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Chapter 1


For many students, writing the introduction is the first part of the process, setting down
the direction of the paper and laying out exactly what the research paper is trying to
For others, the introduction is the last thing written, acting as a quick summary of the
paper. As long as you have planned a good structure for the parts of a research paper,
both approaches are acceptable and it is a matter of preference.

A good introduction generally consists of three distinct parts:

1. You should first give a general presentation of the research problem.

2. You should then lay out exactly what you are trying to achieve with this particular
research project.

3. You should then state your own position.

Ideally, you should try to give each section its own paragraph, but this will vary given
the overall length of the paper.

Theoretical Framework
A theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory but not
necessarily so well worked-out. A theoretical framework guides your research,
determining what things you will measure, and what statistical relationships you will
look for.

Theoretical frameworks are obviously critical in deductive, theory-testing sorts of

studies. In those kinds of studies, the theoretical framework must be very specific and
well-thought out

Surprisingly, theoretical frameworks are also important in exploratory studies, where

you really don't know much about what is going on, and are trying to learn more. There
are two reasons why theoretical frameworks are important here. First, no matter how
little you think you know about a topic, and how unbiased you think you are, it is
impossible for a human being not to have preconceived notions, even if they are of a
very general nature. For example, some people fundamentally believe that people are
basically lazy and untrustworthy, and you have keep your wits about you to avoid being
conned. These fundamental beliefs about human nature affect how you look things
when doing personnel research. In this sense, you are always being guided by a
theoretical framework, but you don't know it. Not knowing what your real framework is
can be a problem. The framework tends to guide what you notice in an organization,
and what you don't notice. In other words, you don't even notice things that don't fit
your framework! We can never completely get around this problem, but we can reduce
the problem considerably by simply making our implicit framework explicit. Once it is
explicit , we can deliberately consider other frameworks, and try to see the
organizational situation through different lenses.

Scope and Limitations - determines the coverage of the study and all the
things that it will not cover in order to be specific you Indicate as soon as possible what
you intend to do, and what you are not going to attempt. You may limit the scope of your
paper by any number of factors, for example, time, personnel, gender, age, geographic
location, nationality, and so on.

Definition Of Terms - defines technical terms based on how they are used
in the study, specifically in the title. This aims to provide the readers or future
researches with the basic terminologies that are important to understand the paper.

Chapter 2
Research Methodology - The process used to collect information and
data for the purpose of making business decisions. The methodology may include
publication research, interviews, surveys and other research techniques, and could
include both present and historical information.

Research Method – the kind of research used by your study. This answers
why the method is used appropriate for the study.

Research Design - refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate
the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring
you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the
collection, measurement, and analysis of data. Note that your research problem
determines the type of design you should use, not the other way around!
Chapter 3
This is probably the most variable part of any research paper, and depends on
the results and aims of the experiment.
For quantitative research, it is a presentation of the numerical results and data,
whereas for qualitative research it should be a broader discussion of trends, without
going into too much detail.
For research generating a lot of results, then it is better to include tables or graphs of
the analyzed data and leave the raw data in the appendix, so that a researcher can
follow up and check your calculations.
A commentary is essential to linking the results together, rather than just displaying
isolated and unconnected charts and figures.

It can be quite difficult to find a good balance between the results and
the discussion section, because some findings, especially in
a quantitative or descriptive experiment, will fall into a grey area. Try to avoid repeating
yourself too often.
It is best to try to find a middle path, where you give a general overview of the data and
then expand on it in the discussion - you should try to keep your own opinions and
interpretations out of the results section, saving that for the discussion later on.

This is where you elaborate on your findings, and explain what you found, adding your
own personal interpretations.

Ideally, you should link the discussion back to the introduction, addressing each point
It’s important to make sure that every piece of information in your discussion is directly
related to the thesis statement, or you risk cluttering your findings. In keeping with the
hourglass principle, you can expand on the topic later in the conclusion.
I. Elements of a Novel
Author’s Purpose - is the reason an author decides to write about a
specific topic. Then, once a topic is selected, the author must decide whether
hispurpose for writing is to inform, persuade, entertain, or explain his ideas to the

Characters - are the individuals that the story is about. The author should
introduce the characters in the story with enough information that the reader can
visualize each person. This is achieved by providing detailed descriptions of a
character’s physical attributes and personality traits

Setting - is the location or time of the novel. An author should describe the
environment or surroundings of the story in such detail that the reader feels that he or
she can picture the scene.

Plot - the main events of a play, novel, movie, or similar work, devised and presented
by the writer as an interrelated sequence.

Theme - the central idea in the story or novel. It can usually be expressed in a short
statement about human nature, life, or the universe.

II. Techniques
Style - in writing can be defined as the way a writer writes. It is the technique that
an individual author uses in his writing. It varies from author to author, and depends
upon one’s syntax, word choice, and tone. It can also be described as a “voice” that
readers listen to when they read the work of a writer.

Tone - is an attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience. Tone is generally

conveyed through the choice of words, or the viewpoint of a writer on a particular

Figurative Language - uses figures of speech to be more effective,

persuasive, and impactful. Figures of speech such as metaphors, similes, and allusions
go beyond the literal meanings of the words to give readers new insights. On the other
hand, alliterations, imageries, or onomatopoeias are figurative devices that appeal to
the senses of the readers.
Chapter 4
Conclusions – Out of your findings, your conclusions are based on your
research. This provides the answers of every statement of the problem and also this is
where you will prove your hypothesis and assumptions.

Recommendations – Should be directly based on the significance of the

study. This also includes the recommended actions that should be done after the
conduct of the study such as further assessment of the subject, focus on other factors,

References/Work Cited - No paper is complete without a reference list,

documenting all the sources that you used for your research. This should be laid out
according to APA, MLA or other specified format, allowing any interested researcher to
follow up on the research.