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Equipment Fundamentals:

Heat Exchangers

Chapter 3
Topics
Equipment – heat exchangers Fundamentals of heat transfer
 Combines information about fluid & exchange
flow & heat transfer across  Heat transfer across boundaries
internal boundaries • Conduction
 Considerations • Convection
• When do I need to know the • Radiation
specifics of the heat exchange
configuration?  Coupled with internal energy
changes
• How is the heat transfer
coefficient related to the outlet • Sensible heat effects
temperatures? • Phase change
• What is an approach
temperature?

Updated: January 30, 2018


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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Topics
Fundamentals of heat transfer Equipment – heat exchangers
& exchange  Combines information about fluid
 Heat transfer across boundaries flow & heat transfer across
• Conduction internal boundaries
• Convection  Considerations
• Radiation • When do I need to know the
specifics of the heat exchange
 Coupled with internal energy configuration?
changes
• How is the heat transfer
• Sensible heat effects coefficient related to the outlet
• Phase change temperatures?
 Area-averaged temperature • What is an approach
difference temperature?

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Fundamentals

Updated: January 30, 2018


Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Transfer – Modes of heat transfer

Conduction
 Flow of heat through material with no bulk movement of the material itself
 Usually thought of through solid, but can also be through a stagnant fluid
 For a flat sold:
Q T T
 k hot cold
A x
 Through a circular pipe:
Q 2
 k  Thot  Tcold 
L ln  Do Di 
 Through a sphere:

2
Q  k  Thot  Tcold 
1 1

Di Do

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Transfer – Modes of heat transfer

Convection
 Flow of heat associated with fluid movement – natural & forced convection
Q
 h  Thot  Tcold 
A

Radiation
 Heat transferred via electromagnetic
radiation
Q
   Thot
4
 Tcold
4

A
   Thot
2
 Tcold
2
 Thot  Tcold  Thot  Tcold 

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Heat Exchangers – Some Basics

Focus is on the system to have heat flow from the hot fluid(s) to the cold fluid(s)
usually without direct contact
 Use bulk flow parameters to relate the heat conduction across the flow barrier to the change in
energy of the hot & cold fluids
 Account for the series of resistances to heat transfer between the hot & cold fluids

Heat exchangers
 Heat to & from flowing fluids through impermeable barrier(s)
 Driving force for heat through barriers is the temperature difference between the
two fluids on opposite sides of the barrier
 Relate the heat effects in the flowing fluids to the change in enthalpy
• Often this can be related to the difference in the inlet & outlet temperatures for
the fluids
Q H  m H  Hˆ H , in  Hˆ H , out   Q H  m H Cˆ p , H  TH , in  TH , out  for constant Cˆ p , H
Q C  m C  Hˆ C , out  Hˆ C , in   Q C  m C Cˆ p , C  TC , out  TC , in  for constant Cˆ p , C

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Heat Exchangers – Some Basics
TH,in TH,out
 Relate the heat across TH(x)

the barrier to the


TC(x)
temperature difference TC,out TC,in
across the barrier x

d  Q / L 
 U  Th  Tc   Q   UA  Th  Tc AREA AVERAGED
dx
 It can be shown that for many typical configurations the AREA AVERAGED
temperature difference is the LMTD (Log Mean Temperature Difference)

Q   UA  T LM where
T  TC ,0    TH ,1  TC ,1 
 T LM  H ,0

T T 
ln  H ,0 C ,0 
 TH ,1  TC ,1 

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Heat Exchangers – Some Basics

LMTD is a prescribed calculation – calculating the LMTD from the


procedure is always correct.
 T 1   T 2  T 1   T 2
LMTD        and      lim  LMTD  
  T 1   T   T  2
ln  
1 2

  T 2 

LMTD is appropriate for use as the area averaged temperature


difference when temperature vs. heat released/absorbed is a
straight line
 1-1 co-current & counter-current flow and …
 Both hot & cold sides have a constant heat or …
 Only pure component phase change on one side or the other (no subcooling
and/or superheating)

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Transfer – Some Basics

Heat exchangers – Co-Current vs. Counter-Current vs. Cross-Current flows


 Counter-current flow allows the outlet temperatures to approach more closely to the
inlet temperature of the other fluid
 Cross-current flow is complicated & requires knowledge of the actual flow patterns
Co-Current Counter-Current Cross-Current

Heat exchangers – Industrial Heat Exchangers


 Industrial heat exchangers have a combination of heat transfer through multiple
barriers and a combination of counter-current & co-current flow
• LMTD must be “corrected” to give the actual area-averaged temperature difference (i.e.,
driving force) – this is the source for one type of “F” factor

Updated: January 30, 2018


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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 1

Heat 291,800 lb/hr cold C2+ NGL feed from 80oF to 105oF using 191,600
lb/hr hot C3+ bottoms @ 240oF
 Assume only sensible heat effects
• C2+ NGL feed heat capacity – 0.704 Btu/lb F
• C3+ Bottoms heat capacity – 0.830 Btu/lb F

Determine
 C3+ Bottoms outlet temperature ??? F

 Exchanger duty C2+ NGL Feed


291,800 lb/hr
80°F
 (UA) for the exchanger 145°F

C3+ Bottoms
191,600 lb/hr
240°F

Updated: January 30, 2018


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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 1

Exchanger duty & C3+ Bottoms outlet temperature determined from energy
balance around exchanger

Q  m c Cˆ p , c  Tc , out  Tc , in    291800  0.704 145  80   13,353,000 Btu/hr


Q 13353000
Th , out  Th , in   240   155.8o F
m h Cˆ p , h 191600  0.828

Determination of UA requires configuration information


 1-1 counter-current flow 1-1 co-current flow
240  145  155.8  80   85.1o F 240  80   155.8  145  55.4o F
 T LMTD   T LMTD 
 240  145   240  80 
ln   ln  
 155.8  80   207.7  105 

Q 13353000 Btu Q 13353000 Btu


UA    157, 000 o UA    241, 000 o
 T LMTD 85.1 hr F  T LMTD 55.4 hr F

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 1

Determination of UA requires configuration information


 1-2 (1 shell & 2 tube passes) combines both counter & co-current flow

The fluid in the shell pass transfers heat separately to the two tube banks

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

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Heat Exchanger – Example 1

 1-2 exchanger calculations require a configuration correction to relate


temperatures to the UA
 Does not include crossflow effects across the tubes

 1 P 
R2  1ln 
F1  1 RP 

 2  P R  1 R 2  1
 R  1 ln 
 
 2 P R  1  R 2
1  
Ref: Kern, Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, 1965

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 1

 1-2 exchanger

240  145  155.8  80   85.1o F


 T LMTD 
 240  145 
ln  
 155.8  80 
145  80
P  0.4
240  80
240  155.8
R  1.3
145  80
F2  0.86 (from chart)

Q
UA 
F2  T LMTD
13353000 Btu
  182, 500 o
0.86  85.1 hr F
Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 1

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 1

Representation of temperature profiles with combined flow becomes more


complicated.

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 2

Heat 291,800 lb/hr cold C2+ NGL feed starting from 80oF using 191,600 lb/hr
hot C3+ bottoms @ 240oF. Drive the exchanger to a 10oF approach
temperature
 For 1-1 Counter-Current flow, what are the outlet temperatures?
• The C2+ NGL Feed is either heated to 230oF (approach on the hot inlet side) or …
• the C3+ Bottoms is cooled to 90oF (approach on the cold inlet side)
 Assume only sensible heat effects
??? F
• C2+ NGL feed heat capacity – 0.704 Btu/lb F
C2+ NGL Feed
• C3+ Bottoms heat capacity – 0.830 Btu/lb F 291,800 lb/hr
80°F ??? F

Determine
 The outlet temperature that is not controlled by
the approach C3+ Bottoms
191,600 lb/hr

 Exchanger duty 240°F

 (UA) for the exchanger

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 2

Exchanger duty & “other” outlet temperature determined from energy balance
around exchanger
 If the hot side inlet has the approach temperature

Tc , out  Th , in  10  230o F
Q  m c Cˆ p , c  Tc , out  Tc , in    291800  0.704  230  80   30,814,000 Btu/hr
Q 30814000
Th , out  Th , in   240   45.8o F
m h Cˆ p , h 191600  0.828
This has a temperature crossover – this is not the controlling side!
 If the cold side inlet has the approach temperature:
Th , out  Tc , in  10  90o F
Q  m h Cˆ p , h  Th , in  Th , out   191600  0.828 240  90   23,797,000 Btu/hr
Q 23797000
Tc , out  Tc , in   80   195.8o F
m c Cˆ p , c 291800  0.704 

Updated: January 30, 2018


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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 2

Determination of UA for 1-1 Counter-Current flow using the cold & hot outlet
temperatures of 195.8oF & 90oF, respectively

240  195.8   90  80   23.0o F


 T LMTD 
 240  195.8 
ln  
 90  80 

Q 23797000 Btu 90°F


UA    1, 035, 000 o
 T LMTD 23.0 hr F C2+ NGL Feed
291,800 lb/hr
80°F 195.8°F

C3+ Bottoms
191,600 lb/hr
240°F

Updated: January 30, 2018


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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 3

Heat 291,800 lb/hr cold C2+ NGL feed from 80oF using 191,600 lb/hr hot
C3+ bottoms @ 240oF. 1-1 Counter-Current heat exchanger from Example #1
designed with 25% excess heat transfer area (UA=196,000 Btu/hr oF)
 Assume only sensible heat effects
• C2+ NGL feed heat capacity – 0.704 Btu/lb F
• C3+ Bottoms heat capacity – 0.830 Btu/lb F

Determine ??? F

 Both outlet temperatures C2+ NGL Feed


291,800 lb/hr

 Exchanger duty 80°F ??? F

Need to couple all three equations relating heat


exchanger duty find the three unknowns C3+ Bottoms
191,600 lb/hr
240°F

Updated: January 30, 2018


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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 3

Even though it looks like you’ll have to solve the three equations in an iterative
manner, it can be shown that the heat transfer duty is:
   1 TH , in  TC , in    1 1 
Q  where   exp UA     for m C Cp , C  m H Cp , H
 1 
   m C Cp , C m H Cp , H  
m C Cp , C m H Cp , H

So:   1 1 
  exp 196000       0.7548
   291800  0.704  191600  0.828   

Q 
 0.7548  1 240  80   14, 924, 000 Btu/hr 145.9°F
0.7548 1

291800  0.704  191600  0.828
C2+ NGL Feed
291,800 lb/hr
80°F 152.6°F

Q 14924000
Th , out  Th , in   240   145.9o F
m h Cˆ p , h 191600  0.828
Q 14924000 C3+ Bottoms
Tc , out  Tc , in   80   152.6o F 191,600 lb/hr
m c Cˆ p , c 291800  0.704  240°F

Updated: January 30, 2018


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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchange with Phase Change

Can get significant heat exchange with little to no change in temperature

ΔT = 0 ΔT = 340

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 4

Condense 10,000 lb/hr saturated vapor propane at 120oF using 95oF air.
Figure a 10oF approach temperature, so heat the air up to 110oF.
 Needed physical properties
• Air heat capacity – 0.24 Btu/lb F
• Propane heat of vaporization @ 120oF – 1,236 Btu/lb

Determine
 Exchanger duty
 Flow rate of air needed
 Exchanger UA

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 4

Duty determined from the propane energy balance. No sensible heat effect.

Q  m h  vap  10000 1236   12,360,000 Btu/hr

Air flowrate from its energy balance:


Q 12,360,000
m c    3,430,000 lb/hr
Cˆ p , c  Tc , out  Tc , in   0.24 110  95

Calculate UA knowing the terminal temperatures


120  110   120  95  16.4o F
 T LMTD 
 120  110 
ln  
 120  95 

Q 12360000 Btu
UA    755, 000 o
 T LMTD 16.4 hr F

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 4

Calculating the UA is essentially the same as when there is no phase change since
the temperature profiles with heat release are still straight lines. The hot stream’s
profile just happens to be a constant temperature.

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 5

Condense 10,000 lb/hr propane vapor that is superheated to 160oF (but still
with 120oF vapor pressure) using 95oF air heated up to 110oF.
 Needed physical properties
• Air heat capacity – 0.24 Btu/lb F
• Propane vapor heat capacity – 0.52 Btu/lb F
• Propane heat of vaporization @ 120oF – 1236 Btu/lb

Determine
 Exchanger duty
 Flow rate of air needed
 Exchanger UA

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 5

Duty determined from the propane balance. Combine sensible heat & latent heat
effects
Q  m h  vap  Cˆ p , c  Th , in  Th ,BP    10000  1236   0.52 160  120  
 10000  1236  20.8
 125,680,000 Btu/hr
Air flowrate from its energy balance:
Q 125,680,000
m c    34,900,000 lb/hr
Cˆ p , c  Tc , out  Tc , in   0.24 110  95

Just using terminal temperatures gives an incorrect result!

160  110   120  95  36.1o F Q 125680000 Btu


 T LMTD   UA    3, 480, 000 o
 160  110 
ln   T LMTD 36.1 hr F

 120  95 

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 5

Calculating the UA is more complicated than just using the terminal temperatures
since there is a drastic break in the temperature profile for the condensing
propane

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 5

Determine the intermediate air temperature between the sensible & latent heat
zones
Q cond  m h  vap  123,600,000 Btu/hr
Q 123,600,000
Tc , mid  Tc , in  cond  95   109.8o F
cm Cˆ
p ,c 34,900,000  0.24 
Calculate the UA values for the two zones
120  109.8  120  95  16.5o F 160  110   120  109.8  25.0o F
 T LMTD   T LMTD 
 120  109.8   160  110 
ln   ln  
 120  95   120  109.8 

Q 123600000 Btu Q 2080000 Btu


UA    3, 420, 000 o UA    83, 000 o
 T LMTD 36.1 hr F  T LMTD 25.0 hr F

The total UA is the sum of these two contributions.

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 6

Can we condense 10,000 lb/hr propane vapor that is superheated to 160oF (but
still with 120oF vapor pressure) using 95oF air heated up to 140oF? This still gives
an apparent 20oF approach temperature?
The answer is NO! It is not apparent from the terminal temperatures but there is
an internal pinch point to
the temperature profiles
& there would be a
temperature crossover. The
air’s outlet temperature is
constrained by this
internal pinch point.

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 6

More air flow is needed to accomplish this cooling. Using a 10oF internal
approach temperature shows that the air’s outlet temperature is constrained to
112.5oF. The required air mass flow would be calculated accordingly.

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Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Transfer – Some Basics

Thermal resistances are added when in series


 Can be combined into an overall heat transfer coefficient
 Across a flat plate (i.e., constant cross sectional area)
1 1 L 1
  
U hi k ho
 For radial heat transfer (e.g., through the wall of a tube) must also take into
account the change is area with respect to radius
• Overall heat transfer coefficient must also be related to a reference area
/ diameter
1 1 L 1
  
Uo Ao hi Ai kAave ho Ao
1 1 Ao L Ao 1 1 Do 2Do  Do  1
     ln   
Uo hi Ai k Aave ho hi Di k  Di  ho

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Heat Transfer – Correlations for Film Coefficients

Flow in tubes with no phase change


0.8 0.4
 hD   D v   Cp  
NNu  0.023 N 0.8
Re N 0.4
Pr     0.023    
 k      k 

When there is a significant difference between wall & bulk fluid


0.14 0.8 0.33 0.14
   hD   D v    Cp    b 
NNu  0.023 NRe
0.8
NPr0.33  b      0.023      
 w   k      k   w 
Stirred liquids, heat transfer from coil …
0.14 0.62 0.33 0.14
   hD   Ni Di2    Cp    b 
NNu  0.9 NRe,
0.62
i NPr0.33  b      0.9      
 w   k      k   w 
… from tank jacket
0.14 0.67 0.33 0.14
 b   hD   Ni Di2    Cp    b 
NNu  0.36 N 0.66
Re, i N0.33
Pr       0.36      
 w   k      k   w 
Updated: January 30, 2018
34
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Typical Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients

Heat transfer coefficients are drastically different for conditions of boiling


and/or condensation versus when there is sensible heat change.
 Bubbles break up the films along the wall
 Also dependent upon the temperature difference
across the wall

Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing, 2nd ed., Kidnay, Parrish, & Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.
McCartney, 2011

Updated: January 30, 2018


35
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Typical Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients

Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing, 2nd ed., Kidnay,


Parrish, & McCartney, 2011

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

Updated: January 30, 2018


36
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Typical Fouling Factors

Add these resistances to the reciprocal of the “clean” overall heat transfer
coefficient

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

Updated: January 30, 2018


37
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Equipment

Updated: January 30, 2018


Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Gas Processing Applications

Common heat exchangers


 Shell and Tube
 Kettle reboiler
 Aerial coolers
 Plate Frame
 Plate-Fin (Brazed Aluminum)
 Hairpin
 Tank Heaters

http://www.alfalaval.com/globalassets/images/media/stories/crude-oil-
refinery/ppi00393_compabloc-brazil_640x360.jpg

Updated: January 30, 2018


39
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers

Workhorses of the gas processing


industry
Shell side
 Baffles used in the shell side to
minimize channeling

Tube side
 Manifolds allow for even
distribution of fluids into the
tubes & collection/mixing of
fluids out of the tubes
 Multiple tube passes make it
easier to pull the tube bundle for
maintenance/cleaning and…
 … have better allowance for
thermal expansion effects
Fig. 3.6, Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing, 2nd ed., Kidnay, Parrish, &
McCartney, 2011

Updated: January 30, 2018


40
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (Types)

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

Updated: January 30, 2018


41
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (Selection)

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

Updated: January 30, 2018


42
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Kettle Reboiler

Shell & tube heat exchanger with the tubes submerged in boiling liquid on the
shell side
 Main resistance to heat transfer is on the tube side since boiling is occurring on the
shell side

Fig. 3.7, Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing, 2nd ed., Kidnay, Parrish, & McCartney, 2011

Updated: January 30, 2018


43
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Plate Frame Heat Exchangers

Positives
 Low cost
 Compact – high area per weight &
volume
 Can get very close approach
Fig. 3.9, Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing, 2nd
temperatures (5oF or lower) ed., Kidnay, Parrish, & McCartney, 2011
 Can be disassembled to clean
Negative considerations
 Limited maximum allowable working
pressure
 Susceptible to plugging

http://www.cheresources.com/content/articles/heat-
transfer/plate-heat-exchangers-preliminary-design

Updated: January 30, 2018


44
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Tank Heaters

Integrated into existing equipment (i.e., tanks or vessels)

https://www.chromalox.com/en/global/case-studies/pocket-heater-
reduces-costs-and-downtime

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

Updated: January 30, 2018


45
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Air-Cooled Exchangers – Fundamentals
Air cooled exchangers cool fluids with ambient air
 Seasonal variation can greatly impact performance
Utilize finned tube in increase heat transfer surface area

www.hudsonproducts.com www.hudsonproducts.com

Updated: January 30, 2018


46
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Aerial Coolers

Fans either push air through (forced draft) or pull air through (induced draft) tube
bundle
 Can control the air flow rate either with a variable speed motor or with louviers

Fig. 3.8, Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing, 2nd ed., Kidnay,


Parrish, & McCartney, 2011

http://spxcooling.com/products/detail/air-cooled-heat-exchangers

Updated: January 30, 2018


47
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Aerial Cooler Design Considerations

Typically a small number of diameter tubes (e.g., 1in OD) with fins on the air side
(e.g., 1/2 or 5/8 in)
Design considerations
 Process side – pressure drop for flow inside of tubes
 Air side
• Required air flow
o May need high air flow to prevent
temperature crossover, but…
o High air flow gives higher
pressure drop & fan power
 Mechanical considerations
• Total number of tubes
• Tube layout: number of passes, number
of rows, pitch
• Bay size: typically 45 ft X 15 ft max Ref: GPSA Data Book, 14th ed.

Updated: January 30, 2018


48
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Air-Cooled Exchangers – Types
Forced Draft vs. Induced Draft
Advantages: Advantages
 Slightly lower horsepower  Better distribution of air
 Better maintenance accessibility  Less possibility of air recirculation
 Easily adaptable for warm air recirculation  Less effect of sun, rain, or hail
 Most common in gas industry  Increased capacity in the event of fan
failure

Updated: January 30, 2018


49
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Air-Cooled Exchanger – Thermal Design
(∆ Temperature – CMTD Figs 10-8 & 9)

F ~ 1.0
for 3+
Over/Under
Updated: January 30, 2018
Passes
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Summary

Updated: January 30, 2018


Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Summary

Common types of heat Heat exchange basics


exchangers used in the gas  Coupling of fluid energy
processing industry balances with heat transfer across
 Shell & tube barrier
 Kettle reboiler  Common heat exchanger
configurations
 Air cooled exchangers
 Typical heat transfer coefficients
 Plate Frame
 Example process calculations
 Plate-Fin (Brazed Aluminum)
involving heat exchangers
 Hairpin
 Tank Heaters

Updated: January 30, 2018


52
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Supplemental Slides

Updated: January 30, 2018


Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
LMTD as Area-Averaged Temperature Difference

If the temperature curves are linearly related to the duty then the temperature
difference will also be linearly related to duty
 T 1   T 0   T 1   T 0 
T   T 0  q  d  T   dq
Q Q
Can put into differential form of heat transfer equation & integrate
Q
dq  U  T  da  d  T   U  T  da
 T 1   T 0
d  T   T 1   T 0
U da
T Q
 T 1
d  T   T 1   T 0 A
 T
U
Q  da
 T 0 0

  T 1   T 1   T 0  T 1   T 0
ln    U A  Q  UA  UA  T LM
  0 
T 
Q   T 1 
ln  
  T  
0

Updated: January 30, 2018


54
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers

http://www.apiheattransfer.com/Product/54/Type-ST-U-Tube-Shell-Tube-Heat-Exchangers

Updated: January 30, 2018


55
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 7

Heat 291,800 lb/hr cold C2+ NGL feed from 80oF to 160oF using 191,600
lb/hr hot C3+ bottoms @ 240oF
 Assume only sensible heat effects
• C2+ NGL feed heat capacity – 0.704 Btu/lb F
• C3+ Bottoms heat capacity – 0.828 Btu/lb F

Determine
 C3+ Bottoms outlet temperature ??? F

 Exchanger duty C2+ NGL Feed


291,800 lb/hr
80 F
 (UA) for the exchanger 145 F

C3+ Bottoms
191,600 lb/hr
240 F

Updated: January 30, 2018


56
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 7

Exchanger duty & C3+ Bottoms outlet temperature determined from energy
balance around exchanger
Q  m c Cˆ p , c  Tc , out  Tc , in    291800  0.704 160  80   16,434,000 Btu/hr
Q 16434000
Th , out  Th , in   240   136.4o F
m h Cˆ p , h 191600  0.828

Determination of UA requires configuration information


 1-1 counter-current flow 1-1 co-current flow
240  160   136.4  80   67.5o F cannot be done – crossover!
 T LMTD 
 240  160 
ln  
 136.4  80 

Q 16434000 Btu
UA    243, 000 o
 T LMTD 67.5 hr F

Updated: January 30, 2018


57
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 7

1-2 exchanger

240  160   136.4  80   67.5o F


 T LMTD 
 240  160 
ln  
 136.4  80 
160  80
P  0.5
240  80
240  136.4
R  1.3
160  80
F2  0.51 (from chart)

Q
UA 
F2  T LMTD
16434000 Btu Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.
  477, 400 o
0.51 67.5 hr F

Updated: January 30, 2018


58
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 7

Correction factor below 0.8. Try 2-4 exchanger


240  160   136.4  80   67.5o F
 T LMTD 
 240  160 
ln  
 136.4  80 
160  80
P  0.5
240  80
240  136.4
R  1.3
160  80
F2  0.925 (from chart)

Q
UA 
F2  T LMTD
16434000 Btu
  263, 200 o
0.925  67.5 hr F

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

Updated: January 30, 2018


59
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Cooling Tower Principles

Evaporative cooling (Psychrometry)


 Dry Bulb versus Wet Bulb
Temperature
• Contact dry air with water
• Saturation of air (vaporization of
some water) takes energy
• Air is cooled below ambient – to
“Wet Bulb” temperature
 Takes advantage of air below 100%
humidity
• Wet Bulb MUST be lower than Dry
Bulb temperature

Updated: January 30, 2018


60
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Cooling Tower Principles

Evaporative cooling (Psychrometry)


 Wet bulb and dry bulb data for various locations around the world Fig 11-3

Updated: January 30, 2018


61
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Example:

How cold can you get?


Air temperature: 95°F
RH = 65%
Temperature with cooling tower?
Temperature with air cooler?

Wet bulb=84°F

Updated: January 30, 2018


Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Cooling Towers – Mechanical Induced Draft

www.iklimnet.com

www.rjdesjardins.com
Updated: January 30, 2018
63
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Cooling Towers – Mechanical Forced Draft

Towertechinc.com

Updated: January 30, 2018


64
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Cooling Towers – Wet Surface Air Cooler

www.niagarablower.com

Updated: January 30, 2018


65
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 1

Heat 291,800 lb/hr cold C2+ NGL feed from 80oF to 105oF using 191,600
lb/hr hot C3+ bottoms @ 240oF
 Assume only sensible heat effects
• C2+ NGL feed heat capacity – 0.704 Btu/lb F
• C3+ Bottoms heat capacity – 0.830 Btu/lb F

Determine
 C3+ Bottoms outlet temperature ??? F

 Exchanger duty C2+ NGL Feed


291,800 lb/hr
80°F
 (UA) for the exchanger 145°F

 Does the flow configuration in a 1-2 exchanger


make a difference?
C3+ Bottoms
191,600 lb/hr
240°F

Updated: January 30, 2018


66
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 1

Determination of UA requires configuration information


 1-2 (1 shell & 2 tube passes) combines both counter & co-current flow

Four possible flow configurations

Hot Stream on Shell Side Cold Stream on Shell Side

Updated: January 30, 2018


67
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 1

Four possible flow configurations – all have the same exit temperatures but
different internal profiles

Updated: January 30, 2018


68
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)
Heat Exchanger – Example 7

I thought you said temperature crossovers weren’t possible????

Updated: January 30, 2018


69
Copyright © 2017 John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu)