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I

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residen tial
I STRUCTURAL
L IGHTI NG

I
o
rP-107

I LARGE LAMP

GENERAT @
DEPARTIVI ENT

EtEcTRtG
--1

What is
structural lighting?
Structural lighting is the term used by lighting designers
to describe light sources built into the home as a part of
its finished structure. Sometimes called "architectural" or
"built-in" lighting, it denotes a custom installation, de-
signed and assembled to fit a particular situation.
Because structural lighting is built right into walls and
o,(
ceilings, it can be designed to blend with any period de-
corative motif or color scheme. It can blend or contrast
with its background. Since it has very little styling, struc-
tural lighting does not become dated in appearance.
One of the major functions of structural lighting (Fig. 1)
is to lighten and enhance walls and ceilings. This is im-
portant because walls and ceilings account for three-
quarters, or more, of room surfaces in a home.
lil
The walls are the background of the home landscape.
Light, well-lighted walls appear to recede. Hence, wall
Iighting extends the visual area, increasing the apparent
space.
With structural lighting, colors of wall coverings and
draperies become more vivid and windows have daytime
charm, even after dark. Because the major source of light
in the room is the entire wall surface instead of a small
fixture or lamp, the resulting room lighting is soft and (
relativeiy shadolv-free. This "horizontal" lighting molds
forms and features in a more flattering way than light
from above or below.
rig. Fis.2b

Fis. 2-Lighied wolls lmprove visuol comfort. The Iishted


d,oppries in I g. ?. totn o p -o. ns ond comfor-oble bd.l- \
groJnd'or the *cl lsr'cd boot .hs 'onon i, reooinq Fiq. I
2b is r--,om-..-r", bLr ^irhour r.u(-u.ot ,iqhrine. tr.,i",r,. I
-oJd b" con,lorrly tryi-9 o odust oe'.Fen 7
the hish brishtness of her book ond the surounding dorkness.

vAtfiicr BIICl(ET

3 A"ri" Forms of Wall Lighting


(
There are three structural lighting techniques for walls that
.._.i..,i:t, are easy to install and have wide application throughout the
c0nMcF home. The most popular is the lighted valance (rhymes with
"balance"). This is always used lvith a window to provide
"night-time sunshine." The fluorescent wall bracket looks a
:.i
ffi lot Iike a valance, but is used mainly on inside walls away
from windows. Easiest to install is the cornice which is mount-
ed at the junction of wall and ceiling and can be used with or
without a window
How much structural lighting is necessary?

TABLE 1_RECOMMENDED TYPES AND SIZES OF STRUCTURAL LIGHTING Table 1 is a guide to the number
INSTALLATIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL INTERIORS of feet of structural lighting neces-
sary for major areas of the home.
Iype (or mmb nat on) of
Struclural LiahnnR App cable
In many cases, the structural light-
ing technique is used instead of a
Va ance, coriice, wal brackel lighting fixture for general lighting.
Va ance cornrce, wal bracket
l85lo 250
over 250 sq
so It
ii
l6 fl.
In many rooms, added lixtures will
ghling lor every l5 be desired to provide specific task
Vil,n.e .orn.e wall brackei
or decorative illumination. Walls
4ir can also be lighted by recessed
louvered incandescent "hihat" fix-
3ii
tures. It is best to use ?5-watt R-30
3 It. Vrlai.e corfice wall brackel or 150-watt R-40 flood lamps. These
t25 to 225 sq It. 4 It. 8fl valai.e, corrice, wa!l brackel should be cenlered l0 inches from
0ver 225 sq. fr Valance. .orn.e, wa brackel a solid wall or 12 inches from a
40 1o 80 sq it 6fl window wall. One fixture is used
for every 32 inches of wall length.

DESIGN
INFORMATION

Valance
Lighting
The lighted valance is ahvays connected with the
window. It usually directs light both uprvard over
the ceiling and downward over the wall and
drapery.

-^. Valance faceboards can be simple and unobtru-


ris.3 Volonce sive as shown in Fig.3. Or, they can be as decora-
-
foceboords con be
sinple ond blend in
tive and stylish as the imagination will allow. A
with the room decor. wide variety of faceboard materials are available
(Fig. 4) that can be trimmed rvith moldings, scal-
Fis.4-Some of lhe loped, notched, perforated, papered. upholstered
mqny types dnd de-
sisns of foceboords.
or painted. Faceboards should have a minimum
) width of 6 inches and seldom should be wider than
10 inches. Nominal I inch lumber usually lvorks
quite well for valances 8 feet or longer.
Back of Faceboard Painted FIat \ /hite
The inside of the faceboard should always be painted flat
rvhite. Thc only exception to this would be the bottom lyz to 2
inches on a very deep valance. It is possible that this bottom
strip might be seen from outside the rvindorv and therefore can
be painted to match room decoration. if the back of the face-
board is not flat rvhite, fhe valance lvill trap the light produced,
and the resultant color of light in the room may be distorted.

I I

t2 " T0 GEIHl{G 10" tion of downwdrd lisht.

+
Jr"l.- I

6"

I
Fig. 7-Dropery irdcks should be kepi os close
1o ihe window woll cs possible. Droperies shoold
,1,

Fis. 5-tocotion ond instollotion of o volonce.


(
Spacing belween Lamp and Drapery
The most critical dimension of a valance is the spacing be-
tween the fluoresccnt lamp and the front surface of the drapery
material as sholvn in Fig. 5. There must be at least 2 inches
betrveen the center of the lamp and the front face of the drapery
material. This insures that the draperies rvill be more uniformly
lighted from top to bottom. Draperies hung near the tops of
their pleats hang straighter, causing less interference with the
light. To get the proper spacing it is usualll' necessary to allow
3 inches between center ol the lamp and the drapery fack. Often,
this requircs mounting the fluorescent channel out from the
Fis. 8 A "boll in9-up" of lisht, (shown) resulrs
rvall by means of u'ooden blocking or metal straps. when -there is insufficient spoce between lomp
In normal drapery installation conditions, the inside of the
faceboard should be located about 672 inches from the wall. If.
bulky draperies, or a double track is uscd, the {aceboard might
have to be extended to a distance B inches or more from the wall.
Fig. 6-9 show both good valance installations and some of the
problems in achieving desirable light di:iribution.

Space lrom Top ol Faceboard to Ceiling O(


A 1O-inch space between the top of the vaiance faceboard and
the finished ceiling is recommended. Valances that are closer
than this to the ceiling lvill trap light near the cciling and pro-
duce a "hot streak" of light. If there is less space than this avail-
able, the valance should eithcr be closed at the top, or the fluo-
rescent cornice should be used. To assure a rvide spread of light
on the ceiling, the fluorescent channel and lamp should be
mounted close to the top of the faceboard. rhey flop forword ord inrercepr ihe ti9hr.
c'l
* -|.- }
Fluorescent uiH r,i!'N

--
Wall Brackets i cHANNEL MoUNTED
EVEN WITH T()P

OF FACEB()ARD
The wall bracket is probably the single, most useful
structural lighting device in the home. It can be used
in any room of the house. Basically, there are two kinds
of wall brackets; the construction differs depending on
whether the bracket is to be used high on the wall for
general lighting, or lower on the wall for specific task
llslDE ..2/
lighting. ILAT,'
wlilTE
High Wall Brackels
A high wall bracket is really a valance without a
window. It is used as a source of general lighting for a
room. Quite often it will be used to balance the illumina- Fig. l0
tion from a matching valance at an opposite window.
Many of the same dimensions and construction tech-
t
10" tvtN.
v
I -6"_
niques must be observed as when installing a valance.
The inside of the faceboard must be white. The fluores- I
cent lamp and channel must be iocated as high up be-
hind the shielding board as possible so the light will
spread evenly and far out over the ceiling. The fluores-
cent tube should be at least 3 inches out from the wall
,r"j Floor
o
(Fig. 10) to provide a smooth distribution of light over
the rvall. This reduces the chance of hot streaks of
brightness above and below the shielding board.
A minimum of 10 inches between the top of the
"i
shielding board and the ceiling is recommended (Fig.
11), so no light is trapped above the bracket.
Fig. 12 and 13 illustrate trvo of the many uses of
high rvall brackets.
Fig ll

Fig. 12-Woll brockets con be used to provide senerol lishling. Fi9. l3 A high woll bro.kel finished to mokh its bocksround
Here, the brdck€t dir€ds!sef!l liqhi into wd I cdbineis os well os produces o brishr welcomifs lishr in ihe enlry hol . lr olso mokes
5predding ight generously out ove. rhe ceilins oreo. Addiiionol the eniire spdce 5ecm lorger. Woll brockers ore exce lenr for hol-
lishl musr be provided, however, qr rhe counier iops. woy ighlin9, but in mony coses mun be shielded or lolvered ot
the bottom 1o hide the light source when viewed lenglhwise.
Low VVall Brackets lor
Local Lighting
The lorv wall bracket is a "rvorking light" com-
monly used where specific seeing tasks are per-
Iormed close to a rvall. They are used to highlight
fireplaces, pictures; to provide functional lighting
over desks. soIas, etc. For most of these low-on-the-
lvall uses, the bracket is mounted no higher than
5 feet 5 inches from the floor. Table 2 gives height
location for lorv wall brackets and the type lamp
that should be used.

tis. 1,i-This closed+op low woll bro.ket odds vi5!ol impoct to o


,| wo.l point:ng ond pro'ides o userJl liqht foJ !er'in9 {rom lhe bufiet.
I t,. ,." o{ 'he brocke' ir .lo\"d ro o(h "v- d drot . empho\is *i,h
I on oll ao".*"'d l;sh! oillribLl:o_. Norc ho' lhp lao \l u.lurol
\ lishtins eler-nt'
with no conflid.
"oll broct"t ond ro n <e, o'e u"ed ".de by side

Fig. 15-Low woll brockets ore prddicol for ch'ldren's bedrooms


/ b"-o!,- th". ap\o'- thc Ioh.i-o -quiprerr our o-.Le wo? thir
(' ::: ,;:.;; ;'t;::t; :i3;l'T,.1",::.":" "":';",::": ,:; ;";;;
tl. :i,o o, .i l.'i1.".1. (

TABLE 2- RECOMMENDED MOUNTING HEIGHTS AI{D LAMPS


FOB STRUCTURAL LIGHTING FOB SPECIFIC TASK AEEAS
Recornmended De !xe Warnr
While Fluoiescenl Lamrs

Siig e Bed 52 n iromlN 0ne 30 wall" Lamp


louble 8ed
:xlra W de Bed or Twrns
N th Srng e He.dboard
Choose amp s zes lo har
nd ze with englh oilurniture

t oo r. r'r,ir..ii 0." id*,rr u'" p

2' 0ne 30 walt* or one 40 wall'


J toD (See F:] L7) depand ne od engtli oi desk
M fior or Picl!re CrouD ng Choose amp s ze io h3rmon-
te w th
ength oi turnilure

"N0TE:30 wall amps are 36 riches ong 40 watl enrps a'e 48 inches long.
IN0TE: Less il top oi *al br.cket s.losed
Fig. l6 Low wolbrockels shoud nor hove lomps higher lhon 2
inches obove th. bottom of the shieldins boord. By plocins ihe lomp
ow ln rhe brocler, rhc llsht has o brocd spreod downword which 2" 0pening for upward light
wi I cov., Jhe l.sk lo be il umi.oied

1
15" to 18"

Fis. l7 A u!.ful dnd d€corolive voriotion is this desk light-book shelf.


He,. the book shelf hos to b€ wide onovqh so thor lle lomp is positioned
di.edly ovcr the sr!dent s wo,k robo!1 I inches bock from lhe front edse )
-ry
I

I 6" Mll{.
The lighted cornice is positioned on the
ceiling at the iunction between the wall and
ceiling. All of its light is directed downward
to light the wall surface below. For this
reasonJ the lighting effect produced is a
dramatic one. It emphasizes wall textures,
wall coverings, and will light pictures and
other wall hangings. Also, because the wall
is emphasized. the cornice gi\es an impres-
Fls. l8-These key points should be followed when insidllins o.ornice: sion of greater ceiling height. Cornices are,
l. There slould be 2 inches (preferobly 3 inches) between the center of rhe
fluoresceni lomp qnd the surfoce to be lishied.2. Pdint ihe inside of the therefore, ideally suited for low ceiling
foceboord flor while.3. lhe chonnel should be positioned os close io the rooms such as basement recreation rooms.
foceboord qs possibie. The fqceboqrd should be at leosi 6 inches deep.
The cornice is about the simplest of all
structural lighting elements to build. There
are, however, a few points to note as shown
in Fig. 18. Figs. 19 and 20 illustrate several
possibilities $ ith cornice lighrjng.

It _
,r#Frr
Lir
l' ,':?.

fig. l9-The downword lighiing froh this cornice gives droholic emplosi5
to ihe m!rol wollpoper. This srozins onsle lighiifs is olso effective over
ston€, brick, wood, ond flocked or textured wollpope6. When.ornices ore
viewed lengthwise. cover ihe bonom opening wiih lo!ve6 or di{f!sin9 plostic.

Fi9.20-Cornices ore pre{erred to volo.ces on wolls havins less ihon l2


inches of spoce between the top of th€ window5 ond the ceilins. ll is
desiroble to supplement cornice lighting wiih upword lighting from open top
portoble lomps, fixiures, or o volonce o. woll b.ocket.
)
Gonstruction Tips
for lnstallation of Structural Lighting
lnstallalion
If possible, the valancechannel and necessary blocking should be
fastened right to the top of the window casing. If the channel has
to be fastened above the casing the valance faceboard will have to
be wide enough to cover the channel and entire depth of the casing.
In order to position the fluorescent lamp the proper distance in
front of the drapery or other surface, the channel will often have I
to be spaced out from the wall. This can be done in three ways by
using: 1. Continuous wood blocking behind channel. 2. Wood blocks,
spaced every 18 to 24 inches, including each junction of channel. 3.
,l
Metal angle brackets, home-made from Ys inch steel strap, Yz inch
wide, approximately 12 inches long. These sfaps should be bent and ,
drilled so that channel and faceboard may both be secured to them
(see Fig.21). Two holders should be used for each channel.

Fig. 22 shows the use of angle iron to mount the faceboard.


Valance ancl cornice faceboards are often made of 7z inch or 3/+
inch clear white pine or plywood. An excellent faceboard material,
horvever, is beveled cedar siding
For real ease of installation, several manufacturers make pack-
aged valance units.

(
Praperies Tips For Besl Pertormance
Valances should not be less than four Fluorescent chan-
feet in length. It is often advisable to ex- nels with sockets
tend the valance beyond the window by mounted at the ex-
6 to 12 inches on each side to allow for treme ends of the i:-!
davtime stacking of draperies. Two small channel are requir-
windows separated by a narrow section ed. Butt the chan-
t
of wall may be joined by one valance
which visually ties them together and
gives the impression of one large window.
nels so the lamp-
holders are back-to-
back. as shown in
I Ii 'fll
r
1r
',l

Light colored drapery fabrics are best.


Fig. 23. This close t\s. 23
lamp spacing should
Lighted valances and cornices lose much
of their effectiveness if dark fabrics are
be maintained even if this leaves a dark space of 6 to I
inches at each end o{ a valance or cornice.
used. Clear sharp colors may be used in
the drapery pattern but the background Deluxe warm white fluorescent lamps are recom' I
should be reasonably 1ight. mended for almost all residential lighting applications. It L
{|r
is desirable to use lamps of the same size and wattage in
Don't use stiff drapery fabrics which
each valance. For uniformity of lamp color it is best to (
billow far out from the wall. If you do,
use all lamps from the same carton.
the lamp channel should be positioned
farther out frorn the wall. Where there is just 10 inches or less from the top of
the faceboard to the ceiling the distribution of light on
the ceiling can be improved by either beveling off the
NOTE
For every structurol lishrins in5tollotion, coreful
inside top edge of the {acehoard or slanting the face-
5pecif;cot;on5 should be followed for ben result!. board to allow more light to escape. Slanting the face-
Specifi.orions ore qvoiloble in o booklei (TPc-t2)
from rhe Lorse tomp Depr., Generol Ele.tri. Co., board permits the use of a narrower faceboard of only
for use "on rhe iob." 5-inch width because the angle of tilt helps to shield the
fluorescent lamp from view.
The underside of any architectural member is
known as a soffit. Often these spaces can provide a
housing for light sources. Suitable soffits for light-
ing can be formed in furred-down areas over kitchen
sinks and work areas, furred-down areas over bath-
room mirrors, undersides of pass-throughs, niches,
and beams. There are basically two uses for lighted
soffits: 1. To direct light downward onto a horizon-
ta1 plane. (Fig. 24). 2.To direct light outward to a

'f
F'g. ?4-Polished aluminum reflecrors behind o slighty etched
vertical surface (such as a face in front of a mirror) sloss pdnel direcl light to ihe lofo wilh o minimud brightness
as shown in Fig. 25. The proper installation of to other viewers;n the room.
lamps for soffit lighting is shorvn in Fig. 26.

Directing Light Downward


When a soffit is used to light a horizontal surface
below it, the fluorescent channels should be
equipped with polished aluminum reilectors. Re'
flectors will more than double the useful light
output of the soffit if the bottom is closed with
louvers or a material that does not diffuse the
light to any extent.
In living areas, the soffit has a more acceptable
appearance if a lightly etched or configurated glass
or plaslic is used. To furlher reduce the brightness
as viewed lrom sealed positions in lhe room. the
inside back vertical surface of the soffit can be
painted in a matte black finish.
Fis. 25-The wide design of this soffit, w;ih ik excellent
For Mirror Lighting diffvsins ponel, directs lighr ot wide qnsles.
The sollit over the balh or dressing room mirror
has the function of scattering light outward to light
a person's face as he stands before the mirror. For Rtctss
this reason, the soffit is usually made shallower and PAIIITED TI,AT
a good deal wider to let more light escape. The l{HlrE
bottom is covered with a highly diffusing glass or .. ).t
t_,_, -.
plastic. Reflectors are not needed.
-'f 5" --
NOIE
Fi9. 26-All so{fiis use or
leosi two rows of lomps.
Fluorescenr chqnnels should nor be direcrly
The chonnels shouJd be lo-
mounted on cohbunible moierials. They coied d5 for forword os
should either be mou.ied with o suround- possible. Aluminvm reflec-
ins oir spd.e or on fireproof moieriols. lors *ill greotly increose
lr
f,
lr TABLE 3 _ SOFFIT CONSTRUCTION DATA
Cavity Dim€ns 0ns Deluxe Parabolic l\4aterial ior

o*-f**,'I
Location Use Aluminu rn Bottom
*.*,. Finish Lamps Reflectors Closure

Xilchen 0ver stn k ot ll


8to n. 38 in. min Flat white Iwo rows to trll engtf. Yes L0uvets
work center 12 in. Two 3o'watt minimum.
Bath or 0!er large 8 in. 14 to Length ot Flat white lwo rows to lrll lengtlr. No Whrte d r11u srng
tn]lr0r l8 in. Tnlrr0r Two 40-watt minimurn. glass or Dlastic
Dressing
Room 8 rn, lu t0 Length ot F rl white I hree rows to lrll lergth. No White drtlusrng
24 in mtrror Three 40'w. minim!m. glass or plastic
Lightly etched
rnateflalacceptable
Living Over p ano, desk, l0 in. Fit space Frt Space Flat white except Two rows to fill length. Yes Lrghtly tigured or
sola, or other Available Available matte black painted Two 40-watt minimum. etched glass or
seerng arez 12 in. min 50 in min back wa lsudace plastic
EASY TO MAKE

Fis. 27 A. look "inside" the innollotion 3hown in tig.


- or double lomp chonnels ore hounled in the
28. Sinsle
cenler of the .ovity, ond lhe ends boxed in. Ldmp
center5 ore obout 5 inches obove lhe plorric whe.2 by
8 .eilins ioi5ts d.e used. lf rhe ioisr3 ore deeper,
disron.e should be noinroined by blockins.
'nch
rhi3

The comfortable lighting effects and the sen-


sation of spaciousness created by luminous
ceilings make them natural for applications in
Fis. 28 The nedr un-
kitchens, bathrooms, entryways, recreation
cluttered- qppedronce o+
ihe3e luminous pqnelr rooms and even dining areas.
mqkes iheh uioble ol-
mosi onywhere in the Today, many manufacturers make packaged
luminous ceiling assemblies which can be used
for residential applications.
(
The design of luminous ceilings varies with
the room size, room proportion and intended use.
Usually these ceilings are only applicable in
rooms with high ceilings where the plastic diffus-
ers can be dropped 10-12 inches. For uniform
lighting on the diffuser, lamps should be spaced
in rows not more than one-and-one-ha1f times
their distance to the diffuser. Manufacturers of
luminous ceilings can provide design and instal-
lation instructions for their particular products.
An entire ceiling, however, need not be lumi-
nous to be effective and attractive. A simple
method of luminous ceiling panel construction is
to utilize the space between ceiling joists. This
Fis. 29-The cold commerciol look of luminous ceilinss space is an ideal location for fluorescent lighting
.dn he elimindred by .oreful 3ele.rion of diffurins
moteridl qnd ihe use of custom woodwork o. trim which equipment if the ends are boxed in and a plastic
hos o sofienins effecr.
diffuser suspended below.
The cavity should be painted flat white, and
the fluorescent unit mounted on fireproof mate- (
rial. A number of cavities may be joined together
to create a large luminous pane1, or they may be
Fig. 30 l;shtweisht
-The Yinyl plosiic used in single strips or pairs over critical seeing
.orugoled
used in thi3 dinette is areas. Fig. 27-30 show a variety of luminous
eorily renoved ond hdy ceiling installations from the simple to the more
be cleoned by dipping in
d detergent 30lution. Note complex.
the corregoted vinyl
should be qllowed to qir
dry. Do nor rub dry vith

'10
Fig. 3l Bosemeni ,ecreotion rooms
wnh low- c6ilinss often hove their lishi
ing recessed in ihe ceilins. Her€, be-
tween-the.ioisk lishiing unirs o,e spoced
)
l!
' -1,'
*+
I
I
;n o pditern to provide 30 fooicondes
for gone ploying in the center of the

&ni t l
0'111'

-t
I

It is difficult to predict holv mtich lighi ivill be


produced by recessed ceiling panels. This is be-
causc ol the irregularities of the cavity dimcnsions
found in homes, variations ili t"vpe of material used
to cover the opening, tenperaturcs at rvhich the
lan.ips operate. ctc. llsuall)' 10 to 15 footcandles
u,iIl be measured under typical units at table-top
height. Placing trvo lamps in a single joist space
O will not double the iight output. \\rhere lighting
performance is particdarly important, use a pol-
ished aluminum reflector over the lamp or lamps
and use a louver in thc bottor,.

NOTE
Chonnels should be mounted on fireproof moterioL o.
mounted on spocers to o low dlr clrc!lotion behind the fis.32-lt is impo,tdnt to locote dmps 3 to 5 inches fron
.honnel. Never mounl o chonnel directly on low density boitom dif{user or ou"er. Hishly tr.nsl!ceni diffusers will lroP
lighi ond be lower in brighlness froo normol viewi.s Poritions

?;a* ,
'il
/'; ,. o'
."'tl
I
)I
et ii+.*til:*i*i-{ir*:."'",'.l''-#)
are
resceni lomps used.
Coves (which are usually mounted high on the
wall) direct all of their light upward to the ceiling
where it is, in turn, reflected back into the room.
The cove is known as a source of "indirect light-
ing." The illumination effect produced by cove
lighting is soft, unlform and comfortable. Since
there is no light directed downward into the room
from a cove, however, the resulting lighting effect
is relatively flat and lifeless. For this reason, cove
lighting should be supplemented by other lamps
ris.35-Alihoush this cove is mounied well down from rhe ceilins
ond direcrs it! lishr for out overrhe ceiling, ihe room locks iniererr and lighting fixtures to give the room interest and
ond hishlishi. provide lighting for seeing tasks.

For good cove lighting a few basic rules must be


followed as shown in Fig. 37.
1. Cove lighting should only be used with (
white or near-white ceilings.
2. Keep the cove as far down from ceiling as
possible for a wide distribution of light.
There should be a minimum of 12 inches
from the top of the shielding board to the
ceiling.
3. Place the lamp at least 4 to 472 inches out
from the wall.
Fig. 36-Good cove lishring provide5 excellenr generol lighiing 4. Paint the inside flat white. Butt
when orher lomps dnd fixtures dre used to lisht rhe wolls qnd supply lamp
hiqhlights ond shodows. sockets back-to-back.

Coves are particularly suited to rooms with two ceiling


levels. In these applications they should be placed right at
the line where a flat, Iow-ceilinged area breaks away to a
higher ceilinged space. The upward light emphasizes this
o(
change of level and is very effective in rooms with slant or
cathedral type ceilings.
The Iighting efficiency of coves is low in comparison with
valances and wall brackets. Because of this more lamp lumens
are usually needed. To attain a general lighting level of
from 5 to 10 footcandles in a living space, coves should be
designed for 45 to 60 lumens per square foot of floor area.

19
Lurninous
Wall Elements
Self-luminous walls and wall panels are an effective
way to make rooms appear brighter, cheerier, and even
larger.
The best lighting results are obtained when a special
reflecting cavity can be built 10 to 14 inches deep in the
wall. This permits mounting fluorescent channels well
back from the front diffuser to give the panel an even
distribution of light and a comfortable brightness. The
inside of the cavity should be painted flat white and the
opening covered by a good (even rather dense) diffuser.
Lamp rows should be spaced no further apart than one-
and-one-half times the distance from the lamp to plastic. fig. 38 Bold or.hitecturol use of this lighted Ponel
-
emphosizes the sodring height of this cdthedrol ceiling.
It is difficult, however, to find a space 10 to 14 inches A rh;n fibergloss diffuser is used behind on overloy o{
deep in a residential interior. This means that luminous woven fiber cdne which minimizes the non-uniform lighting
effect from the two rorher widely spoced rows of lomps.
panels have to be made to fit into the existing 2 by 4
inch or 2 by 6 inch stud wall. This can be done, but some
uniformity of lighting will be 10st. Patterned plastic
diffusers and/or a grillwork overlay will, however, make
this non-uniformity scarcely noticeable.
When lamps are moun ed in 2 by 4 inch or 2 by 6 inch
stud spaces, it is possible for brightness on the diffuser to
run as high as 450 footlamberts (where a maximum of 50
footlamberts is recognized as being barely comfortable to
the eye for long periods of time). These high brightnesses
can be reduced to comfortable levels by the following
methods: 1. Put lamps on dimmer control. 2. Mask part
of the lamp with black electrician's tape. 3. Use a dense,
patternetl cliffuser. 4. Use an overlay of grillwork on.the
diffuser. fig.38,39, and 40 illustrate several possible
architectulal uses of luminous wail elements.

Fig. 39-This ponel serves or o lumlnous room divider


sepqrot;ns o section of hollwoy from the living room. The
6-inch thick ponel is luminous on both sides- rluorercent
lomps ore mounted ot the roP ond botiom edger.

0 Fig. 40-An dftrodive free-stonding luminous ponel is o solu-


iion if there is no convenient woy ro bu;ld the luminous ponel
into the wol1. Here the wooden fromework wos consrru.ted
IlooFro-(eiling, obout 12 in.hes oot from the woll. Tinied
fluores.enr ldmps were used, blendins to creore o white light yet
.osling colored 5hodows in ihe volleys of rhe .orusoiions.

'13
GRILLES and DIFFUSERS
A wide variety of decorative plastics, and a large of fluorescent lamps placed parallel to the
selection of decorative grilles and screens, can be corrugations.
purchased from lumber dealers, builder supply
houses, decorator supply shops, exhibit houses and
glass and plaslic supply oullets. Things lo Remember
\ /hen Selecling crilles
Things lo Remember All open grilles require a lightweight diffuser
\Arhen Selecting E'illusers behind them.
Diffusers which have opaque rnaterials laminated Almost all grilles and latticework look better with
into them will show in silhouette. This will often some front lighting, particularly with grazing light.
cause them to lose the color they had when viewed Otherwise, when seen in silhouette thev will lose
unlighted. Often these opaque patterns will benefit their color and character.
by the use of colored light from behind. Very fine mesh patterns, such as expanded metal
Diffusers which have laminated patterns of light" and punched metal, tend to lose their identity
transmitting material are most effectively lighted when viewed from any distance.
with white light which will show up their true Grilles with Iarge openings, (at least 1 inch),
colors to best advantage. retain their appearance and character even at dis-
Large luminous panels should not be made up tant viewing positions.
entirely of very strong-colored or vividly patterned In medium or large-size grille openings, depth of
materials. Some of these do add emphasis to a wall, the grille material is important. Additional depth
but are best used as accents for a grid or module provides more shielding comfort and a change of
pattern. effect with every change of viewing position. Shad-
Corrugated diffusers can produce interesting ings of light and shadow on the sides of the grille
color effects when they are lighted with two colors also add interest.

The imagination of the designer is the only limi


tation on how many places structural Iighting can
be used in a home. Each individual home design Fis. 42 * LIGHTED NICHE
offers special possibilities for variations on the dif- One 40 wott fluo.esceni lomp
lights this entire disploy niche
ferent slructural lighting techniques shown in this from lop to botloh. The nick,
booklet. (Fig. 41, 42 and 43 are examples). In ad- of course, is to use gloss )
shelves which tronsmit ihe lishi.
dition to these few structural elements. there are The iube is conceqled behind
many others such as niches, pilasters, lighted man- frosted 9ld5s dr rhe borlom. The
entire un;t is only 6 inches
tels, bookcases, reverse coves, edgelighted room
dividers and numerous ways of building lighting in-
to or behind furniture.

Fis. 4l FLOATING CANOPY


- vinvl diffurer ir
,r A formed ruD-
I oorred bv -""t" r."-" r^
" ti"Ltconopy' Fig. 43 COFFER
-
!
'
..t" "rr""ri.j over rhe
TV ond Hi-Fi. Dimmer control! dre ll': ighl'ln. :9T:'1,1,:.'?,rl:t \
very impodont here becouse full !::Yt::'t: it'::,'Il:f 1t:','. D
brishtness on rhe diffuser would lomp! blends into o sofi while 7
be uncohfortobJe for TV viewins. in the.enter dred-
Wiring for Structural Lighting
O utl ets
Since structural lighting is part of the per- will give quick starting for regular fluorescent
manent structure of the home, the lighting lamps. In the 30 and 40-watt sizes quick start-
elements should be permanently wired and ing can be obtained with "rapid start',
switched. It is important that the wiring outlet ballasts.
be carefully located on the wiring plan so that
it will be covered by the fluorescent channel Side Mounled
in the final installation. Al1 fluorescent lamps A special type of channel called side mount-
perform better when used on grounded wiring ed channel (Fig. 45) is available in some
systems and in metal wiring channels. locations. When used in valance and wall
bracket installations it has the advantage of
Channel placing the lamp out farther from the wall-
Basia Fixture Type rn some cases even eliminating the usual

Eo
blocking.
The basic lighting fixture used in struc-
tural lighting is the simple wiring channel
which is merely a narrow metal box contain- Fi9.45
ing all the parts necessary for the operation
of the lamp. Fig.44 shows the several parts
in detail. Conlinuous Rows
In every case where lamps are to be used
in continuous rows it is important to select
channels that have their sockets mounted at
the extreme ends of the fixture. These may be
butted back-to'back to provide a continuous
O smooth line of light with minimum socket
shadows.

Dimming
Fis. 44
There are numerous occasions when the
flexibility afforded by dimming is e{fective
1. Metal channel maintains socket spacing, safety in adjusting the lighting to fit the mood. A
contains electrical parts, aids in lamp starting. number of practical dimmers are available for
2. Ballast is required to stabilize lamp operation. the control of fluorescent lamps in residential
Desirable Ieatures are "certilied" label, "high installations. They all will fit into 2-by-4 inch
power factor" and "A" or "8" sound rating. stud walls and are easy to install and operate.

l,
3: Starter is required with conventional ballasts Dimming fluorescent lamps is easy and
and lamps. Specify "certified" starters FS-2 for
2o'watt lamps, FS-4 for 4o-watt lamps. practical, but there are a few points to re-
member:
4. Lampholders should be llush with ends of
channel so they will be back-to-back in continuous 1. As a general rtle, fluorescent dimmers require
rows. White Iampholders are recommended. a three wire cable connection from the dimmer to
the fluorescent channels.
5. FluoresceDt lamps should be 1% inches in 2. Special dimming ballasts are required for each
diameter (T-12 size). Deluxe Warm White color channel and lamp.
is recommended.
3. Dimmer systems perlorm best when their cir-
cuits are grounded.
Cluick Starting
4. Dimming systems will operate the 30-watt or
Some channels are availabLe equipped with the 40-watt rapid start lamps, but will not operate
special ballasts that provide quick starting them satisfactorily on the same circuit.
without a separate starter in the circuit. In the It is advisable to follow the manufacturers' in-
15 and z0-watt sizes "trigger start" ballasts structions carefully for best results.
I
GENERAL ELECTRIC LARGE LAMP SALES AND SERVICE DISTRICT OFFICES
SERVICE OtSTRICTS
sA!ES DtSTAICTS (ll aJtul.r Lr d lr 0b1. r S r rD ,i lilonrrir rr.
r.r r
(TD 0 ni r 5i ,j ir d l.r i i lilori.l il) i, r V/r,rhr !e Sl,:[. i,. fli rrl ai I ]rs-" P. r ts)

CITY rll Nr Tr,lcrr:ri. l!! lll' l,o. T.i.rrhrr e lld.

t I if:i: i.r lr. ll:!8 4t.'ilt5 E lirrS.,rr D:l !lNrdrit .!l,Btt'tr lY 1rll0 856 0300
l: I llll./ ll ir t.r3:t !i5 r!.:l :)il lrlr ,r L ,rE t'0 E0: l3lrlr iLli:)] li5 l92l
BALTIMOFE, T'ID. ilLil li l..r nil P 0 Bi 1 i4lr ilil l i\f lLl P 0 tl.r lr:r 1l;2i ll2 5i00
'il lrilr,ilr r I ilLrlrr Ll)ir'li 5 lilis5 lla'la r :l r: lriij ir ,l r:r r I irr llrrlr' lrrr:r ti is i.! rli'15': 132 62.10
i.5lJl irrirc lre I r:rrl tJi r:r l !:r Fj,lr.r r ,.5l :::i0 85'( 0!0il
CHAFLOTTE. N. C. ilirLTrrfr\., :1, i:r l'0 lir,. l'lil Llll L 'rrc'r-ie qa P 0 Fr. ll.ll ll2Ai 3ir, ii5!5
CHICAGO. ILL. l6! lr Cr r !l ]:irl !. lr,tl Rr 61632 251 lllill
CiNCiNNATI- OHIO 9 r1l l.r!ir r 5L l5:0l] ,l I lj:l 19 C,i l , ire 'illDl J2l 0810
CLEVELAND. OHIO l:!lI iill lLL, | 0. tio rlll lrlll iLil r:li Ll,gli irliAN. P| 8.! lil. illl2 :61 ,1lrl1
DALLAS, TEXAS iilril a,ll S r' r, s lir ir:lt .lr r lrr, a5tt l:rlr: Sr: ris Fa ! 0 Lrr il5.lil5 i,lr5 151 li25
DE VEB. C0LO. 65al E iil l,: 81216 38! liill
DETBOIT, MICH. 1tll5 F., : r lN: .1!rl0l 883 0:00
HOUSTON. TEXAS Jr lo rl r frr d Arr l'0 Brr 2ll!l 5ill Arr i rr 'Lr' P0 9r': l!:i5 ii0:l 923:t19
INDIANAFOLIS.INO. t5i I L 1] ril larilt t l,r r5ll C r r,: Slr t) !: 19 Ce I . A!. C ri r:l , 0 ,i52!? 111 6810
N KNHSAS CIIY. MO. llllr r..l lillr Air all16 ,ril35lE irrLi r-rrl lal irl 1,1116 ,li1l56e
LOS ,4I]G ELTS. CALIF. 171i Srrtr I'ir r Aril rrlrrj, i2l 25'rl 2i'1, 1:r rl Lrl, I AlL llljlr ill 25rL
ii E M PIIIS. TEN N- :.r1l Sr Li1h.r r Sl 33lit! !ts r.( r2 :,r:l S., L.l r. r 5: .l!109 llri lii12
MIAMI. FLA. lll0 [ W i1L] Si P.0 Br],:,r 196 :1314 i /'r, :rl3i l3il'iYi 7lllr5i, P0 Brr,1r79d 3ili7 itl 8lu1
MILWAUKEE. WIS. 5l!0[ 5 arf.nU!i 532"19 .t6i i!6ll 53|i rl 5 .r ri r U !d. 5l:lr! 16r' 1360
MINNEAPOLIS. MINN. 500 Slirsor B r'o t5,113 ir.r I ltr5u 5rl0 Sl rs.i I lil 55llil 331 ,1X50
NEWARK. N. J. :lh !t.i r,r'r,r Sl ti51 0i.i:r ll l 0,r0ti lli1 5t,ilJ lll Btj. 51 0il0l El4 !100
NEW HAVEN. COhN. 135 C. e.e St 06510 56r, 9E/| t!Y Ser! Di.l itll!,iidrr!ifBrd,Ceid.c NY 112:7 896-6000
1!0lr ! !.ri ld t 0 Eo. l0::lh illzl 33! 6':i 1 i:rrn k rp, Ri P c Bi: lir.la 70121 835 612i
NEW YOBK. IT- Y. 2l I li,t i.] ruri 10017 i5t rllr ,! 11Wr!. ri,.n E vi 6.rd.. !.Y l1::',r 1t221 896 6000
OAKI.AND, CALIF. !!!r l!1r A!l !'ir:03 5f! J4r,rl !!l !.rl lru 9/6i3 569 3122
PHILAOELPHIA. PA. hL :lr2 .r Lirrreij,rr P 0 Iti 299 13106 it8 5!11) R: lil: rl Li,ress,1.! P 0 B.r i!r9 191c6 683 5900
I n, ri Prusi a Pi Ir],rJ Prrs: ri
.lrl t/ Crrrr r 51 15219 lrl 9l)11 238W Cri5.r l-it l5zlq lil 11050
PORTLAND, OIIE. 9i2lu )tJ )1n1 18!D N vr ll: i Sl gizlil /lil2101
RICHMOND, VA, Itll ViL riLl L:Ir] Dri!. P0. uoi!1i2, :32:6 :;' itl. B; L rlre Sr',' U si P.0 Brr r'11,', Br I r".re, d 1ll2l 212 il00
aoc( rsLAN0, tLL. 1ll llll P 0. Bo1 lii 6l:ti I it!.t1ll5 [' r,.,ulLe ! ] ! I .1 5ilr0 lr. Slrrnra r B vd ].i109 161 lE60
^lo
SEATTLE, WASH. rilC S rlh A!. alL lr !dl3r 622 8t8l 'lliil]lj illr Ar.r Sfrrr !1t3r 522 8081
sT. L0uts. M0. l53a Fi rrl.rv A!.. 6.1131, ,119 6930 l5l0 Fi lrr A,r. t3r
6l ,::q 6qt0
TAMPA. FLA. t 5 flrr ,hlr:il P0 Brr 5lli il60ri 2 t lLTl 315 il: I r 16lh Sl l0 Brr 51]i 3laut :,r8 1174

r iCd L.r tr lhr Sr F! 0 str rt lleidqr.rrirs . I - !led rhora G L L.dD si .srrn ;re reiidert
,tlllhc fill,r: C.rsut!D!r lsr.!rlore direr.r! Lrd.r G.n.r. F.rri,Crnrr,rryLrrDiDi!sor.
cenera Of{ices: l',lela Perk. Cleveland, Ahio 44112
rP,L07
oc t. 1964