can post a thread regarding the discussion topic any time they want.
• DISCUSSION The student are provided with a facility to discuss various issues regarding the exam. DEACTIVATE PAPER A single paper only can be activated at a time. But deactivation is necessary to ensure authorized access and also confidentiality of the questions in a paper and their answers. The administrator. hence before conducting the examination the respective teacher has to ask the administrator to activate the paper . The administrator only has the privilege to deactivate a paper. The administrator can deactivate a paper either when the examination has been conducted or if any teacher has requested him to activate another paper.The administrator upon finding the request genuine.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR
The administrator undoubtedly is the most important and integral part of the online examination system. The students cannot take the test of a deactivated paper. for taking the test activation of the paper is necessary. One paper can be activated at a time at a center. Once the paper is activated all registered students can take the test for that subject. Upon creation the teachers have to request the administrator to activate the paper so that the examination can be conducted. events occurring in the college and so on. does so.Only and only the administrator has the right to activate a paper. The centralized authority of the administrator gives him
. such as the syllabus. hence in order to activate any other paper the administrator has to deactivate the currently activated paper. or answers to some important questions.
. Not only does the administrator have access to the complete database but also all the authority to allow or deny any type of user.
9. This right of the administrator makes him very significant in the process of conducting any examination.2 TEACHER
The teacher is the one who benefits the most from this system. Hence no examination can be conducted without the permission of the administrator. the administrator solely selects each and every participant of the system which makes him even more important. which is the main purpose of the system. Monitoring of all user level keeps the system safe and prevents any unauthorized access as well as no inappropriate modifications can be done by any user to his account. the administrator can also modify any teachers account which helps him ensure that only appropriate teachers are a part of the system. Hence .
The administrator can view and modify the account of all the users he has chosen.making him the most powerful user of the system.rights that no teacher or student has . He is a very integral part of the system since he creates and conducts the exam. this way he monitors each and every teacher and student who is a part of the system. Registration of any teacher can only be done by the administrator as the teachers are also an important part of the system this right of the administrator makes him powerful. The significance of the administrator cannot be doubted as all his rights make him the backbone of the system coordinating the whole system. being it a teacher or a student to be a part of the system. Although it is the teachers who create the papers but any paper cannot be activated until the administrator activates it.
• Only registered teachers can create paper and this is ensured by allotting each teacher a unique id and password. part of the system. • The teacher has access to every student’s result for any paper. has the right to create a unique paper of his of own subject. • Confidentiality and privacy of the teacher’s work is maintained by not allowing any other teacher to access it. • He has the complete authority to decide upon the number of questions and the duration of the paper.
The teacher has the following functionality: • Create paper The teachers registered with the administrator can create the paper for their subject. for which the system automatically generates a unique id. • Any subject paper can be activated/deactivated only on the request of the teacher who has created it. • Participate in discussion. • Can participate in discussion • Provide sample questions and notes for reference. • Every teacher.
Discussion The teachers are allowed to take part in discussion
Teacher’s interaction with database
The teacher interacts with the following tables :
• Update profile The teacher can update his details from time to time in order to keep the system informed about the latest change in his address or likewise.
• View result The teacher can view the result of all the students whenever he wants according to the subject or student or both as per his wish.
• View paper Paper once created can be viewed by its creating teacher anytime.• Delete paper The teacher can delete paper created by him whenever he wishes to do so.
The authenticity of the teacher is verified by this table. The correct answer to each question as specified by him. Options added by him to each question. He may make changes to his password which is subsequently updated in this table.
4.1-Member The teacher has access to his own profile.Pass The teacher has to first validate his identity in order to gain access to the system. Questions and their numbering in his paper. where he can do the following: • • • • Create Delete Modify View
.Pdetails The teacher can view detailed information about each paper created by him from this table.
The table has the following details:
• • • • •
The paper id Subject of the paper Total number of questions in each paper Duration of each paper His id.
3.Paper The teacher accesses this table to obtain any of these information:
• • • •
The unique paper id allotted to each paper created by him.
It presents information ordered according to the student’s id .It contains the following information that the teacher might wish to view:
• • • • • • •
Student id Paper id Subject Total no. of questions Questions answered correctly Percentage obtained Test date
6-Thread When the student takes part in the discussion he/she enters the information regarding the • • • • Date of thread posted User id of student posting the thread The thread Thread id
TEACHER’S FUNCTIONALITY DESCRIPTION
• CREATE PAPER The teacher is entrusted with the responsibility of creating a paper of his subject. This paper is allotted an automatically generated unique id by which it is distinguished from others and is accessed through.
.Result This table maintains the results of all the students .5.
once a paper is created. Deletion of the paper can be done only by the teacher who has created it. It might be while creating the paper or even after completion and submission of the paper. Further. the teacher can at will. the number of questions and the total duration of the paper test being created by him. the teacher has to enter the subject name. it is at any time viewable by the administrator. the teacher has the option to delete the paper created by him. the final authority. the teacher is free to create the paper of his subject at will. The provision that a teacher can access papers created by him only is to ensure repudiation in case of leakage as well as secrecy. its four options i. leakage or if the paper has already been conducted and evaluated and there is no further need of it.e the multiple choice and the correct answer.in any case. as they would appear in the final test before the student. the paper cannot be modified. This is done to ensure privacy of any individual teacher’s work. This situation might arise in case of disapproval from the administrator. This is to be fair to the teacher creating a paper so that he is always aware of what is happening with the test paper he generated. The unique paper id helps avoid confusion and also identify papers individually.Creation of paper can be carried out only by a teacher registered with the administrator. in a way is the teacher who has created it. Further he is required to insert all the questions. Access is granted only to the administrator and the teacher who created it. It might also be carried out incase the teacher has spotted error(s) in the paper. Thus. This way the teacher has to fill in detailed entries for each question one by one and submit them only on being confident of accuracy. it can only be viewed. A unique id is generated and displayed. Once the teacher submits the questions. While creating the paper.
• DELETE PAPER
At any point of time. regarding a paper. Once this whole process is complete. view the paper generated by him. for supervision.
. Once the administrator is done with registering a teacher and a unique id has been allotted to him. However.
the teacher gets to see the detailed information about the paper requested for. On specifying the id. solely for coordination and supervisory purposes. On receiving the confirmation of this action from the teacher. only the teacher who has created the paper can view it. The teacher can view the paper after specifying the paper id that is uniquely allocated to every paper. finding which the paper can be deleted and re-created. Also. the teacher too has the right to update his profile. the duration of the paper.A teacher wishing to delete a paper can do so by selecting the id of the paper from the list containing id(s) of all the papers having been created by him. The administrator. This is the special privilege which is not granted to any other teacher so as to preserve the teacher’s work privacy and authenticity. its id might be allotted to another paper by the system. the questions. the paper is deleted from the system records. the subject name. their choices and the correct answer to them. Viewing of the paper is helpful in checking for errors be it logical or syntactic.
• UPDATE PROFILE
Similar to any user in the system.
• VIEW PAPER
The teacher has the authority to view his paper whenever and wherever he wishes to. of questions. alongside the teacher has the privilege to view a paper even if he is not the creator. The details displayed include all the information that was entered by the teacher at the time of the creation of the paper viz. the total no. This is important in case a teacher needs to be communicated to in certain situations. Once a paper is deleted. Updation is carried out in order to keep the system aware of the latest changes that might have taken place in the teacher’s address or likewise information.
Also. The teacher is provided with two choices.that of updating his personal details such as address and phone number or editing his password. The teacher has the authority to view any student’s result registered with the system.
This field requires the teacher to enter the old password( for authentication that the correct user is changing the password and not a user who might have found the account open where a teacher might have forgotten to log out). hence the teacher’s profile is completely safeguarded. The administrator has been given this right in case the teacher forgets his password and is unable to access his account.
. which helps him in keeping track of him each student is performing individually and how each is performing in a specific subject. anytime at his will. It can not be performed by any other user. He can evaluate each student’s performance through this. a new password and reconfirm it so as to avoid any typing errors. preventing it from being hacked by students or any concerned entity that might benefit from it or simply do it to annoy the teacher concerned. The second choice is an interesting one. This privilege is safe in the terms that viewing result of a student for the subject not created by the teacher himself. can in no way possibly affect anyone adversely. Updating a profile can be done by the account holder or the administrator.A teacher can update only his profile. Its need might arise from time to time to safeguard the privacy of the teacher’s account. similar to the administrator. has the privilege to view any student’s any subject’s result. Hence the teacher can view the results according to his needs and desire.
• VIEW RESULT
The teacher. The results of the students can be viewed in two ways. In that case the administrator can simply perform the updations. either according to the subject or for each student. this option might be considered by a teacher who has some confusions regarding updating his profile. It would only add to the knowledge of the teacher viewing it.
. This ensures that there is no redundancy or misuse of paper. Only and only the teacher has the right to delete a paper he created once used. student or teacher can post a thread regarding the discussion topic any time they want. or answers to some important questions. The teacher along with submitting the questions also submits the correct answer therefore each teacher individually is responsible in making system accurate and reliable. events occurring in the college and so on. Teachers are important to the system as a teacher is needed for each subject so that standard papers can be created and correct solution is provided.
SIGNIFICANCE OF TEACHER
In any examination the question papar is undoubtly the most important entity and as in the online examination the teacher is responsible for creating and submitting the papers .his significance cannot be ignored. such as the syllabus. The administrator. Therefore we can say the the correct functioning of the system to a certain extent lies on the shoulders of the teachers. It is the teacher who can view the result of all the student either subject wise or student wise hence the scope lies with the teacher to evaluate the students performance in any subject. This also indirectly enhances the overall performance of the system as memory is usefully and carefully used. This benefits the students too.•
DISCUSSION The student are provided with a facility to discuss various issues regarding the
9.Hence we can conclude that the significance of the teacher is great and the functionalities of the teacher are very important to the system and are needed for efficient and effective working of the system.
. • Can download study material from the system for reference • Take part in discussion. • Can participate in discussion and view the message board. • With the presence of the timer. students are always aware of the amount of time left for them to complete the paper. • The students registered with the system can take the tests. • The students have an option to attempt questions in the order of their choice.
Since the students role in the system is limited to appearing in the tests. • Has access to all sample questions and notes posted by the teachers. so this level has scope for few privileges which are as under:
• Students are the only users who can be a part of the system without the administrator’s permission.The students are an integral part of the system as they are the ones for whom the papers are created and evaluated. • The students can view their results as soon as the test is over.
• Discussion The student is allowed to take part in discussion
Student’s interaction with database
• View result The most advantageous aspect of the online system is that the correct result is shown as the student submits the test.The students have the following functionalities:
• Take test The students can take the activated tests from the certified centers after having registered themselves with the system.
• Update profile The teacher can update his details from time to time in order to keep the system informed about the latest change in his address or likewise .
2.The student interacts with the following tables:
Each student is has a unique id and password to prevent unauthorized access by anyone else. The result comprises of:
.The student can view his result as soon as he has completed the test.Result This table maintains the results of all the students . • Questions and their numbering in his paper.Paper
The student accesses this table to obtain any of these information:
• The unique id of the paper he is appearing for. • Multiple choices specified for each question. from this table. The table has the following details: • • • • The paper id Subject of the paper Total number of questions in each paper Duration of each paper
4. These are stored in this table and is used by the system to identify and authenticate each student.Pdetails
The student can view detailed information about each paper he is appearing for.
On submission.• • • • • • •
Student id Paper id Subject Total number of questions Questions answered correctly Percentage obtained Test date
5-Temp This table consists of the status of the answered questions before submission by the student. the data from this table gets transferred into the result table
6-Thread When the student takes part in the discussion he/she enters the information regarding the • • • • Date of thread posted User id of student posting the thread The thread Thread id
STUDENT’S DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTIONALITY
• TAKE TEST
On registration each student is provided with a unique id. Any student wishing to appear in the online tests can register himself with the system. The student does not have to wait and the complete evaluation is done then and there. This instant evaluation scheme also reflects that the checking system is impartial and any kind of alteration to any students result is impossible.e. This feature of the online examination system is also very unique and helpful for the students as thing is not possible in manual checking and in some old online systems. The students can appear in any test being conducted only once. it allows the students to view their result as soon as they submit it.The students are the main users of the online examination system. While taking the online test. Also although the students can answer the questions in order i. which can be used by them to take a test or view their account. it is totally their wish to be a part of the system. This authority lies with the other level of users. The student has limited rights and can only take the currently activated test. each student can view the timer on his screen which assists him in time management and helps him divide the total duration of the test according to his will usefully. the final answer only should be submitted.
VIEW RESULT The most significant feature of this system is that upon giving the examination .
. Each student can view only his account which ensures that no unauthorized access occurs and that all information of the respective student is kept confidential. All students’ score according to the questions they have answered correctly and no student can doubt the checking of the papers. It is the students who take the tests of their respective subjects. hence. Hence the timer in the system is important and very advantageous to the students while giving the examination. The students don’t need the administrator’s permission to get registered. All student registered are allowed to appear in any test being conducted. in the order of their choice but answers once submitted cannot be altered. The student has to follow the sequence of activation of tests to take a test and has no authority to activate or request for activation of a test.
In that case the administrator can simply perform the updations.As the result of the examination is shown at the time of completion. The students can modify their accounts from time to time to keep the system databases updated with their personal information.
. hence the teacher’s profile is completely safeguarded. Up-dation is necessary as some details can change from time to time like for example the students address or his contact details or like wise. preventing it from being hacked by students or any concerned entity that might benefit from it or simply do it to annoy the teacher concerned. or answers to some important questions. Its need might arise from time to time to safeguard the privacy of the students’ s account. a student can see how he has performed and what percentage of the total questions he answered is correct. The second choice is an interesting one. Updated information of the students not only helps the system keep a track of all its students but also the students themselves as then they can always be contacted or sent details if there is a need to do so. Updating a profile can be done by the account holder or the administrator. Profile of a student has all his personal details.that of updating his personal details such as address and phone number or editing his password. The administrator has been given this right in case the teacher forgets his password and is unable to access his account. A student can update only his profile.
UPDATE PROFILE The students have limited access and can only view their own account. this option might be considered by a teacher who has some confusions regarding updating his profile. such as the syllabus. It can not be performed by any other user. events occurring in the college and so on. The teacher is provided with two choices .
• DISCUSSION The student are provided with a facility to discuss various issues regarding the exam. Also. This helps him in self-assessment and in seeing how good his preparation was or that particular subject. anytime at his will.
The system has been created so that the students can take online tests. As examinations can only be conducted when students are present hence working of the system is impossible without the presence of the students.4 DATABASE
Database comprises of the following tables:
. hence more number of students involved with the system more is the usefulness of the system. It is very clear that the student forms an integral part of the system even though the student has limited rights. The papers created are useless until the student gives the examination. Therefore the significance of the student is clear and their importance cannot be doubted.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDENT
Although the students are like a guest user in the system but they have a very important role to play. student or teacher can post a thread regarding the discussion topic any time they want. It is mainly they who form the input of the system.The administrator.
Member The table contains information about the personal profiles of the users. It contains the following fields:
FIELD NAME ID ADD CITY STATE PHNO NAME FNAME ROLL
DATATYPE VARCHAR(15) VARCHAR(30) VARCHAR(10) VARCHAR(15) NUMBER VARCHAR(30) VARCHAR(30) NUMBER
The table contains paperid of the activated paper. It contains the following fields:
FIELD NAME PAPERID
Paper The table contains all the papers created by the teachers. It contains the following fields:
It contains the following fields: FIELD NAME ID PASSWORD USERTYPE DATATYPE VARHAR(15) VARCHAR(10) NUMBER
Pdetails The table contains information about all the papers created by the teachers.PAPERID QNO QUES OPT1 OPT2 OPT3 OPT4 ANS
NUMBER NUMBER VARCHAR(150) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(10)
Pass The table contains passwords of all the user along with their user types. It contains the following fields:
All the data entered in the table is deleted as soon as the test is completed.PAPERID SUBJECT QTOTAL TIME CREATEDBY
NUMBER VARCHAR(10) NUMBER NUMBER VARCHAR(30)
Result The table contains the results of the users. It contains the following fields: FIELD NAME ID PAPERID SUBJECT QTOTAL CORRECTANS PERCENTAGE TESTDATE DATATYPE VARCHAR(15) NUMBER VARCHAR(10) NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER VARCHAR(10)
Temp The table contains the answers submitted by the student while he is giving the test. It contains the following fields:
FIELD NAME PAPERID
FIELDNAME THREADID USERID DATE THREAD DATATYPE NUMBER VARCHAR(15) VARCHAR(10) VARCHAR(200)
Chapter 10 OUTPUT SCREENSHOTS
.QNO QUES OPT1 OPT2 OPT3 OPT4 ANS
NUMBER VARCHAR(150) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) NUMBER
Thread The table stores the information regarding the threads posted in the discussion forum.
Fig 10. 4
Fig 10.7 79
Fig 10.fig 10.
However. as defects are discovered at any one stage. and then user testing. the sequence of testing activities is component testing.Chapter11 SYSTEM TESTING
Here the System testing involved is the most widely used testing process consisting of five stages as shown in the figure.1
. integration testing. they require program modifications to correct them and this may require other stages in the testing process to be repeated. In general.
Unit testing Module testing Subsystem testing
Acceptanc e testing
(Component testing) FIG 11.
we can say. systematically and with minimum effort and time. Testing performs a very critical role for quality assurance and for ensuring the reliability of the software. A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error.2 TESTING OBJECTIVES:
The main objective of testing is to uncover a host of errors.
. The results of testing are used later on during maintenance also.
11. if it exists. PSYCHOLOGY OF TESTING
The aim of testing is often to demonstrate that a program works by showing that it has no errors. The software more or less confirms to the quality and reliable standards. A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding error. The basic purpose of testing phase is to detect the errors that may be present in the program. but the intent should be to show that a program doesn’t work. Hence one should not start testing with the intent of showing that a program works.
Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors. Stating formally. The tests are inadequate to detect possibly present errors. 11.Testing is the process of detecting errors.1.
The basic levels of testing are
Code FIG 11. In this project each service can be thought of a module. the module works without any error.3 LEVELS OF TESTING In order to uncover the errors present in different phases.11. HR Department. When developing the module as well as finishing the development. testing is done to uncover errors within the boundary of the module. Using the detailed design and the process specifications. There are so many modules like Login. Interviewer Section. All modules must be successful in the unit test before the start of the integration testing begins. The inputs are validated when accepting them from the user.4 UNIT TESTING
Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software i. we have the concept of levels of testing.e. the module.2 11. Each module has been tested by giving different sets of inputs.
In this project the main system is formed by integrating all the modules. 11.7 ACCEPTANCE TESTING
Acceptance Testing is performed with realistic data of the client to demonstrate that the software is working satisfactorily. and the goal is to see if software meets its requirements. This testing activity can be considered as testing the design and hence the emphasis on testing module interactions. The goal here is to see if modules can be integrated properly.
.6 SYSTEM TESTING
Here the entire software system is tested. the internal logic of program is not emphasized. the emphasis being on testing interfaces between modules.
11. we have to perform integration testing.11.5 INTEGRATION TESTING
After unit testing. The reference document for this process is the requirements document. Testing here is focused on external behavior of the system. Here entire ‘HRRP’ has been tested against requirements of project and it is checked whether all requirements of project have been satisfied or not. When integrating all the modules I have checked whether the integration effects working of any of the services by giving different combinations of inputs with which the two services run perfectly before Integration.
I tested step wise every piece of code. Here the module will be treated as a block that will take some input
11. The testing phase is an important part of software development.Test cases should be selected so that the largest number of attributes of an equivalence class is exercised at once. sample data. Condition and data flow testing further exercising degrees of complexity.
11. The white box testing is also called Glass Box Testing. Test cases are derived to ensure that all statement in the program control structure. which is used to check all possible combinations of execution paths through the code at every module level.9 BLACK BOX TESTING This testing method considers a module as a single unit and checks the unit at interface and communication with other modules rather getting into details at statement level. Test cases are derived to ensure that all statement in the program has been executed at least once during testing and that all logical conditions have been exercised. It is the process of finding errors and missing operations and also a complete verification to determine whether the objectives are met and the user requirements are satisfied. taking care that every statement in the code is executed at least once. Test cases are derived to ensure that all statement in the program control structure. Basis path testing.8 WHITE BOX TESTING This is a unit testing method. White-box test focuses on the program control structure. makes use of program graphs (or graph matrices) to derive the set of linearly independent test that will ensure coverage. where a unit will be taken at a time and tested thoroughly at a statement level to find the maximum possible errors. I have generated a list of test cases. a white box technique.
Output for a given set of input combinations are forwarded to other modules.
Graph based testing methods explore the relationship between and behavior of program objects.and generate output.
. A black-box test examines some fundamental aspect of a system with little or no regard for the integral logical structure of the software. Equivalence partitioning divides the input classes of data are likely to exercise specific software function. Black-box testing techniques focus on the information domain of the software. and that the integrity of external information are maintained. The black-box test is used to demonstrate that software functions are operational. Black-box test are designed to uncover errors functional requirement without regard to the internal workings of a program. that input is properly produced. Boundary values analysis probes the program’s ability to handle data at the limits of acceptability. deriving test cases by partitioning the input and output domain of a program in manner that provides through test coverage.
Physical security:Damage due to natural causes like earth tremor. with little or no security. flooding. For overcoming these difficulties the replica of the data are automatically stored at various networks and for environmental conditions Air conditioning environment is created. especially if ones’ network is part of the Intranet.Chapter 12 SYSTEM SECURITY
12. water logging.
. fire hazards. outsider can not access it. atmospheric or environmental conditions etc.1 Introduction
One might think that there is a little reason to be concerned about security in an intranet. by definition an intranet is internal to ones’ organization. After all. then. implementing some simple. Intranet security is. There are strong arguments for the position that an intranet should be completely open to its users. one can give access to some Web Pages to some people without them available to oner entire customer base. On the other hand. with both opportunities and dangers. built-in security measures in ones’ intranet can allow one to provide resources one might not have considered possible in such context. One might not have considered ones’ intranet on any other light. For example. a multifaceted issue. with several kinds of authentication.
12.2 There are basically two types of security associated with this system:
Data not being available to the authorized person at the time of need. ii) Authentication:System checks the password under the particular user identification. iii) Authorization:The access control mechanism to prevent unauthorized logging to the system. To overcome these difficulties the following access facilities has been provided: i) Identification:Unique Ids for the different users have been provided.
. Data becoming available to the unauthorized person.2. Data security: There are basically two problems associated with data security:a). b).
or it may be a major modification to an existing system. but improper will prevent it. system developers stop using the old system one day and start using the new one the next. Implementation is the process of having systems personnel check out and put new equipment into use. In either case. Sometimes. proper implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet organizational requirements. Successful implementation may not guarantee improvement in the organization using the new system (that is a design question). The new system may be totally new replacing an existing manual or automated system.
13.Chapter 13 IMPLEMENTATION AND MAINTENANCE
13.1 Introduction to Implementation System implementation is the stage when the user has thoroughly tested the system and approves all the features provided by the system. they will run both old and new system in parallel way to com-pare the results.2 Introduction to Maintenance Maintenance or enhancement can be classified as: Corrective Adaptive Perfective
. The various tests are performed and the system is approved only after all the requirements are met and the user is satisfied. train users. In still other situations. install the new application and construct any files of data needed to use it.
Adaptive maintenance means changing the program function.
.Corrective maintenance means repairing processing or performance failures or making changes because of previously uncorrected problems or false assumptions. Perfective maintenance means enhancing the performance or modifying the program(s) to respond to the user’s additional or changing needs.
1 Scope for Future Work
Since this system has been generated by using Object Oriented programming. Following may be the drawback in this system.2 Limitations
Since. but it can’t be used in a huge organization where number of networks are very large.
14. • system tends to be a bit slow. because the database used in this system is an average one. Also its present features can be enhanced by some simple modification in the codes so as to reuse it in the changing scenario. Though it was planned for this system to be absolutely perfect but everything as such has some limitations. Although it includes every kind of features. there are many chances of reusability of the codes in other environment even in different platforms.Chapter 14 CONCLUSION
14. Also it doesn’t have different kind of access feature for different users.In future some more schemas can be added in the “Online Examination System” hence these schemas are to be included in the software developed. every system has some limitations so our proposed system is also not untouchable in this regard. The interaction with the database. every time they are loaded thus the Thou
gh this system is developed as a multi user system but it is not a real
.But as user requirements and operating environment keep changing further extensions can be made on this. The site is made in all possible way to meet the user requirements using latest version of available software and hardware. • time system. so does the System.
• to be set before hand. • id. •
one paper can be given at a time.• one subject at a time.
. the user can not provide its own paper No
comparison can be done of results of various students and subjects. all the students can give exam of only Ther
e no random question generator in the system so a question paper has The
paper id is generated randomly.
Output: User gets logged in. Test Case 4: User: Student and Teacher Precondition: Input: Select sign up. Test Case 2: User: Any User Precondition: • User is on sign in page. Output: Test instruction page appear.APPENDIX-A
Test Case 1: User: Any User Precondition: • User is on the sign in page. • User on student page.
. Output: Registration page appear user asked to fill information. Input: Enters correct user name and password on the login page. Input: Enters incorrect user name or password. Test Case 5: User: Student and Teacher Precondition:
96 • User on sign up page. Output: User is asked to enter correct user name and password and try again Test Case 3: User: Student Precondition: Input: Select give test.
User on registration page.
. Output: Error report and ask the user to provide new user id. Test Case 7: User: Any User Precondition: • User is on sign in page. Output: confirmation to de activate paper.
Test Case 6: User: Student and Teacher Precondition: Input: Fill in already user user id . select the id to view the profile. Input: Click on activate paper option. Input: Click on view profile option. Test Case 9: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on administrator page. Test Case 10: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on administrator page. select to activate paper. deactivate paper. Output: confirmation if the details have been updated in database.
• User on registration page. Output: List of user ids whose profile can be viewed.Input: Fill in all the details asked select submit. Test Case 8: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on administrator page. Input: Click on deactivate paper option. Input: Click on message board option. Output: List of paper ids which can be activated. Output: Screen providing all latest events is displayed.
Output: Confirmation of paper being created. Input: Click on update profile option. make changes in password. Input: Click on create paper option.
Test Case 13: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on update page. Input: Click on change password option. click next. select id. make changes .
Test Case 14: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on teacher page.
Output: list of paper id which can be deleted by the teacher. paper id is provided.Test Case 11: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on administrator page.
Test Case 12: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on update page. fill information
Test Case 15: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on create paper page.
Output: list of ids to change password. select to delete
Test Case 17: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on teacher page. Input: Fill information for first question. Input: Click on delete paper option.
Output: list of ids to update.
. Input: Click on change profile option.
Output: screen with option to update profile or change password.
Output: screen with paper information to be filled. select id. repeat till all questions made.
Test Case 16: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on teacher page.
Output: show the result of the papers given by the student.
Test Case 23: User: student Precondition: • User is on student page. Input: Click on download option.
Output: options to view result subject vice or student vice. Input: Click on stuudent option.
Output: list of all the documents which can be downloaded. Input: Click on view result option.
Output: list of all the results of the particular student. 99
Test Case 20: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on result view page.
Output: list of paper id which can be viewed by the teacher.
Test Case 22: User: student Precondition: • User is on student page.Input: Click on view paper option. select full option.
Test Case 21: User: student Precondition: • User is on student page.
Output: options to update profile on change password.
Test Case 18: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on teacher page. Input: Click on subject option. select to view paper.
Test Case 19: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on result view page. Input: Click on update profile option. select full option.
Output: list of all the results of the subject created by teacher. Input: Click on view result option.
In security systems. Firewall: A security system consisting of a combination of hardware and software t hat limits the exposure of a computer or computer network to attack from crackers. Client: A client is an application or system that accesses a remote service on another computer system. Database: A database is a structured collection of records or data. . It has got many advanced features than servlets.e. Encryption: The process of encoding password for security across the Internet. A development environment which is independent of hardware systems and operating systems. The idea is that software developers need only write applications once and these applications can then be run unchanged on any computer or operating system. usually based on a username and password.
Authentication: The process of identifying an individual. known as a server. to develop the web application in more efficient way than Servlets. Enroll: Register formally as a participant or member..Internet: A computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission. J2EE: Java 2 Enterprise Edition. authentication is distinct from authorization . by way of a network. Authentication merely ensures that the individual is who he or she claims to be. Backup: The act of providing battery support when power failure occurs. but says nothing about the access rights of the individual. Bandwidth: The maximum amount of information (bits/second) that can be transmitted along a channel. JSP: JSP termed as Java Server Pages is a technology introduced by Sun Microsystems Inc. which is the process of giving individuals access to system objects based on their identity. Download: Transfer of data from a server or web site to your computer's hard disk. commonly used on local area networks that are connected to the internet. one of them itself define the JSP i. JSP separates the presentation
contact information etc. Thread: These are inputs provided by the user to any discussion. User Interface: The user interface is the aggregate of means by which the users interact with the system. Visibility Plan: The Plan for communication between team members.
. Recovery: The act or process of regaining or repossession of something lost. My SQL: It runs as a database server which provides access to multiple users to the number of databases. Web Browsers: Software used to display the web pages and is used to access websites on the internet. Upload: The transfer of data from a local computer to a server. It is also available for Windows and other operating systems.logic from the business logic and provide the designer and developer of the web application to work independently without any hassle. address. stakeholders and instructor. date of birth. SQL Server: SQL Server (ISSN-1522-2187) is a trade publication and web site owned by Penton Media serving the information needs of IT Professionals in various fields including data processing. Profile: Profile contains all useful information about the user such as name. Weblogic Server: Weblogic server is an application server that accepts the request from client side and give appropriate response to the client. computer related consulting and many other areas. Server: A computer that provides client stations with access to files and printers as shared resources to a computer network.
• J2EE by GARRY CORNELL.com http://www. • SOFTWARE ENGINEERING by IAN SOMMEVILLE.com http://www. • J2EE by Allamaraju & Buest (Apress Publications).REFERENCES
.serverside.coreservlets.com http://www. • JSP & Servlets by Marty Hall (SUN Microsystems) • SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by ELIAS M AWAD.
• GNIX INFO SOFT MATERIALS