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Microbiology :

Prokaryotic and
Eukaryotic Cells
Adelina Manurung
Institut Teknologi Del
Outline

 Definition
 Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells:
Similarities and Differences
 Prokaryotic Diversity
 Eukaryotic Diversity

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Definition

 Prokaryotic  Pro means ‘before’


 Eukaryotic  Eu means ‘true’

Karyon = Nucleus

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Cont’

 Prokaryote: single-celled organisms, and


all are bacteria.

 Eukaryote: single-celled or multi-cellular


organisms

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Similarities and differences
Properties Eukaryot Prokaryot
Nucleus surrounded by a nuclear Not surrounded by
membrane nuclear membrane
Mitochondria yes No  mesosom
ER Yes, rough and smooth No
Plasmid No Yes
Golgi complex Yes No
Ribosom 80S 70S
Chloroplast Yes in plant No
Cell wall Cellulose, chitin Peptidoglykan
RNA and Proteinsynthese RNA in nucleus and In Cytoplasma
Proteinsynthese in
Cytoplasma
Find in: Algae, Protista, Fungi, Archaea and bacteria
Plant and animal
Size
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and from 1.0 – 60 µm in
length
Brock, 1984

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What is the similarity between....

 They have :Plasma membrane, DNA and


cell wall (plant cells)

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Classification

PROKARYOT
Brock, 2000

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Prokaryot

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Shape of Bacteria

Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm  2 - 8 µm


Three basic shapes
1. Bacillus, -I
2. Coccus, -i
3. Spirillum, -a
4. Vibrio, -s
Most monomorphic, some pleomorphic
Variations in cell arrangements (esp. for cocci)
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Spiral

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Coccus

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The Cytoplasm

 The aqueous
environment within
the plasma
membrane, contains a
diverse array of
components

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What kinds of internal structures help to
organize bacterial cells?
 The Cytoskeleton is important for the internal
organization of cells.
A. The dynamic z-ring guides cell division
B. Actin like proteins, such as MreB form filaments that
control cell shape in many bacteria
C. Other cytoskeletal proteins may have roles in distribution
of chromosomal DNA in bacteria

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The Cell Envelope

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The plasma Membrane

Wessner,
1963

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Cont’

 The function of the plasma membrane:


a. Controlling access of materials to the cytoplasm through differential
permeability
b. Capturing and/or storing energy through photosystems, oxidative electron
transport and maintenance of chemical and electrical gradients
c. Environmental sensing and signal transduction

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The Cell Wall
 Lies outside the cell membrane in
nearly all bacteria

 Two important functions:


1. Maintains the characteristic shape
2. Prevents the cell from bursting
when fluids flow into the cell by
osmosis
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Components of Bacterial Cell Walls
 Peptidoglycan (murein): The single most
important component

 This polymer is made up of two


alternating sugar units:
1. N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)
2. N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)

 The sugars are joined by short peptide


chains that consist of four amino acids
(tetrapeptides)
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PEPTIDOGLYCAN LAYER

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3D VIEW

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Peptidoglykan

Brock, 2000

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Gram Positive

Brock, 2000

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Teichoic Acid

 An additional component found in cell


walls of gram-positive bacteria
 Consists of glycerol, phosphates, and
ribitol (sugar alcohol)
 This polymer extends beyond the rest of
the cell wall
 Two functions:
1. Attachment site for bacteriophages
2. Passageway for movement of ions in/out
of cell
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Brock, 2000

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Outer Membrane (OM)

A bilayer membrane found in gram-


negative bacteria
 Forms the outermost layer of the cell
wall; is attached to the peptidoglycan by
a continuous layer of lipoprotein
molecules
 Proteins called porins form channels
through the OM
 OM has surface antigens and receptors
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
 An important component of the OM

 Also called endotoxin; used to ID gram-


negative bacteria

 Released when the cell walls of bacteria are


broken down

 Consists of polysaccharides and Lipid A


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LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

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Periplasmic Space

 The area between the cytoplasmic membrane


and the plasma membrane in gram-negative
bacteria

 Active area of cell metabolism

 Contains the cell wall, digestive enzymes and


transport proteins

 Gram-positive bacteria lack both an OM and a


periplasmic space
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Gram Stain

 Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell.


 Gram-positive
 Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan
 CV-I crystals do not leave

 Gram-negative
 Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes
in peptidoglycan.
 CV-I washes out For further details and
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How do structures on the surface of bacterial
cells allow for complex interactions with
environment?
 Motility from flagella
 Non Flagellar motility

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Brock, 2000

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Eukaryot

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FUNGI

Ascomycetes

Basidiomycetes

Zygomycetes

Oomycetes

Deuteromycetes

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ALGAE

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PROTOZOA
 Unicellular
 Lack cell walls, colerless and motile
 Are distinguished from prokaryotes by their
eukaryotic nature and greater size, from algae by
their lack of chlorophyll, from yeast and fungi by
their motility and absence of a cell wall and from
molds by their lack of fruiting body formation
 The group of protozoa consist of: Mastigophora,
Euglenoids, Sarcodina, Ciliophora, Apicomplexa
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References

 Madigan, Et al. Brock- Biology of Microorganisms. Ninth Edition. 2000.


Prentice Hall International Inc. New Jersey
 Microbiology. 2005. John Wiley and Son

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Next Week...

Nutrisi,Media Tumbuh dan


Metabolisme Mikroba

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Thank You

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