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Overvoltage Protection Devices


for the
Automotive Power Network

VISHAY Intertechnology
Fusing Strategies for Future Vehicle PowerNets
Aachen, Germany, June 17th, 2002

Paddy O Shea, Erich Niebler, Eamonn Medley

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th, 2002


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Agenda

z Introduction
z What is the threat on
14V / 28V / 42V PowerNet
z Load dump solutions
z M d l protection
Module t ti
z ESD protection
z Summary
z Discussion

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Automotive Accounts

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Long, long time ago ……


No electronics in vehicle.

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Electronic Components in
Automobile

lighting security system


suspension transmission
engine brakes
Global Posit. Sys. airbags
diagnostics entertainment center
steering comfort accessories
Source: Paumanok
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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Overvoltage Protection Standards


ISO 7637, Electrical disturbance by conduction and coupling
DIN40839, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in Road Vehicles
WGS/WD 03/2000, Conditions for electrical and electronic equipment for a
42V PowerNet
ISO/WD21848, Electrical and electronic equipment for a 42V network

Originator of transient voltages must prevent & protect


z Meet reliability requirements
z Legal liability
Increase in voltage clamping performance required
z Increased alternator power to meet future demands
z Ti ht specification
Tighter ifi ti

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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What is the Threat

Hi h Energy
High E
z Load dump
z Field decay with load changes
z 42V to 12V short circuit

Low Energy
z ESD
z Relay / electronic load switching

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Field decay with load changes


Alternator voltage varies with automobile status
Load
L d dump
d
Battery disconnect
Load changes Acceleration / Braking /
Lights

Alternator
output voltage
Battery
voltage

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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LOAD-DUMP
• Disconnect load at high alternator charge current

• High impedance load forces alternator voltage to increase

• Excessive voltage creates discharge path

• Field energy discharged into electronic circuits W = ½LI²

• Discharge time 100ms - 500ms


1 2
6KA24 SM8S36A
90.0 90.0
Amps
s

70.0 Load Dump Pulse


70.0 Load Dump Pulse

50.0 50.0
Volts
Volts

30.0 Clamping Voltage 30.0


td=400ms (10%) td=400ms (10%)
Clamping Voltage
10.0 10.0
50.0 150 250 350 450 50.0 150 250 350 450
time in msecs time in msecs

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Load Dump Voltage Clamping


Ideal Attributes
Dissipate high energy reliably
Wide operating temperature range
Very low thermal impedance - W/°C
z Dissipate a lot heat energy to ambient
z Absorb junction temperature changes quickly
Very low voltage temperature variation - mV/°C (%/°C)
Veryy g
good clamping
p g factor - Vc/VBR
z Maximise peak pulse power

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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14V / 28V External


Load Dump Suppressor
PAR® TVS
z TJ=TA in normal
operation
p
z Single TVS solution
or
z S i stacking
Series t ki ffor
higher power
z >75M Units shipped
in last 3 years

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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14V / 28V Integrated


Avalanche-Rectifier PAR® TVS
z Standard in today’s
14V & 28V
alternators.
alternators
z Minimises
component
p count.
z PAR ® TVS also
available as bare die
for power modules.
modules

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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42V / 14V - Differences & Challenges


58Volts VC
Breakdown / mV/°C Voltage Tolerance
50V Peak steady-state voltage

42V (charging)
40V l VC
40Volts
Specification
36V Battery
Very tight clamping specification
Breakdown / mV/
mV/°C
C z 8V range @ 42V vs 13V range @ 12V
Voltage Tolerance
Impact of operating temperature
range is very severe
z -55C to +175C
14V (charging)
z mV/°C
12V Battery
z reduces selection voltage range
z NEED INDUSTRY FEEDBACK
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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42V Load Dump Voltage Clamping


E T S I T S R
58Volts VC
Vc@Ipp Vc @ Ipp
Breakdown Voltage range
50V Peak steady-state voltage Stand-off voltage
48V RMS Ripple

Stand-off voltage

42V (charging)

36V Battery

Amps
0V Battery
y

Volts Volts
Voltage range impacted by:
z Operating Temperature range

z mV/°C

z Clamping factor

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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42V External Load Dump


Suppressor
PAR® TVS
z TJ=TA in normal operation
z Single TVS solution or
z Series stacking for higher
power
z 2x SM8S22A
z 3x SM8S15A
z Design in +ve Thermal
Coeff for normal 75°C
operation
z Components available
now
z >75M Units shipped in
last 3 years
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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PAR® TVS Solution


42V Alternator Sample Results
z 2 x SM8S22A 20V/Div
20V/Di
20mS/Div
z RPM: 3,600

z Load: 3 Ohms

z Alternator o/p: 40V

zVC: 50V

zUnprotected 120Volts
peak

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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External Load Dump Suppressor

FET TVS
z 0mV/°C
53V
z Diode chain sets
breakdown voltage
z Drain voltage set by
R
diode chain
z Surge current through
FET

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Load Dump Voltage Clamping


58Volts VC
Vc@Ipp
Breakdown Voltage range
50V Peak steady-state voltage Stand-off voltage
48V RMS Ripple

Voltage
g range
g impacted
p by:
y
z Operating Temperature
42V (charging)
range
36V Battery
z mV/
mV/°C
C (very low)
z Clamping factor

Amps
0V Battery
y

Volts

Not to scale
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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Load Dump Voltage Clamping


58Volts VC TVS-Thyristor
Breakdown Voltage Range
Vc @ Ipp 42V
50V Peak steady-state
voltage
Stand-off voltage
ZZ ZZ ZZ
48V RMS Ripple

42V (charging)

36V Battery

Amps
0V Battery
y

Volts z Very good clamping factor


z Load dump energy dissipated
as heat in windings
Not to scale z Lower power device required
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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14V / 28V / 42V


Load Dump - Summary
Power dissipation
p in silicon
z Separate LD Solution- PAR® TVS
z For Lundell and Starter Alternator
z Parts for series stacking available
z Integrated LD Solution- PAR® TVS
z Today’s
y standard in 14V and 28V
z Minimum component count
z 2 Terminal MOSFET
z Low clamping ratio

Power dissipation in alternator winding


z ThyZorb® TVS-Thyristor
TVS Thyristor
z Low clamping ratio
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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Module Level Protection


14V / 28V / 42V

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th, 2002


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Module Level Protection

Module Level Protection Against:


z Load Dump

z Failed regulator

z Alternator field decay transient

z Reverse
R polarity
l it connection
ti
z Inductive load switching

z Electrostatic
El t t ti discharge
di h

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Module TVS Protection


Effective Protection Includes
z Grounding
z Bonding
z Shielding
z Protective Devices
z Over current limiting (Fuses)

Effective
Eff ti protection
t ti methods
th d require
i
a combination of the above

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Module Level Protection


Type of Protection
Series Vin variable
R2
Vout stable

z Normal operation low impedance


R1
z Increase impedance with input
transient voltages
z Current limit

Shunt
z Clamp excess voltages
z Divert transient currents away from
circuit

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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42V Module Level Protection


Type & Level of Module Protection

Transient emitters
z Module should not emit excess voltages
z Must contain suppression capability
z May share Load Dump energy
z 42V system must clamp <58V

Transient receivers
z Design for operating voltages >50V
z Contain transient p
protection <75V to p
protect circuit ((FET))

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Overvoltage & Reverse Polarity


Protection
14 V / 28V Standard Net : 30V - 40V
14 V / 28V
Diode
or Mosfet
14 V Load
TVS

Transient Emitter 42 V PowerNet : Transient Receiver


52V - 58V 52V - 75V
42 V 42 V
Diode
or Mosfet 42 V Load
Motor
TVS TVS

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Overvoltage & Reverse Polarity


Protection
TPSMA & SMA
DO-214AC Short circuit protection: 42V to 14V:
42 V 14 V
DC Diode
DC or Mosfet
TVS 14 V Load
High Power
TVS
TPSMB & SMB Clamping
DO-214AA

Protects 14V load against over-voltage

TPSMC & SMC


DO-214AB
SM8
DO-218AB
Also Available
in Axial
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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Overvoltage & Reverse Polarity


Protection
TPSMA & SMA
DO-214AC
Loss of common ground:
42 V 14 V
Diode Double Protection
or Mosfet
M f t
Disconnect Diode 42 V Load 14 V Load
or Mosfet
TVS TVS
TPSMB & SMB
DO-214AA

Protects reverse bias of the 14V load

TPSMC & SMC


DO-214AB SM6A & SM6S
SM8A & SM8S
Also Available DO-218AB
in Axial

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Typical 14V / 28V TVS Diodes


Volts SMA SMB SMC DO218 Axial

6,8-16 SMAJ16A TPSMB6.8A TPSMC6.8A


TPSMA & SMA
DO-214AC
TPSMB18A SM6A & SM6S
18-22 TPSMA20A SM8S22A 1.5KA18A
TPSMB22A
SM8A & SM8S
TPSMB24A DO-218AB
TPSMA27A SM5A27 1.5KA24
24-28 TPSMB27A SMCJ26A
SMAJ28CA SM8A27 6KA24
TPSMB & SMB SMBJ26CA
DO-214AA
O TPSMB30A
TPSMC33A SM6S30A
30-33 TPSMA30A TPSMB33A 5KP30A P
SMCJ33A SM8S30A
SMBJ33A C
1.5KE36CA
TPSMB36A SM6S36A
36-39 TPSMA36A TPSMC36A 1.5KE39CA
SMBJ36A SM8S36
SM15T39CA

TPSMC & SMC 43-51 TPSMB43A TPSMC47A 1.5KE51CA


DO-214AB

Also Available 170-530


SMAJ170A
BZW04-171
SMAJ530
in Axial
Share 24% 36% 8% 8% 24%
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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HOW IS A TVS DEVICE SELECTED?

Module Failure Threshold


EOS
Cl
Clamped
d Transient
T i t
Protected
Transient Load Derate devices:
Current TVS z Increased temperatures
p
z Increased duty cycle

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Protection Designers Guide

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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TVS Power Calculations

For further information email to: Erich.Niebler@vishay.com


1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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TVS Combinations
SERIES
z IP max = Lowest IP of the TVS chain
z VR=V1+V2+V3

PARALLEL http://www.gensemi.com/appnotespdf/quik106.pdf

• Devices must be closely matched


to share IP load
• 0 - low mV/°C
mV/ C devices will not
share load unless matched
• IP max = IP1 + IP2 + IP3
http://www.gensemi.com/appnotespdf/quik107.pdf

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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14V / 28V / 42V Module Level


Protection Products
GS PAR® Technology TPSMA & SMA
o o DO-214AC
z Temperature Range: TC -65 C to +185 C
z Produced over 250 million units in last 2 years

TPSMB & SMB


GS GPP
GPP-TVS
TVS Technology DO-214AA
O
o o
z Temperature Range: TC -55 C to +165 C
z Unidirectional & Bidirectional offerings.
z P d
Producedd over 1 billi
billion units
it iin llastt 2 years
TPSMC & SMC
DO-214AB
VISHAY, #1 W
Worldwide
ld id in
i Diodes
Di d & Rectifiers
R tifi Also Available
in Axial
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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ESD Threat
Common misunderstanding:
“ESD
ESD is a threat during equipment assembly”
assembly

Reality:
“ESD
ESD is a threat throughout the life of the system
system”

Electrostatic Discharge EN/IEC61000-4-2

Vulnerable to ESD:
z Control panels
z Indicators
z A
Accessible
ibl I/O pins
i
No ESD Protection:
z All Electronics at risk
“The product may perceived as being of poor in quality”
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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ESD Threat to Semiconductor


Devices
Parametric Degradation (Latent Failure)
z damaged part may not fail catastrophically

z show increased leakage

z will continue to degrade until permanent

failure occurs

New products are getting more sensitive

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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ESD Standards / Testing


Human Body Model Machine Model

ESDS Component Sensitivity Classification ESDS Component Sensitivity Classification


- Human Body Model (Per ESD STM5.1-1998) - Machine Model (Per ANSI/ESD-S5.2-1999)

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th, 2002


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ESD Protection
Device for ESD suppression needs to be:
z Extremely fast response time

z Low clamping and operating voltages

z Capacity to handle high peak ESD currents

z Ability to remain undamaged by repetitive ESD

strikes
z Minimal size

z Minimal reverse leakage current

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Limitation of On-Chip
p
Transient Protection
2 4kV typical chip protection level: - may not be adequate.
2-4kV adequate
Not capable for higher voltages
ESD Protection
Up to 30kV
VCC
air discharge
ESD Diodes

Protected
IN OUT
IN

GND Polysilicon resistor !


Thermally insulated by SiO2
INPUT CHIP or Glass layer.
layer
LOGIC
ESD PROTECTION Susceptible to thermal
damage from joule heating
NETWORK
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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ESD Protection
z Unidirectional &
bidirectional options

z Bus and input


ESD protection

z Peak pulse power of


200 mW - 750 mW

z 30 kV air discharge

z Available as leadless
package, bare die &
p chip
flip p technology
gy

1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002


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Summary
VISHAY Intertechnology
P id solutions
Provides l ti ffor allll automotive
t ti applications
li ti

System engineering approach needed


z Automobile manufacturers
z Module designers / manufacturing
z Component suppliers
Best overall protection includes
z Load dump
z Module
odu e level
e e pprotection
o ec o
z ESD
TVS products need to be optimised for 42V applications

Discussion
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002
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For further information


visit our web site
www.vishay.com
y
Vishay Electronic GmbH
Geheimrat-Rosenthal-Str. 100
95100
Postfach 1180
95092
S lb
Selb,
Germany

PHONE:49 - 9287 - 71 0
FAX:49 - 9287 - 70435
1st Aachener Electronics Symposium - Aachen, Germany, June 17th 2002