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Original Title: Transport Phenomena

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Cartesian Coordinates

A shell momentum balance is used below to derive a general differential equation that

can be then employed to solve several fluid flow problems in rectangular Cartesian

coordinates. For this purpose, consider an incompressible fluid in laminar flow under the

effects of both pressure and gravity in a system of length ¦ and width , which is at an

angle to the vertical. End effects are neglected assuming the dimension of the system

in the -direction is relatively very small compared to those in the -direction ( ) and

the -direction (¦).

balance for flow in rectangular Cartesian coordinates. The -axis is pointing outward

from the plane of the computer screen.

Since the fluid flow is in the -direction, = 0, = 0, and only exists. For small flow

rates, the viscous forces prevent continual acceleration of the fluid. So, is independent

of and it is meaningful to postulate that velocity = () and pressure = (). The

only nonvanishing components of the stress tensor are = , which depend only on .

Consider now a thin rectangular slab (shell) perpendicular to the -direction extending a

distance in the -direction and a distance ¦ in the -direction. A 'rate of -momentum'

balance over this thin shell of thickness ǻ in the fluid is of the form:

At steady-state, the accumulation term is zero. Momentum can go 'in' and 'out' of the

shell by both the convective and molecular mechanisms. Since () is the same at both

ends of the system, the convective terms cancel out because ( ǻ)| = 0 = (

ǻ)| = ¦. Only the molecular term (¦ ) remains to be considered, whose 'in' and

'out' directions are taken in the positive direction of the -axis. Generation of -

momentum occurs by the pressure force acting on the surface [ ǻ] and gravity force

acting on the volume [(

cos ) ¦ ǻ].

`c rate of -momentum out by viscous transfer across surface at + ǻ is (¦ )|

+ ǻ

`c rate of -momentum in by overall bulk fluid motion across surface at = 0 is (

ǻ )| = 0

`c rate of -momentum out by overall bulk fluid motion across surface at ¦ is (

ǻ )| = ¦

`c pressure force acting on surface at = 0 is 0 ǻ

`c pressure force acting on surface at = ¦ is í ¦ ǻ

`c gravity force acting in -direction on volume of rectangular slab is (

cos ) ¦

ǻ

cos ) ¦ ǻ = 0 (1)

¦ cos

= (2)

ǻ ¦

On taking the limit as ǻ ĺ 0, the left-hand side of the above equation is exactly the

definition of the derivative. The right-hand side may be written in a compact and

convenient way by introducing the modified pressure m, which is the sum of the pressure

and gravitational terms. The general definition of the modified pressure is m

, where
is the distance upward (in the direction opposed to gravity) from a reference

plane of choice. The advantages of using the modified pressure m are that (i) the

components of the gravity vector g need not be calculated; (ii) the solution holds for any

flow orientation; and (iii) the fluid may flow as a result of a pressure difference, gravity

or both. Here,
is negative since the -axis points downward, giving
= í cos and

therefore m

cos . Thus, m0 = 0 at = 0 and m¦ ¦

¦ cos at =

¦ giving 0 í ¦

¦ cos = m0 í m¦ Ł ǻm. Thus, equation (2) yields

ǻm

= (3)

¦

ǻm

= + 1 (4)

¦

condition based on the flow problem. Equation (4) shows that the momentum flux (or

shear stress) distribution is linear in systems in rectangular Cartesian coordinates.

Since equations (3) and (4) have been derived without making any assumption about the

type of fluid, they are applicable to both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Some of

the axial flow problems in rectangular Cartesian coordinates where these equations may

be used as starting points are given below.

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