1.1 Technical meaning of project Starting the project we should fully know about the meaning of project. There are seven letters in the word “PROJECT” each character has its own technical meaning. Planning :-This deal with the idea at thinking and which are required for the project. Resource :-The money problem will be solved and resources from which collected. Operating :- The procedure from which the getting job is prepared in a systematic way is known as operation. Joint effort :- This is directly proper to a operation output is made of several person working sincerely is known as JOINT EFFORT. Engineering: - A well-educated engineer can do this work in a better way to find out better result. Hence the project is as engineering function. Co-operation:- To make the project successfully, it is necessary for its success and completion of project. Technique: - It must as it gives a better shape. It is not possible to complete the project without technique.

The project is a system that gives the systematic way of planning and working.


1.2 Purpose

The main goal is to get rid of the immense and inefficient manual work involved in conducting an examination. It does so by utilizing the vast capabilities offered by the present digital computing era. Also, the system gives easy access to the data as per their convenience to each of its members.

1.3 Scope

Scope of this project is very broad in terms of other manually taking exams. Few of them are:• This can be used in educational institutions as well as in corporate world.
• •

Can be used for online entrance examinations. Can be used for various certification exams with some modifications.

1.4 Features

• Customizable question database for exam questions. • Access anywhere, anytime application. • Exam format intuitive and easy to navigate. • Teachers load questions in the database.

Sample Questions for student.

• Online study material for students to study, they can also download them. • Discussion forum to discuss questions and answers. • Message Board to get information of latest events


1.5 Existing Systems

The whole process of assigning test and evaluating their scores after the test, was done manually till date. Processing the test paper i.e. checking and distributing respective scores used to take time when the software was not installed. Students have to buy study material on there on for preparation. Take tuition for guidance and may miss important topics if he/she is unable to attend classes.

Some of the negative aspects of the existing system are as follows: • Course of action is time consuming. Wherever a need for search arises, the process evolves search through paper records. • Readability of records is constrained. All the records may not be handled or written by the same person. So the format and style of records differ and hence it is difficult to understand.

Paper records are easily damaged in course of time. The life time of paper record is unreliable less that it easily gets spoiled.

• Expenditure is high. Manual system needs added man power. Prone to corruption by unauthorized users. Securing of manual system is not fully guaranteed. Inaccuracy can be expected. Data can get easily scratched. • Study material to all the student not available due to different reasons. • Timely information is not available to all the students. • May not get proper guidance of how to attempt the paper and what is the correct answer to a question.


• The proposed system is very secure as no chances of leakage of question paper as it is dependent on the administrator only.6 Characteristics Of The Proposed System • In comparison to the present system the proposed system will be less time consuming and is more efficient. placement related news etc. • The logs of appeared candidates and their marks are stored and can be backup for future use • Sufficient study material provided online to all the students preparing for the exam. • There are sample paper and questions available for the students to understand the pattern of the paper and prepare accordingly. • The database is password protected and only administrator is allowed to access it therefore user data is safe.1. • Analysis will be very easy in proposed system as it is automated • Result will be very precise and accurate and will be declared in very short span of time because calculation and evaluations are done by the simulator itself. • Message board available to all users to get the latest information regarding various academic activities such as schedule of exam. therefore the user account is safe. The study material could be downloaded by the university students for further references also. • Since the user has its unique user id and password combination. • The pre examination and post examination paper work is greatly reduced thus reducing the usage of paper and thus helping in keeping the planet green. 4 .

Administrators 5 . They will give their examination using this software. Faculty The examinations that the students are going to give will be conducted by this class of user called Faculty. they are to provide online study material also so it is important for the software to satisfy this class of users as well. who would be using it most often. Faculty will use this software to get rid of the work of analyzing the performance of each and every user. So the requirements of the students have to be taken care off. Access all the study material and sample paper.Chapter 2 STAKEHOLDERS OF THE SOFTWARE Students The main stakeholders of the project are the students.

Web maintenance Staff This class of user will make sure that the software is behaving in a proper way. Different Institutions / Organizations Since this software is customized to be used by different Institutions and Organizations. so that their examinations could be conducted as per their needs. In case of any malfunctions. which comprise of database administrators. so these classes of users will be able to upload their database of questions. This would be done by keeping a regular check on the accounts created by users and the activities performed by them. who are responsible for the database security 6 . it is the responsibility of web maintenance staff to rectify it as soon as possible. few modifications for institute authentication may be needed. Presently only a single institution or university can apply this system. but if number of institute want to join to the system. He has to keep track of all the activities being performed by all the users accessing the system. so it is upon this class of users.This class of user will keep on monitoring the usage of the software and will ensure that no one misuses the software features. Database administrators The information which will be stored in the database of the software which comprises of users profile and the questions for the examinations is highly confidential and must not be accessible by any outside authority. Web security staff Since Examinations are very sensitive. All the networking and system shortcoming are to be handled by them . So this class of user which comprises of web security staff will make sure that the software should be completely secure to any outside threat and could be trusted by other group of users easily. as per the security issues are concerned.

technically and behaviorally feasible. If feasibility is not done carefully the project may be a failure as there may be no taker of it in the market as it may not be as useful as it should have been. The procedure is to determine the benefit and saving that are expected from a system and compare them with costs.Chapter 3 FEASIBILITY STUDY Feasibility Study Feasibility Study determines whether the project is economically.1 Economic Feasibility Economic analysis is most frequently used for evaluation of the effectiveness of the system. For a project to be successful it is needed that feasibility study of the project is to be done carefully and taking all the aspects into consideration. 7 . This is an important input to the management the management. 3. decisions is made to design and implement the system. This part of feasibility study gives the top management the economic justification for the new system. More commonly knows as cost/benefit analysis.

the organization is most satisfied by economic feasibility. 3. An estimate should be made of how strong the user is likely to move towards the development of computerized system. inputs are identified.3 Behavioral Feasibility People are inherently resistant to change and computer has been known to facilitate changes. if the organization implements this system. 3. it need not require any additional hardware resources as well as it will be saving lot of time. In the system. Since.2 Technical Feasibility Technical feasibility centers on the existing manual system of the test management process and to what extent it can support the system. Because. It is also one of the important phases of the system development activities. A simple economic analysis that gives the actual comparison of costs and benefits is much more meaningful in such cases. procedures. Therefore. the cost of maintenance can be reduced.4 Operational Feasibility • The system will be used if it is developed well then be resistance for users that undetermined • No major training and new skills are required as it is based on DBMS model. processing speed is very high and the work is reduced in the maintenance point of view management convince that the project is operationally feasible. 8 . These are various levels of users in order to ensure proper authentication and authorization and security of sensitive data of the organization.because very often the top management does not like to get confounded by the various technicalities that bound to be associated with a project of this kind. According to feasibility analysis procedure the technical feasibility of the system is analyzed and the technical requirements such as software facilities. 3. The system offers greater levels of user friendliness combined with greater processing speed.

• User support. Important information such as results. • New product will provide all the benefits of present system with better performance. better management and collection of the data.• It will help in the time saving and fast processing and dispersal of user information and exam paper n result. user profile are made available at the click of a button. • User involvement in the building of present system is sought to keep in mind the user specific requirement and needs. • Improved information. • User will have control over their own information. 9 .

10 . A Project Manager should be appointed to manage the project.1 Initiation Phase The initiation of a system (or project) begins when a business need or opportunity is identified. After the Concept Proposal is approved. the System Concept Development Phase begins. This business need is documented in a Concept Proposal.Chapter 4 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY System Development Life Cycle: PHASES: 4.

4.2 System Concept Development Phase Once a business need is approved, the approaches for accomplishing the concept are reviewed for feasibility and appropriateness. The Systems Boundary Document identifies the scope of the system and requires Senior Official approval and funding before beginning the Planning Phase. 4.3 Planning Phase The concept is further developed to describe how the business will operate once the approved system is implemented, and to assess how the system will impact employee and customer privacy. To ensure the products and /or services provide the required capability on-time and within budget, project resources, activities, schedules, tools, and reviews are defined. Additionally, security certification and accreditation activities begin with the identification of system security requirements and the completion of a high level vulnerability assessment. 4.4 Requirements Analysis Phase Functional user requirements are formally defined and delineate the requirements in terms of data, system performance, security, and maintainability requirements for the system. All requirements are defined to a level of detail sufficient for systems design to proceed. All requirements need to be measurable and testable and relate to the business need or opportunity identified in the Initiation Phase. 4.5 Design Phase The physical characteristics of the system are designed during this phase. The operating environment is established, major subsystems and their inputs and outputs are defined, and processes are allocated to resources. Everything requiring user input or approval must be documented and reviewed by the user. The physical characteristics of the system are specified and a detailed design is prepared. Subsystems identified during design are used to create a detailed structure of the


system. Each subsystem is partitioned into one or more design units or modules. Detailed logic specifications are prepared for each software module. 4.6 Development Phase The detailed specifications produced during the design phase are translated into hardware, communications, and executable software. Software shall be unit tested, integrated, and retested in a systematic manner. Hardware is assembled and tested. 4.7 Integration and Test Phase The various components of the system are integrated and systematically tested. The user tests the system to ensure that the functional requirements, as defined in the functional requirements document, are satisfied by the developed or modified system. Prior to installing and operating the system in a production environment, the system must undergo certification and accreditation activities. 4.8 Implementation Phase The system or system modifications are installed and made operational in a production environment. The phase is initiated after the system has been tested and accepted by the user. This phase continues until the system is operating in production in accordance with the defined user requirements. 4.9 Operations and Maintenance Phase The system operation is ongoing. The system is monitored for continued performance in accordance with user requirements, and needed system modifications are incorporated. The operational system is periodically assessed through In-Process Reviews to determine how the system can be made more efficient and effective. Operations continue as long as the system can be effectively adapted to respond to an organization’s needs. When modifications or changes are identified as necessary, the system may reenter the planning phase.


4.10 Disposition Phase The disposition activities ensure the orderly termination of the system and preserve the vital information about the system so that some or all of the information may be reactivated in the future if necessary. Particular emphasis is given to proper preservation of the data processed by the system, so that the data is effectively migrated to another system or archived in accordance with applicable records management regulations and policies, for potential future access.

Software requirement specification (SRS) is the starting point of the software development activity. Little importance was given to this phase in the early days of software development. The emphasis was first on coding and then shifted to design.

As systems grew more complex, it became evident that the goals of the entire system cannot be easily comprehended. Hence the need for the requirement analysis phase arose. Now, for large software systems, requirements analysis is perhaps the most difficult activity and also the most error prone.


Perl and many others. into formal document (the output of the requirements phase). In situations where the software is to automate a currently manual process.Some of the difficulty is due to the scope of this phase. FORTRAN. most of the needs can be understood by observing the current practice. Thus. James Gosling did not design java for the 14 . It is a platform for distributed computing – a development and run-time environment that contains built-in support for the World Wide Web. Chapter 6 PLATEFORM (Technology/Tool Selection) 6. 6.1 Introduction to Java Java is a high-level. In the beginning these needs are in the minds of various people in the client organization. the output of the phase is a set of formally specified requirements. while the input has none of these properties. third-generation programming language like C. The requirement analyst has to identify the requirements by talking to these people and understanding their needs. The software project is initiated by the client’s needs. the same year the World Wide Web was conceived. Java’s creator. which hopefully are complete and consistent.2 History of Java Java development began at Sun Microsystems in 1991. The SRS is a means of translating the ideas in the minds of the clients (the input).

6. code named Oak and later renamed Java that retains much of the syntax and power of c++. but is simpler and more platformindependent. This effort evolved into a language.3 Java Features Some of the important features of Java are as follows: • Simplicity • Orientation • Platform Independence • Security • High Performance • Multi Threading • Dynamic linking.Internet. His Objective was to create a common development environment for consumer electronic devices which was easily portable from one device to another. 15 . • Garbage Collection.

4 Why Java is Platform Independent? Java is Platform Independent because of Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The JVM can perform this function from within a browser or any other container program or directly on top of the operating system. When a browser invokes the JVM to run a Java program.One of the most important features of Java is platform independence. When the user runs a Java program. possibly verify. Java Virtual Machine (JVM) The client application or operating system must have a java byte-code interpreter to execute byte-code instructions. 6. the JVM does a number of things: 16 . and then execute it. The JVM interprets the byte code into native code and is available on platforms that support Java. it is up to the JVM to load. The interpreter is a part of a larger program called the JVM. which makes it famous and suitable language for World Wide Web.

5 Connectivity using JDBC There are four kinds of drivers available in Jdbc: - • • • • Jdbc-Odbc Bridge Driver Partly Java Driver Native Driver Pure Java Driver Jdbc-Odbc Driver: This provides a bridge between the Jdbc APIs and the Odbc APIs. The bridge translates the standard JDBC calls to corresponding ODBC calls. and sends them to the ODBC data source via ODBC libraries. This is known as the class loader module. This configuration requires every client 17 .• • • It validates the requested byte-code. security of JVM is not violated. 6. program. verifying that they pass various It allocates memory for the incoming java class files and guarantees that the It interprets the byte code instructions found in the class files to execute the formatting and security checks.

Pure Java Driver: This is a platform independent driver as this kind of driver remains on server. As a result this kind of driver is most appropriate on a corporate network where client installations are not a major problem. These are true 100% pure java real JDBC drivers. They are front end for database access servers and connectors. There are no calls out off or into the virtual machine and native code and there is no need for some costly server in the middle. The database will process the request & send the result back through the API. All the mechanism of the client access is coded completely in java. which in turn forwards them back to the Jdbc drivers. the ODBC driver and the native language-level APIs. The requirement for collaborating middle tier server is often cumbersome and very expensive too. The Jdbc driver translates the result to the Jdbc standard & returns them to the Java application. For ex: The proxy driver talks to the middle tier concentrator or access server.that will run the application to have the JDBC-ODBC bridge API. These are really non-drivers. hence this kind of driver has same problem that was with Jdbc-Odbc driver and is mostly used in Intranet. Type 4 drivers are different for different RDBMS and are available for almost all major RDBMS vendors. This kind of driver is provided by third party vendor. Native Driver: 18 . This middle-ware server is able to connect its java clients to many different databases. Partly Java Driver: Jdbc database calls are translated into vendor-specific API calls. The concentrator or access server in turn uses ODBC (or) vendor specific protocol to talk to the actual database.

6 About J2EE Introduction to J2EE: The multi-tier architecture such as COBRA has got its own advantages in terms of scalability. They are invoked through Browser. Servlet / JSP are middle-ware technologies which are used in web based projects because they use:- • • • • HTTP Protocol to handle Request and Response. Client Side Interface: In client side interface we are using:• Servlet / JSP – for Internet Based Application. 6. 19 . Type 4 drivers are different for different RDBMS and are available for almost all major RDBMS vendors. There are no calls out off or into the virtual machine and native code and there is no need for some costly server in the middle. All the mechanism of the client access is coded completely in java. They give output in HTML format. This allows a direct call from client machine to the Database server. performance and reliability.This kind of driver converts JDBC calls into the network protocol used by Database directly. They need Browser Support. These are true 100% pure java real JDBC drivers.

It can provide interactive web pages. In J2EE security is handled almost entirely by platform and its admin. such as thread handling. it first contacts another layer called Middleware. Java Server Pages (JSP) and Enterprise Java Bean (EJB). The developer does not have to worry about writing the security logic. security. What is JAVASCRIPT? JavaScript is a compact. The language is most well known for its use in wesites. J2EE allows you to focus on your business logic program. The business logic is coded in java program.In a multi-tier architecture. Sun Microsystems introduced the J2EE application server and the enterprise Java Bean (EJB) specifications as a venture into the multi-tier component architecture. Instead. which are reusable component that can be accessed client program EJB runs on J2EE server. The presence of a middleware layer allows programmers to concentrate on business logic of application. It returns results to the clients. but not as powerful and deals mainly with 20 . validate from data.It was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape Communications. JavaScript is easier to use than Java. It provides certain specifications that can be used to implement enterprise solutions for certain all types of business requirements. and make your web page clearer. It adds interactive functions to HTML pages. object-based scripting language. which are otherwise static. a client does not interact directly with the server. deploying and executing applications in a distributed environment. and transactions management. The J2EE applications server acts as a platform for implementing various server side technologies Servlets. JavaScript is a lightweight interpreted scripting language. The middleware handles low-lever services. J2EE functions as a middle tier server in three tier architectures. The middleware instantiates the server applications and messages the server object. J2EE is used for developing. J2EE also offers cost effective solution for business solution.

• A JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that script execute without preliminary compilation). similar to Java programs.7 Functions of JavaScript:JavaScript gives you the ability to perform the following functions: • Control document appearance and content • Control the browser • Interact with document content • Interact with the user • Read and write client state with cookies 21 . 6. • JavaScript is a scripting language-a scripting language is a lightweight programming language. JavaScript is maintained as source code embedded into an HTML page. like Netscape and Internet Explorer. it is compiled into byte code(intermediate language). • All major browsers.On the client. On the Server. support JavaScript. Features of JavaScript:• JavaScript was designed to add interactively to HTML pages. • A JavaScript is usually embedded directly in HTML pages.the elements on the Web page.

6. called XML DML.9 Backend SQL SERVER 2005 6. It included native support for managing XML data. XML is converted to an internal binary data type before being stored in the database. XML columns can be associated with XSD schemas. XML data is queried using XQuery. Specialized indexing methods were made available for XML data. In addition.CLR Integration was the main features with this edition where one could write SQL code as Managed Code these are those code which are being executed by CLR(Common Language Runtime). released in October 2005.1 Introduction SQL Server 2005 (codenamed Yukon).• Interact with applets • Manipulate Embedded Images 6. is the successor to SQL Server 2000. it also defines a new extension to XQuery.9.8 Limitations of JavaScript:• JavaScript does not have any graphics capabilities • Client-side JavaScript can not read or write files • JavaScript does not support networking of any kind • JavaScript doesn’t have any multithreading capabilities. in addition to relational data. SQL Server 2005 added some extensions to the T-SQL language to allow embedding XQuery queries in T-SQL. For this purpose. that 22 . XML data being stored is verified against the schema. it defined an xml data type that could be used either as a data type in database columns or as literals in queries.

Replication follows a publisher/subscriber model. For cross instance applications. the changes are sent out by one database server ("publisher") and are received by others ("subscribers").e. While these are not essential for the operation of the database system. Partitions on tables and indexes are supported natively. either in entirety or a subset of the objects present.[2] SQL Server 2005 introduced "MARS" (Multiple Active Results Sets). over TCP/IP and allows the different components to be synchronized together.allows query-based modifications to XML data. it is used to provide an asynchronous programming environment. Permissions and access control have been made more granular and the query processor handles concurrent execution of queries in a more efficient way. SQL Server 2005 has also been enhanced with new indexing algorithms and better error recovery systems. SQL Server 2005 also allows a database server to be exposed over web services using TDS packets encapsulated within SOAP (protocol) requests. SQL Server supports three different types of replication:[34] Transaction replication 23 . T-SQL has been augmented with error handling features (try/catch) and support for recursive queries (Common Table Expressions). When the data is accessed over web services.NET Framework. Service Broker communicates The Service Broker. via exchange of messages. a method of allowing usage of database connections for multiple purposes. or database caches on the client side. These services either run as a part of some SQL Server component or out-of-process as Windows Service and presents their own API to control and interact with them. they provide value added services on top of the core database management system.[1] For relational data. Service Broker Used inside an instance. Data pages are checksummed for better error resiliency. i. and optimistic concurrency support has been added for better performance.9. across replication agents. so scaling out a database onto a cluster is easier. provides a reliable messaging and message queuing platform for SQL Server applications..[3] 6. SQL CLR was introduced with SQL Server 2005 to let it integrate with the . results are returned as XML. which might be other database servers across the network. which runs as a part of the database engine.[33] Replication Services SQL Server Replication Services are used by SQL Server to replicate and synchronize database objects.2 Services SQL Server also includes an assortment of add-on services.

The OLAP engine supports MOLAP. Reports are created as RDL files.Decision trees. installed or with the included Report Builder. time series analysis. CSV.Each transaction made to the publisher database (master database) is synced out to subscribers. ROLAP and HOLAP storage modes for data.[36] Snapshot replication Snapshot replication published a copy of the entire database (the then-snapshot of the data) and replicates out to the subscribers. rowguid needs to be configured on a column if merge replication is configured. and neural networks . RDL files can be rendered in a variety of formats[42] including Excel. 2005. sequence clustering algorithm. synchronization will result in a conflict which has to be resolved . If the same data has been modified differently in both the publisher and the subscriber databases. Analysis Services includes various algorithms .[35] Merge replication Changes made at both the publisher and subscriber databases are tracked.[38] Data mining specific functionality is exposed via the DMX query language. PDF.[40] Reports can be designed using recent versions of Microsoft Visual Studio (Visual Studio. Further changes to the snapshot are not tracked. It is administered via a web interface.for use in data mining. Once created.NET 2003. Transactional replication synchronizes databases in near real time. who update their databases with the transaction.[43] and HTML Web Archive. Notification Services Main article: SQL Server Notification Services 24 . linear and logistic regression analysis.either manually or by using pre-defined policies. Analysis Services supports the XML for Analysis standard as the underlying communication protocol. clustering algorithm. XML. Reporting services features a web services interface to support the development of custom reporting applications. Naive Bayes algorithm. and 2008)[41] with Business Intelligence Development Studio.[37] Analysis Services Main article: SQL Server Analysis Services SQL Server Analysis Services adds OLAP and data mining capabilities for SQL Server databases. and periodically the changes are synchronized bi-directionally between the publisher and the subscribers.[39] Reporting Services Main article: SQL Server Reporting Services SQL Server Reporting Services is a report generation environment for data gathered from SQL Server databases. TIFF (and other image formats). The cube data can be accessed using MDX queries.

It allows SQL queries to be written and executed from the command prompt. transforming data including aggregating.[47] Notification Services was discontinued by Microsoft with the release of SQL Server 2008 in August 2008.3 Tools SQLCMD SQLCMD is a command line application that comes with Microsoft SQL Server. Proximity searches are also supported. or sending e-mails detailing the status of the operation as defined by the user.[48] Full Text Search Service Main article: SQL Server Full Text Search The SQL Server Full Text Search service architecture SQL Server Full Text Search service is a specialized indexing and querying service for unstructured text stored in SQL Server databases.[45][46] with Sql Server 2005.[49][50] 6. These methods include SMTP. and then loading the transformed data onto other sources. It allows for words to be searched for in the text columns. or by writing to a file in the filesystem. Notification Services can use one of three methods to send a message to the subscriber informing about the occurrence of the event. Full Text Search (FTS) allows for inexact matching of the source string. linguistic variants of a word (such as a verb in a different tense) will also be a match for a given word (but with a lower rank than an exact match). when the event occurs.9.a higher rank means a more accurate match. i.[44] Notification Services was bundled as part of the Microsoft SQL Server platform for the first and only time with SQL Server 2005. Integration Services Main article: SQL Server Integration Services SQL Server Integration Services is used to integrate data from different data sources.Originally introduced as a post-release add-on for SQL Server 2000. using SQL Server Full Text Search service can be more efficient.e. duplication and merging data. The full text search index can be created on any column with character based text data. It can also act as a scripting language to create and run a set of 25 . and is no longer an officially supported component of the SQL Server database platform. querying data. While it can be performed with the SQL LIKE operator. SQL Server Notification Services is a mechanism for generating data-driven notifications. A subscriber registers for a specific event or transaction (which is registered on the database server as a trigger). if the words searched for do not occur in the sequence they are specified in the query but are near each other. and exposes the management features of SQL Server. they are also considered a match. SOAP.. i. which are sent to Notification Services subscribers. T-SQL exposes special operators that can be used to access the FTS capabilities. It also allows linguistic matching ("inflectional search").e. It is used for the ETL capabilities for SQL Server for data warehousing needs. Integration Services includes GUI tools to build data extraction workflows integration various functionality such as extracting data from various sources.. indicated by a Rank value which can range from 0 to 1000 .

[54] It can be used to visually observe and analyze query plans and optimize the database performance. managing. SQL Server Management Studio SQL Server Management Studio is a GUI tool included with SQL Server 2005 and later for configuring. and administering all components within Microsoft SQL Server. Its predecessor for earlier versions was OSQL. for which it is known as SQL Server Management Studio Express (SSMSE). or analyze performance. It can be used to write and debug code to be executed by SQL CLR. and are used either for management of databases or to create the database schema during the deployment of a database.SQL statements as a script. which is functionally equivalent and many of the command line parameters are identical.[53] A central feature of SQL Server Management Studio is the Object Explorer. and act upon any of the objects within the server. It includes the query windows which provide a GUI based interface to write and execute queries. It is based on the Microsoft Visual Studio development environment but customizes with the SQL Server services-specific extensions and project types.[56] 6.4 Some high points Easy to Use 26 . Visual Studio Microsoft Visual Studio includes native support for data programming with Microsoft SQL Server. Reporting Services and Integration Services. SQLCMD was introduced with SQL Server 2005 and this continues with SQL Server 2008.sql file.[55] SQL Server Management Studio can also be used to create a new database. among others.[52] SQL Server Management Studio replaces Enterprise Manager as the primary management interface for Microsoft SQL Server since SQL Server 2005. provides intellisense for SQL queries as well. alter any existing database schema by adding or modifying tables and indexes. Cubes and data mining structures (using Analysis Services). Such scripts are stored as a . including tools. controls and projects for reports (using Reporting Services). Queries can be created either visually or using code. A version of SQL Server Management Studio is also available for SQL Server Express Edition. which allows the user to browse. select. view or edit database schemas. The tool includes both script editors and graphical tools that work with objects and features of the server.[21] Business Intelligence Development Studio Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS) is the IDE from Microsoft used for developing data analysis and Business Intelligence solutions utilizing the Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services.9. It also includes a data designer that can be used to graphically create. SSMS 2008 onwards.

Starter database schemas covering a wide-range of scenarios. Use Microsoft Update to automatically receive the latest patches and updates. for easily managing a database. free to redistribute. free to embed. an easy and efficient management tool for SQL Server Express. Fast to download Compact download. Easy to deploy Easily move or copy your SQL Server Express databases to another computer or hosted server using XCopy and ClickOnce deployment.Free to download. Free management tool: SQL Server Management Studio You can download the SQL Server Management Studio Express (separate download below). SQL Server Express includes powerful features such as SQL Server Management Studio Express. Easy to Learn Get started fast Starter Kits provide fully functional sample applications designed to help you learn. With SQL Server Management Studio you enjoy a consistent management experience across all SQL Server 2005 Editions. Seamless integration with Visual Studio Express Editions Seamlessly integrated data experience for building Windows applications and Web sites. Simplified administration Automatically tune your database for optimal performance. Get up and running in as little as 20 minutes. 27 . and easy for new developers to use immediately. enabling a high level of security and the latest features.

authentication. snapshot. Get data in and out of other systems quickly with Integration Services. use the Common Language Runtime (CLR) to write stored procedures and other database code in languages such as C#. or managed C++.Get help fast Take advantage of rich documentation. functions. including samples and walkthroughs. Learning Express means you’re learning SQL Server Learn skills that are entirely transferable to all other editions of SQL Server 2005. Utilize native XML capabilities to help seamlessly connect internal and external systems. user-defined types. Create databases up to 4 GB in size. Use full text search for powerful query capability over textual data. Visual Basic. and userdefined aggregates from directly within the Visual Studio development environment. Access a vast community of experts via the online SQL Server Forums or Visual Studio Express Edition Forums. and authorization capabilities. Take comfort in knowing that the full power of SQL Server is available as your needs grow. Tight integration with Visual Studio Create and deploy database code such as stored procedures. Use advanced auditing. Powerful Full compatibility Transfer any database created in SQL Express to other editions of SQL Server 2005. Innovative features typically found in higher-end products In addition to traditional T-SQL. Industry-leading data security Maintain high levels of security by encrypting data directly in the database. 28 . Maintain copies of data at multiple sites with SQL Server Express’ support for merging subscriptions. and transactional publications. Use debugging that is seamless across the application and database.

charts.1 Introduction System design provides the understandings and procedural details necessary for implementing the system recommended in the system study. server-based platform.Reporting Services Simplify report creation. Embed sophisticated tables. management. Emphasis is on the translating the performance requirements into design specifications. Use with both traditional and interactive reports. and graphics into applications. System design goes through two phases of development: 29 . and delivery with the complete. The design phase is a transition from a user-oriented document (System proposal) to a document oriented to the programmers or database personnel. Chapter 7 SYSTEM DESIGN 7.

We just know that the data 30 . The data flow diagram is analogous to a road map. It is a network model of all possibilities with different detail shown on different hierarchical levels..2 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM Data Flow Diagramming is a means of representing a system at any level of detail with a graphic network of symbols showing data flows. Like a road map. file and a working system. This processes of representing different details level is called “leveling” or “partitioning” by some data flow diagram advocates. no time or timing.g. there is no starting point or stop point.1) 2) Logical Design Physical Design A data flow diagram shows the logical flow of the system. For a system it describes the input (source). software. The logical design also specifies input forms and screen layouts. When analysis prepare the logical system design. output (destination). Design specifications instruct the user about what the system should do. data processes. or steps to get somewhere. and data sources/destination. they specify the user needs at a level of detail that virtually determines the information flow into an out of the system and the required data resources. The activities following logical design are the procedure followed in the physical design e. database (data stores) and procedures (data flows) all in a format that meets the user’s requirement. data stores. producing programs. 7.

For example. Terms used in DFD • Process A process transforms data values. A road map shows all existing or planned roads because the road is needed. frequency. An entire data flow graphics high level process. Details that is not shown on the different levels of the data flow diagram such as volumes. Data Flow Diagram (DFD) uses a number of symbols to represent the systems. is shown on supplementary diagrams or in the data dictionary. Data Flow Diagram also known as ‘Bubble Chart’ is used to clarify system requirements and identifying the major transformations that will become programs in system design. Graphical representation: Graphical Representation: 31 . timing. The lowest level processes are pure functions without side effects.path must exist because at some point it will be needed. etc. data store contents may be shown in the data dictionary. So it is the starting point of the design phase that functionally decomposes the requirements specifications down to the level of details.

• Data store A data store is a passive object with in a data flow diagram that stores data for later access. It is represented by an arrow and labeled with a description of data. Graphical Representation: • External Entity A rectangle represents an external entity such as a librarian . Graphical Representation: 32 .• Data flows A data flow connects the output of an object or process to input of another object or process.a library member. Graphical Representation: • Actors An actor is active object that drives the data flow graph by producing or consuming values. usually its name or type. It represents the intermediate data value within a computation.

• OutPut Symbol This box represented data production during human computer interaction Graphical Representation: 7.1 ADMINISTRATOR Profile Manage Profile Manage Profile Manage View result View Profile Update/register profile FACULT Y Manage Discussion ONLINE STUDENT RESOURCE SYSTEM STUDENT Take test View result View result View profile Update msg board Update/register profile Delete paper Download Discussion Create paper notes Upload notes 33 .3 0 LEVEL DFD FIG 7.




frequency. no time or timing. taking test handling queries. We just know that the data path must exist because at some point it will be needed. The data flow diagram is analogous to a road map. Data Flow Diagramming is a means of representing a system at any level of detail with a graphic network of symbols showing data flows. only then we would be able to design the process that needs to be computerized to build the system. A road map shows all existing or planned roads because the road is needed. and data sources/destination. This processes of representing different details level is called “leveling” or “partitioning” by some data flow diagram advocates. Diamonds are normally used to represent relationships and ovals are used to represent attributes. Boxes are commonly used to represent entities. ER diagrams often use symbols to represent three different types of information. The below E-R Diagram illustrates the relationship between an users and an forum. The E-R Diagram for the system can be simple as well as complex. It is a network model of all possibilities with different detail shown on different hierarchical levels. data processes. timing. Details that is not shown on the different levels of the data flow diagram such as volumes. or steps to get somewhere. data stores.Definition:-An entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a database. is shown on supplementary diagrams or in 37 . Introduction Without understanding the relationship between an users with the system we cannot build the on-line test and forum system. etc. Like a road map. there is no starting point or stop point. It depicts the fundamental relations like recording personnel information. The diagram documents the entities and relationships involved in the user information and on-line test system.

Data Flow Diagram also known as ‘Bubble Chart’ is used to clarify system requirements and identifying the major transformations that will become programs in system design. So it is the starting point of the design phase that functionally decomposes the requirements specifications down to the level of details 38 . Data Flow Diagram (DFD) uses a number of symbols to represent the systems.the data dictionary. data store contents may be shown in the data dictionary. For example.

7 39 .FIG 7.

states that the WBS includes 100% of the work defined by the project scope and captures all deliverables – internal. cost. project.g. The rule applies at all levels within the hierarchy: the sum of the work at the “child” level must equal 100% of the work represented by the “parent” and the WBS should not include any work that falls outside the actual scope of the project. data. interim – in terms of the work to be completed. including project management. The Work Breakdown Structure is a tree structure. a service. decomposition and evaluation of the WBS. is a tool used to define and group a project's discrete work elements (or tasks) in a way that helps organize and define the total work scope of the project A work breakdown structure element may be a product. 40 . which shows a subdivision of effort required to achieve an objective. and responsibility (e. that is. or any combination. and labor hour reporting can be established. systems. the WBS is developed by starting with the end objective and successively subdividing it into manageable components in terms of size. Additionally the WBS is a dynamic tool and can be revised and updated as needed by the project manager. and work packages) which include all steps necessary to achieve the objective.. The 100% rule One of the most important Work Breakdown Structure design principles is called the 100% Rule.. The work represented by the activities in each work package must add up to 100% of the work necessary to complete the work package. it cannot include more than 100% of the work… It is important to remember that the 100% rule also applies to the activity level. and contract. The 100% rule is one of the most important principles guiding the development. schedule. tasks. subtasks. ] In a project or contract. components. external. A WBS also provides the necessary framework for detailed cost estimating and control along with providing guidance for schedule development and control.6 WORK BREAKDOWN SYSTEM A work breakdown structure (WBS) in project management and systems engineering.. for example a program. subsystems. The Work Breakdown Structure provides a common framework for the natural development of the overall planning and control of a contract and is the basis for dividing work into definable increments from which the statement of work can be developed and technical. duration.7. It has been defined as follows: The 100% Rule.

8 41 .FIG 7.

These include: • Interview • Questionnaires • Record inspection • On-site observation 42 . working closely with the employees and managers. how serious is it? • If a problem exists. (For this reason. what is the underlying cause? • Requirement analysis relies on fact-finding techniques. the process of acquiring this is often termed the detailed investigation) Analyst.Chapter 8 REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS 8. must study the business process to answer these key questions: • What is being done? • How is it being done? • How frequent does it occur? • How great is the volume of transaction or decisions? • How well is the task being performed? • Does a problem exist? • If a problem exist.1 Introduction • At the heart of system analysis is a detailed understanding of all important facts of business area under investigation.

43 . • Web Server: BEA’s WebLogic 8. The system requires WebLogic Application Server for serving the requests for Servlet.0 or Netscape Navigator 4.2 Software and Hardware Tools Development Environment: • Operating System: Windows XP The system will be built on windows compatible environment.0 The system will be developed with Java Technologies using J2SE (JDK and JRE). • Dream Weaver 8. Dream Weaver 8. Server side Application Software: Java Server Pages (JSP) Client Side Application Software: Java Script.0/ Front Page 2003 as HTML editor. however the system will be ODBC complaint to work on any standard database. HTML • • • Data Base: SQL Server 2005 The system requires Oracle as a database.8. • Client Browsers: Internet Explorer 5. The system requires Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator browser for client side.1 Application Server to serve as Servlet/JSP engine.7 or higher. The application will be web based developed using Java technology.

8. Apart from the mentioned users.1 512 MB 1GB Chapter 9 MODULE DESCRIPTION To understand the functionality of “ONLINE STUDENT RESORCE SYSTEM”. The brief 44 .1 PENTIUM II PROCESSOR AT 500 MHERTZ PENTIUM III AT 1GB GHERTZ PENTIUM III AT 1GB GHERTZ SQL SERVER 2005 FIG 8.3 Hardware & Software Requirements PROCESSOR CLIENT SIDE SERVER SIDE FIG 8. Teacher and Student. the system can be broadly classified into several modules based on the user types being Administrator. database of the system provides a backbone for proper functioning of the system.1 RAM 64 MB RAM 512 MB DISK SPACE 512 MB DISK SPACE 512 MB INTERNET EXPLORER 6.0 OR WEBLOGIC HIGER 8.

Student can appear for a test only once. Having to create an objective paper. Student access rights are limited to giving the activated test only. Database consists of the following tables: • Pass 45 . the teacher has to insert the questions. Teacher The teacher is entrusted with the responsibility of creating test papers each having a unique id. it co-ordinates the whole system.description is provided here and and modules will be discussed in greater detail in later chapters. In short. Student Student is the user type with least set of privileges only concerned with giving the test paper and viewing his own result. Database Database forms the back-bone for proper functioning of the system. Administrator This is the most privileged user among the three. choices and correct answers at the time of paper creation itself. It is the only user who can create his login account without the administrator or teacher’s permission. His right of access is limited to only the papers created by him. It has access to every record in the system. He doesn’t have access to any record apart from his own result. There can be only one administrator in the system. Teachers have to request the administrator to activate/deactivate any paper. It is the only user having the privilege of creating and deleting a teacher’s account.

1 ADMINISTRATOR The administrator is the controller of the system. 46 . 9.• Member • Paper • Pdetails • Paperact • Temp • Result • Thread Details and purpose of the tables will be discussed in later chapters. He is entrusted with the responsibility of correct and efficient functioning of the system.

modify and delete any user type. Functionality The Adminstrator has the following functionality: • Profile management The administrator manages all the profiles. • He is the sole user having access to complete database of the system. • It is his responsibility to maintain and carry out discussion threads in discussion forum .Privileges • The administrator is the backbone of the system. • He activates/deactivates the papers at the specific centers. as per requirement. • All profiles in the system can be viewed and managed by the administrator. • He can delete and modify any profile. • Administrator has the authority to upload any information on the message board. • He is the only user capable of registering teachers into the system. He can create. 47 . responsible for maintaining the consistency of the system. It is his sole decision to allow or deny a teacher to become a member.

• View Paper He can view all papers irrespective of the teacher who created it. • Deactivate Paper The administrator deactivates the activated paper to activate a new paper. • Discussion The administrator can take part and manage discussion. Administrator’s interaction with database The administrator interacts with the following tables 1-Member 48 . • View result He can view results of all the student. • Activate Paper Administrator is responsible for activation of paper to be conducted.

The administrator has access to each member’s profile. He may make changes to his password which is subsequently updated in this table.Paper The administrator accesses this table to obtain any of these information: • • • • The unique paper id allotted to each paper Questions and their numbering Options to each question The correct answer to each question 4. The authenticity of the Administrator is verified by this table. He can view the personal details of the members through this table. The table has the following details: • • • • • The paper id Subject of the paper Total number of questions in each paper Duration of each paper The id of the creator of the paper 49 .Pdetails The administrator can view detailed information about each paper from this table.Pass The administrator has to first validate his identity in order to gain access to the system. He has following rights on the user profile: • • • • Create Delete Modify View 2. 3.

Paperact The administrator interacts with this table to activate or deactivate any Paper according to teacher requirement. 6. the user id of the person posted the thread is maintained in the table.Result This table maintains the results of all the students. ADMINISTRATOR’S DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTIONALITY • PROFILE MANAGEMENT 50 . It presents information ordered according to the student’s id. of questions Questions answered correctly Test date Percentage obtained 7-Thread The administrator with this table maintains the thread of the discussion forum. It contains the following information that the administrator might be interested in: • • • • • • • Student id paper id Subject Total no.5. The date on which the thread was posted.

This feature assists the administrator to appoint subject teachers required in the system. The administrators can at any time make modifications to every user’s profile be it he. It informs him of the total number of the teachers of the various subjects and students who might be appearing in one or more papers. This improves the overall staffing quality of the system. It is the administrator’s choice which level users he wishes to view. the whole profile having complete personal details of the selected user is displayed. Also if a student or a teacher wishes to unregister from the system. Since the administrator has a broader view of the system in comparison to other users it helps him keep track of the up-dations and ensure that no conflicts occur. This way he can ensure that only appropriate and well-qualified teachers get registered into the system. The viewing of the list is sorted according to the different user levels in the system. The centralized administration helps ensure unambiguous co-ordination and prevent confusion. 51 . The administrator can at any time view the list of all the registered members in the system. It also keeps the knowledge of the administrator regarding the members of the system updated. Administrator also has the right to drop any teacher or student he might feel appropriate to remove from the system. He is the central authority to register a teacher into the system. This is done to ensure that the data is up to date and consistent. From time to time it is the responsibility of the administrator to update the personal details of each user part of the system as and when changes occur. Apart from having the privilege to update and modify his own profile. this may be done to ensure that the updates made by the administrator are being reflected and no discrepancy is present.The administrator is the supreme user of the system. Once selected. the teachers or the students. the administrator can do the same to that of the students and the teachers registered with the system. he needs to request the administrator to do the same.

VIEW PAPER The administrator has the authority to view all the papers created and submitted by any teacher in the system. It is only the administrator who can do so others can only view their own accounts . Hence the administrator can view the results according to his needs and desire. The paper may be viewed as sorted by their unique id. The results of the students can be viewed in two ways. the creating teacher’s id. VIEW RESULT The administrator has the authority to view any student’s result registered with the system. This gives him the power to ensure that only a registered teacher has created the paper and that he satisfies all the constraints needed to be fulfilled in creating a paper.He can evaluate each student’s performance through this. This feature enables the administrator to crosscheck the answers specified by the teachers and also the difficulty level of the paper to assess the overall performance of the teacher as well as the maintenance of the standard of the paper. their multiple choices and the correct answers to each question are displayed to the the administrator. Also the duration for the paper is visible to the administrator. which helps him in keeping track of him each student is performing individually and how each is performing in a specific subject. either according to the subject or for each student. ACTIVATE PAPER 52 . the profile management is an essential feature of the administrator’s functionality since it ensures security and quality of the system.Hence. the questions. the subject. Once the id is selected by the administrator.

hence in order to activate any other paper the administrator has to deactivate the currently activated paper. • DISCUSSION The student are provided with a facility to discuss various issues regarding the exam. Once the paper is activated all registered students can take the test for that subject. Upon creation the teachers have to request the administrator to activate the paper so that the examination can be conducted. The administrator only has the privilege to deactivate a paper. The students cannot take the test of a deactivated paper. The administrator. The administrator can deactivate a paper either when the examination has been conducted or if any teacher has requested him to activate another paper. But deactivation is necessary to ensure authorized access and also confidentiality of the questions in a paper and their answers. One paper can be activated at a time at a center. or answers to some important questions. such as the syllabus.The administrator upon finding the request genuine. does so. student or teacher can post a thread regarding the discussion topic any time they want.Only and only the administrator has the right to activate a paper. for taking the test activation of the paper is necessary. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR The administrator undoubtedly is the most important and integral part of the online examination system. DEACTIVATE PAPER A single paper only can be activated at a time. The centralized authority of the administrator gives him 53 . events occurring in the college and so on. hence before conducting the examination the respective teacher has to ask the administrator to activate the paper .

rights that no teacher or student has . the administrator solely selects each and every participant of the system which makes him even more important. Hence . 54 . which is the main purpose of the system. Hence no examination can be conducted without the permission of the administrator.2 TEACHER The teacher is the one who benefits the most from this system. Not only does the administrator have access to the complete database but also all the authority to allow or deny any type of user. Although it is the teachers who create the papers but any paper cannot be activated until the administrator activates it. the administrator can also modify any teachers account which helps him ensure that only appropriate teachers are a part of the system. He is a very integral part of the system since he creates and conducts the exam. being it a teacher or a student to be a part of the system. 9. The significance of the administrator cannot be doubted as all his rights make him the backbone of the system coordinating the whole system. The administrator can view and modify the account of all the users he has chosen. this way he monitors each and every teacher and student who is a part of the system. This right of the administrator makes him very significant in the process of conducting any examination. Registration of any teacher can only be done by the administrator as the teachers are also an important part of the system this right of the administrator makes him powerful.making him the most powerful user of the system. Monitoring of all user level keeps the system safe and prevents any unauthorized access as well as no inappropriate modifications can be done by any user to his account.

• He has the complete authority to decide upon the number of questions and the duration of the paper. • Can participate in discussion • Provide sample questions and notes for reference. 55 . • Participate in discussion. • Any subject paper can be activated/deactivated only on the request of the teacher who has created it. • Every teacher. part of the system. • Confidentiality and privacy of the teacher’s work is maintained by not allowing any other teacher to access it. has the right to create a unique paper of his of own subject. for which the system automatically generates a unique id. Functionality The teacher has the following functionality: • Create paper The teachers registered with the administrator can create the paper for their subject. • The teacher has access to every student’s result for any paper.Privileges • Only registered teachers can create paper and this is ensured by allotting each teacher a unique id and password.

• Discussion The teachers are allowed to take part in discussion Teacher’s interaction with database The teacher interacts with the following tables : 56 . • View paper Paper once created can be viewed by its creating teacher anytime. • View result The teacher can view the result of all the students whenever he wants according to the subject or student or both as per his wish.• Delete paper The teacher can delete paper created by him whenever he wishes to do so. • Update profile The teacher can update his details from time to time in order to keep the system informed about the latest change in his address or likewise.

The table has the following details: • • • • • The paper id Subject of the paper Total number of questions in each paper Duration of each paper His id.1-Member The teacher has access to his own profile. The correct answer to each question as specified by him.Paper The teacher accesses this table to obtain any of these information: • • • • The unique paper id allotted to each paper created by him. Options added by him to each question.Pass The teacher has to first validate his identity in order to gain access to the system. The authenticity of the teacher is verified by this table.Pdetails The teacher can view detailed information about each paper created by him from this table. Questions and their numbering in his paper. 4. He may make changes to his password which is subsequently updated in this table. 57 . 3. where he can do the following: • • • • Create Delete Modify View 2.

58 .Result This table maintains the results of all the students .It presents information ordered according to the student’s id .It contains the following information that the teacher might wish to view: • • • • • • • Student id Paper id Subject Total no.5. This paper is allotted an automatically generated unique id by which it is distinguished from others and is accessed through. of questions Questions answered correctly Percentage obtained Test date 6-Thread When the student takes part in the discussion he/she enters the information regarding the • • • • Date of thread posted User id of student posting the thread The thread Thread id TEACHER’S FUNCTIONALITY DESCRIPTION • CREATE PAPER The teacher is entrusted with the responsibility of creating a paper of his subject.

the final authority. the paper cannot be modified. Once this whole process is complete. Thus. once a paper is created.Creation of paper can be carried out only by a teacher registered with the administrator. as they would appear in the final test before the student. A unique id is generated and displayed. it is at any time viewable by the administrator. the teacher has to enter the subject name. Further he is required to insert all the questions. the number of questions and the total duration of the paper test being created by him. The provision that a teacher can access papers created by him only is to ensure repudiation in case of leakage as well as secrecy. This is to be fair to the teacher creating a paper so that he is always aware of what is happening with the test paper he generated. the teacher is free to create the paper of his subject at will. in a way is the teacher who has created it. Once the teacher submits the questions. It might also be carried out incase the teacher has spotted error(s) in the paper. for any case. However. This is done to ensure privacy of any individual teacher’s work. While creating the paper. the teacher has the option to delete the paper created by him. It might be while creating the paper or even after completion and submission of the paper. 59 . This situation might arise in case of disapproval from the administrator.e the multiple choice and the correct answer. view the paper generated by him. The unique paper id helps avoid confusion and also identify papers individually. Access is granted only to the administrator and the teacher who created it. Once the administrator is done with registering a teacher and a unique id has been allotted to him. • DELETE PAPER At any point of time. it can only be viewed. Further. leakage or if the paper has already been conducted and evaluated and there is no further need of it. regarding a paper. the teacher can at will. Deletion of the paper can be done only by the teacher who has created it. This way the teacher has to fill in detailed entries for each question one by one and submit them only on being confident of accuracy. its four options i.

the teacher gets to see the detailed information about the paper requested for. Viewing of the paper is helpful in checking for errors be it logical or syntactic. solely for coordination and supervisory purposes.A teacher wishing to delete a paper can do so by selecting the id of the paper from the list containing id(s) of all the papers having been created by him. the duration of the paper. finding which the paper can be deleted and re-created. The teacher can view the paper after specifying the paper id that is uniquely allocated to every paper. The details displayed include all the information that was entered by the teacher at the time of the creation of the paper viz. Updation is carried out in order to keep the system aware of the latest changes that might have taken place in the teacher’s address or likewise information. the subject name. This is important in case a teacher needs to be communicated to in certain situations. On specifying the id. Also. the total no. the paper is deleted from the system records. the questions. This is the special privilege which is not granted to any other teacher so as to preserve the teacher’s work privacy and authenticity. only the teacher who has created the paper can view it. • UPDATE PROFILE Similar to any user in the system. Once a paper is deleted. The administrator. • VIEW PAPER The teacher has the authority to view his paper whenever and wherever he wishes to. their choices and the correct answer to them. of questions. On receiving the confirmation of this action from the teacher. alongside the teacher has the privilege to view a paper even if he is not the creator. 60 . the teacher too has the right to update his profile. its id might be allotted to another paper by the system.

This privilege is safe in the terms that viewing result of a student for the subject not created by the teacher himself. The administrator has been given this right in case the teacher forgets his password and is unable to access his account. preventing it from being hacked by students or any concerned entity that might benefit from it or simply do it to annoy the teacher concerned. It can not be performed by any other user. Its need might arise from time to time to safeguard the privacy of the teacher’s account. It would only add to the knowledge of the teacher viewing it. 61 . can in no way possibly affect anyone adversely. a new password and reconfirm it so as to avoid any typing errors. Updating a profile can be done by the account holder or the administrator. The teacher is provided with two choices. has the privilege to view any student’s any subject’s result. This field requires the teacher to enter the old password( for authentication that the correct user is changing the password and not a user who might have found the account open where a teacher might have forgotten to log out). Also. He can evaluate each student’s performance through this. similar to the administrator. The results of the students can be viewed in two ways. either according to the subject or for each student. anytime at his will.A teacher can update only his profile. Hence the teacher can view the results according to his needs and desire. The teacher has the authority to view any student’s result registered with the system. In that case the administrator can simply perform the updations. which helps him in keeping track of him each student is performing individually and how each is performing in a specific subject. this option might be considered by a teacher who has some confusions regarding updating his profile. • VIEW RESULT The teacher.that of updating his personal details such as address and phone number or editing his password. hence the teacher’s profile is completely safeguarded. The second choice is an interesting one.

Therefore we can say the the correct functioning of the system to a certain extent lies on the shoulders of the teachers. Only and only the teacher has the right to delete a paper he created once used. student or teacher can post a thread regarding the discussion topic any time they want. The teacher along with submitting the questions also submits the correct answer therefore each teacher individually is responsible in making system accurate and reliable. or answers to some important questions. events occurring in the college and so on. The administrator. 62 . It is the teacher who can view the result of all the student either subject wise or student wise hence the scope lies with the teacher to evaluate the students performance in any subject. This also indirectly enhances the overall performance of the system as memory is usefully and carefully used. SIGNIFICANCE OF TEACHER In any examination the question papar is undoubtly the most important entity and as in the online examination the teacher is responsible for creating and submitting the papers . This benefits the students too.• DISCUSSION The student are provided with a facility to discuss various issues regarding the exam. This ensures that there is no redundancy or misuse of paper. Teachers are important to the system as a teacher is needed for each subject so that standard papers can be created and correct solution is provided. such as the syllabus.his significance cannot be ignored.

Hence we can conclude that the significance of the teacher is great and the functionalities of the teacher are very important to the system and are needed for efficient and effective working of the system. 9.3 STUDENT 63 .

so this level has scope for few privileges which are as under: • Students are the only users who can be a part of the system without the administrator’s permission.The students are an integral part of the system as they are the ones for whom the papers are created and evaluated. • Can participate in discussion and view the message board. Functionality 64 . • The students registered with the system can take the tests. • The students have an option to attempt questions in the order of their choice. • With the presence of the timer. • Can download study material from the system for reference • Take part in discussion. • The students can view their results as soon as the test is over. • Has access to all sample questions and notes posted by the teachers. Privileges Since the students role in the system is limited to appearing in the tests. students are always aware of the amount of time left for them to complete the paper.

• View result The most advantageous aspect of the online system is that the correct result is shown as the student submits the test. • Discussion The student is allowed to take part in discussion Student’s interaction with database 65 . • Update profile The teacher can update his details from time to time in order to keep the system informed about the latest change in his address or likewise .The students have the following functionalities: • Take test The students can take the activated tests from the certified centers after having registered themselves with the system.

The result comprises of: 66 . 2. • Questions and their numbering in his paper. 3. • Multiple choices specified for each question.Paper The student accesses this table to obtain any of these information: • The unique id of the paper he is appearing for.The student interacts with the following tables: 1-Pass Each student is has a unique id and password to prevent unauthorized access by anyone else. The table has the following details: • • • • The paper id Subject of the paper Total number of questions in each paper Duration of each paper 4. from this table.The student can view his result as soon as he has completed the test.Result This table maintains the results of all the students . These are stored in this table and is used by the system to identify and authenticate each student.Pdetails The student can view detailed information about each paper he is appearing for.

the data from this table gets transferred into the result table 6-Thread When the student takes part in the discussion he/she enters the information regarding the • • • • Date of thread posted User id of student posting the thread The thread Thread id STUDENT’S DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTIONALITY • TAKE TEST 67 . On submission.• • • • • • • Student id Paper id Subject Total number of questions Questions answered correctly Percentage obtained Test date 5-Temp This table consists of the status of the answered questions before submission by the student.

Also although the students can answer the questions in order i. Each student can view only his account which ensures that no unauthorized access occurs and that all information of the respective student is kept confidential. The student has limited rights and can only take the currently activated test. 68 . VIEW RESULT The most significant feature of this system is that upon giving the examination . it allows the students to view their result as soon as they submit it. the final answer only should be submitted. it is totally their wish to be a part of the system. each student can view the timer on his screen which assists him in time management and helps him divide the total duration of the test according to his will usefully. All students’ score according to the questions they have answered correctly and no student can doubt the checking of the papers. which can be used by them to take a test or view their account. This authority lies with the other level of users. This feature of the online examination system is also very unique and helpful for the students as thing is not possible in manual checking and in some old online systems. in the order of their choice but answers once submitted cannot be altered. hence. While taking the online test. It is the students who take the tests of their respective subjects. The students don’t need the administrator’s permission to get registered. All student registered are allowed to appear in any test being conducted. Hence the timer in the system is important and very advantageous to the students while giving the examination. The students can appear in any test being conducted only once. The student has to follow the sequence of activation of tests to take a test and has no authority to activate or request for activation of a test. The student does not have to wait and the complete evaluation is done then and there. Any student wishing to appear in the online tests can register himself with the system.e. On registration each student is provided with a unique id. This instant evaluation scheme also reflects that the checking system is impartial and any kind of alteration to any students result is impossible.The students are the main users of the online examination system.

In that case the administrator can simply perform the updations. The administrator has been given this right in case the teacher forgets his password and is unable to access his account. UPDATE PROFILE The students have limited access and can only view their own account. a student can see how he has performed and what percentage of the total questions he answered is correct. or answers to some important questions. 69 . Updating a profile can be done by the account holder or the administrator. events occurring in the college and so on. preventing it from being hacked by students or any concerned entity that might benefit from it or simply do it to annoy the teacher concerned. anytime at his will. hence the teacher’s profile is completely safeguarded. Updated information of the students not only helps the system keep a track of all its students but also the students themselves as then they can always be contacted or sent details if there is a need to do so. The students can modify their accounts from time to time to keep the system databases updated with their personal information. this option might be considered by a teacher who has some confusions regarding updating his profile. Also. Its need might arise from time to time to safeguard the privacy of the students’ s account. Up-dation is necessary as some details can change from time to time like for example the students address or his contact details or like wise.As the result of the examination is shown at the time of completion. This helps him in self-assessment and in seeing how good his preparation was or that particular subject. • DISCUSSION The student are provided with a facility to discuss various issues regarding the exam. It can not be performed by any other user. A student can update only his profile. such as the syllabus. The teacher is provided with two choices .that of updating his personal details such as address and phone number or editing his password. The second choice is an interesting one. Profile of a student has all his personal details.

hence more number of students involved with the system more is the usefulness of the system. It is very clear that the student forms an integral part of the system even though the student has limited rights.4 DATABASE Database comprises of the following tables: 70 .The administrator. The system has been created so that the students can take online tests. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDENT Although the students are like a guest user in the system but they have a very important role to play. It is mainly they who form the input of the system. The papers created are useless until the student gives the examination. Therefore the significance of the student is clear and their importance cannot be doubted. student or teacher can post a thread regarding the discussion topic any time they want. As examinations can only be conducted when students are present hence working of the system is impossible without the presence of the students. 9.

It contains the following fields: 71 .• MEMBER • PAPER • PAPERACT • PDETAILS • TEMP • RESULT • PASS • THREAD Member The table contains information about the personal profiles of the users.

It contains the following fields: FIELD NAME PAPERID DATATYPE NUMBER Paper The table contains all the papers created by the teachers. It contains the following fields: FIELD NAME DATA TYPE 72 .FIELD NAME ID ADD CITY STATE PHNO NAME FNAME ROLL DATATYPE VARCHAR(15) VARCHAR(30) VARCHAR(10) VARCHAR(15) NUMBER VARCHAR(30) VARCHAR(30) NUMBER Paperact The table contains paperid of the activated paper.

PAPERID QNO QUES OPT1 OPT2 OPT3 OPT4 ANS NUMBER NUMBER VARCHAR(150) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(10) Pass The table contains passwords of all the user along with their user types. It contains the following fields: FIELDNAME DATATYPE 73 . It contains the following fields: FIELD NAME ID PASSWORD USERTYPE DATATYPE VARHAR(15) VARCHAR(10) NUMBER Pdetails The table contains information about all the papers created by the teachers.

It contains the following fields: FIELD NAME ID PAPERID SUBJECT QTOTAL CORRECTANS PERCENTAGE TESTDATE DATATYPE VARCHAR(15) NUMBER VARCHAR(10) NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER VARCHAR(10) Temp The table contains the answers submitted by the student while he is giving the test. All the data entered in the table is deleted as soon as the test is completed.PAPERID SUBJECT QTOTAL TIME CREATEDBY NUMBER VARCHAR(10) NUMBER NUMBER VARCHAR(30) Result The table contains the results of the users. It contains the following fields: FIELD NAME PAPERID DATATYPE NUMBER 74 .

QNO QUES OPT1 OPT2 OPT3 OPT4 ANS NUMBER VARCHAR(150) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) VARCHAR(100) NUMBER Thread The table stores the information regarding the threads posted in the discussion forum. FIELDNAME THREADID USERID DATE THREAD DATATYPE NUMBER VARCHAR(15) VARCHAR(10) VARCHAR(200) Chapter 10 OUTPUT SCREENSHOTS 75 .

FIG 10.1 76 .

Fig 10.2

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Fig 10.5


fig 10.6

Fig 10.7 79

fig 10.8 Fig 10.9 80 .

10 Fig 10.11 81 .fig 10.

12 Fig 10.fig 10.13 82 .

fig 10.15 83 .14 fig 10.

1 (Integration testing) (User testing) 84 . In general.Chapter11 SYSTEM TESTING Here the System testing involved is the most widely used testing process consisting of five stages as shown in the figure. as defects are discovered at any one stage. and then user testing. they require program modifications to correct them and this may require other stages in the testing process to be repeated. the sequence of testing activities is component testing. integration testing. However. Unit testing Module testing Subsystem testing System testing Acceptanc e testing (Component testing) FIG 11.

A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding error. systematically and with minimum effort and time. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors. The software more or less confirms to the quality and reliable standards. A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error. Hence one should not start testing with the intent of showing that a program works. The basic purpose of testing phase is to detect the errors that may be present in the program. The results of testing are used later on during maintenance also. Testing performs a very critical role for quality assurance and for ensuring the reliability of the software.2 TESTING OBJECTIVES: The main objective of testing is to uncover a host of errors. PSYCHOLOGY OF TESTING The aim of testing is often to demonstrate that a program works by showing that it has no errors.Testing is the process of detecting errors. Stating formally. The tests are inadequate to detect possibly present errors. if it exists. 11. but the intent should be to show that a program doesn’t work. we can say. 11. 85 .1.

In this project each service can be thought of a module. The inputs are validated when accepting them from the user.e. Each module has been tested by giving different sets of inputs. Interviewer Section. the module. 86 . HR Department.2 11. etc. we have the concept of levels of testing. the module works without any error.4 UNIT TESTING Unit Testing Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software i. When developing the module as well as finishing the development. The basic levels of testing are Client Needs Acceptance Testing Requirements System Testing Design Integration Testing Code FIG 11.11. All modules must be successful in the unit test before the start of the integration testing begins. Using the detailed design and the process specifications.3 LEVELS OF TESTING In order to uncover the errors present in different phases. testing is done to uncover errors within the boundary of the module. There are so many modules like Login.

This testing activity can be considered as testing the design and hence the emphasis on testing module interactions. 87 . 11. Testing here is focused on external behavior of the system. and the goal is to see if software meets its requirements. we have to perform integration testing. the internal logic of program is not emphasized. The reference document for this process is the requirements document.5 INTEGRATION TESTING After unit testing. the emphasis being on testing interfaces between modules. The goal here is to see if modules can be integrated properly.7 ACCEPTANCE TESTING Acceptance Testing is performed with realistic data of the client to demonstrate that the software is working satisfactorily. When integrating all the modules I have checked whether the integration effects working of any of the services by giving different combinations of inputs with which the two services run perfectly before Integration. In this project the main system is formed by integrating all the modules.6 SYSTEM TESTING Here the entire software system is tested. 11. Here entire ‘HRRP’ has been tested against requirements of project and it is checked whether all requirements of project have been satisfied or not.11.

where a unit will be taken at a time and tested thoroughly at a statement level to find the maximum possible errors. makes use of program graphs (or graph matrices) to derive the set of linearly independent test that will ensure coverage. a white box technique.9 BLACK BOX TESTING This testing method considers a module as a single unit and checks the unit at interface and communication with other modules rather getting into details at statement level. 11. taking care that every statement in the code is executed at least once. which is used to check all possible combinations of execution paths through the code at every module level. Test cases are derived to ensure that all statement in the program control structure. The white box testing is also called Glass Box Testing. I tested step wise every piece of code.8 WHITE BOX TESTING This is a unit testing method. Basis path testing. Test cases are derived to ensure that all statement in the program control structure. The testing phase is an important part of software development. It is the process of finding errors and missing operations and also a complete verification to determine whether the objectives are met and the user requirements are satisfied.Test cases should be selected so that the largest number of attributes of an equivalence class is exercised at once. sample data. Here the module will be treated as a block that will take some input 88 . White-box test focuses on the program control structure. Condition and data flow testing further exercising degrees of complexity. Test cases are derived to ensure that all statement in the program has been executed at least once during testing and that all logical conditions have been exercised. I have generated a list of test cases. 11.

Equivalence partitioning divides the input classes of data are likely to exercise specific software function. that input is properly produced. A black-box test examines some fundamental aspect of a system with little or no regard for the integral logical structure of the software. Black-box testing techniques focus on the information domain of the software. 89 . Output for a given set of input combinations are forwarded to other modules. The black-box test is used to demonstrate that software functions are operational. and that the integrity of external information are maintained. Graph based testing methods explore the relationship between and behavior of program objects. deriving test cases by partitioning the input and output domain of a program in manner that provides through test coverage. Boundary values analysis probes the program’s ability to handle data at the limits of acceptability.and generate output. Black-box test are designed to uncover errors functional requirement without regard to the internal workings of a program.

implementing some simple. then. Physical security:Damage due to natural causes like earth tremor. with little or no security. For overcoming these difficulties the replica of the data are automatically stored at various networks and for environmental conditions Air conditioning environment is created. 12. one can give access to some Web Pages to some people without them available to oner entire customer base. water logging. with both opportunities and dangers. flooding. with several kinds of authentication. fire hazards. One might not have considered ones’ intranet on any other light. outsider can not access it. especially if ones’ network is part of the Intranet. by definition an intranet is internal to ones’ organization. a multifaceted issue. atmospheric or environmental conditions etc.Chapter 12 SYSTEM SECURITY 12. built-in security measures in ones’ intranet can allow one to provide resources one might not have considered possible in such context. Intranet security is. After all.1 Introduction One might think that there is a little reason to be concerned about security in an intranet. 90 . On the other hand. For example. There are strong arguments for the position that an intranet should be completely open to its users.2 There are basically two types of security associated with this system: 1.

ii) Authentication:System checks the password under the particular user identification. iii) Authorization:The access control mechanism to prevent unauthorized logging to the system. b). 91 . Data becoming available to the unauthorized person.2. To overcome these difficulties the following access facilities has been provided: i) Identification:Unique Ids for the different users have been provided. Data not being available to the authorized person at the time of need. Data security: There are basically two problems associated with data security:a).

Implementation is the process of having systems personnel check out and put new equipment into use.Chapter 13 IMPLEMENTATION AND MAINTENANCE 13. In either case. The new system may be totally new replacing an existing manual or automated system. In still other situations. proper implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet organizational requirements. train users. Successful implementation may not guarantee improvement in the organization using the new system (that is a design question).1 Introduction to Implementation System implementation is the stage when the user has thoroughly tested the system and approves all the features provided by the system. they will run both old and new system in parallel way to com-pare the results. Sometimes.2 Introduction to Maintenance Maintenance or enhancement can be classified as: Corrective Adaptive Perfective 92 . but improper will prevent it. The various tests are performed and the system is approved only after all the requirements are met and the user is satisfied. or it may be a major modification to an existing system. system developers stop using the old system one day and start using the new one the next. 13. install the new application and construct any files of data needed to use it.

Adaptive maintenance means changing the program function. Perfective maintenance means enhancing the performance or modifying the program(s) to respond to the user’s additional or changing needs.Corrective maintenance means repairing processing or performance failures or making changes because of previously uncorrected problems or false assumptions. 93 .

• time system. so does the System. every system has some limitations so our proposed system is also not untouchable in this regard. • system tends to be a bit slow. every time they are loaded thus the Thou gh this system is developed as a multi user system but it is not a real 94 . because the database used in this system is an average one. The interaction with the database.Chapter 14 CONCLUSION 14. The site is made in all possible way to meet the user requirements using latest version of available software and hardware.2 Limitations Since. 14. Also it doesn’t have different kind of access feature for different users. Although it includes every kind of features. Though it was planned for this system to be absolutely perfect but everything as such has some limitations.But as user requirements and operating environment keep changing further extensions can be made on this. Also its present features can be enhanced by some simple modification in the codes so as to reuse it in the changing scenario. there are many chances of reusability of the codes in other environment even in different platforms. Following may be the drawback in this system.In future some more schemas can be added in the “Online Examination System” hence these schemas are to be included in the software developed.1 Scope for Future Work Since this system has been generated by using Object Oriented programming. but it can’t be used in a huge organization where number of networks are very large.

• id. • to be set before hand. • Only one paper can be given at a time. 95 . all the students can give exam of only Ther e no random question generator in the system so a question paper has The paper id is generated randomly.• one subject at a time. the user can not provide its own paper No comparison can be done of results of various students and subjects.

APPENDIX-A Test cases Test Case 1: User: Any User Precondition: • User is on the sign in page. Output: User is asked to enter correct user name and password and try again Test Case 3: User: Student Precondition: Input: Select give test. Test Case 5: User: Student and Teacher Precondition: 96 • User on sign up page. Input: Enters incorrect user name or password. • User on student page. Test Case 4: User: Student and Teacher Precondition: Input: Select sign up. Output: Test instruction page appear. Test Case 2: User: Any User Precondition: • User is on sign in page. Input: Enters correct user name and password on the login page. . Output: Registration page appear user asked to fill information. Output: User gets logged in.

deactivate paper. Input: Click on deactivate paper option. select to activate paper.Input: Fill in all the details asked select submit. • User on registration page. Test Case 10: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on administrator page. 97 . select the id to view the profile. Test Case 6: User: Student and Teacher Precondition: Input: Fill in already user user id . Input: Click on message board option. Test Case 7: User: Any User Precondition: • User is on sign in page. Output: confirmation if the details have been updated in database. Input: Click on view profile option. Output: Screen providing all latest events is displayed. Output: confirmation to de activate paper. Input: Click on activate paper option. Test Case 8: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on administrator page. Output: Error report and ask the user to provide new user id. Output: List of user ids whose profile can be viewed. • User on registration page. Output: List of paper ids which can be activated. Test Case 9: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on administrator page.

Input: Click on change password option. select to delete Test Case 17: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on teacher page. fill information Test Case 15: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on create paper page. Input: Click on change profile option. make changes . Input: Click on update profile option. Test Case 13: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on update page. Test Case 12: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on update page. make changes in password. Output: list of ids to change password. Output: list of paper id which can be deleted by the teacher. Test Case 14: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on teacher page. Output: list of ids to update. paper id is provided. select id. Input: Fill information for first question. Test Case 16: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on teacher page. 98 . Input: Click on delete paper option. Input: Click on create paper option. select id. Output: Confirmation of paper being created. click next.Test Case 11: User: Administrator Precondition: • User is on administrator page. Output: screen with paper information to be filled. repeat till all questions made. Output: screen with option to update profile or change password.

Input: Click on stuudent option. select full option.Input: Click on view paper option. Output: show the result of the papers given by the student. Output: options to update profile on change password. Input: Click on download option. 99 . Test Case 20: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on result view page. Output: list of all the results of the particular student. Test Case 21: User: student Precondition: • User is on student page. Output: list of all the results of the subject created by teacher. Input: Click on view result option. select full option. Input: Click on update profile option. Output: options to view result subject vice or student vice. Test Case 22: User: student Precondition: • User is on student page. Test Case 23: User: student Precondition: • User is on student page. Input: Click on view result option. Test Case 18: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on teacher page. Output: list of all the documents which can be downloaded. select to view paper. Input: Click on subject option. Test Case 19: User: Teacher Precondition: • User is on result view page. Output: list of paper id which can be viewed by the teacher.

JSP: JSP termed as Java Server Pages is a technology introduced by Sun Microsystems Inc. one of them itself define the JSP i. JSP separates the presentation 100 . Encryption: The process of encoding password for security across the Internet. Enroll: Register formally as a participant or member. Bandwidth: The maximum amount of information (bits/second) that can be transmitted along a channel. by way of a network. It has got many advanced features than servlets. authentication is distinct from authorization . .Internet: A computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission. commonly used on local area networks that are connected to the internet. to develop the web application in more efficient way than Servlets. known as a server. J2EE: Java 2 Enterprise Edition.e. but says nothing about the access rights of the individual. which is the process of giving individuals access to system objects based on their identity. Authentication merely ensures that the individual is who he or she claims to be.. A development environment which is independent of hardware systems and operating systems. Download: Transfer of data from a server or web site to your computer's hard disk. usually based on a username and password. Database: A database is a structured collection of records or data. Client: A client is an application or system that accesses a remote service on another computer system. In security systems. The idea is that software developers need only write applications once and these applications can then be run unchanged on any computer or operating system. Firewall: A security system consisting of a combination of hardware and software t hat limits the exposure of a computer or computer network to attack from crackers. Backup: The act of providing battery support when power failure occurs. Annexure1: Glossary Authentication: The process of identifying an individual.

Upload: The transfer of data from a local computer to a server. Recovery: The act or process of regaining or repossession of something lost. Server: A computer that provides client stations with access to files and printers as shared resources to a computer network. Profile: Profile contains all useful information about the user such as name. contact information etc. User Interface: The user interface is the aggregate of means by which the users interact with the system. Visibility Plan: The Plan for communication between team members.logic from the business logic and provide the designer and developer of the web application to work independently without any hassle. Weblogic Server: Weblogic server is an application server that accepts the request from client side and give appropriate response to the client. SQL Server: SQL Server (ISSN-1522-2187) is a trade publication and web site owned by Penton Media serving the information needs of IT Professionals in various fields including data processing. date of birth. 101 . address. computer related consulting and many other areas. Thread: These are inputs provided by the user to any discussion. It is also available for Windows and other operating systems. Web Browsers: Software used to display the web pages and is used to access websites on the internet. stakeholders and instructor. My SQL: It runs as a database server which provides access to multiple users to the number of databases.

• JSP & Servlets by Marty Hall (SUN Microsystems) • SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by ELIAS M http://www. 102 .sun. • J2EE by Allamaraju & Buest (Apress Publications) • • • • BIBILIOGRAPHY BOOKS • J2EE by GARRY http://www. • SOFTWARE ENGINEERING by IAN http://www.REFERENCES • http://www.


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