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Car Sales Management System

B.Tech. Major Project Report

BY

Alisha Thakur

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

DAV UNIVERSITY

JALANDHAR, PUNJAB (INDIA)

May, 2018

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A Major Project Report

Submitted In partial fulfillment of the

Requirements for the award of the degree

Of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

in

COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

BY

Alisha Thakur

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

DAV UNIVERSITY

JALANDHAR, PUNJAB(INDIA)

May, 2017

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Declaration

I declare that this written submission represents my ideas in my own words and where others’
ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited and referenced the original sources. I
also declare that I have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity and have not
misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea/data/fact/source in my submission. I understand
that my violation of the above will be cause for disciplinary action by the Institute and can also
evoke penal action from the sources which have thus not been properly cited or from whom
proper permission has not been taken when needed.

(Signature) ________________________

(Name of the student) ________________________

(Roll No.) ________________________

(Date): ________________________

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CERTIFICATE
I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the B.Tech. Major Project Report
entitled “Car Sales Management System”,in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
award of the Bachelor Of Technology in Computer Science & Engineering and submitted to the
Department of Computer Science & Engineering of DAV University Jalandhar is an authentic
record of my own work carried out during a period from January 2018 to May 2018 under the
supervision of Er. Nishi Madan(Coordinator), Er. Ridhi Kapoor (Faculty), Dr.
SankalapArora(Faculty), CSE Department.

The matter presented in this project report has not been submitted by me for the
award of any other degree elsewhere.

Signature of Candidate

Alisha Thakur

R.NO – 11400866

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to best of my
knowledge.

Signature of Supervisor(s)

Date: Er. Nishi Madan-_____________

Er. Ridhi Kapoor- _____________

Dr. Sankalap Arora-____________

Project Supervisor(s)

Coordinator

Computer Science & Engineering Department

DAV University, Jalandhar, India

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I also take the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of Coordinator and assigned Faculty
members, CSE Department, DAV University for their full support and assistance during the
development of this project. I also would not like to miss the opportunity to acknowledge the
contribution of all Faculty members of the department for their kind assistance and cooperation
during the development of the project. Lastly, I acknowledge my friends for their contribution in
the development of the project.

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ABSTRACT
Today the world is considered as a competitive world where everybody seeks for accuracy in
least time.

Earlier paper work was the means to keep various records. It was very time consuming and not
even that accurate. So, we decided to design and develop the Project called VEHICLE
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM which eliminates the paper work and provides better option to the
people for their Vehicle records. It deals with the maintenance of the records of the different
categories of vehicles on the basis of their manufacturing age,model and price. The user of this
program can add records of the vehicles alongwith the above information and , view these
records and can also edit them.

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Declaration…………………………………………………………………iii
Certificate………………………………………………………………….iv
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………v
Abstract……………………………………………………………………vi
Ch 1: Introduction to JAVA………………………………………………10
1.1 JAVA…………………………………………………………..10
1.2 History………………………………………………………….11
1.3 Principles……………………………………………………….11
1.4 Features………………………………………………………..12
1.5 JAVA Platform………………………………………………...12
Ch 2: Introduction to Car Management System……………………………………13
Ch 3: History……………………………………………………………..14
3.1 Hebbian Learning……………………………………………..14
3.2 Backpropagation………………………………………………15
3.3 Hardware Based Designs……………………………………..15
3.4 Contests……………………………………………………….15
3.5 Convolutional Network……………………………………….16
Ch 4: Madaline…………………………………………………………...17
4.1 Adaline………………………………………………………..17
4.2 Madaline………………………………………………………18
4.3 Three Rules Of Madaline……………………………………..18
4.4 Learning……………………………………………………….19
4.5 Architecture……………………………………………………20
4.6 Uses……………………………………………………………20
4.7 Training Algorithm……………………………………………21
4.8 Existing Systems………………………………………………21
4.9 Proposed System……………………………………………..22
Ch 5: About The Project………………………………………………...23
5.1 Objective……………………………………………………..23
Ch 6: Conclusion and Future Work……………………………………28

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Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION TO JAVA
1.1 JAVA

Java is a general purpose, high-level programming language developed by Sun Microsystems.


The Java programming language was developed by a small team of engineers, known as
the Green Team, who initiated the language in 1991. The language was originally
called OAK, and at the time it was designed for handheld devices and set-top boxes. Oak was
unsuccessful and in 1995 Sun changed the name to Java and modified the language to take
advantage of the burgeoning World Wide Web.
Later, in 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems and took ownership of two key
Sun software assets: Java and Solaris.

Java Today
Today the Java platform is a commonly used foundation for developing and delivering content on
the Web. According to Oracle, there are more than 9 million Java developers worldwide and
more than 3 billion mobile phones run Java.

Java is an Object-Oriented Language


Java is defined as an object-oriented language similar to C++, but simplified to eliminate
language features that cause common programming errors. The source code files (files with
a .java extension) are compiled into a format called bytecode (files with a .class extension),
which can then be executed by a Java interpreter. Compiled Java code can run on most computers
because Java interpreters and runtime environments, known as Java Virtual Machines
(VMs), exist for most operating systems, including UNIX, the Macintosh OS, and Windows.
Bytecode can also be converted directly into machine language instructions by a just-in-time
compiler (JIT). In 2007, most Java technologies were released under the GNU General Public
License.

Java on the Web


Java is a general purpose programming language with a number of features that make the
language well suited for use on the World Wide Web. Small Java applications are called
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Java applets and can be downloaded from a Web server and run on your computer by a Java-
compatible Web browser.
Applications and websites using Java will not work unless Java is installed on your device. When
you download Java, the software contains the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) which is needed
to run in a Web browser. A component of the JRE, the Java Plug-in software allows Java
applets to run inside various browsers.

1.2 History

James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton initiated the Java language project in June
1991. Java was originally designed for interactive television, but it was too advanced for the
digital cable television industry at the time. The language was initially called Oak after an oaktree
that stood outside Gosling's office. Later the project went by the name Green and was finally
renamed Java, from Java coffee. Gosling designed Java with a C/C++-style syntax that system
and application programmers would find familiar.

Sun Microsystems released the first public implementation as Java 1.0 in 1995. It promised
"Write Once, Run Anywhere" (WORA), providing no-cost run-times on popular platforms. Fairly
secure and featuring configurable security, it allowed network- and file-access restrictions.
Major web browsers soon incorporated the ability to run Java applets within web pages, and Java
quickly became popular. The Java 1.0 compiler was re-written in Java by Arthur van Hoff to
comply strictly with the Java 1.0 language specification. With the advent of Java 2 (released
initially as J2SE 1.2 in December 1998 – 1999), new versions had multiple configurations built
for different types of platforms. J2EE included technologies and APIs for enterprise applications
typically run in server environments, while J2ME featured APIs optimized for mobile
applications. The desktop version was renamed J2SE. In 2006, for marketing purposes, Sun
renamed new J2 versions as Java EE, Java ME, and Java SE, respectively.

1.3 Principles
There were five primary goals in the creation of the Java language:

1. It must be "simple, object-oriented, and familiar".


2. It must be "robust and secure".
3. It must be "architecture-neutral and portable".
4. It must execute with "high performance".
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5. It must be "interpreted, threaded, and dynamic".

1.4Features of JAVA:
 JAVA Is Object Oriented

The object-oriented programming (OOP) technique is merely a way of organizing programs, and
it can be accomplished using any language. Working with a real object-oriented language and
programming environment, however, enables you to take full advantage of object-oriented
methodology and its capabilities for creating flexible, modular programs and reusing code.

 JAVA is Dynamic

JAVA does not have an explicit link phase. JAVA source code is divided into .JAVA files,
roughly one per each class in your program. The compiler compiles these into .class files
containing byte code. Each JAVA file generally produces exactly one class file.

 JAVA Is Platform Independent

Platform independence-that is, the ability of a program to move easily from one computer system
to another-is one of the most significant advantages that JAVA has over other programming
languages.

 JAVA is Garbage Collected

You do not need to explicitly allocate or de allocate memory in JAVA. Memory is allocated as
needed, both on the stack and the heap, and reclaimed by the garbage collector when it is no
longer needed. There's no malloc (), free (), or destructor methods.

1.5 Java platform

One design goal of Java is portability, which means that programs written for the Java platform
must run similarly on any combination of hardware and operating system with adequate runtime
support. This is achieved by compiling the Java language code to an intermediate representation
called Java bytecode, instead of directly to architecture-specific machine code. Java bytecode
instructions are analogous to machine code, but they are intended to be executed by a virtual
machine (VM) written specifically for the host hardware. End users commonly use a Java
Runtime Environment (JRE) installed on their own machine for standalone Java applications, or
in a web browser for Java applets.

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CH 2: INTRODUCTION TO CAR MAMANGEMENT SYSTEM

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely
inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.[1] Such systems "learn"
(i.e. progressively improve performance on) tasks by considering examples, generally without
task-specific programming. For example, in image recognition, they might learn to identify
images that contain cats by analyzing example images that have been manually labeled as "cat" or
"no cat" and using the results to identify cats in other images. They do this without any a priori
knowledge about cats, e.g., that they have fur, tails, whiskers and cat-like faces. Instead, they
evolve their own set of relevant characteristics from the learning material that they process.

An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nodes called artificial neurons (a


simplified version of biological neurons in an animal brain). Each connection (a simplified
version of a synapse) between artificial neurons can transmit a signal from one to another. The
artificial neuron that receives the signal can process it and then signal artificial neurons connected
to it.

In common ANN implementations, the signal at a connection between artificial neurons is a real
number, and the output of each artificial neuron is calculated by a non-linear function of the sum
of its inputs. The connections between neurons are called Edges. Artificial neurons and edges
typically have a weight that adjusts as learning proceeds. The weight increases or decreases the
strength of the signal at a connection. Artificial neurons may have a threshold such that only if
the aggregate signal crosses that threshold is the signal sent. Typically, artificial neurons are
organized in layers. Different layers may perform different kinds of transformations on their
inputs. Signals travel from the first (input), to the last (output) layer, possibly after traversing the
layers multiple times.

The original goal of the ANN approach was to solve problems in the same way that a human
brain would. However, over time, attention focused on matching specific tasks, leading to
deviations from biology. ANNs have been used on a variety of tasks, including computer
vision, speech recognition, machine translation, social network filtering, playing board and video
games and medical diagnosis.

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CH 5: ABOUT THE PROJECT
5.1 OBJECTIVE

The project ‘Vehicle Management System’ deals with the maintenance of the records of the
different categories of vehicles on the basis of their manufacturing age,model and price. The user
of this program can add records of the vehicles and their owners, view these records and can also
edit them.

This project is basically aimed for the Road and Transport Office which have large number of
records of different types of vehicles to be maintained. The project makes it easier to search these
records and edit them. The project has a very user friendly interface and all the operations that
can be performed in the project are self explanatory. It reduces the effort required to manually
maintain all these records.

This project will really reduce the laborious record keeping.

5.2 SCOPE

Today the world is considered as a competitive world where everybody seeks for accuracy in
least time.

Earlier paper work was the means to keep various records. It was very time consuming and not
even that accurate. So, we decided to design and develop the Project called VEHICLE
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM which eliminates the paper work and provides better option to the
people for their Vehicle records. It deals with the maintenance of the records of the different
categories of vehicles on the basis of their manufacturing age,model and price. The user of this
program can add records of the vehicles alongwith the above information and , view these
records and can also edit them.

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