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SDH Basics

Course Code: 50054228

Suitable L1 L2 L3 L4 FEO GET Others


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Module TRANSPORT ENGINEERS Doc. No.


OPERATION & MAINTENANCE
TRAINING
Rev. No. D

Rev dt 27-11-06

Date 21.02.03
RELIANCE
INFOCOMM Comments

TECHNICAL TRAINING Prepared by Shailesh


DEPARTMENT Joshi &
P. Roy
Location D-Block, 1st Floor, Checked by Kenneth
DAKC, N.Mumbai

Contact: Shailesh Joshi Approved by S.Ghoshal


Ext : 83098 - Ph. 022 303 83098,
RIM : 93222 15762

1
Model of Telecom - Transport

Operation Support
Systems

Services
Access

Access
Transport
Switch Switch
Signaling

Access Access

Generally all Telecommunication system can be modeled with a few basic blocks:
1. Access a means to connect to users, convert their talk into
electronic signals and vice versa.
2. Switch a means to connect A to B while there are a
thousands other connections between C to Z possible
3. Transport a means to carry traffic & signals between several
switches & also between switch & access equipment.
4. Services that’s what customers need; dial-tone, std, callerID,
voice nail, sms, wake-up call, call debar, …..
5. Operation Support that’s what network operators need to operate their
networks efficiently and effectively.

Each of these has it’s importance and value for the customer. The Access
equipment would mean how easily and reliably the customer gets a
connection. Switch would mean how many subscribers can be connected.
Transport would mean what bandwidth he gets (how fast does he download,
say). Services like Caller ID or SMS are as obvious as dial tone and STD
these days, customer expects more of it. And finally OSS decides how
efficiently you run the network, repair faults, raise correct bills, etc.

2
Reliance Confidential

Challenges of Transport

Voice Video

More User, more usage More Bandwidth


More Flexibility More options
Data
More Reliability More Uptime

In modern telecommunication, there is an increasing realisation that Transport is as


important a building block as any other like Switch or Services. Transport has
traveled it’s distance from being merely the physical connectivity to being an
performance enabler.

Why is that so evident today. Because as technology evolves, there is increasing


demand for:
1. More & more bandwidth More users, more frequent use,
more information & data to be
carried, so more bandwidth
2. More Quality & Reliability Mere transmission is not good
enough, quality of voice or video
is also important, so is the
reliability with which information is
transmitted
3. More flexibility Can we have both voice & data
on the same line, at the same
time, Can we get more download
speed with increasing uploading
speed, Can we …

3
Facets of Transport
1. Media
• Electrical Cu (UTP, STP, Co-axial, …)
• Electromagnetic RF, µW
• Optical OFC
2. Topology
• Mesh Local network, Logical mesh network
• Star Traditional PSTN
• Bus Local Area Networks
• Ring SDH, DWDM, transport- (total information = Aggregate)
3. Technology
• Voice Communication PDH
• Modern Transport SDH, DWDM
4. Network Management
• Network Management Preside

Technology
Token Ring – Ring in which only one circulating Token - Token hoder can speak ,
others are listners only –If token holder do not want to use, he has to pass it to next
fellow in the ring.
Ethernet – LAN - Network on smaller scale – Commercial complex-e.g.DAKC
IMT – Integrated mobile terminal e.g. FWT.
Profibus – uses Bus network – We do not use.
Network Management –
A ) Local Craft Terminal – Local panel through which nearby Mux are
controlled - e.g in Lab. we are controlling 4 transport equipment
through Laptop / Desk top
B) Hyper Terminal - Dumb terminal – softwear through which response
from the Mux can be received.
c) Network management – All Mux & CT ( control terminal) in the network
( large scale ) can be controlled by SERVER at NNOC.

4
MEDIA - OFC
Module 1

5
Journey through the “Optical Tunnel”

if we get a optical tunnel where once a light pulse enters at one end can only come
out at the other end, would serve our purpose. Well an OFC is just that.

Transmission through a OFC is like light ball traveling down a tunnel. It reflects
several time time on the “wall” before reaching the end of the tunnel.

Train travels on railway track transfers the Passengers


Wavelength travels on OFC transfer the Data / voice / video

Advantages of OFC over other media like Cu wire are:


1. Very low attenuation-Loss depends on length only –free from amount of data
transmitted
2. No Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
3. No Bandwidth-distance relation, hence enormous large bandwidth available.-
10Gbps whereas Capacity of Cu wire is limited i.e. 34 Mbps.
4. OFC are far thinner in diameter.-smaller in size-light in weight.
5. Greater safety as difficult to join-High security.

Disadvantages are
1. OFC is costlier than Cu-wire.
2. OFC is fragile.
3. OFC are difficult to join.
4. OFC has it’s own set of losses – dispersion, absorption, etc.
6
Snell’s Law

n1sinA1 = n2sinA2

1
A1
n1 > n2
n1 A As A1 increases A2 also increases.

At particular value A,
A2
A2 becomes 900 .
n2
A is called critical angle
2 i.e. No light enters material 2

At any angle of incidence greater than ‘A’ all


light will be reflected back to material 1.

Snell's law is defined as: n1 sinA1 = n2 sinA2


Where n is the refractive index and A the corresponding angles as shown.
The refractive index is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the
speed of light in a given medium.
n1 = C / V
C = Velocity of light in Vacuum I.e. 3* 108 metrers per second.
V = Velocity of light in a given mediumthat material

So, if the top part of the diagram is CORE & n1 is Refractive Index of the Core
material and if the bottom part is Cladding , n2 is Refractive Index of the Cladding
material.
when light passes from one medium to another, the angles & refractive
indexes of the media determined the path that light took.
The relationship is a function of the sine of the angles.
Also known as as the “Law of Sines” (by Descartes ).

7
Optical Spectrum

Visible
UV IR
λ

850 nm
† Communication wavelengths 980 nm
1310 nm
… 850, 1310, 1550 nm
1480 nm
… Low-loss wavelengths
1550 nm
Light 1625 nm
… Ultraviolet (UV)
… Visible Velocity = c =ƒ x λ
… Infrared (IR) Wavelength:λ (nanometers)
Frequency: ƒ (tera hertz)
1 Nena meter = 10 -9 meter
1 Pica meter = 10 -12 meter

The Optical Spectrum can be divided into three regions.


Ultra Violet: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which the
longest wavelength is just below the visible spectrum, extending from
approximately 4 nm to 400 nm.
Visible Light: Electromagnetic radiation visible to the human eye;
wavelengths of 400-700 nm.
Infrared (IR): The region of the electromagnetic spectrum bounded by the
long-wavelength, extreme of the visible spectrum (about 0.7 µm) and the
shortest microwaves (about 0.1 µm).

8
Fiber Geometry
† An optical fiber is made of three sections:

… The core carries the light signals

i.e.Optic Pulse travells in core only Core Cladding


(7 – 62.5 µm) (125 µm)
… The cladding keeps the light in the core
serves the purpose of Compound wall

… The coating protects the glass

† Fiber dimensions are measured in µm


- 6
… 1 µm = 0.000001 meters (10 )
… 1 human hair ~ 50 µm

† Refractive Index (n)


Coating
… n=c/v
(245 – 250 µm)
… n ~ 1.468
… n (core) > n (cladding)
… c = 3 x 10 8 Meter / second

Core: The core of an optical fiber – is a glass rod - denotes the central part
of the fiber where the majority of the light propagates.
Cladding: The cladding of an optical fiber surrounds the core and has a
Refractive Index lower than that of core. This difference in refractive index
allows total internal reflection to occur within the fiber core. & avoids the
entry into the Cladding .Total internal reflection is the phenomenon by which
light propagates in optical fiber.
Coating is made up of PVC material-available in different colours as per ITU
code

9
Optical Fiber Specifications

10
Attenuation - ( Losses )

† Attenuation is the measure of the reduction in signal magnitude, or loss,


along a length of fiber. attenuation is one factor which determines the
power loss.

† Attenuation in fiber optic cabling is usually expressed in decibels per unit


length of cable (i.e. dB/km) at a specified wavelength.

Attenuation describes how energy is lost or dissipated. Loss is the cost of


moving something, like charges or particles or light pulses.
Attenuation / Losses are due to - Impure- non uniform material , joints
i.e.Splicing
Attenuation in fiber optic cabling is usually expressed in decibels per unit
length of cable (i.e. dB/km) at a specified wavelength.

Attenuation = 10log10(Iout / Iin)


Where,
I out = outgoing intensity (intensity is measured in Watt/.m-2 )
I in = ingoing intensity (Watt/.m-2 )
Research & Developement
1980 – 100dB / km
1990 – 6dB / km
2005 – 0.18 dB / km

11
Sources of Attenuation in Fibers

† ( 1) Absorption -

† (2) Scattering

† (3) Geometric Effects

12
Attenuation due to Absorption

Intrinsic Absorption:
„Caused by the intrinsic properties of the material itself, the impurities in the glass, and any
atomic defects in the glass. These impurities absorb the optical energy, causing the light to
become dimmer. e.g. non visibility of car head light in case of heavy fog in winter.

„ Intrinsic absorption is an issue at longer wavelengths and increases dramatically above


1700 nm. The peak absorption occurs at approx.1400nm wave length range.

13
Attenuation due to - Scattering

•Scattering is caused by small variations in the density of glass as it


cools. Loss of optical energy due to imperfections / inhomogeneities
(localized density variations). And therefore act as scattering objects.
•Light scatters in different directions - and thus energy is lost .
•It is inversely proportional to the fourth power of wave length.

14
Graph of Loss versus Wavelength
Attenuation varies with the wave length of light.
The fiber exhibits minimum attenuation at wavelength slots 1310nm, and
5 1550nm . (nm = 1/ 1000,000,000 Meters)
These are called second window and third window.
First window 850 nm was used earlier days when
4 laser diodes were available only at that wavelength
Loss in db/km

1400 nm
2

0 800 850 1000 1310 1550 1600

Wave length

Scattering and Absorption decides suitability of optical fiber for transmission at specific
frequencies only.
If a graph of Loss in dB/km is plotted against the wavelength then we observe that,
‘Attenuation varies with the wave length of light.’
The fiber exhibits minimum attenuation at wavelength slots, 1310nm, and 1550nm . These
are called, second window and third window.
Note: The second and the third windows are in practical use today. We don't use the 850
nm any more except for some restricted applications. The 850 nm was in use in the past
when the Laser Diodes available were of 850 nm only.

1550 1310

Optical Equipment Costly cheap

Attenuation dB/Km 0.18 to 0.3 0.3 to 0.5


Chromatic Dispersion ( C.D.) –ps/nm/km More then 16 Ps/nm/km Less then 3.5

By using NZDSF-C.D. If G 652 is used for long


dist,then we shall require to
1525 to 1565 4 to 6 ps/nm/km use more Regenerators-it will
degrade the clock more. –
1565 To 1630 6 to 10 ps resulting in bit error

15
Bending Losses - 3

¾Micro bending ¾Macro bending


Deformation of fiber axis (axial Loss due to excessive bending.
distortion) during cabling causes light
Fiber Bending radius < 3 mm
to couple out of the fiber.

16
Bending Losses
† Bending losses increases with increase in Wavelength.
Effects of 2 cm radius bend at three wavelengths - 1310 nm = < 0.1 dB loss
1550 nm = 2 dB loss
1625 nm = 6 dB loss

1310 nm

1550nm

1625 nm

17
Attenuation in Optical Fiber

Pout/Pin dB Pout/Pin dB
(P in mw) (P in mw)
1 0 1.1 0.4

2 3 1. 25 =(5/10)x(5/10)x 5 7-10+7-10+7 = 1

3 4.7 1.6 = (8/10)x2 9 -10 + 3 = 2

4 = 2x2 3+3 = 6 0.5 -3

5 = 10/2 10-3 = 7 0.66 -2


6 = 3x2 4.7+3 = 7.7 ¼ = o.25 -6
7 = 49* = (10x5)* ½ (10+7) = 8.5 AxB a+b

8 = 2x2x2 3+3+3 = 9 A/B a-b


9 = 3x3 4.7+4.7 = 9.4 A1/2 a/2
10 10 A 1/3 A/3

18
Getting familiar with dBm

• RF and Optical powers are measured in dBm.

• 1 mW is taken as a reference power

• All other powers are expressed as ratios relative to 1mW

dBm = 10log 10 ( P in mW/1mW)

If Power=2mW then Power is expressed as 3 dBm

If Power=4mW then Power is expressed as 6 dBm

If Power=10mW then Power is expressed as 10dBm

In the RF Industry and in optical transmission power is measured relative to 1 mW


and expressed as dBm
0dBm is taken as the reference power to which all power in field situations is
compared.
In The Broad casting industry 1KW is taken as the reference power
If you work with voltages in the audio field 1V line voltage is taken as the reference
voltage and 1v is referred to as 0dBV

19
What’s Power in dBm terms
It’s simple to relate to attenuation, if the Power is also expressed in terms of dB.
So if mili Watt is the reference: Power in dBmW = 10log10(P in mW)
Where Micro Watt (µW) is the reference: Power in dBµW = 10log10(P in µW)

e.g. 0 dBm = 1mW c) 20dBm = 100mW


0 dBm =??? 20 dBm = ?
a) 0 dBm = 10 log 10 (Pout / Pin) 20 dBm =10 log10 (P)
0/10 = log 10 (Power / 1mW) 20 /10 = log10 (P)
0 = log 10 (Power / 1mW) 2 = log10 (P)
100 = Power / 1mW 102 = P
1 = Power / 1mW 100 mW = P
Power = 1 mW
OR
??? = 1mW
aa) dBm = - 10 log 10 (Power / 1mW)
= - 10 log10 (1)
= - 10 (0)
dBm = 0
b) +7dBm = 5mw
??? ==
dBm = 10 log 10 (Power / 1mW)
= 10 log 10 (5mw / 1mW)
= 10 ( log 10 (5) )
= 10 * ( 0.698 )
dBm = 6.989 Say 7
20
dbm (Power) & db (Attenutation) mathematics

Pout/Pin dB Pout/Pin dB
(P in mw) (P in mw)
1 0 1.1 0.4

2 3 1. 25 =(5/10)x(5/10)x 5 7-10+7-10+7 = 1

3 4.7 1.6 = (8/10)x2 9 -10 + 3 = 2

4 = 2x2 3+3 = 6 0.5 -3

5 = 10/2 10-3 = 7 0.66 -2


6 = 3x2 4.7+3 = 7.7 ¼ = o.25 -6
7 = 49* = (10x5)* ½ (10+7) = 8.5 AxB a+b

8 = 2x2x2 3+3+3 = 9 A/B a-b


9 = 3x3 4.7+4.7 = 9.4 A1/2 a/2
10 10 A 1/3 A/3

21
Ex.1: Attenuation in Optical Fiber

For the above please calculate the following:


1. Attenuation in dB =
2. Attenuation per km =
3. Pout in dBm =

Input = 2mw = 3dBm


Output = 250 micro watt = ¼ mw =( 0-6)dB = - 6dB
1) Attenuation (Loss) in dB
Loss = Input – output
=3dBm – ( -6dB)
=9dB
2) Attenuation (Loss) /Km = 9/38
3) P Output = 250 micro watt = ¼ mw =( 0-6)dB = - 6dBm

22
Classification Of Fibers

† A. Material Classification

† B. Mode Classification

† C. Refractive Index Classification

23
A - Material Classification

† Glass Core And Glass Cladding (Most Widely Used)

† Glass Core And Plastic Cladding

† Plastic Core And Plastic Cladding- (Inexpensive , But


Support Very Low Band Widths)

Material Classification:

A. Glass core and glass cladding with cladding glass having a slightly
lower refractive index.- e.g.OFC Network
B. Silica glass core and cladding with plastic (also called as a PCS fiber,
plastic cladded silica fiber).-e.g.LAN-small Industrial house
C. Plastic core and cladding with another plastic. It is inexpensive but
supports very low bandwidths. – e.g. Toys Small office network-Operation
Theater.

24
B - Mode Classification
Multimode fiber (MM)
† Light travels in diff. Path
† Core diameter varies - 50 to 62.5 micro-meter n2 Cladding
† Mode Depends on - Wave length - Core dia.
- Refractive Index n1 & n2.
† Modes do not depend on Length of Fiber. n1 Core
† Primarily used for intra-office applications.
† less expensive than single mode.
† Mode depends on – Wavelength – Ref. Index
n1 & n2 – core dia.
† Mode does not depend on length
n2 Cladding
Single mode fiber (SM)
† Light travells in Only one Path / mode.
† Core diameter is about 7-9 micro-Meter. n1 Core
† Primarily used for long dist.. applications.

Mode Classification:
Multimode fiber: Multimode fiber allows multiple modes of light to
propagate along its length at various angles and orientations to the central
axis. Conventional sizes of multimode fiber are 62.5/125µm or 50/125µm.
e.g. G-652- SM – for city network - of various make - like Corning
(Germany) – Sterlite-RPG – Finolex – Tamilnadu Telecom Ltd (TTL) – BEOL
(Birla Erricson Optical Ltd.)
Conventionally, the size of a fiber is denoted by writing its core diameter
and then writing the cladding diameter (Both in µm) with a slash
between them. For example: 50/125µm fibers describe a fiber with a 50µm
core and 125µm cladding diameter.
Single mode fiber: A single mode fiber has a small core. Only one ray of
light is expected to pass through. This highly parallel beam is incident along
the axis of the fiber. Single mode fiber allows a single mode of light to
propagate along its core efficiently. Conventional sizes of single mode fiber
are 8/125µm, 8.3/125µm or 9/125µm.(core dia. / cladding dia). Single mode
fiber allows very high-speed transmission.
e.g. – G 655 – SM – for NLD – of various make – like Corning (Germany)-
Tyco ( USA) – OCC ( Farukowa-Japan) – OFS (USA)

25
Multi Mode Fiber

26
Refractive Index classification - Step Index Fiber

• Core Has Uniform Refractive Index. A Sharp Step In Core And Cladding Junction.(n1 to n2)

• Used for minimising Chromatic Dispersion

27
Refractive Index classification - Graded Index Fiber

•Ref. Index Of Core Is Not Uniform rather Gradually Decreases Radially Outwards
.Modal Dispersion

To compensate for the dispersion drawback of step-index multimode fiber, graded-index fiber was
invented. Graded-index refers to the fact that the refractive index of the core is graded—it gradually
decreases from the center of the core outward. The higher refraction at the center of the core slows the
speed of some light rays, allowing all the rays to reach their destination at about the same time and
reducing modal dispersion.

28
Dispersion – eats your BW

Dispersion is the phenomenon of scattering of light due to tiny obstacles in the


path of propagation. In OFC dispersion could occur due to impurity,
heterogeneity of refractive index, etc.

Dispersion causes light pulses to spread and thereby lose the binary status at
some stage. Simply put higher dispersion could mean greater chance of losing
information. Only means of negating that effect is to increase the pulse width.
So we can conclude higher the dispersion lower would be the bandwidth.

29
What is Dispersion ?

•Dispersion is the spreading or broadening (distortion)of light pulses


as they propagate through the fiber.
•Dispersion is the change in shape of a propagating wavelet causing distortion

Too much dispersion gives rise to bit-errors at the receiver (i.e., the inability
to distinguish a 0 from a 1).

1 0 1 1 ? 1

Not recognizable

Dispersion is due to diff. Packets of light arriving at time,hence takes round


shapecausing distortion i.e.Dispersion.
Bandwidth of fiber is limited by dispersion.
Dispersion increases in direct proportion to the square root of fiber length.
NOTE:
Bit rate (say ‘’data rate’’) is the number of bits that can be transmitted per second over
a channel. It is measured in bit per second. It is the direct measure of information-
carrying capacity of a communication link or network for digital transmission. This is
why it is also called information transmission rate.
Bandwidth is the frequency range within which a digital signal can be transmitted
without significant distortion. It is measured in Hertz (Hz). It is information carrying
capacity characteristic of a communication channel used for analog transmission.
These then are the two characteristics but obviously quite different.
Bandwidth of fiber system is also limited modulation speed i.e. by the electronics.
Ps/nm–km is the unit of dispersion. It is the slope of graph – travel time in 1 km of
fiber. versus wave length of light

Time to
Travel 1 km of
fiber

1310 nm

30
Modal Dispersion

† A. Modal Dispersion
Dispersion caused due to different paths the light rays take to travel
from one end to the other. This is prominent in Multi Mode Fibers.

Optical Paths MMF (Step Index)

Modal Difference
Difference
in
inarrival
arrival
times
times

Less zig – zag rays (lower order modes) travel a shorter distance. These
correspond to rays traveling almost parallel to the center line of the fiber and
reach the end of fiber sooner. The more zig-zag rays (higher order modes)
take a longer route as they pass along the fiber and so reach the end of the
fiber later.
Chromatic Dispersion: Each wavelength of light travels through the same
material at its own particular speed which is different from that of other
wavelengths.
For example, when white light passes through a prism some wavelengths of
light bend more because their refractive index is higher, i.e. they travel
slower. This is what gives us the "Spectrum" of white light. The "red' and
"orange" light travel slowest and so are bent most while the "violet" and
"blue" travel fastest and so are bent less. All the other colors lie in between.
This means that different wavelengths traveling through an optical fiber also
travel at different speeds. This phenomenon is called "Chromatic Dispersion".
Now:- Total dispersion = Chromatic dispersion + Multimode dispersion
Or put simply: for various reasons some components of a pulse of light
traveling along an optical fiber move faster and other components move
slower. So, a pulse which starts off as a narrow burst of light gets wider
because some components race ahead while other components lag behind,
rather like the runners in a marathon race. This spreads the wave and
causes dispersion.

31
Graded Index Fiber – less dispersion

Graded Index fiber causes a series of continuous micro refractions for any ray that
moves towards the cladding from the center of the core. This is because of the gradual
change of RI from center of the core towards the cladding. Ultimately the ray of light
experience TIR at a point where it’s incident angle is almost equal to 900 and thereby
turn back towards the center.
Secondly the speed of light is given as:
V= C/N
Where V= Speed of light in a medium
C = Speed of light in free space
N = Refractive Index of the medium
Therefore as the ray of light moves away from the center of the core towards the
cladding, it’s speed keeps increasing. And the speed keeps decreasing as it moves
back towards the center. As compared to this a ray of light that travels through the
center of the core all along will travel at the minimum speed (remember RI is highest at
the center of the core). Thus the ray that took a longer path would travel faster and
effectively take the same time to traverse the axial distance as that taken by the ray
which was traveling through the center.
Therefore in GI fiber although we find multiple modes, all the modes take equal time to
travel thereby minimising the effect of modal dispersion.

32
Chromatic Dispersion
B. Chromatic Dispersion
Dispersion caused due to the variation in velocities of different
wavelength w.r.t the refractive index of the material. This is prominent in
Single Mode Fibers.

Velocity = c =ƒ x λ
Wavelength: λ (nanometers)
Frequency: ƒ (tera hertz)

SMF
Wavelengths λ Difference
Difference
2
Chromatic λ1
in
inarrival
arrival
times
times

The difference in arrival times of the different components, would cause


the broadening of the signal at the receiving end, the result being
dispersion.

The Modal and Chromatic Dispersions can be visualized here.

The difference in arrival times of the different components


of the center wavelength (example: 1550 nm), would cause the broadening
of the signal at the receiving end, the result being dispersion.

33
Chromatic Dispersion
• Different frequency/ wavelength have different velocity of propagation
• A single pulse would have several wavelengths
• Each wavelength would travel at different speed
• Thereby causing Chromatic dispersion

The effect of different RI is that different wavelength will travel at different speed:
C, Speed of light in Free Space
Speed of light (wavelength λ1) = -----------------------------------------
RI of the medium for wavelength λ1

Thus even in a SMF, if the input pulse comprised different wavelength then it they will
travel at different speed and thereby reach the end of the fiber at different times.
Effectively there would be a small difference in time (few ps/km), if the input pulse
wavelengths are separated by a few nm like in a LASER. Nevertheless this appear as
dispersion, which can become significant in case of high BW signals.

34
FIBER DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS
G-652- NDSF - Good for short dist.(350 Km.)
-High disp. Loss at 1550- (DSF)- G653-Good
for single channel-
Four way mixing-
Cross talk-

20
Dispersion ps/nm-km

Wavelength
0
λ
1310 nm 1550nm

Reduced Dispersion Fibers - G-655 - NBB


Dispersion Shifted Fiber (DSF)
Non zero Dispersion Shifted Fibers (NZDSF)
No Four way mixing-No cross talk

G.651: For completeness, we probably ought to mention G.651. This is a multimode fiber with a 50 micron
core. It's not currently found much in telecom systems.
G.652 is the original single mode fiber with a simple step-index structure. It has zero chromatic dispersion
near 1310 nm It is Non Dispersion Shifted Fiber) and works very well at that wavelength. –Good for short
distance application . (up to 350 km), But the fiber's for long-reach systems –lowest loss wavelengths are
around 1550 nm .

G.653: Dispersion-shifted fiber was developed to address the conflict between best bandwidth at one
wavelength and lowest loss at another.
Zero chromatic dispersion was shifted up to 1550 nm to have the lowest losses in the fiber. The result? High-
bandwidth, long-distance transmission operating in the 1550 nm window. But there's a catch: G.653 only works
well for single-channel systems. The problem arises with G.653 in case of DWDM –because due to high
power concentration in the fiber core, - which in turn generates nonlinear effects. One of the most
troublesome, i.e.four-wave mixing, occurs ,in a DWDM system causing unacceptable cross talk and
interference between channels.

G.654 is a specialty fiber that was developed for subsea applications. It can handle higher power levels, having
a larger core area, but usually also has high chromatic dispersion at 1550 nm. It is not designed to
operate at 1310nm at all.

G.655: This was developed as a fiber type that's optimized for long-haul DWDM transmission at wavelengths of
around 1550 nm. It has a small, controlled amount of chromatic dispersion in the C-band – Between 1530
to 1560 nm, ( Zero dispersion at 1570 ) - where amplifiers work best, and has a larger core area than G.653
fiber. These characteristics solves problems of four-wave mixing - Cross talks and other nonlinear effects.
This fiber type is known as non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZDSF).

35
G. 652 FIBER
• Standard Single Mode Fiber-Step Indexed.

• Supports Two Windows : 1310nm & 1550nm.

• At Reliance 1310nm & 1550nm. band is implemented with Optical amplifiers.

• Regenerator needed for every five lengths (@ 300Km).

•Optical amplifiers are needed at each span of approx. 60Km.

•Dispersion compensation fiber –DCF- is required.

•1550nm can support up to 32 Lambda wave lengths for DWDM (Dense wave Division Multiplexing)
• The data rates per lambda are limited to 2.5Gbps.
• Total bit rate for 80 Lambda’s is 2.5 X 32Gbps. = 80 Gbps.

• Good for Short haul applications up to 350 - 400Km and Metro regions.
•This fiber is used for - CFity network – Access / SDCA routes

G.652: This is the original single mode fiber with a simple step-index structure.
It has zero chromatic dispersion near 1310 nm and works very well at that
wavelength. While this is fine for applications over moderate distances (up to
50 km), the fiber's lowest-loss wavelengths are around 1550 nm for long-
reach systems - which complicates things somewhat. Incidentally, the current
version of the ITU recommendation has three different grades of performance
specified for different applications.

e.g. G-652- MM – for city network - of various make - like Corning (Germany)
– Sterlite-RPG – Finolex – Tamilnadu Telecom Ltd (TTL) – BEOL (Birla
Erricson Optical Ltd.)

The ITU-T initially standardized G-652 SMF which counts more than 80 million
km of fibers installed in the world.

e.g. G-652- MM – for city network - of various make - like Corning (Germany) –
Sterlite-RPG – Finolex – Tamilnadu Telecom Ltd (TTL) – BEOL (Birla Erricson
Optical Ltd.)

36
NZDSF FIBER G 655
• Non Zero Dispersion Shifted fiber (NZDSF)
• Optimized to operate in the third window. : 1550nm
• Good for Long haul applications
• Regenerator needed for every five lengths (@ 300Km)
• Due to reduced attenuation ( 0.18 dB / km)& better linearity bit
rates of 10G bits and above can be supported per wave length.
• No Dispersion Compensation Fiber required.
• Total number of wave length supported is 80 Lambda.
• Recommendation: Good for Long haul applications – i.e.NBB routes

G.655: This was developed as a fiber type that's optimized for long-haul
DWDM (Dense wave Division Multiplexing) transmission at wavelengths of
around 1550 nm. It has a small, controlled amount of chromatic dispersion in
the C-band (1530-1560 nm), where amplifiers work best, and has a larger
core area than G.653 fiber. These characteristics combat the problems
associated with four-wave mixing and other nonlinear effects. This fiber type
is known as non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZDSF). e.g. Armoured –
Unitube black in colour - Corning (Germany) - Armoured – Unitube Tyco (
USA) - Unarmourered – Loose tube - OCC ( Farukowa-Japan) – Outer tube
Green / Inner sheath Black - Unarmourered – Loose tube OFS (USA)
NOTE: Large Effective Area Fiber (LEAF): An optical fiber, developed by
Corning, designed to have a large area in the core, which carries the light.
Lucent has developed True Wave Fiber for the same.
Types & make:
Armoured – Unitube black in colour - Corning (Germany)-
Armoured – Unitube Tyco ( USA)
Unarmourered – Loose tube - OCC ( Farukowa-Japan) – Outer tube
Green /
Inner sheath Black
Unarmourered – Loose tube OFS (USA)

37
TOPOLOGY

Module 2

38
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES

39
Mesh :- All to All contact possible

40
Exercise 2: Star vs Ring Topology
16
Let’s consider a location with 16 1
Access nodes, equidistant from a
Switch located at the center.

1. What would be the total


distance of media in
Star Topology:

2. What would be the total


media distance in Ring
Topology with two rings
as shown:

8
1) 16 R = 8D

2) II D + 2D = 5.14 D

41
Exercise 3: Star vs Ring Topology contd.
1 8
In a similar location let’s consider 8
Access nodes with a Switch located
at the center. Now:

1. What would be the total


distance of media in
Star Topology:

2. What would be the total


media distance in Ring
Topology with two rings
as shown:

5
4

1) Star - 8 R

2) Ring - 3.14 x2R + 4R = 10.28 R

42
• Total media distance is not Star vs Ring Topology
necessary more/ less for Star/ Ring
16
topology. 1

• It should be examined on a case


to case basis.

• In Star transmission remains


point to point between each node.
•In Star link failure is isolated.

• In Ring a Add-drop function/


technique is needed at each node.
• In Ring link failure needs to be
overcome by protection technique.

9
8

Although a major advantage, the Ring topology doesn’t necessarily reduce the amount of
media used in the network. In this example the length of media used in the Star topology
is 16r (r= radius of the circle, where the Access nodes are located, the Switch is located
at the centre). The length of the two Rings (not necessarily the only solution, you can
think of using just one ring as well) work out to 2*( 2r+ πr) ~10r. That is certainly less than
16r used in the Star topology. But if the number of nodes were say 6 or 8 (anything less
than 10) the media required in Star would have reduced to 6r or 8r, less than the Ring
topology.
The planners still prefer to go for the Ring, keep the future needs in mind.
The obvious advantage, it seems, is the availability of protection. But this needs examination.
In a Star topology if a link fails only one node is cut-off from the network, thereby
isolating the problem. In a Ring if a link fails, all the nodes which are beyond this link
would get cutoff thereby precipitating the problem. However, if you have the necessary
technique you can approach the cut-off nodes from the other side and continue to
communicate. As you can see the advantage of protection is only available if you have
the suitable technology to provide you the same and not by topology alone.
But the ring topology brings in it’s own complexity. The transmission is no more point-to-point
as in star. Information from the Switch to a Node x, has to travel to many other nodes
before reaching it’s destination. It also means each such set of info actually moves on the
ring with several other sets of info. How these information are picked up, added to the
collection and than segregated and delivered at the right node is the technology what we
will study in this course.

43
TECHNOLOGY

Module 3

Type in 'MIT Open University' in Google and find a large amount of PDF documents
from MIT electrical eng department and from Sloan business School

44
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Human Voice ranges from 300 - 3300 Hz, needs to be sampled at least at double
that rate to be re-created faithfully (Nyquist Principle.). So 8000 samples are taken
per second for each voice signal.

01110010100011101110

1 sample every 125 µs ⇔ 8000 samples/ s. 1 sample = 8 bit information

8000 samples/s = 64,000 bits/ s = 64 kbps

We need to take atleast 8000 samples to faithfully recreate human voice, meaning one sample
takes 125 µs - to transmit. As we take a 8 bit / sample we get 64,000 bits (64 kbps) to be
transmitted per second. A single channel of Voice needs 64 kbps to communicate. i.e. in a second–
Talking capacity -Data transfer capacity of each individual is 64kbps
125 micro sec. FRAME - -can be compared with - - - - - - - TRAIN
– 32 channels - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -BOGGIE
– 8 bits = are comparable to - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -Passengers
This 64 kbps is called a DS0 (Digital Signal Zero). –Data speed of Individual
For Video conference we need 60 Mbps. In Japan each gets 100Mbps
.Each sample time duration of 125 microseconds is called FRAME (e.g. train)
i.e. 8000 Frames / samples per second

Time Division Multiplexing - TDM


During 125 micro seconds-the person will be talking for 3.9 micro seconds only.
During rest of the time we can send 31 more signals each of 8 bits.i.e.125 micro seconds is divided
into 32 slots / channels ( e.g. boggies) & is called TDM
i.e. 32 person can talk – one by one - within 125 microseconds
i.e. When we get sufficient 64 kbps channels(DS0),we bunch 32 DS0 &transmit them at the gap of
125 Microsecond.
Each channel is called as Eo.
Each frame E1 carries 32 E0 / channels - each channels of 8 bits .
Total data transferred per second = 32 x (8bits x 8000 samples/sec.)
Band width =2,048,000 bits / second = 2.048 Mbps = E1
45
Digital Signal – Time Division Multiplexing - TDM

U1: Framing Alignment


DS0 (64 kbps) Time Division E1 (2.048 Mbps)
Multiplexer
Signal

U2: Traffic

32:1 Multiplexer
U3: Traffic

U4: Traffic

U16: Signaling

U32: Traffic

8*32 bits/ 125 µs X 8000 (samples/sec.)


= 2.048 Mbps

Two person can talk on a same fiber at the same time – Multiplexing
- may be on diff. Frequency - FDM
- May be with diff. Code. (diff. language Gujarati-Hindi-Marathi – English - CDM
- May be at diff. Time – i.e. time division Multiplexing – TDM
During 125 micro seconds - the person will be talking for 3.9 micro seconds only.
During rest of the time we can send 31 more signals each of 8 bits.i.e.125 micro seconds is divided into 32
slots / channels ( e.g. bogies) & is called TDM
i.e. 32 person can talk – one by one - within 125 microseconds
Out of 32 channels –
1st i.e 0th channel is reserved for Isolation / Frame Alignment signal (FAS). It
Indicates starting of next frame.
16th channel is reserved for SIGNALING ( about starting of call & End of call)
Rest of the 30 channel are for Speech or Data (PAY LOAD).e.g. Fruit hawker with Fruits
(Payload) in a basket (Overhead)
However, as the golden rule of 125 µs remains, when we multiplex 32 channels we get 32*8 bits to be
transmitted within the same time. Thus the bandwidth of an E1 signal becomes 32*8*8000/s = 2.048 Mbps
and not just 64 kbps.
The Multiplexer is a device, which takes one Byte (8 bits) of each of the 32 channels per 125 microsecond,
one at a time, and transmits the same. Thus an E1 appear as a bit-stream with 32 words or 256 bits in every
125 µs.
While DS0 is the least measurement for “line” (customer connection),
E1 is the least / Primary measurement for the “trunk” (network connection).
Multiplexing gives one great advantage – you can use one trunk line instead of 32, that saves lot of copper.

46
Analog to Digital Conversion (after each 125 µ Sec)

375 µ Sec
250
125
000 255
223
191
159
191
127 179
95
63
95
31
0
21
00010101
01011111
10111111
10110011 00010101
01011111
10111111
10110011 00010101
01011111
10111111
10110011 00010101
01011111
10111111
10110011

1ST VOICE AT 0 Micro seconds


2nd VOICE AT 125 Micro seconds
3rd VOICE AT 250 Micro seconds
4th VOICE AT 375 Micro seconds

Analog :- Continuous discrete signal


e.g. mother says child has a fever.( it does not give any idea about temp).
Digital : - Scaling the signal, -Quantifing the value.

47
E1 Multiplexer

µ Sec
TS0
TS1
TS2

TS15 TS29
TS16
TS15
TS17
TS30
TS31
TS2 TS29
TS1
TS0 TS15
TS16
TS30
TS1
TS0
TS2TS29
TS17
TS15
TS0
TS1
TS16
TS17
TS2 TS16
TS0
TS15
TS17
TS1
TS2 TS15
TS16
TS0
TS1
TS2TS15
TS0
TS1
TS2 TS0
TS1
TS2 TS0
TS1 TS0
TS16
TS17

TS29

TS30

TS31

For 125 Microsecond frame- Each channel carries 8 bits-i.e. total 32 channels
For our networking each DS0 is 64 kbps
If 96 channels are to be accommodated then we need 3 E1

But at Access level / Local level –It happens that data speed of 64 kbps-allotted to
one customer may be divided among more then one customer by the local network
operator to earn more revenue -Ultimately each customer gets the less speed

48
Digital Signal (DSn) Multiplexing - P D H

Obviously E1 is not good enough, as in urban locations and now even in rural areas, 30-
32 DS0’s mean very little. Take a small housing complex in any small city. A 7 storied
building with 2 wings, 4 flats per wing per floor would have more than 30 lines. Take 16
such buildings, you would need 16 E1’s. Do we lay 16 trunk lines for 16 E1’s. No we
further multiplex.
P D H signals used at Customer Level.
The Multiplexing of 4 E1’s to give an E2 is called Bit Interleaving, where other than the
four E1’s, four DS0 signal channels are also added and multiplexing is done bit by bit with
stuffing bits added to take care of real time differences.
Similarly four E2’s and another 9 DS0 signaling channels are multiplexed to give an E3. &
multiplexing 4 E3 makes E4.

PDH has the variation +/- 50 p.p.m.


Rx (Receiver) will adjust his clock as per data received from Tx (Transmitter).
The relation is like Table player (Tx) & Kathak dancer (Rx), when Kathak dancer can
not synchronize her steps with Tabla player ,it results into slip i.e. +/- 50 p.p.m.
Stuffing bits are required as different E1’s coming from different multiplexers are expected
to be out of sync by a few bits.

49
Exercise

1. What is voice sampling Frequency __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


2. How many bits / channel / 125 micro sec. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3. What is channel bit rate (data speed). _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _
4. What is time duration of each Frame _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
5. How many slots / Frame _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _
6. Number of bits per Frame _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ __ _
7. Time slot value of each channel in a Frame _ _ _ _ _ _ _
8. What is the bit rate of TDM signal. __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _

50
Unipolar and Bipolar signals

0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0

UNIPOLAR SIGNAL

0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0

BIPOLAR SIGNAL
RETURN TO ZERO
(RZ)

While signal as converted from analog to digital in the first place, to reduce noise and
attenuation issues, research has shown that there can be several ways of
transmitting digital signals itself to make further improvement in reliable
transmission.
1. Unipolar

2. Bipolar – In case of Bipolar signals there are two signal carrying wires, each one is
equally susceptible to noise. Thereby the noise pick-up in both the wires cancel
each other as the signal is the voltage difference between the two wires.

Another issue is that of synchronization, when one node tries to synchronize with
respect to the other using the incoming bit stream. A PLL (Phase Local loop ) at
the receiver keeps tracking the rising/ falling edges to generate a local clock.
However, if the bit stream have continuous 0’s or 1’s, then the PLL losses track. To
avoid this happening, signals are continuously returned to zero voltage level.

51
CODING METHODS - Automatic Mark Inversion (AMI)
Alternate 1’s are made (+V) and (-V), 0’s are kept as 0.

• Only half pulse-width is used to transmit +/-V.

• Prevents droop in the line because maximum time spent at +/-V is 1/2 pulse.

+V

0 time

-V 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 : Transmitted data

Having arrived at the Bi-polar Return to Zero technique, the next obvious effort was to
reduce the total number of switching at the transmitter. As number of switching
proportionately increases the heat dissipation, it was essential to reduce this for faster
transmission.
To achieve lesser number of switching a novel coding technique was evolved. Only the
1’s were transmitted as +V/-V and 0’s were transmitted as zero-volt. Thus number of
switching was reduced to the number of 1’s transmitted (on average you can expect
50% of bits are 1’s and rest are 0’s, thus switching losses is reduced to half).
With AMI therefore alternate 1’s were transmitted as +V and –V, and 0’s are
transmitted as 0v.

52
CODING METHODS - High Density Bi-polar-Three-zero (HDB3)
1’s & 0’s are transmitted like AMI, until four 0’s are encountered.

• But set of four 0’s are substituted by 0’s and B (balance) & V (violation) pulses.

• If odd number of 1’s precede four 0’s - transmit three 0’s followed by V-pulse (0 0 0 V)
• If even number of 1’s precede four 0’s - transmit B-pulse, two 0’s, V-pulse ( B 0 0 V)

• Polarity of B & V-pulses would be depend on the last pulse.

+V

1 B V 1

0 Time

1 V 1 1 B V

-V 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 : Data

V-pulse B-pulse V-pulse B-pulse V-pulse

AMI would bring back the old problem of synchronisation, in case of a long string of 0’s
the receiver PLL will lose track.
To overcome this a variant of AMI was proposed called HDB3.
In this normal 1’s and 0’s are transmitted like AMI.
If after cont. odd number of 1 when 4 0’s are found in a row, the last 0 (I.e. 4th 0 in
a row ) is transmitted as 1( Violating Pulse ) on them same side of last 1 pulse. The
polarity of this V- pulse would be same as that of the last pulse (corresponding to the
last 1) transmitted. .(Generally all 1 will be alternate but in this case , after 3 0
there is 1 but on the same side , There by there would be a violation of AMI code,
hence Receiver will identify as V-pulse & will is decoded as a 0 at the receiver.
If there are contineous 4 0’s,after contineous even no. of 1 - then both a Violation
pulse (for 4th 0) and a Balancing pulse (for 1st 0 in the row of 4 0’s) are transmitted.
These B & V pulse are on the same side There by there would be a violation of
AMI code, hence Receiver will identify as B Pulse & V-pulse & will is decoded
as a 0 at the receiver.

53
Error Checking – Parity Bit
Error Checking
• Tools that enables the RECEIVER to check if error has occurred in transmission.
• Is applied over a collection of transmitted bits called PAYLOAD.
• In case of error, the entire Payload is identified to have error,
specific error bit is not detected.
• Error codes are added on top of payload and hence form part of OVERHEAD.

Parity bit/ flag


• One bit flag indicating, the number of 1’s in a payload is odd or even.

• Receiver can check the same upon receiving the payload


and detect if any bit has changed.
• Parity check would fail if two bits change (0 to 1 or vise-versa)
• To minimise the chance of two bit error, parity is applied to small payloads.

54
Cyclic Redundancy Code – for PDH

Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) is generated by mathematical


calculation on a block of data so as to return a code which uniquely
represents the content & organization of the block. It’s like a fingerprint.

Like fingerprint, CRC is used to check the integrity of data transmitted on


any medium.

The Transmitting party (A) calculates CRC for 8 frames-( adds the CRC
with the block of data)-& transmits immediately after those 8 Frames. This
CRC is transmitted after each 8 frames.

The Receiving party (B) calculates the CRC on the block of data, as
received, and cross-checks with the CRC received.

If both of them match the data received is taken to be authentic.

These CRC is for PDH only

55
Plesionchronous: Near Synchronous
PDH allows +50 ppm inaccuracy in the timings of the E1 Trans-receivers.
Which means a Transmitter may transmit all 256 bits in <125 µs and the
Receiver keep receiving bits for >125 µs, thereby receiving >256 bits!

E1
125 µs - ∆

125 µs + ∆

E1

Over a period of time the two will loose track of what is transmitted or received.

Consider this with another fact: the end elements/ nodes are allowed to have an
inaccuracy in the basic clock to the extent of 50 ppm. This standard is called the
Plasiochronous Digital Hierarchy. Plasio, meaning near in greek, synchronous digital
hierarchy.
What it means is that the transmitting nodes 125 µs and that of the receiving node
may not match. Consider a case where the Transmitter’s clock is a little faster and
the Receiver’s clock is a little slower, the transmitter would transmit it’s 256 bits in
125 µs – ∆ time, while the receiver continue to receiver the bits at the same faster
rate for 125 µs i.e it receives more then 256 bits in 125 micro seconds.
Meaning thereby the number of pulses transmitted in a 125 µs time frame may be
more/ less than what would be received. To avoid slippage to to these the PDH
technique uses bit stuffing – adding or deleting dummy bits to take care of the
slowness or fastness of individual clocks.

56
Exercise 3: Plesionchronous Slip
PDH allows +50 ppm inaccuracy in the timings of the E1 Trans-receivers.
Consider a E1 Transmitter transmits frame in 125 µs - ∆ and the Receiver
receives in 125 µs + ∆ ( ∆ corresponds to the +50 ppm inaccuracy).
Thereby how many bits slip would occur over a period of 1s.

Please
1. calculate
An E1 for yourself:
Trans-receiver transmits/ receives @ 2,048,000 bits per second.
2. Transmitter is transmitting for 50 µs less over 1s (50 ppm of 1s is 50 µs).
3. The Receiver receives for 50 µs more time.
4. Total slip duration is 100 µs.
5. Total slip = 2,048,000 *100 /1000,000 = 204.8 bits

Transmitter will transmit 2.048 Mbps + 100 bits per second as it transmitts 2.048
Mbps in time (125 ms – D) x 8000 that will be 100 bits more. Receiver clock is
Slow so it continues receiving at the same rate (2.048 Mbps + 100 bits) per second .
But the receiver clock is slow –i.e.it will receive it for the time period (125 ms + D) x
8000 = 2.048+100+100

You may have observed that the maximum slip would be about 205 bits over 1s for a
E1 line. As 8000 frames are transmitted over 1s, you would not get to see a bit
mismatch in every frame. However, over 40 frames (in the extreme case as in this
example) 1 bit slip might occur.

57
Bit Stuffing
The faster multiplexer adds stuffing bytes:
(+)

E1
125 µs

125 µs

E1

(-)

The slower one can remove them.

To avoid this slippage, PDH equipment use a method of synchronization called Bit
Stuffing. In this method one of the two equipment is identified as Master and the other
one as Slave. The Master’s clock is assumed to be more accurate and thereby taken
as reference. The slave senses the Master’s clock and identifies if it is faster or slower.
In the example above the Slave being faster, does the following during transmission:
• The Transmitter transmits it’s 256 bits and then adds an extra bit to make up for the
time left (the transmitting side being faster, some time will be left after tansmitting it’s
frame w.r.t. the receiver’s frame)
• This extra bit is called Filler Bit, the process is called Bit Stuffing
• The Receiver, upon receiving the 256 bits of the frame, discards this extra bit thereby
matching up with it’s own time.

58
Digital Multiplexing - Standards - PDH

PDH comprises of E1 – E2 – E3 – E4 – E5 - Used by the Customer

Where as SDH comprises of STM-1 , STM – 4 , STM – 16 ,STM –64 ,

PDH clock accuracy = +/- 50ppm


SDH clock accuracy = 10-11

59
European Hierarchy
E1

E3

E4

Digital Signal Bit Rate (Mbps) Eqv. DS0 Media


DS0 .064 1 Twisted Pair
E1 2.048 30+2 Twisted Pair
E2 8.448 120+8+4 Twisted Pair
E3 34.368 Mbps 480+32+25 Twisted Pair
E4 139.264 1920+128+100 Optical Fiber

Now consider this: PDH, which was essentially designed to use copper as the media,
runs into a roadblock at the higher bandwidths.
Electrical cables have this characteristic that the product of bandwidth carried in a
cable and the distance to which it can be transmitted reliably is constant. Which means
if we transmit higher bandwidth, we can do so over a shorter distance. Beyond which
we have to regenerate the signal.
Now consider this: in practical implementation we require E1’s in the local loop (1-2
km), E3’s in the LE to TAX (5-200 km) and E4’s in TAX to ILD GW (100 – 1000 km).
Simply put we use lower bandwidth at short distances and higher bandwidths over long
distances.
While for an E3, we may use regenerators for E4 it becomes impractical to use electric
media any more. The obvious choice is OFC.

60
Legacy Transmission System
As would be evident from the illustration below, extraction/ addition of
individual channel (E1) from/ to a higher level signal (say E4) is very
complicated, needing dedicated Multiplexers and Demultiplexers.

E3
140
34
140 140
E4 140
34
M E4
M
E2
8 34

34 8
E1
2 8

8 2

Customer

In legacy Plesionchronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH), while E1’s are multiplexed to give
E2, E2’s to give E3 and so on, the method used is that of Bit interleaving. This is done
to take care of mismatch in timings of various E1’s. As you can see E1’s coming from
various concentrators could have a large tolerance in their timing. Meaning thereby
when you receive all the 32 bits of one E1 you may have received only 31 or even 33
bits of another E1. Only way out was to do bit stuffing. The problem is same when we
multiplex E2’s or E3’s. So further bit stuffing is applied. In turn we keep losing the
identity of individual E1’s. If we consider each E1 as an envelope with 30 lines of
message from 30 voice channels, then while we bit interleave and bit stuff, the
envelope losses it’s identity and 30 lines of this one E1 gets mixed with 30 others and
more lines.

In the entire system if an E4 is routed from point A to B and an E1 out of this E4 is to


be dropped or added at an intermittent point C, then the entire E4 needs to be de-
multiplexed to give away one E1 and re-multiplexed to add an E1. This made Ring
topology unviable with PDH.

61
Limitation of Plesiochronous Transmission

1. Ideally suited to star topology - not for Ring network.

2. Clock information derived from Incoming data.No Central Clock.


Clock Accuracy +/- 50 ppm

3. Dropping or adding E1’s or any trunk in between is cumbersome and costly


Ideal till the medium is Copper – Capacity constraint – 34 Mbps.

4. Limited to sub- Gigabit transmission on copper. Capacity improvement


difficult & costly

5. Not easily scaleable (expandable to higher capacity)

6. In-compatibility between variants (Europe, NA, etc.)

Limitation of PDH arises from the bit interleaving which makes extracting or adding a
lower order trunk between two points very cumbersome. Thus it was ideal for point to
point transmission, where all the DS0’s and E1’s are multiplexed at one point (normally
at customer locations) and demultiplexed at the switch and vice versa. Similar
multiplexing of E1’s and E2’s are done at class 5 switches and carried to a class 4
switch, where they are demultiplexed.

Adding further capacity was also difficult requiring addition of large multiplexers, thus
increasing demand for bandwidth PDH became less viable.

PDH ideal for a star like configuration. Also it was ideal as long as the medium was
copper. But as the demand for bandwidth increased it was evident that OFC would be
the medium of choice and Ring configuration would be more viable.

Finally PDH was limited to sub-Gigi bit per second transmission making it unrealistic for
modern day needs. Thus a new standard was born.

PDH clock accuracy = +/- 50ppm


SDH clock accuracy = 10-11

62
Review
1. How many VC-12 frames are required to form a Multi-frame. …………

2. Which bit in V5 indicates parity error. ……………

3. ……… TU-12’s are multiplexed to form a TUG-2

4. Which of these bytes carry CRC in Higher Order Path Overhead. ……..

5. A Virtual Container numbered J2K210 can only be a VC-……

6. A AU Pointer is required to indicate offset between_______&_______

7. How many bytes are used in MSOH of STM-1 frame for DCC ………

8. A Regenerator section is between two Regen’s or between a ……….. and a _____.

9. Which of these bytes carry CRC in Lower Order Path Overhead. ……..

10. -----&------Bytes of Automatic path Swiching.

11. In the RIC NW ----- Ring uses DWDM & ----- ring uses SDH.

12. At MAN & BANM location we find----&------at Core MCN

A )Find the odd manout from each of 3 bunch given below


• 4
• REI
• 3
• J1

Find the odd man out


5) VC-2 as E1 is not mentioned.
6) STM – 1 & VC-4
7) 9
8) Regen & ADM\
9) J2

Find the odd man out


10) K1&K2
11) Express & Collector
12) Regen & ADM
13) ADM & DX

63
SYNCHRONOUS
DIGITAL
HEIRARCHY
(S D H)
Module 4

64
SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HEIRARCHY - SDH

STM = Synchronous Transport Module


STS = Synchronous Transport Schedule
SONET = Synchronous Optical Network

European std.s Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) and it’s North American
counterpart SONET proposes a transport system with highly synchronised network
elements and OFC as the physical media. Thereby the concept of bit-interleaving is
replaced by a Byte interleaved system. Also the bandwidths are defined upto much
higher range making it suitable for modern data & broadband communication.

SDH/ SONET defines to types of “packaging” – one for the electrical network called
Synchronous Transmission Module/ System (STM-n/ STS-n) and another for the
optical network called Transport Unit (TU-n)/ Optical Carrier (OC-n).

STM-n has now been defined from STM-1 (63 E1’s) to STM-64 (4032 E1’s). Proposal
for STM-256 is under examination for standardising. That would take us to an amazing
40 Gbps.

Technically there is no difference between SDH and SONET. Some terms differ and
some details in Overhead definitions defer but that doesn’t come in the way of making
these to standards compatible to each other.

65
Synchronous Transfer Module - Overheads

Error detection
Information Container
+ stuffing=C12
+ & NMS OH’s

Virtual
Container

Large Virtual Small Virtual


Container Containers

SDH technique is like that of a courier company. It takes E1’s and puts them neatly into
small boxes called Virtual Containers (VC-12) complete with details like where it come
from and where it should go (Path Overhead). These VC-12’S are then packed into
bigger boxes called VC-2 or VC-3. Finally they are put in a Container called TU and put
on a Carrier.
The Carrier have all details like Path OH, Section OH and Line OH. These OH’s not
only conveys where these goods are to be delivered but also all such information like
faults and alarms of the transport highway.

66
SDH Transportation Process

VC
VC
VC
VC

TU TU
TU TU

Administrative Unit Section OH’s

Synchronous Transfer Module

As one Carrier leaves Hyderabad and reach Mumbai, another one gets ready. At
Mumbai we can add one more Container set and pack it off to Ahmedabad. At
Ahmedabad the required boxes of VC are downloaded and some may be loaded and
the Carrier moves on to the next destination.

67
SDH Transportation Process Path Overhead
Mumbai

TU TU

TU TU

Nagpur

TU TU

TU TU

TU TU

TU TU
TU TU

TU TU
Pune

Hyderabad
STM Ring

In fact you can visualize four trucks at four locations all loading, unloading their
respective VC’s and then setting off to the next location.

68
VIRTUAL CONTAINER & TRIBUTARY UNIT

VC VC
VC
VC VC VC
VC VC
VC VC
VC
VC

TU TU TU TU TU TU TU TU TU TU
TU TU TU TU TU TU TU TU TU TU

125 µs
Hyderabad Mumbai Ahmedabad
VC
VC VC
VC
VC VC
VC

These packaging, packing and sending happens in the time slot of 125 µs. The timings
of each Carrier is monitored as per an accurate clock based on Atomic Clock or GPS.
And as all VC’s are neatly labeled, it is possible to pull out even a small box from the
huge container.

69
SDH Multiplexing Structure

+2 +1 +1
POH Pointer
E1 C12 VC12 TU12
32 Bytes 36X3 Legend
34 35 36
TUG2 C - Container
+1 +1 +1 108 VC - Virtual Container
POH Pointer TU - Tributary Unit
T1 C11 VC11 TU11 27X4 TUG - Tributary Unit Group
24 Bytes 25 26 27 AU - Administrative Unit
TUG2 AUG - AU Group
108
STM - Synchronous Transport Module
E1 - has 30 Bytes known as Pay Load
POH Pointer for which customer pays & the
T2 C2 VC2 TU2 company earn the revenue for the
same

Before we look at the big and the jumbo boxes, lets see how your small E1 is packed in a TU12.
Stuffing / Justification :
32 Eo makes E1. The 32 bytes of an E1 (in a time frame of 125 µs) is called the Payload. In
PDH data of each E1 is varying in speed / size. Therefore may or may not provide exactly
32 bytes within 125 micro second slot. We may receive slightly more or less bytes
i.e.E1 = 2.048Mbps +/- 50 ppm = 2,048,000bps+/-100bits . Now if we want to pack it in a
container (C12) , The size of a container should be some what bigger to accommodate this
variation. Hence the
the container C12 is so selected that it can accommodate additional 2 bytes i.e. total 34
Bytes.i.e. when E1 is packed in a container 2 Bytes are added to it (Cushioning) & is known
as C12 (A Synchronous container)
These 2 bytes are known as Justification / stuffing Bytes .It may contain Data, It may not
contain data ,it can be dummy / redundant. These take care of any disparity in the Real Time
Clock of the E1 sources and the SDH equipment.
Whenever it is + , Additional 2 bytes can accommodate it ,But when LESS ,We need some
packing i.e. these two will be used as dummy bites to maintain the packet size .
– It is shown as S1 & S2 & is indicated by C1-C2.
If E1> 2.048Mbps then S1/ S2 will be Data .Then C1/C2 =1
If E1< 2.048Mbps then S1/ S2 will be Packing .Then C1/C2 = 0
From the value of C1&C2 , Receiver will come to know whether S1,S2 is to be retained or to be
thrown out.
Then we add One byte which carry the Path Overhead. POH carry the information about
sender and destination addresses-along with other details. These details are added at
starting point (Transmitter end) & checked at Receiver end. Now it is known as VC12
Then we add One byte which carry the Pointer & is known as Tributary 12-TU12
TU 12 = 32 (E1) +2 stuffing +1 Path over head + 1 Pointer =36 Bytes &
time permitted is 125 Micro sec .

70
VIRTUAL CONTAINER (VC12) – Multiframe -POH

K4

VC-12 Path R R R R R R R R
Overhead N2
R R R R R R R R
32 Bytes
J2
Payload
R R R R R R R R
32 Bytes (256 bits)
V5
Payload
R R R R R R R R
32 Bytes (256 bits) R R R R R R R R
Payload
32 Bytes (256 bits) R R R R R R R R
Payload
(256 bits) R R R R R R R R

R R R R R R R R

Stuffing Bits

VC-12 Multi frame - It is combination of 4 E1 frame, each of 125 Micro sec .i.e. A
Multi frame takes 500 micro sec. for transmitting.

V5, J2, N2 and K4 together carry 4 byte (1- POH Byte of each frame) . 4 such VC-
12’s form a VC-12 Multi frame. A Multi frame takes 0.5 micro second for transmitting.
Path Over Head: A Circuit joining joining two Main station (node) that passes through
number of intermediate nodes.
The extra information related with the path is generated at originating point – remains
throughout-& processed at Terminating Point is called as Path Over Head
In SDH some capacity is reserved for carring / monitoring &Management information
related with the path.This extra information like where it come from & where it should
go is called POH (Path over head)
It allows checking of
a) The quality of overall end to end transmission.
b)The existance of a path between two terminating points.
c) It allows remote end (Receiver) to communicate to the transmitter end that
there is trouble with the signal received.
When received by Receiver it gives a complete POH with Starting point & End point
address along with other other information.

71
VC-12 Multiframe & POH
V5
RRRRRRRR
VC-12 Path
Overhead 32 BYTE 125 µs
PAYLOAD
FRAME 1

V5 RRRRRRRR Provision for


J2 Justification
R R R R R R R R C1 C2 OOOO RR
bits is kept to
32 BYTE take care of 2
32 Bytes PAYLOAD Mbps + 50PPM
FRAME 2
frames
Payload
RRRRRRRR 500 µs
(256 bits) N2
C1 C2 OOOO RR

R R R R R R R R 32 BYTE
PAYLOAD
FRAME 3

RRRRRRRR Justification
Stuffing K4 Bits
Bits C1 C2 OOOO RS1
S2
31 7/8 BYTE
PAYLOAD
FRAME 4

RRRRRRRR

VC-12 Multi frame - It is combination of 4 E1 frame, each of 125 Micro sec .i.e. A
Multi frame takes 500 micro sec. for transmitting.

V5, J2, N2 and K4 together carry 4 byte (1- POH Byte of each frame) . 4 such VC-12’s
form a VC-12 Multi frame. A Multi frame takes 0.5 micro second for transmitting.
N2 is used to monitor Tandem connections. When two network Operators
(e.g.BSNL & RIC) connects their networks, they would like to know the quality of
signal they are exchanging. N2 offers such facilities.

K4 - was reserved for future use in 1998 but after 2003 started using it for
Automatic protection Switching.
Automatic Path Switching will occur within 50 mili seconds.

72
LOWER ORDER PATH OVERHEAD

BIP: Bit Interleaved Parity to check parity at the remote end

REI: Remote Error Indication to indicate parity error from remote end

RDI: Remote Defect Indication to indicate other failures from remote end
RFI: Remote Failure Indication to indicate loss of signal from remote end
Signal Label: Type of payload to indicate type of payload to remote end

V5 contains the following information:


1&2) BIP2 2 bits Bit Interleaved Parity Error monitoring
1 indicates whether the sum of all odd bits is Even (or Odd as per standard)
2 indicates whether the sum of all Even bits is Even .
3) REI 1 bit Remote Error Indication Indicate BIP error
If the bits received are Odd, It is Error then Receiver will transmit REI as 1 to transmitter
If the bits received are EVEN –ok-then Receiver will transmit REI as 0 to transmitter.
4) RFI 1 bit Remote Failure Indication.
If the Error continues for more than Pre set time , Then receiver end will transmits Remote Failure
Indication ( RFI )- value 1 - to transmitter end.-Not used at Reliance
5-6-7) Signal Label 3 bits Indicates type of Pay load
Unequipped - no load –Tributary not connected – value will be 000.
Framed load – Voice , Unframed load – Data , E1 ,
ATM (Asynchronous transfer mode) – At Reliance we don’t use it.
8) RDI 1 bit Remote Defect Indication – Indicates error other then Parity Error e.g.
Signal level mismatch or Path label mismatch

73
LOWER ORDER PATH OVERHEAD
1st Byte: CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check
applicable to 32 bytes *4 *16 = 2048 bytes

2nd – 15th Byte: Path Trace – predefined string


attached by transmitter and checked by receiver

J2: Path Trace N2: Tandem Connection K4: Future

Each J2 is for Path Tracing Indication (Path Over head) It is having 16 bytes (Character) i.e
one byte per 0ne multi frame i.e Each J2 is valid for following 16 multi frames
= 16 x (125 microseconds x 4frames ) = 8000micro seconds = 8 mili seconds data .

J2 is used for lower order Path Trace. Each J2 is described in 16 Characters


1st J2 byte carry CRC value for path details described in remaining 15 characters. Rest 15 bytes
carries path details of starting point to End point. Transmitter will send J2 . So receiver ( Path
End point / Terminating ADM ) will start reading it after CRC e.g.

C D A K C M U M B A I - P U N E
R
C

If there is no change in path trace

74
SYNCHRONISING VC-12 WITH TU12

Pointer (V3) Pointer (V2) Pointer (V1)

VC12 VC12 VC12 VC12

125 µs 125 µs 125 µs

Synchronous Frame
Plesiochronous Frame Offset

VC Size
V1 V2
NNNN XX ID I D I D I D I D

10 bit Pointer

TU12 has 1 Byte as a Pointer . It identifies starting point of VC12 w.r.t. Frame
It gives details about Off set & becomes Tributory.
Multi frame is a combination of such 4 frames. Hence it has 4 Bytes as Pointer
& is known as V1 , V2, V3, & V4.
V1 & V2 act as Pointer = 16 Bytes, V3 = Pointer Justification , V4 = not used.
1st 4 Bites of V1 is used for indicating the status of Pointer-Known as NDF i.e. New
Data Flag.
1st 4 Bytes of V1 is used for indicating the status of Pointer.
a) If it is a new / Fresh Payload Then valued as 1001
B) If is a conitinuation of old Payload - Then valued as 0110
Pointer value can be changed only after 40 frames .The old pointer continues till it is
changed.
5th & 6th bytes i.e. 2 Bytes - indicates type of Load - i.e. Standard
American – TU 2 - Value 00
European - TU 12 - Value 10 - Used at Reliance
Japanese - Tu-11 - Value 11
Rest of the 10 Bytes will indicate (In Binary Form) position of Starting Point of of
VC12 ( Path lable J2 ) from pointer.

75
SYNCHRONISING VC – 12 WITH TU12

Synchronous Frames
K4

34 BYTE 125 µs

V5 V3
V5
34 BYTE
34 BYTES
500 µs Position of a
J2 V4
J2 VC12’s within
34 BYTE TU12’s is known
34 BYTES only after
VC12’s TU12’s receiving both V1
N2 V1
N2 & V2
34 BYTE
34 BYTE

V2
K4

34 BYTE

Plesiochronous Frames

To understand Pointer –
e.g. where you have two watches in your house – one a perfect clock and another one
which keep getting fast or slow. Once in a while you match these with a time signal
(lets say from NTP or GPS). The first one keep perfect time, so if you tally it’s time after
a few days with the time signal again, you would see no difference. But the second one
keeps drifting back or forward (depends on whether it is slow or fast). Now instead of
trying to resetting the 2nd watch every now and then, you normally keep in your
memory a time diff. which tells you how fast/ slow is this second watch.
The same thing -happens with the SDH equipment, which have a perfect clock (1st) –
aligned with some Primary Reference Clock, because the payload they receive , are
from PDH equipment, which are allowed their own clock (2nd). To take care of this
SDH forms - a synchronous frame (Tributary Unit) and allows the Virtual Container to
“float” freely in this frame. To keep a reference the VC is pointed by a POINTER, which
is put inside the TU along with the VC.

In case of TU-12, one byte (name V1, V2, V3 in successive frames) is added on top of
the 35 Bytes of VC-12. However, V1 and V2 jointly provides a 16 bit pointer, which as a
standard is used for all VC’s upto VC-3 (AU-3). Each count of the Pointer means an
offset of 1byte (in case of AU-4, 1 count = 3 byte).

76
77
11
11
21
11
21
31
11
21
31
41
11
21
31
41
51
11
21
31
41
51
61
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
TUG3

11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
42
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
42
52
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
42
52
62
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
42
52
62
72
Packet (7E2 to E3)

11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
42
52
62
72
13
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
42
52
62
72
13
23
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
42
52
62
72
13
23
33
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
42
52
62
72
13
23
33
43
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
42
52
62
72
13
23
33
43
53
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
42
52
62
72
13
23
33
43
53
63
21
11
31
41
51
61
71
12
22
42
52
62
72
13
23
33
43
53
63
73
73
11
31
21
41
51
61
71
12
22
32
42
62
52
72
13
23
33
43
53
63
X7=
E1 – TUG 2 TO TUG 3 Multiplexing

7th raw (E2) -3rd E1


2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
1
1
2 1

13 means = 1st raw (E2) -3rd E1


= 2nd raw (E2) -1st E1
= 3rd raw (E2) 1st E1
11 means - = 1st raw (E2) -1st E1

= 1st raw (E2) - 2nd E1


7th raw (E2) – 2nd E1

= 7th raw (E2) – 2nd E1


2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

E1 X 3 = TUG2
1
2
3

6
7
4
5

=
1
2
3
1
2
3

71 =
21

73
31

12

72
41
61

22
52
62

23

53
Grouping of TU12’s into TUG2’s
TU12 #1 #2 #3 TU12 #4 #5 #6 TU12 #19 #20 #21

TUG2 #1 TUG2 #2 TUG2 #7

To visualize how many TU-12’s are multiplexed, we will represent the TU-12 ( 36
Bytes) in a 9*4 frame where each cell represents a Byte. That’s because now on
whatever frames we talk about (be it TUG-2, TUG-3, VC-3 or VC-4) all of these are of
sizes which are in multiples of 9. By using a 9*N frame for each one of these we would
have to remember only the value of N as 9 is constant in all of them.
Now consider 21 TU-12’s formed to carry 21 E1’s. 3 TU-12’s can be grouped to form
a TUG-2 (9*12 frame) by Byte-interleaved multiplexing. I.e. instead of a bit interleaved
method we would transmit one byte from each of the 3 TU-12’s at a time.
This process will give us 7 TUG-2’s, which can be further multiplexed into a TUG-3
(9*84 frame).

TUG 3 = 7 TUG 2 = 7 X (3 TU12)


=7 X (3 X 36 )
= 7 X (3 X 4 X 9)
= 7 X (12 X 9)

78
Grouping of TUG2’s into TUG3
TUG2 #1 TUG2 #2 TUG2 #7

TUG3 #2

TUG 3 = 7 X TUG 2 = 21 X TU12 =Single Packet (E3)


= 21X 36
= 21 X 4 X 9
= 84 X 9

79
80
111 111
211
311
312 121
122 221
( 3 E3 = E4)

222 321
322 131
132 231
232 331
332 141
142 241
Packet(3E3 to E4)

242 341
342 151
152 251
252 351
352 161
162 261
262 361
Packet
362 171
172 271
272 371
372 112
113 212
213
313
123
223
323
133
233
333

VC-4
TUG 3 Multiplexing to VC-4

143
243
343
153
253
353
163
263
111
363
111
211
173
111
211
311
273
373
111
211
311

X3=

3 Tug – 3 = VC – 4
1

TUG 3
11 11 11
73 73 73
STM-1 = E4 = 3E3 = 63E1
A STM-1 can carry a variety of Payload. It can carry 1 no. E4 or 3 no.s of
E3 or a combination of E3’s & E1’s: As E2 is not considered in European
system
E3 E3 21*E1
VC-

VC-3 VC-3 VC-


12
12 VC-
12

VC-
VC-
12
12

TU TU
TU TU TU TU

An STM-1 can be equated with a container carrier, which can carry various
combinations of containers. It can carry 3 TU-3, or 2 TU-3 and 7 TU-2, or 63 TU-12,
etc.

The drivers cabin comprise of Path Overhead, a Pointer, Regenerator Section OH and
Multiplexer Section OH.

As we go up the ladder the container section just get bigger and bigger, the driver
cabin remains the same.

81
STM 1 - Transfer module – J K L M numbering

E2 - 1 21
E2 - 2
E2 - 3

E3 E2 - 4
E2 - 5
E2 - 6
E2 - 7

O O O
E1-1 E1-2 E1-3

Pay Load
Over Heads

STM-1 = 63 E1 =21 E2 = 3E3


Synchronous Transfer Module

STM – 1 = E4 = 3 E3
E3 = 7 E2
E2 = 3 E3

STM – 1 = E4 = 3 E3 = 21 E2 = 63 E1

E4 is identified as J
E3 is identified as k - can vary from 1 to 3
E2 is identified as L - can vary from 1 to 7
E1 is identified as M - can vary from 1 to 3

STM – 1 = E4 + 29 Mbps Overheads


= 63 E1 + 29 Mbps Overheads
= 2x63 Mbps + 29 Mbps Overheads
= 155 Mbps
If KLM number is 373 i.e, 3rd E3 – 7th E2 - 3rd E1 - shown by Red
J1 K321 & J 1 k300 can not go together

82
Exercise 4: Pack a STM-1
Given a STM-1 work out the combinations of E3 and E1’s which you can
pack in it:
1. 0*E3 + ….…….. E1
2. 1*E3 + ………… E1
3. 2*E3 + ………… E1
4. 3*E3 + ………… E1
5. ………… E3 + 43*E1
6. ………… E3 + 24*E1
7. ………… E3 + 3*E1
8. On the same Multiplexer section of STM-4 ring –along with J1K321 we can
not carry __ _ _ _ (J1K300. J2K322,J1K221,J1K373 ).
9. Which load we can carry On the same Multiplexer section of STM 4 ring _ _ _ _
124,321,383, 411,

83
KLM Numbering

A three digit numbering system by which each VC-nn (VC-11/12, VC-2 & VC-3
in a VC-4 can be uniquely identified. VC-4’s are identified by J numbers
VC4 J1, J2, J3, …. Jn
VC-4
VC3 K100,
K200,
VC-3 K300
VC-3
VC-3
VC2 K110, K120, …, K170
VC-
2VC- K210, K220, …, K270
2VC-
2VC- K310, K320, …, K370
2VC-
2VC-
2VC-
2
VC-12 K111…K113, K121…K123, ..., K171…K173
VC-
12VC- K211…K213, K221…K223, ..., K271…K273
12VC-
12 K311…K313, K321…K323, ..., K371…K373

84
SDH Multiplexing Structure

+2 +1 +1
POH Pointer
E1 C12 VC12 TU12
32 Bytes 34 35 36 36X3
1
TUG2 108X7 +18 Stuffing
108 TUG3
756 774
POH Pointer 7
T2 C2 VC2 TU2 +9 +3+6
POH Pointer
T3/E3 C3 VC3 TU3

TUG3 774X3 +9 +9 +72


+18 POH Pointer SOH
TUG3
VC4 AU4 AUG1 STM1
TUG3 2340 2358 2430

E4 C4 Legend
C - Container
VC - Virtual Container
TU - Tributary Unit
Bit rate of STM 1 = 2430X8X8000 TUG - Tributary Unit Group
AU - Administrative Unit
= 155.52 Mbps AUG - AU Group
STM - Synchronous Transport Module

85
SDH Conversion Process

Network Synchronisation & Mapping &


Management & Multiplexing Tributary Interface
Optical Interface
DSn

+ Admins Tributory Virtual En


Tributo Cont-
Section trative Unit Cont-
ry Unit ainer
OH Unit Group ainer ATM
TU-n C-n
STM-N AU-n TUG-n VC-n
IP

86
SDH STM-1 FRAME STRUCTURE - Higher Order Path Over heads

9 BYTES 261 BYTES

PATH OVERHEAD
REGENERATOR
SECTION
OVERHEAD OFFSET
9 BYTES

AU4 POINTER
MULTIPLEXER
SECTION
OVERHEAD
POH VC4 =9*261 bytes

A STM-1 frame structure is much the same as STM-0, but for the following:
The POH comprises the following bytes:
J1: Path Trace Used to transmit a Path details- like starting point & End
Points-so that END POINT (Receiver) can varify .It indicates path across the diff.
nodes & final destination. J1( like J2 in LPOH) is used for carrying CRC and Path
Trace (string of 15 user-defined characters).-VC4 Path Trace
B3: Path BIP-8: B2 carries 8-bits of Parity. BIP of previous frames for Error monitoring
In the whole A4-Value of each 8th bit is sumed up –CRC (add.)is calculated & is
transmitted with J1
1st Block – Sum of value of 1st,9th,17th bits & so on
sum of all bits as shown above should be Even (or Odd as per standard)
If not Even –transmits 1,If Even Tranmits o
2nd block – Sum of value of 2nd,10th,18th bits & so on
3rd block – Sum of value of 3rd , 11th, 19th bits & so on
C2: Signal Label Indicates composition of the payload
Framed load (voice) – unframed load (data) –ATM
Unequipped - no load –Tributory not connected - Framed load – Voice , Data , E1 ,
ATM (Asynchronous trannsfer mode) – At Reliannce we don’t use it.
.

87
HIGHER ORDER PATH OVERHEAD

G1: Path Status - Path terminating status & Performance info.-Error report –
REI, RFI, RDI

F2: Path User Channel Communication between path elements / nodes –


For Equipment Vendor’s use

H4: Multi frame Indicator A Multi frame alignment indicator-It indicates Multi frame
number
Frame 1 – 0 0
Frame 2 – 0 1
Frame 3 – 1 0
Frame 4 – 1 1
F3: Path User Channel - Communication between path elements-Service Provider
uses it for maint.

K3: Spare - was reserved for future use in 1998 but after 2003 started using it for
Automatic protection Switching. 4 bits of K3 are used for APS (along with K1 & K2 of
MSOH) and rest are for future use.
N1: Network Operator Byte-Inter operator – inter Carrier – Reliance & BSNL
N1,(like N2 in LPOH), It is used to monitor Tandem connections. When two network
Operators (e.g.BSNL & RIC) connects their networks, they would like to know the
quality of signal they are exchanging. N2 offers such facilities.

88
AU-3 POINTER

It identifies starting point of Payload -Position of J1 - w.r.t. Frame-From the


pointer.
The pointer is placed by PLM when it collects the data from several tributary &
loads it in a Aggregate frame.
Pointer will indicate data VC4 starts from which byte behind that Pointer
AU4 pointer- 9 Bytes - but 2 are used i.e.H1 &H2 as shown above.
H1 & H2 act as Pointer = 16 Bytes,
1st 4 Bites of H1 is used for indicating the New Data - Known as NDF
i.e. New Data Flag-
a) If it is a new / Fresh Payload Then valued as 1001
b) If is a conitinuation of old Payload - Then valued as 0110
Pointer value can be changed only after 40 frames .The old pointer continues till it
is changed.
5th & 6th bytes i.e. 2 Bytes - indicates type of Load - i.e. Standard
European - TU n / AUn - Value 10 - Used at Reliance.
Rest of the 10 Bytes will indicate (In Binary Form) Starting Point of of VC4 (
Pay load )
from the pointer.
H3 is used for +/- justification.
H4 is used as a counter for extraction of V1,V2, V3,-----
Pointer always jumps in multiple of 3 because AU4 will have 3E3
89
MAPPING A VC-4 INTO A FRAME

1 2 34567 89 270
1

3
4

5
6

7 Floating VC 4

8
9

Path Overhead

90
PAYLOAD SPANNING OVER 2 FRAMES

1 2 34 5 6 789 270
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 VC – 4
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Path Overhead
1234567

91
PAYLOAD POINTER

1 2 34567 89 99 270
1

3 Displacement

4 H1 y y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3

5
6

7
8 Floating VC 4
9

Path Overhead

0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
H1 H2
Pointer = 1/3 (270-9)+1/3 (99-9) = 117

0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2

N N N N S S I D I D I D I D I D

92
Positive Justification

1 2 34567 89 99 270
1

2 Frame N-1 Frame N-1


Displacement 102
3
4 H1 y y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3 Stuff

5
6

7 Frame N Frame N

8 Floating VC 4
9

Frame N-1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0

Frame N 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0

Frame N+1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
N N N N S S I D I D I D I D I D

Here from pointer value of ( N-1) & N it is seen that Incremental value is changing.
Pointer value is increasing. - Pointer shifting to higher value.
i.e. Rate of data (VC4) delivery by PLM to Aggregate frame is Slower
i.e. Aggregate frame receives less data in 125 microsecond frame .some space remains
unoccupied. Vacant space to be filled up by Stuffing bytes to maintain the size.
Accordingly pointer also gets shifted .i.e.From Position 117 (351/3 ) to
118 (1/3(270-9) + 1/3(102-9) = (354 / 3) = 118
The Receiver will come to know this by seeing the value of Incremental bytes. This value
are flipping.
And that will be adjusted in frame (N+1) – It gets new value 118

93
NEGATIVE JUSTIFICATION
102
1 2 34567 89 270
1

2 Frame N-1 Frame N-1


Displacement 99
3
4 H1 y y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3

5
6

7 Frame N Frame N

8 Floating VC 4
9

Frame N-1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Frame N 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
Frame N+1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0

In case of Negative justification Data speed is high


Here from the pointer value of ( N-1) & N,
it is seen that Decremental value is changing.
Pointer value is decreasing. - Pointer shifting to lower value.
i.e.Rate of data (VC4) delivery from PLM to Aggregate frame is Faster
i.e. Aggregate frame receives more data in 125 microsecond frame .
Excess data will be accomodated in H3 - to maintain the size.
Accordingly pointer also gets shifted .i.e.From Position 118 to 117
Old Value = (1/3(270-9) + 1/3(102-9) = (354 / 3) = 118
New value = 1/3(270-9) + 1/3(99-9) = (351 / 3) = 117

The Receiver will come to know this by seeing the flipping value of Decreamental
bytes.
And that will be adjusted in frame (N+1) – It gets new value 117

94
NEW DATA FOUND

1 2 34567 89 69 99 270
1

3 Displacement

4 H1 y y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3

5
6

7
8 Floating VC 4
9

New Data

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
H1 H2
Pointer = 20

In both the case Data becomes new it’s NDF value will be 1001

95
Management Hierarchy
A
Path
End to end connection

Multiplexer Section (MS)


A section of the path between
two ADM’s

D
Regenerator Section (RS) B
A section of the path between
two Regenerators or between a
Regen and a ADM

A circuit is configured by allocating the Payload a VC (KLM number) and making Add-drop
or Trough connections at relevant ADM’s. At both the terminating ADM’s, Add-drop
connection is made by associating the VC to a relevant Tributary port and Aggregate
port. Through connection is made by associating the VC to two Aggregate ports (of East-
West modules).
AD – Short path

ABCD – Long Path

96
Management Hierarchy
Path –Mumbai to Jaipur

Multiplexer Section (MS)


Ahmadabad to Jaipur
C
M
Jaipur

Regenerator Section (RS)


Mumbai to Surat M Ahmadabad
Surat to Ahmadabad

SURAT
G Mumbai
M

E1
V5-N2-J2-K2-

A circuit is configured by allocating the Payload a VC (KLM number) and making Add-drop
or Trough connections at relevant ADM’s. At both the terminating ADM’s, Add-drop
connection is made by associating the VC to a relevant Tributary port and Aggregate
port. Through connection is made by associating the VC to two Aggregate ports (of East-
West modules).
AD – Short path

ABCD – Long Path

97
SDH STM-1 FRAME STRUCTURE
- Section Over Heads
9 BYTES 261 BYTES

PATH OVERHEAD
REGENERATOR
SECTION
OVERHEAD
9 BYTES

AU4 POINTER PAY LOAD


MULTIPLEXER
SECTION
OVERHEAD

Section Over Heads ( SOH )


A section can be considered as one stage of end to end. It is defined as node to node
transmission. A path may be made up of number of sections. One section may also be a
Path.
SDH reserves some extra capacity within the defined bit rate to carry information relating
to section.
The extra information associated with a section ( generated at one node & processed at
the next node) is called Section Over heads (SOH).
The section Over head allows control of node to node Transmission e.g Quality.
It allows two adjacent node to talk with each other& to take action in case of Section
Failure.
The SOH also provides extra information channels-e.g. .ECC – Embedded used for
network Management Data Communication Channel.
SOH information is further classified into RSOH & MSOH – Total 72 Bytes
RSOH - Regenerator Section Over Head - It is terminated at Regenerator function - 27
(9x3) –Raw 1 to 3
MSOH - Multiplexer Section Over Head – It passes transparently through regenerators&
is terminated where the AUGn are assembled / disassembled. – 45 bytes - 9x5 -
(Raw 5 to 9) - Out of the 72 SOH bytes,
• MS & RSOH will not be active simultaneously.
• MS – can access both –Multiplexure & Regenerators - but not simultaneously.
• RSOH – can access only Regenerators.
These OH’s carry various section related information for Network Management,
Synchronisation, Fault management, etc.
98
REGENERATOR SECTION OVERHEAD - RSOH

REGENERATOR

PATH OVERHEAD
SECTION
OVERHEAD

AU3 POINTER PAYLOAD


MULTIPLEXER
SECTION
OVERHEAD

A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 X X
Framing Byte 1 Framing Byte 2 RS Path Trace
B1 0 0 E1 0 -- F1 X X
BIP Orderwire User Channel
D1 0 0 D2 0 -- D3 -- --
DCC DCC DCC

Section (as referred in NA)/ Regenerator Section (as referred in Europe) refers to a portion
between a Multiplexer & a Regenerator or between two Regenerators.
A AU-3 - RSOH - Regenerator Section Over Head comprises:
A1&A2: Used for checking Frame alignment of incoming frame – Starting point of the
Frame -sending data frame by frame
Frame alignment of of STM-1 is A1 Bytes followed by one A2 Byte
Frame alignment of of STM-1 is composed of 3xA1 Bytes followed by 3 A2 Byte.
J0: RS Path Trace – This byte is used to transmit repetitively , a section access point identifier,
so that a section receiver can verify it’s continuity with the indented transmitter.
B1: Bit Interleaved Parity 8 (BIP 8)-The BIP-8 is computed over all bits of the prevoius
frame & is placed in the B1 byte of the current frame.Used for Error Monitoring.
E1 Order Wire : ( Engg. Order wire ) Can be used as a hot line Voice communication
within the all Ring Network Element .
Enables Node to Node verbal talk.i.e BTS to BTS / MCN
F1: User Channel : - Reserved for User to define – for special maintenance.
D1-D3: Data Communication Channel –Mux to Mux & Mux to NNOC - Used for
Element Control Communication
Link CPU-1 to CPU- 2 will be through it. – It give idea about - neighboring Mux. (i.e. on LHS &
RHS). – location of near by Gateway Mux & Router for communication control –with NNOC-can
communicate alarm details also

99
MULTIPLEXER SECTION OVERHEAD
B2 B2 B2 K1 -- -- K2 -- --
BIP APS APS
D4 -- -- D5 -- -- D6 -- --
DCC DCC DCC
D7 -- D8 -- -- D9 -- --
DCC DCC DCC
D10 -- -- D11 -- -- D12 -- --
DCC DCC DCC
REGENERATOR S1 – F3 -- -- M1 E2 – N8
PATH OVERHEAD

SECTION
OVERHEAD Sync status Spare EOW
AU3 POINTER PAYLOAD
MULTIPLEXER
SECTION
OVERHEAD

Line (as referred in NA)/ Multiplxer Section (as referred in Europe) refers to a portion between
two Multiplexers. A AU-3 MSOH comprises:

B2: BIP24 - Used for Error Monitoring


K1&K2: APS- Automatic Protection Switching - (Within 50 ms)

D4-D12: Data Communication Channel –Mux to Mux & Mux to NNOC -


Used for Element Control Communication
Link CPU-1 to CPU- 2 will be through it. – It give idea about - neighboring Mux. (i.e. on LHS
& RHS). – location of near by Gateway Mux & Router for communication control –with NNOC.
-can communicate alarm details also

S1: Synchronization Status - Used to transmit the level of synchronization.


- Which type of clock is available to Data
M1 : Multiplexer Section Remote Error Indication ( REI)
E2: Engineering Order Wire - can be used as a hotline Voice communication
communication within the Ring elements.
N8 – 2Bytes – International standardization
F3 - Vendor configuration

100
STM-1 SECTION OH’s

The STM-1 RSOH and MSOH are much the same as that of AU-3, but for these
additional bytes:

M1: MS REI To indicate BIP error in Mux Sextion


E2: Order Wire
S: Synchronisation
Z1&Z2: Spare

Suggested Reading:
1. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy AON www.iec.org
2. SDH Basics Overview Nortel 55230.01
3. SDH Technical Overview Nortel 55235.03

101
Network Management using DCC

102
STM-N FRAME STRUCTURE

103
STM-1 SECTION OH’s

The STM-1 RSOH and MSOH are much the same as that of AU-3, but for these
additional bytes:

M1: MS REI To indicate BIP error in Mux Sextion


E2: Order Wire
S: Synchronisation
Z1&Z2: Spare

Suggested Reading:
1. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy AON www.iec.org
2. SDH Basics Overview Nortel 55230.01
3. SDH Technical Overview Nortel 55235.03

104
Network
Management
Module 5

105
Multiplexure - Mux - ADM
Higher POH
B3-J1-N1-K3

Lower POH
V5-J2-N2-K4 Left
West

TRIB. Trib Card A


P AGGREGATE (Adds MSOH / RSOH)
Card
L
M AGGREGATE
Card
TRIB. Trib. Card
B
Right
CPU East

In a Ring each node is called a Add-Drop Multiplexer (ADM). An ADM have


grossly three parts:
1. Tributory Card :interfaces with the non-ring nodes to bring in Traffic
Adds Lower order Path Over Head
2. Payload Manager: Manages multiplexing & de-multiplexing activities.
Adds Higher order POH.
3. Aggregate Card:Total information carried is known as Aggregate.
It interfaces with the OFC Ring
Adds as per MSOH/RSOH as per CPU
Network Elements:
1. Amplifier: It amplifies amplitude & time interval of Pulse.
2. Regenerators: It removes distortion in amplitude as well as in time
interval.
3. Switch:- Connects caller party with the Called party as & when
required. (Call to call basis)
4. Cross connects: It connects Payload of one ring with Payload of other
ring –for longer time .
Dx: Digital Cross connect – capacity 125 Gbps
HDx :- High capacity – 625 Gbps

106
Multiplexer – TN – 1X

TN-1X
Picture

• The TN-1X is a CCITT G.782 type IIIa/b drop and insert Multiplexer. Terminal,
add/drop and ring operations are supported.
• TN-1X offers 6 tributary slots, Trib cards - STM-1o, STM-1e, 34/45Mbit/s, 2Mbit/s

107
108
Ring Elements & Terminologies

Payload Manager

( Total Information carried)

Payload Manager

In a Ring each node is called a Add-Drop Multiplexer (ADM). An ADM have grossly three
parts:
1. Tributory Interfaces with the non-ring nodes to bring in Traffic
2. Payload Manager Manages multiplexing & de-multiplexing activities.
3. Aggregate Interfaces with the OFC Ring

109
Add – Drop – Through -Configuring Circuits
Add-drop
Add – Drop: E1 = J1 K111
Add-drop is a Tributary port – E3 = J1 K200
Aggregate port association. E1 = J1 K112

Through:
Through is a Aggregate port –
Aggregate port association.
A -Drop
4*VC-4 E1 = J1 K111
Add-D
E1 = J1 K311
Thru’
add-Drop E1 = J1 K112
E1 = J1 K112 E3 = J1 K200
E1 = J1 K311 4*VC-4
E3 = J2 K100

Add-drop
E3 = J2 K100 Thru’
add-Drop E1 = J1 K112
E3 = J1 K200 E1 = J1 K311

A circuit is configured by allocating the Payload a VC (KLM number) and making Add-drop
or Trough connections at relevant ADM’s. At both the terminating ADM’s, Add-drop
connection is made by associating the VC to a relevant Tributary port and Aggregate
port. Through connection is made by associating the VC to two Aggregate ports (of East-
West modules).

110
Ring Terminologies

E1 E2 E1 E1

E3 E2
E1 E1
E2 E4 E4 E1
E1 E2

E1 E1 E3 E1

Once we establish a ring we connect to all levels of nodes:


Access,
LE (Local Exchange) e.g. switch at Nerul & Vashi,
TAX (Transit Automate exchange)/ Tandom switch e.g. switch at DAKC which will connect
Nerul & vashi,
GW (Gate way), etc.
In this example we see several Access nodes with E1 and E2 connections, and some LE’s
with E3 connections. The Aggregate would be an E4.
At locations where Access nodes are connected to the ring, we need to Add-drop an E1
directly from an E4. That is not practical using PDH multiplexers.

111
What is a Switch?

† A switch is a means to connect an input to an output.

input output

switch

… and the process is known as switching.

A switch has ports on input side as well as on output side. It also has a
control input by which switch path is closed or opened. Once switch path is
closed, input port gets connected to output port. This path helps passing on
information from input side to output side. If subscribers are connected to
these points then it represents that their speech is getting transmitted by this
switch connection.

Closing & opening of switch is controlled by a processor. In an


exchanges we can assume to have a big array of such switches so as
to cater to lot of subscribers speech simultaneously. Depending on
digit dialed, a calling subscriber, connected at certain input port is
connected to required called subscriber at output port side by the
controller.

112
Key Concepts: Switching

Network without switching Network with a switch

Switch

• Requires n(n-1)/2 transmission links • Requires n transmission links


• 15 independent links would be required • Only 6 independent links would be
in this example to allow calling between required when a central switch is used
users

Switch not only reduces transmission cost but also reduces the complexity of
connecting subscribers. Here subscribers have complete control on
information flow to a subscriber.
Similar concept is further extended to route subscribers traffic to long
distance exchanges by taking calls through exchanges arranged in tandem.
R2MFC – Registered & Registered Multi Frequency Channel.
STP – Signal Transferring point – All switches are connected to STP
SCP – Switch Control Panel –available at STP for Database-passes
data / information ( details of caller & Receiver party )
as & when required by STP .

CCS7 – Common Channel Signaling version-7

In Dx connections are made for longer time.


In switches connections changes from call to call.

113
Ring Elements & Terminologies
ADD DROP MUX
POH

POH

STM-N STM-N
RING 1 RING 2
DX - CROSS CONNECT
POH
POH

POH

POH POH
POH

DX – Required where more then 1 ring exists. It


Connects Pay load of one ring with Payload of other Ring

This is how a STM ring function. To start with lets take one of the Nodes, generating all
the packets, complete with POH and other details. The container reaches the next
station where looking at these information, it is passed on to the next node. There
some one the boxes are downloaded and some are uploaded. The container moves on
and the process in repeated at the next node(s). Much like a Railway track with several
stations. As a Train passes by, some get on board and some alight at each station and
the train moves on. These stations/ nodes are called Add-Drop Multiplexers and this
railways is called a STM ring.
Dx = Digital Cross connect = capacity 105Gbps
HDx = high Cross connect = capacity = 525Gbps

There could be more than one STM ring and there need to be a node which can
exchange containers between these rings. Much like a Railway junction. Such a
node is called a Digital Cross-Connect..It connects Pay load of one ring with
Payload of second ring.
In Dx connections are made for longer time.
In switches connections changes from call to call.

114
Fiber To The Building (FTTB)
Payphone ADSL ISDN SHDS
L
National Backbone ILT Switch

Metro Access Ring

Building Access Ring


ADM RTU
ADM BTS Fiber To The
CT Building (FTTB)
MCN
RTU
MAN
BAN

PBX
MAN BAN

Phone Video
Netman (348k)
Computer

From MCN’s on the NBB National Back Bone / NLD National long distance

we get Metro Access Rings ( like state highways emerging from the State Junction of
National highways. These MAR carry the traffic to over 600 cities and town of the
country. Bandwidth of these MAR are in the range of 625 Mbps – 2.5 Gbps and
upgradeable further with little change in the infrastructure. Nodes on MAR are known as
MAN (e.g. SRM (Parel) , Andheri MIDC , Chembur )

From MAN ( Metro Access Nodes) on Metro Access Rings , we get Building Access
Rings (like Main Roads inside a City or Town.) These BAR connect various Building
Access Nodes. At the BAN, we have the Central Terminals (CT’s) or the Base
Transceiver Station (BTS)/ Modcel,
The CT’s connect several (14 as of today) Remote Terminal Units (RTU’s) which in
turn provide Fixed Access.

The BTS covers all the Mobile Stations (MS) within it’s radius of coverage, thus
providing Wireless Access.

Connection right upto the RTU is through OFC (this is therefore called Fiber To The
Building), thus providing enormous bandwidth. These networks are capable of providing
both Narrow Band & Broadband services.

Transport element on MAN & BAN is known as ADM

115
Reliance Optical Network
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G o d h ra J a m s h
e d p u r

Ú
S u re n d r a n a
g a r An
il a

$ %
Ú Ú
D h o
l k a N a d
i a d I n d o re

Ú Ú
B a s ri h a t

$ % % Ú
Ú $
L m
i b d i B a g o d a ra An a n d Dh a r tI ra s i

%
J a mn a g a r $ Dh r o l
$ Sa y a
l
Ú Ú Ú Ú
S o tij ra Ha l o l Mh o w

Ú Ú
G h a ts i a
l Ca c

Ú
l u t a

Ú
Bo r s a d

Ra k
%
j o t
Ú % V a d o d a ra %
K h a ra g p u r

Ú
T a m u
l k

K h a m b h a il a
Ú ÚÚ
P a d ra R a u rk e l a

Ú Ú
Ú

Jamnagar
B o ta d

Ú $ X ( B a rw a a
Ú
l )
Da b h o i
Ha d
l a
i

Nagpur
$ %
Bh a d t h a r

Ú My
i a g a m
Ch h n

Ú
i d wa r a
Bi a
l s p u r
$ %
Ú
$ %
Bh a v n a g
a r
%
Ú
B e tu l N a y
a B a ra d w a r
% Ra g
i a rh Ú
B a ri p
a d a

ÚÚ
J te p u r

Ú
U
$ p e
l ta Sh
i o r
% $
ÚÚ
L m
i b
d a Bh a r u c h

$ Ú
A ma r n a g a r Dhe k u n a

$
Ú Ú
P o rb a n d e r D h o ra j i

%
Ú
An k l e s hwa r
% %

Surat
J u n a g a d h
%
Ú Ú
Am re l i Ba e
l s h wa r
Go n d a
i S a mb a l p u r

Ke s h o d Sa y a n Ú $ K u d o p a il

Ú Ú Ú
So r o

Su
r a t
% % %
Ra i p u r

Ú Ú Ba r d
o l i
Bh u s a wa l
N

Ú
%
a g
p u r

Ú %
B h a n d a ra

$ Ú
D u rg
Ú $
B h a d ra k

Na v s a
r i % Ú
Ú
J l g a o n
a
$Chki hail %
$ B a mh a n i
U ra i d
a b r i
R a ri a
k h o l

Ú
Ú
A mr a v
a t h i

%
Ú
D h u
l e

B i il m o ra
Ú $Mhasve $ An u g u l

%Ú $Khamgaon Ú
Ak
%
o l a

$Murtji apur
W
%
a rd h a

Ú %
Dh e n k a n a l
Dh a n m

Ú
a n d
a l

Ú
Va s
l a d

Ú M a e
l g a o n

Ú C u t ta c k

Ú Ú
Va p i

$Sangavi %
Y e o t ma l

%
Ú
Bh u b a n e s
h wa r

$
Ú
Ú
K h u rd a

Mumbai
Wa r o ra
Np
i h a d
D a h

Ú
a n u N
%
a s

Ú
i k
c i ty

Ú %
C h a n d ra p u r

Ú
Ko p a r a g o
n
%
A u ra n g a b a d

Ú Ú
a l n a
J
Ú
Pa g
l h a r Ad a
%
li b a d

Ú $ Ú
Ú Ú
I a tp u r i
g S h ri R a m p u r
Sn g a m
a n er

Ú $
Ra h u r i
Ne wa s a

C h h
a t r a p
u r

Ba s s e n

Ú Ú%
i ( V a s a )i Bh i wa n d i
Ú % Ú
Ú
B r h a mp u r
e

Vishakhapatnam
Ú
J u n n a r J g a p u r Ro a d
a

Ú Ú
Kay
l a n Na n d e d

Ú
T h u r b e Ah m

Ú
%
e d n a g a r

Bi d
Ú N

Ú
rim a l J g a p u r T o wn
a

%
Ú Ú
Mu m b a i

Ú
M a n
c h e r a
i l

Hyderabad
M e tp a l il
$
Ú
So m p e ta

Ú
J a
g t a
i l

$
Ú
Ra g
j u r u n a g a r A rm ru

Pune
% Ú
K h o p o il
Ú $ S h i ru r
Ú
Ú
Pe n
%
Ú Ú Ú Ú Ú Ú
L o n a
v a l a o d h a n
B Pe d d a p a l e

Ú%
Al b
i a g C h n
i c h wa d Nz
i a m a
b a d
T k k a il
e

%
ÚÚ
Ka r m
i n a g a r

Ú
Pu n e L a tu r S ri c li a
l

Kh a d a
k w a
s a l a
Ú K a ma r e d d y

Ú Ú Sr k
i a k u a
%
Ú
l m

Ú$
Sa s wa d H u z u ra b a d

Ú
a r s i
B

•80000 Km OFC
X
O s ma n a b a d
%
Ú Ú
Ba r a
m a ti Si d d
i p e t Vz
i a
i n a g a r a m

Ú Ú
Me d a k

W a i Bd
i ar
Ú W

Ú
%
a ra n g a l

Ú Ú
Ba s a v
a k a y
l a n Ga j w e l

$ X
Ú H u mn a b a d
Ú %
Ú
Vs
i a k h a p a tn a m

Ú Ú
Z a h ri a b a
d Ana k a p a
l e
l

%
Ú
Pa n d h a
r p u r So l a
p u r Me d c h a l
% %
Ú Ú Ú Ú Ú
S a t a ra S a n g a re d d y

Ú
Ko t h a g u
d e m
B h o n g ri

Ú % Ú Ú
Ch p
i l u n

Ú
H y d e ra b a d G h a tk e s h w a r ( H y d E a s
t )
%
Ú
G u b
l a r g a T u n i

Ú Ú %
Ú

Vijayawada
Ka r a d R a ma n n a p e t Kh a m ma m

$
$Ú Ú Ú
V i ta S h a ms h a b a d ( H y d W e s t)
Z a a
l k i Su r y a pe t J a n g a re d d i g
u d e m

Ka e
l
T a s g a o n
Na g
%
Ú
l o n d a
Ú Ú % Ú
P e d d a p u ra m

Ú % Ú ÚÚ
Ra a
j h m u n d ry
R a
t n a g ri i J a g g a y a p e t

Ú Ú Ú
I a
s l m pu
r H a z u rn a g a r Ko v v
u r Ka k
i n a d a

Ú Ú
M ri y a g
l u d a

Ú Ú ÚÚ
Sa n g l i M a n d a p e ta
%
Ú Ú %Ú Ú
iB a
j p u r Nu z v d
i u

Ú
R a m a c h a n d ra p u r a m

%
Ú
Ma h a b u b n a g a r

Ú Ú
S h ri o l N a n
d i g a ma Bh m
i a d lo e
%
Ko l h a pu
r Eu
l r u T a n u k
u

Ú Ú I h
c a l k
a r a n ij

% Ú
Ka k
i a u
l r u Bh
i ma v a r a m A m a l a p u ra m

Ú Ú
Va
ji y w a
d a

$ Ú
R b
i a g (K u d c h i )
Ú
%Ú Ú Ú
M a n g a
l a g ri i Gu d i v a d a

Ú
Ch i k o d
i Vuy y
u r u N a rs a p u r (P a l a k o u
l )

Ú ÚÚ Ú
Wa n a p a r th y

Ú
G u n tu r

Ú
N a r s a ra o p e t T e n a
l i

•Out of 48/24/12 fibers in a cable


Ra c
i h u r

Ú Ú Ú Ú ÚÚ
H u k e r i Ba g a l k
o t Ch a l a p a
l e
l

$ Go k a k Bn
a d a r ( M a c h il p a tn a m )

Bangalore
Re p al e

Ú Ú
Sh a d n a g a r

Ú
Ba p
a t a
l

%
Ú
Be g
l a u m C h ri a a
l

%
Ú Ú
K u rn o o l

$ Ba h
li o n g a l
$ Na r g u n d
Ú Me d a r me t a
l

%
$ X
%
On g o e
l

Ú Ú
P a n ij
Na n d y a
l

Ú
Po n d a G a d a g -b e ti g e r

Ú %
H u b il

Ú Ú Ú
Ú Ú
Ma r g a o Ho s p e t
D ro n a c h a a
l m

Ú
B e l a ry Al a g a d a
Ca n a c o n a

Ú $ Ye l a v g
i i Ú
G o o ty ( G u n t a k
a l )

Ú K a v a il

K a rw a r
$ Ú
T a d p
i a tr i

Ú
Ú Ba s a p u r
$ a h a
l il P r o d d a tu r

Ú
Ha r p a n

%
Ú
Aan t a p u r
n

Ko v v u r

Ú
%
D a v a n g e re

Ú
Cu d d a p a h Ne l o
r e
Ú
%
C h ti ra d u r g a
Ú
Dh a r ma v a r a m
Ú
Ú

•only 2/4 fibers are used-rest


Ú
G u d
u r

B h a tk a l
%
Ú
Sh m
i o g
a

Chennai
Hn
i d u p u r a m

Ú
Sr k
i a a
l h a s th i

% Ú Ú S u l u rp e t

Ú
T ri u p a ti
Ku n d a p u r Go wr b
i d
i an u r

Ú $ Ud e
v a
Ú P u t u ru

Ch k
i m
% a g a u
l r Ú Ú % Ú
C h k
i b a l a
p u r
P o n n e ri

Ú Ú Ú Ú Ú ÚÚ
Ud u p i As
r k
i e r e G u b b
i T u m k r
u S ri n v
i a s p u r

Ú
T p
i tu r D o d
b a l a
l p u r
C h ti o o r T ri u t ta n i

Ú Ú ÚÚ Ú
Ka r a
k l a T ri u v
e l o
l r e
Mu b
l a g a l

% %
Ú Ú Ú
Ko a
l r Ch e n n a i
Ne a
l m a n g a a
l

ÚÚ
A ra k k o n a m

% % % Ú
Ú Ú % Ú Ú
H a s a n B a n g a rp e t G u d i y a th a m R a n
i p e t

Ú Ú
Ho s
k o t e Ve o
l r e Sr p
i e r u
m p u d u r
M a n g a o
l re
% Ba n g a l o
r e

Ú Ú Ú
B a n tv a l Ka n c h e ep u r a m

remains unused i.e. Dark Fibers.


Va n y
i a m b a d i

$
Ú
Pu t u
t r

$ $
Ku p p a m Ch e
n g a l p a t u

Ú Ú Ú ÚÚ
An e k a l Ho s u r

Ernakulum
Ch a n n a p
a t n a Ar n i

Ú
Ar n
i i E s ta t e
Kr s
i h n a g ri i Ma d u r a
n t a k a m

$ %
Ú Ú Ú
H o s a A g r a h a ra K a n a k a p u ra T ri u p
a t tu r

$
Ú
Ka s a r g o d e

Ú Ú Ú
Pa n d a v p u r a Ma n d y a

M
%
y o
s r e

Ú Ú
Ka n h a
n g a d T ri u v a n n
a m a a
l T n
i d i v
a na m

% Ú Ú$ D h a r a m a p u ri

$ Ú
N a n
j a n g u d

Ú
Ú
Ve l u
l r Ha r u r

Ú% C
T a p
il a r a m b a

a n an o r e
Ú Ú % V li u
l p u r a m Po n d c
i h e r y

Ú T e l c
Ú Ú%
i h e r y
%
M e t ru d a m
C u d d a l o re

Ú Ú Ú
Om a u
l r Kl k
a l u r c
i h i
Sa l e m

Ú
B a d a g a ra K a l p e ta

Ú Ú Ú
At u r

Ú
S a ty a m a n g a l a m V i ru d h a c h a a
l m

Ú Ú Ú% Ú Ú
S a n k a g ri i
Bh a v a n i Ra s p
i u r a
m

Ú
Oo t a c a
m u n d C h d
i a mb a r a m

% Ú ÚÚ
Ko z h k
i o d e

$
N li a m b u r
G o b c
i h e t p
i a a
l y a m
T ri u c h e n g o d e

Ú Ú Ú
Er o d
e

Ú$ Ú Ú
Me t u p p a a
l y a m P e r a mb a u
l r

Ú
N a ma k k a l Ko l d
il a m
Av a n a s
h i P re u n d u r a i

Ú
Ma n j e
r i Ar y
i a u
l r

Ú
Ve u
l r M a y li a d u th u r a i

ÚÚ Ú Ú $ Ú
T ri u p u r

%
Ú
Pe r n
i th a l m a n n C o m
i b a t o re T ri

Ú$ Ú
Ka n g a y a m Ka r u r u b u v a n a
m

Ú ÚÚ
T ru
i r Pa p a n a s a m

Ú
Pa a
l d u m Km
u b a k o n a
m Ka r a k
i a l

•FMS monitors the health of these


K u t ti p p u ra m
%
Ú
T ir c h y
% %
Ú
Pa l g h a t T h a n a
j v u r T i ru v a r u r Na g a p a t n
i a m

Ú Ú Ú Ú
S o r a n mp u r
h D h a r a mp u r a m

ÚÚ% ÚÚ Ú Ú Ú
K u n n a mk u l a m Po a
l c h i Ma n n a r g u d i

Ú
lA a th u r
U d u
m a p
l e t K i ra n u r

Ú
T r c
i h u r

Ú Ú

Krishna