Italian I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Articles and Demonstratives 5. Useful Words 6. Subject Pronouns 7.

To Be and to Have 8. Question Words 9. Numbers / Ordinals 10. Days of the Week 11. Months of the Year 12. Seasons 13. Directions 14. Color 15. Time 16. Weather 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make

22. Work and School 23. Prepositions 24. Prepositional Contractions 25. Countries and Nationalities 26. To / In and From places 27. To Come and to Go 28. Conjugating Regular Verbs 29. Reflexive Verbs 30. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 31. Past Indefinite Tense 32. Irregular Past Participles 33. Essere Verbs 34. Food and Meals 35. Piacere and Servire 36. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 37. To Take, Eat or Drink 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases Italian National Anthem

Italian II 41. Stare 42. Present Participles 43. Imperfect Tense 44. Places 45. Transportation

46. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to 47. Asking Questions 48. House and Furniture 49. Comparative and Superlative 50. Irregular Forms 51. Clothing 52. To Wear 53. Future Tense 54. Preceding Adjectives 55. Adjectives: Feminine & Plural 56. More Adjectives 57. Position of sempre and anche 58. Sports 59. To Play 60. Nature 61. Object Pronouns 62. Parts of the Body 63. Interrogative Pronouns 64. Relative Pronouns 65. To Read, to Say/Tell, to Laugh 66. Disjunctive Pronouns 67. Ci and Ne 68. Animals 69. Pluperfect 70. Suffixes

Italian III

71. Adverbs 72. Passive Voice 73. The Impersonal "Si" 74. Post Office and Bank 75. To Give and to Receive 76. Infinitives followed by Prepositions 77. The Beach 78. To Follow 79. Fare Causative 80. Office / School Supplies 81. Conditional Tenses 82. Parts of a Car / Gas Station 83. To Drive 84. Travelling / Airport 85. Directional Words 86. Use of the Infinitive 87. Subjunctive Mood 88. Uses of the Subjunctive Mood 89. Possessive Pronouns 90. The Farm 91. Historical Past

1. Some Basic Phrases
Buongiorno bwon-zhor-no Hello/Good day A più tardi ah pyoo tar-dee See you later A presto ah press-to See you soon Per favore pehr fah-voh-reh Please Prego preh-go You're Welcome Mi scusi mee skoo-zee Excuse me Sì/No see/noh Yes/No Come si chiama? koh-meh see kee-ah-mah What is your name? Mi chiamo... mee kee-ah-mo My name is... Buona sera/notte bwoh-nah seh-rah/noht-teh Good evening/night A domani ah doh-mahn-ee See you tomorrow Arrivederci ah-ree-vuh-dehr-chee Goodbye Grazie graht-zee-eh Thank you Mi dispiace mee dee-spyah-cheh Sorry Andiamo! on-dee-ah-mo Let's go!

Signore, Signora, Signorina seen-yoh-reh, seen-yoh-rah, seen-yoh-reen-ah Mister, Misses, Miss Dove abita? doh-veh ah-bee-tah Where do you live? Abito negli Stati Uniti. ah-bee-to neh-lyee stah-tee oo-nee-tee I live in the United States. Come sta? koh-meh stah How are you? Parla italiano? par-lah ee-tahl-ee-ah-no Do you speak Italian? Di dov'è? dee doh-veh Where are you from? Vengo dagli Stati Uniti. vehn-go dah-lyee stah-tee oo-nee-tee I come from the United States. Sto bene. stoh beh-neh I am fine. [Non] parlo... [non] par-lo I [don't] speak...

inglese, francese, tedesco, russo, spagnolo een-gleh-zeh, frahn-chez-eh, teh-des-koh, roo-soh, spahn-yoh-loh English, French, German, Russian, Spanish

2.[Non] capisco. Ho ______ anni. Pronunciation Italian Letter(s) English Sound a e i o u ai au ei ia ie io iu ua ue uo ui ci or ce gi or ge sci sch aia aio iei uio uoi ch h r ah eh ee oh oo eye ow ay yah yeh yoh yoo wah weh woh wee ch zh sh sk ah-yah ah-yoh ee-yay oo-yoh oo-oy k silent trilled . Quanti anni ha? kwahn-tee ahn-nee ah How old are you? Ti amo. tee ah-moh I love you. / Lo so. [non] kah-pees-koh I [don't] understand. non soh / low soh I don't know. Non so. / I know. oh ______ ahn-nee I am _____ years old.

Definite and Indefinite Articles and Demonstratives Definite Article . before z. so pronunciation is very easy.. gn. l' i l ee sing. or s + consonant before consonants before vowels. An un uno dei Some degli oon oon-oh day dehlyee before consonant or vowel before z. gn. and those . Most words are pronounced exactly like they are spelled.Note: Italian is a very phonetic language. before vowels plural. Alphabet a ah b bee c chee d dee e eh f eff-eh q koo r ehr-reh s ehs-seh t teh u oo v voo z dzeh-tah g zhee h ahk-kah i l ee ehl-eh Foreign Letters j ee loon-gah m ehm-eh n ehn-eh o oh p pee k kahp-pah w dohp-pyah voo x eeks y ee greh-kah (or) eep-see-lohn 4. an.. or s + cons.. these. Indefinite Articles .. before consonants le leh plural.A. that. delle dell-eh una un' oonah oon Feminine before consonants before vowels before vowels and consonants Demonstratives . before consonants l' l sing.. or s + cons. or s + cons. gn. before consonants and vowels gli lyee plural. before vowels lo low sing. 3.This. some Masculine A. before consonants Feminine la lah sing. gn. z. z. before vowels.The Masculine il eel sing.

lei lwee/lay he. quelli for masculine plural. These before a consonant before a vowel questi Masc. quella quell' Note: If you use that and those as a subject.) Note: The Lei form is generally used for you (singular).to be I am You are sono soh-noh We are sei say eh You are siamo see-ah-moh siete see-eh-teh soh-noh He/she/it is è They are sono Note: You do not have to use the subject pronouns as the different conjugations imply the subject." but only in very polite situations. 6. or s + consonant before a consonant before a vowel Masc. quel quell' quello Fem. unless you're referring to kids or animals. 5. you (polite sing. use these four forms: quello for masculine singular. she.This and these This quest' Fem. gn. To Be and to Have Essere . Past and Future of Essere I was you were ero we were eravamo I will be you will be sarò we will be saremo eri you were eravate sarai you will be sarete . quella for feminine singular. instead of tu. and quelle for feminine plural. questo questi questa queste before a consonant quest' That queste before a vowel That and those Those quei quegli quegli quelle quelle before a consonant before a vowel before z. you (polite pl. Loro can also mean "you. Subject Pronouns io tu ee-oh too I you (familiar singular) noi noy voi voy we you (plural) lui.) loro loh-roh they.

to need avere (number) anni .to be afraid avere ragione .to be warm avere freddo .to be (number) years old be hungry avere sete .to have I have You have ho oh We have abbiamo ahb-bee-ah-mo avete ah-veh-teh ahn-noh hai eye You have He/she has ha ah They have hanno Past and Future of Avere I had you had avevo we had avevamo I will have you will have avrò we will have avremo avevi you had avevate avrai you will have avrete he/she/it had aveva they had avevano he/she/it will have avrà they will have avranno Avere is used with many idioms and expressions that normally use the verb to be in English: avere fame .to be right avere sonno . Useful Words and or but while if because although there is there are there was there were now then here is e o ma mentre se perché benché C'è Ci sono C'era C'erano eh oh mah mehn-treh seh pehr-kay behn-kay cheh chee soh-noh che-rah che-rah-no for-seh ahl-loh-rah ehk-koh adesso. maybe forse be in a hurry avere paura . ora ah-deh-so.he/she/it is era they were erano he/she/it will be sarà they will be saranno Avere .to be sleepy avere bisogno di .to be cold avere fretta . Question Words Who Chi kee .to be thirsty avere caldo . oh-rah allora ecco perhaps.

come. and quale drops its e to become qual è. Numbers / Ordinals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 zero uno due tre quattro cinque sei sette otto nove dzeh-roh oo-noh doo-eh treh kwaht-troh cheen-kweh say seht-teh aw-toh naw-vay dee-ay-chee oon-dee-chee doh-dee-chee treh-dee-chee kween-dee-chee seh-dee-chee dee-choht-toh vehn-tee vehn-too-noh vehn-tee-doo-eh trehn-tah kwah-rahn-tah sehs-sahn-tah seht-tahn-tah oh-tahn-tah noh-vahn-tah 10 dieci 11 undici 12 dodici 13 tredici 15 quindici 16 sedici 18 diciotto 20 venti 21 ventuno 22 ventidue 30 trenta 40 quaranta 60 sessanta 70 settanta 80 ottanta 90 novanta 14 quattordici kwaht-tohr-dee-chee 17 diciassette dee-chahs-seht-teh 19 diciannove dee-chahn-noh-veh 50 cinquanta cheen-kwahn-tah . dove and come contract to dov'è and com'è. 9. and quale are followed by è (is).What Why When Where How Che cosa keh koh-sah Perché Quando Dove Come pehr-keh kwahn-doh doh-veh koh-meh kwahn-toh How much Quanto Note: When dove.

Cento (100) and uno (1) make centouno (101). add -esimo but do not drop the final e. Venti (20) and uno (1) make ventuno (21). -a is the feminine ending. like uno. trentatrè. Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday lunedì martedì giovedì venerdì sabato loo-neh-dee mahr-teh-dee zhoh-veh-dee veh-nehr-dee sah-bah-toh Wednesday mercoledì mehr-koh-leh-dee domenica doh-men-ee-kah . and another word that begins with a vowel. the first word loses its vowel when putting the two words together. just drop the final vowel of the cardinal number and add -esimo. Ordinal numbers are adjectives and must agree with the nouns they modify.100 cento chehn-toh Note: When you have a word that ends in a vowel. -o is the masculine ending. 10. like venti. Ordinal Numbers first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh primo (a) secondo (a) terzo (a) quarto (a) quinto (a) sesto (a) settimo (a) ottavo (a) nono (a) decimo (a) undicesimo (a) twentieth ventesimo (a) hundredth centesimo (a) From eleventh on. it does not lose its vowel. One exception is cento. And be aware that Italian switches the use of commas and decimals. For numbers like venitrè.

May 5th would be È il 5 or cinque maggio. To express the date. But for the first of the month. use il before lunedì through sabato. 13. Seasons Summer l'estate Fall Spring Winter l'autunno l'inverno leh-stah-teh low-toon-noh leen-vehr-noh la primavera lah pree-mah-veh-rah Note: To say in the (season). Months of the Year January February March April May June July August October gennaio febbraio marzo aprile maggio giugno luglio agosto ottobre jehn-nah-yoh fehb-brah-yoh mar-tsoh ah-pree-leh mahd-joh joo-nyoh loo-lyoh ah-goh-stoh seht-tehm-breh oht-toh-breh noh-vehm-breh dee-chem-breh eel meh-zeh lahn-noh September settembre November novembre December dicembre Week Month Year il mese l'anno la settimana lah sett-ee-mah-nah Note: Days and months are not capitalized. just use in. in primavera is in spring. and la before domenica. on Tuesdays. In estate is in the summer.Yesterday Today Tomorrow Day ieri oggi domani il giorno yer-ee ohd-jee doh-mahn-ee eel zhor-noh Note: To say on Mondays. Directions .. use primo instead of 1 or uno. etc. D'estate and d'inverno can also be used instead of in estate or in inverno. 12. use È il (number) (month). 11.

North nord nohrd South sud East est sood est West ovest oh-vest 14. Ex: Rosso is masculine and rossa is feminine. Color words go after the noun. Color white yellow orange pink red bianco/a giallo/a arancione rosa rosso/a light blue azzurro/a dark blue blu green brown grey black verde marrone grigio/a nero/a Note: The first word is the masculine form and the second is the feminine. 15. Time What time is it? Che ora è? / Che ore sono? It's 1:00 noon midnight 2:00 3:10 4:50 8:15 7:45 1:30 6:30 sharp in the morning in the evening at night È l'una mezzogiornio mezzanotte Sono le due Sono le tre e dieci Sono le cinque meno dieci Sono le otto e un quarto È l'una e mezza Sono le sei e mezzo in punto di mattina di sera di notte keh oh-rah eh / keh o-reh soh-noh eh loo-nah med-zoh-zhor-noh med-zah-noh-teh soh-noh leh doo-eh soh-noh leh treh eh dee-ay-chee soh-noh leh cheen-kwah meh-noh dee-ay-chee soh-noh leh awt-toh eh oon kwar-toh eh loo-nah eh med-zah soh-noh leh say-ee eh med-zoh een poon-toh dee maht-teen-ah dell poh-mehr-ee-zhee-oh dee seh-rah dee noht-teh Sono le otto meno un quarto soh-noh leh aw-toh meh-noh un kwar-toh in the afternoon del pomeriggio .

Family and Animals Family Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson/nephew Uncle Aunt Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Husband Wife la famiglia i genitori la madre il padre il figlio la figlia il fratello la sorella il nonno la nonna il nipote lo zio la zia il cugino la cugina il marito la moglie dog cat bird rabbit horse cow goat il cane il gatto il uccello il coniglio il cavallo la mucca la capra mouse il topo donkey l'asino sheep la pecora goose l'oca duck pig hen deer l'anatra il maiale la gallina il cervo Granddaughter/niece la nipote 18. Weather What's the weather today? Che tempo fa oggi? It's nice bad raining snowing cold cool hot freezing cloudy foggy sunny windy humid muggy stormy thundering Fa bel tempo Fa brutto tempo Piove Nevica Fa freddo Fa fresco Fa caldo Fa un freddo gelido È nuvoloso C'è la nebbia C'è il sole Tira vento È umido È afoso Il tempo è burrascoso Tuona 17.16. To Know People and Facts .

my your our your their il mio il tuo il nostro il vostro il loro la mia la tua la sua la nostra la vostra la loro Fem. while the plural of la mano (hand) is le mani. il pilota. change the last letter to an e if it ends in a. change the last letter to an i. Formation of Plural Nouns If a word is masculine singular. 19. il poeta. Pl. . or if it ends in e. Sing.Conoscere-to know. il poema. (la città (city) becomes le città) There are some masculine nouns that end -a. Masc. All nouns ending in -ca and -ga insert an h before changing the a to e. Nouns ending in an accented vowel do not change for the plural. Sapere followed by an infinitive means to know how. i miei (myeh-ee) le mie i tuoi (twoh-ee) le tue i suoi (swoh-ee) le sue i nostri i vostri i loro le nostre le vostre le loro his/her il suo Note: You may leave off the il and la before family relation words in the singular. il pianete. 20. It is conjugated regularly. and these nouns change the -a to -i in the plural: il programma. Possessive Adjectives Masc. you must use them. Pl. If a word is feminine singular. Fem. change it to an i. There is no gerneral rule for it. Singular to Plural Nouns Masculine -o -a -e -a -e -i -i -i Feminine -e -i Note: Some nouns ending in -co and -go may or may not insert an h before changing the o to i. il sistema. Sapere is used when you know facts. The plural of l'uomo (man) is gli uomini. Sing. Notice that loro does not change. be acquainted with Sapere-to know (facts) conosco conosci conosce conosciamo conoscete conoscono so sai sa sappiamo sapete sanno Note: Conoscere is used when you know people and places. All other times.

to do a favor fare una conferenza .to take a walk fare attenzione . Work and School architect author banker waiter waitress l'architetto l'autore il banchiere il cameriere la cameriera teacher (m) teacher (f) professor (m) professor (f) hair stylist (m) hair stylist (f) secretary (m) secretary (f) soldier journalist il maestro la maestra il professore la professoressa il parrucchiere la parruchiera il segretario la segretaria il soldato il/la giornalista saleswoman la commessa salesman accountant doctor (m) doctor (f) musician barber il commesso il contabile il dottore la dottoressa il/la musicista il barbiere biology chemistry economics office worker (m) l'impiegato office worker (f) l'impiegata la biologia la chimica l'economia . To Do or Make Fare-to do / make faccio fah-cho facciamo fah-chah-moh fai fa Idomatic expressions used with fare: fare una domanda .to be a (profession) fah-ee fate fah fanno fah-teh fahn-noh take a trip fare un bagno .to ask a question fare un viaggio .to pay attention fare un piacere .to take a bath fare una passeggiata give a lecture fare (profession) .

philosophy physics geography la filosofia la fisica la geografia foreign languages la lingua straniera mathematics medicine accounting history la matematica la medicina la ragioneria la storia 23. Prepositions for per beside accanto ahead avanti among fra di before prima di against contro over under with sopra sotto con without senza across attraverso after dopo during durante except eccetto toward verso 24. to of in on lo l' la i gli le al allo all' alla ai agli alle del dello dell' della dei degli delle nel nello nell' nella nei negli nelle sul sullo sull' sulla sui sugli sulle col collo coll' colla coi cogli colle from. by dal dallo dall' dalla dai dagli dalle con with . Prepositional Contractions il a da di in su at.

Countries and Nationalities l'Australia il Canada la Cina la Francia la Germania l'Inghilterra l'Italia il Giappone il Messico la Russia la Spagna gli Stati Uniti la Svizzera l'Austria la Polonia il Belgio la Norvegia la Svezia la Danimarca i Paesi Bassi la Finlandia Australia Canada China France Germany England Italy Japan Mexico Russia Spain Switzerland Austria Poland Belgium Norway Sweden Denmark Netherlands Finland australiano Australian canadese cinese francese tedesco inglese italiano messicano russo spagnolo svizzero austriaco polacco belga norvegese svedese danese olandese finlandese Canadian Chinese French German English British Italian Mexican Russian Spanish Swiss Austrian Polish Belgian Norwegian Swedish Danish Dutch Finlander la Gran Bretagna Great Britain britannico giapponese Japanese United States statunitense American Note: The adjective americano usually refers to someone living anywhere in the American continent. To and From Places To Country (sing) City in a From da (+ contraction) da Country (plural) negli da (+ contraction) 27. but many people do use it to mean a person from the United States. 25. To Come and to Go Venire-to come . instead of statunitense. 26. But even these contractions are optional.Note: The only contractions for con that are still used nowadays are col and coi.

to maintain ottenere . Conjugating Regular Verbs To conjugate regular verbs. to occur convenire . I come to school by car. add non before it: Non vengo a scuola in retain sostenere . Andare-to go vado vah-doh andiamo ahn-dee-ah-moh vai va vah-ee andate vah vanno ahn-dah-teh vahn-noh Other verbs conjugated in the same pattern as venire are: avvenire .to belong contenere .to help svenire . take off the last three letters ( withhold. to detain 28. or -ire) and add these endings to the stem: Regular Verb Endings -are -i -ate -ere -i -ete 1st -ire -i -ite 2nd -ire -isci -ite -o -iamo -o -iamo -o -iamo -isco -iamo -a -ano -e -ono -e -ono -isce -iscono Regular Verbs -are parlare cantare arrivare to speak to sing to arrive partire sentire 1st -ire dormire to sleep to leave to hear . except the voi form ends in -ete instead of -ite: appartenere . (It's a scuola instead of alla scuola because it's an idiom. -ere. I don't come to school by car. to support trattenere .to come obtain ritenere .to become provenire .to faint Tenere (to keep) verbs are conjuaged very similarly to venire too. to proceed sovvenire .to convene divenire .to entertain mantenere .) To make a verb negative.vengo vehn-goh veniamo ven-ee-ah-moh vieni vee-en-ee venite ven-ee-teh viene vee-en-eh vengono ven-goh-noh Vengo a scuola in contain intrattenere .

abitare amare ascoltare to live to love to listen (to) aprire offrire servire to open to offer to serve cominciare to begin domandare to ask giocare guardare imparare insegnare lavorare mangiare pensare studiare scrivere vedere credere leggere mettere perdere prendere scendere vendere vivere to play (a game/sport) to look (at)/watch to learn to teach to work to eat to think to study -ere to write to see to believe to read to put to lose to take to go down/get off to sell to live Sample Regular Verb Parlare-to speak parlo parli parla parliamo parlate parlano finire capire 2nd -ire to finish to understand to hit to clean to disappear preferire to prefer costruire to build pulire sparire conoscere to know/be acquainted with colpire rispondere to answer Note: The present tense and the preposition da may be used to describe an action which began in the past and is still continuing in the present. I've been studying Italian for two years. This pronoun always agrees with . Da quanto tempo Lei studia l'italiano? How long have you been studying Italian? Studio l'italiano da due anni. 29. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs express actions performed by the subject on the subject. but a reflexive pronoun precedes the verb form. The present perfect tense is used in English to convey this same concept. These verbs are conjugated like regular verbs.

Avere uses avere as its auxiliary verb. Vi vedete spesso? Do you see each other often? ci vi si 30. or something did happen). These verbs are called reciprocal verbs. Past Indefinite Tense To form the past tense (something happened. Negative sentences with the past indefinite tense are formed by placing non in front of the auxiliary verb. add these endings to the appropriate stem of the infinitives: -are -ato -ere -uto -ire -ito Verbs that can take a direct object are generally conjugated with avere. I visited Rome. vi. cercare .) Reflexive Pronouns mi ti si Io mi lavo. To form the past participle. reflexive verbs have -si attached to them with the final e dropped. Tu non hai visitato gli Stati Uniti. Io ho visitato Roma. something has happened. conjugate avere or sometimes essere and add the past participle. In the infinitive form. Noi ci alziamo presto.the subject. while essere uses essere as its auxiliary look for cerco cerchi cerca cerchiamo cercate cercano cominciare . . The plural reflexive pronouns (ci. si) can also be used with non-reflexive verbs to indicate a reciprocal action. Verbs ending in -ciare and -giare do not repeat the i in front of the -i ending. I wash myself. You didn't visit the United States. Lavare is to wash. (Note that some verbs are reflexive in start comincio cominciamo cominci cominciate comincia cominciano 31. therefore lavarsi is to wash oneself. but not in English. Irregularities in Regular Verbs Verbs ending in -care and -gare add an h before the -i and -iamo endings to keep the hard sound. Verbs that do not take a direct object (generally verbs of movement) are conjugated with essere and their past participle must agree in gender and number with the subject. We write to each other every week. We get up early. Ci scriviamo ogni settimana.

) 32. Essere Verbs arrivare andare uscire arrive go go out . Irregular Past Participles fare aprire (to open) bere (to drink) chiedere (to ask) chiudere (to close) conoscere coprire (to cover) dare dire leggere mettere (to put) offrire (to offer) perdere (to lose) prendere scrivere (to write) soffrire (to suffer) spendere (to spend) vedere (to see) vivere (to live) rompere (to break) fatto aperto bevuto chiesto chiuso conosciuto coperto dato detto letto messo offerto perso (or perduto) preso scritto sofferto speso visto (or veduto) vissuto rotto rispondere (to answer) risposto scendere (to go down) sceso Sample Avere Verb Avere-to have ho avuto abbiamo avuto hai avuto avete avuto ha avuto hanno avuto Note: Ho avuto means I have. Maria went to Italy. We met two girls. (Note the agreement of the past participle with the subject. Maria è andata in Italia. or I did have. 33. I have had.Abbiamo consciuto due ragazze.

Remember that -o is masculine and -a is feminine. whereas the -e ending indicates only females. Piacere and Servire Piacere . or I did go. 34. Sample Essere Verb Andare-to go sono andato/a siamo andati/e sei andato/a è andato/a siete andati/e sono andati/e Note: Sono andato means I went. Irregular past participles are in parentheses. Food and Meals breakfast la prima colazione lunch dinner fork spoon knife plate napkin cup glass ice saucer dessert la colazione il pranzo la forchetta il cucchiaio il coltello il piatto la salvietta la tazza il bicchiere il ghiaccio il piattino il dolce tea bread salt pepper steak cake chicken coffee fish soup jam rice salad il tè il pane il sale il pepe la bistecca la torta il pollo il caffè il pesce il brodo la marmellata il riso l'insalata french fries la patate fritte ice cream il gelato 35. I was going. be disappear come back/return These verbs that are conjugated with essere must agree with the like and Servire . The -i ending indicates all males or males and females.entrare costare enter cost venire (venuto) come essere (stato) be partire stare (stato) sparire tornare leave need .

Servire has the same construction as piacere. I like soccer. Ti servono della frutta? Do you need any fruit? (Literally: By you is needed some fruit?) Il pane serve a Marco. The most common forms are the third person singular and plural when used with object pronouns.) 36. John likes Mary. use Mi piace if it is singular and Mi piacciono if it is plural. It is also used primarily in the third person singular and plural forms and takes an indirect object. Mi piacciono i treni.piaccio piacciamo piaci piace piacete piacciono servo serviamo servi servite serve servono Piacere (a) literally means "to be pleasing. You must also use the prepositional contractions with a. Mi piace il calcio. Fruits. The teachers like the students." so to form a sentence you have to invert the word order. Marco needs the bread. (Literally: The bread is needed by Marco. Maria piace a Giovanni. Vegetables and Meats fruit apricot pineapple la frutta l'albicocca l'ananasso cucumber onion bean mushroom il cetriolo la cipolla il fagiolo il fungo watermelon l'anguria (il cocomero) orange banana cherry l'arancia la banana la ciliegia lettuce (salad) l'insalata eggplant olive potato la melanzana l'oliva la patata strawberry la fragola . The object pronouns that are used with these two verbs are somewhat similar to the reflexive pronouns: mi ti I (to me) you (to you) ci we (to us) vi you (to you) gli / le he / she (to him / her) gli they (to them) So to say I like something. I like trains. (Literally: The students are pleasing to the teachers). (Literally: Mary is pleasing to John) Gli studenti piacciono ai professori.

to eat. Bere is only used to mean to drink when it is used in the general take. Use the proper contractions from the top of the page. eat or drink and Bere .raspberry lime lemon apple pear peach plum grape il lampone la limetta il limone la mela la pera la pesca la prugna (la susina) l'uva celery spinach zucchini meat lamb goat rabbit liver pork beef bacon ham veal il sedano gli spinaci gli zucchini la carne l'agnello il capretto il coniglio il fegato il maiale il manzo la pancetta il prosciutto il vitello vegetables i legumi broccoli carrot i broccoli la carota cauliflower il cavolfiore cabbage il cavolo 37. which literally means a little bit.) -a Lei form (sing. pol. Commands -are tu form (sing..) -ate -ere -i -a -ete -ire -i/-isci -a/-isca -ite -iamo -iamo -iamo . fam. To Take. Eat or Drink Prendere . as is mangiare .) noi form (Let's .) -i voi form (pol. pl. Or you can use un po' di. drink prendo prendi prende prendiamo prendete prendono bevo bevi beve beviamo bevete bevono Note: You must express some in Italian even though we leave it out in English.

..niente never no longer..mai non. 40. siam pronti alla morte.nor Note: The non goes before the verb and the second part goes after. Italy has arisen.. siam pronti alla morte.. fam.. l'Italia chiamò. when you use non and the infinitive. More Negatives non.nè. Irregular Commands andare sing. vada plural Let's andate venire vieni venga venite fare fa' faccia fate dare da' dia date dire di' dica dite essere avere sii sia siate abbi abbia stare (to be. va' sing..neanche not even non.. Except for the singular familiar commands. Non ho niente.Note: To make a command negative. Dell'elmo di Scipio s'è cinta la testa... I have nothing. Ché schiava di Roma Iddio la creò. l'Italia s'è desta... no more nothing non.più non. add non before the command.. Stringiamci a coorte..nè neither.nessuno nobody non. Sì! Italian brothers. Has put on the helmet of Scipio.. Holiday Phrases Buon Anno! Buona Pasqua! Buon Natale! Buone Feste! Happy New Year! Happy Easter! Merry Christmas! Happy Holidays! Buon Compleanno! Happy Birthday! The Italian National Anthem: Inno di Mameli by Goffredo Mameli Fratelli d'Italia. Dov'è la vitoria? Le porga la chioma. stay) sta' stia abbiate state andiamo veniamo facciamo diamo diciamo siamo abbiamo stiamo 39. Where is victory? .. pol.

Let us unite. She crowns you with glory. We are ready to die.Created by God The slave of Rome. . Italy calls.

And stare per plus an infinitive means "to be about to" do something. while something else happened. and adding the following endings to the stem: Present Participles -are -ere -ire -ando -endo -endo Conjugate stare and form the present participle. dare-dando (giving). Time. We're about to eat. Stare is also used in many health expressions. Stavo per uscire. and you have a progressive action. Stiamo per mangiare. such as Come stai? How are you? Sto bene.) There are only a few irregular present participles: fare-facendo (doing). If you use it with a present participle. or to describe an action that was occuring in the past. . it translates to something is happening. Imperfect Tense The imperfect tense is also called the past descriptive tense and corresponds to was doing or used to do in English. I was about to go out. Sto parlando italiano is I am speaking Italian. and bere-bevendo (drinking). (As opposed to Parlo italiano I speak Italian.41. I'm fine. not something happens as with the present indicative. Present Participles Present participles are formed by dropping the ending of the verb. Stare Stare-to stay. dire-dicendo (say/telling). 43. The imperfect is used to describe a continued or habitual action in the past. weather conditions as well as mental and physical conditions are all expressed in the imperfect rather the past indefinite tense. 42. age. be sto stai sta stiamo state stanno Stare means to be when used in progressive tense.

I always take the bus. while the stem for the plural endings is era. The stems for bere. Avevo fame. Era tardi.for the singular endings. dice-.and they take the regular endings of the imperfect. Places market restaurant hotel square store library stadium church museum beach park hospital post office bakery pharmacy il mercato il ristorante l'albergo la piazza il negozio la biblioteca il stadio la chiesa il museo la spiaggia il parco l'ospedale l'ufficio postale il panificio la farmacia movie theater il cinema 45. Transportation bus car train ship l'autobus la macchina il treno la nave automobile l'automobile . and it does not take the v.The imperfect in Italian has the same ending for all three verb groups. but essere. It is formed by dropping the -re of the infinitive and adding the following endings: -vo -vamo -vi -vate -va -vano Avere is regular in the imperfect. and face. dire and fare are irregular. I was hungry.and it does take the v. dire and fare are derived from the old Latin infinitives. The stem of essere becomes er. Non diceva niente. and are beve-. Aspettavamo in fila. It was late. We were waiting in line. He wasn't saying anything. bere. Prendevo sempre l'autobus. 44.

use in and leave off the il. can posso puoi può possiamo potete possono dovere-to have to. Parla francese? can become Francese parla? Does he/she speak French? 48. 46. car.. to Have to volere-to want voglio vogliamo vuoi volete vuole vogliono potere-to be able to. etc. House and Furniture house roof kitchen room bathroom dining room terrace balcony table wall door chair telephone television window la casa il tetto la cucina la stanza il bagno la sala da pranzo la terrazza il balcone la tavola la parate/il muro la porta la sedia il telefono la televisione la finestra . must devo (debbo) dobbiamo devi deve dovete devono (debbono) 47. You can also put the subject at the end of the sentence. il ragazzo? Or. Il ragazzo mangia la pizza becomes Mangia la pizza. la. if you're speaking to a Sardinian. Asking Questions The easiest way to ask a question is to simply add a question mark to the end of the statement. to Be Able to. To Want.airplane boat on foot l'aeroplano la barca a piedi motorcycle la motocicletta Note: To say by bus. and l'. you can put the verb at the end of the sentence.

.. It is formed by placing the article before the comparative form of the adjective.. quanto more. .... as Più and meno can be used with di or che. La mela è più verde che rossa.. or in front of the noun.. than less. Comparative and Superlative Comparisons are expressed as follows: più. come tanto... Frank is as tall as me... while che is used when the comparison is between two qualities of the same thing. Franco è così alto come me. The Relative Superlative compares two or more things and expresses the greatest or the least degree. The apple is more green than red. di / che meno. di (and its contractions) is always used with the superlative... Cherries are better than strawberries... di / che così.sofa living room hallway garden bedroom bed closet bathtub sink staircase toilet refrigerator curtains clock bookshelf lamp armchair wastebasket mirror nightstand vase dresser rug il divano il soggiorno il corridoio il giardino la camera il letto l'armadio la vasca da bagno l'acquiao la scala il bagno il frigorifero le tende l'orologio lo scaffale la lampada la poltrona il cestino lo specchio il comodino il vaso il cassettone lo scendiletto bathroom sink il lavandino 49. as as. And instead of the prepostion in. than as. Le ciliege sono più buone delle fragole. Di is used when comparing two different things.

Clothing jacket belt la giacca la cintura earrings gli orecchini necklace la collana scarf dress blouse sock purse shirt shoe skirt la sciarpa il vestito la camicetta il calzino la borsa la camicia la scarpa la gonna swimsuit il costume da bagno raincoat l'impermeabile sandals i sandali umbrella l'ombrello . This is the tallest building in Naples. Questa arancia è molto buona. This can be expressed in several ways in Italian. or assai before the adjective. Irregular Forms Some adverbs have irregular comparative. She speaks very softly. Repeat the adjective or adverb. Drop the last vowel of the adjective and add -issimo. Le fragole sono dolcissime. Questo è il palazzo più alto di Napoli. This orange is very good. troppo. Lei parla piano piano. relative superlative. Place the words molto.Le mele sono la frutta meno costosa del mondo. The most common are: Adverb bene male molto poco well badly much little Comparative Relative Superlative meglio peggio più meno better worse more less (il) meglio (il) peggio (il) più (il) meno (the) best (the) worst (the) most (the) least Absolute Superlative ottimamente pessimamente moltissimo pochissimo very well very badly very much very little 51. or -issime. and absolute superlative forms. The Absolute Superlative expresses an extreme degree or absolute state of something without comparison. Apples are the least expensive fruit in the world. -issimi. L'oro è il più prezioso dei metalli. 50. Strawberries are very sweet. Gold is the most precious metal. -issima.

Future Tense The future of regular verbs is formed by dropping the final -e of the infinitive and adding the following endings. but it also means to bring.tie pants hat la cravatta i pantaloni il capello stocking la colza sweater la maglia glove coat il guanto il cappotto Note: Portare means to wear. 53. Verbs ending in -ciare and -giare drop the i from their stems in the future. To Wear Mettersi-to wear. So use mettersi for to wear or put on clothing. the a is changed to an e. Many verbs use irregular stems in the future tense. Mi metto la maglia is I'm wearing my sweater. -ò -emo -ai -ete -à -anno Verbs ending in -care and -gare add an h after the c and g in the in order to retain the hard sounds. put on (clothing) mi metto ti metti si mette ci mettiamo vi mettete si mettono Note: You don't use possessive pronouns when referring to parts of the body or clothing. For -are verbs. but they still use the regular endings from above: avere essere dare fare stare andare dovere vedere sapere potere bere avrsardarfarstarandrdovrvedrsaprpotrberr- . 52. but you do use the definite article.

nuova. -o -e -a -e Sing. -o. grande-large. Bello-beautiful. and nuove. Francese (french) has two: francese and francesi. the rest are placed right after it. . Buono e Bello Singular Plural Before a: Masculine buono buon buona buon' bello bell' bel bella bell' buoni z. others have four. -e -i -a -e Some adjectives have two forms. Nuovo (new) has four: nuovo. Bello and buono have alternate forms when they precede a noun. But you do not have to use the alternate forms. and brutto-ugly are the most common preceding adjectives. Fem. The above forms are only for when they go before the noun. s + consonant vowel or consonant consonant vowel z. Grande can become gran before masculine or feminine nouns beginning with a consonant. buonogood. whether or not you place the adjective before or after the noun. s + consonant vowel consonant consonant vowel Feminine buone Masculine begli bei Feminine belle If they go after the noun. nuovi. 55. then they can be formed in the usual way. even though they don't have to go before the noun. Be aware that grande can have alternate forms before nouns too. Pl. Adjectives: Feminine and Plural Masculine to Feminine and Singular to Plural Masc. Preceding Adjectives Only a few adjectives go before the noun.venire verrvolere vorr- 54. Or it could contract to grand' before masculine or feminine nouns beginning with a vowel.

56. More Adjectives facile difficile semplice complicato noioso lungo corto giusto sbagliato caro economico moderno antico aperto chiuso alto basso felice triste simpatico antipatico buono cattivo grande piccolo giovane vecchio intelligente stupido elegante inelegante ricco povero magro grosso sincero timido forte gentile easy difficult simple comlicated boring long short correct mistaken/wrong expensive/dear economical/cheap modern old/ancient open closed tall short happy sad nice unpleasant good bad big/large small young old intelligent stupid elegant inelegant rich poor skinny/thin fat sincere shy strong gentle/kind interessante interesting .

too. Position of Sempre and Anche The adverb sempre (always) usually follows the verb. Nature . Anche (also. Sports golf soccer football baseball bowling tennis bicycling boxing skating skiing il golf il calcio il foot-ball americano il base-ball il birilli il tennis il ciclismo il pugilato il pattinaggio lo sci volleyball la palla a volo basketball la pallacanestro swimming il nuoto car racing l'automobilismo 59. pronoun or infinitive to which it refers.generoso pigro generous lazy 57. Anch'io devo studiare. To Play Giocare-to play gioco joh-koh giochiamo joh-kee-ah-moh giochi joh-kee giocate gioca joh-kah giocano joh-kah-teh joh-kahn-oh Note: Most sports use giocare a (sport) to mean to play a sport. 60. too) always precedes the noun. We always study. Noi studiamo sempre. He wants that book. They play basketball would be Giocano a pallacanestro. I have to study too. it becomes anch'. When it precedes io. Vuole anche questo libro. 58.

p. means singular polite. s. For you (s.i.i. The i of mi. 5. (Lei instead of lei and Loro instead of loro. gliela. 4. except for Lei or Loro. la. Object Pronouns Subject io tu lui lei I you (s.p. . the pronoun (except loro) follows it and is written as one word.) they are capitalized to set them apart from the other meaning. Direct and Indirect pronouns go directly in front of the verb.p. le. 3. la. the indirect comes before the direct.i. Gli and le become glie before lo.p. and le.) 2. except loro. This also is true of commands.) la her/it/you le to her/it/you lei noi we voi you (p. 6.) loro they/you (p. When you have more than one pronoun. means plural polite.fields flowers forests hills i campi i fiori le foreste le colline meadows i prati mountains le montagne plants woods farms villages beach bridge castle lake pond river le piante i boschi le fattorie i villaggi la spiaggia un ponte un castello un lago uno stagno un fiume waterfalls le cascate vineyards le vigne 61. Hai mangiato il panino? Did you eat the bun? Lo ho mangiato. gliele).) li/le them/you loro to them/you loro 1. the past participle must agree with them. and are written as one word connected with the other pronoun (glielo. and vi changes to an e before lo. S.p. With infinitives or participles. p. glieli.p. means plural informal. If you use lo. I ate it. ci.i. which always follows the verb. ti. means singular informal. li.) he/it Direct mi me ti lo ci vi you him/it us you Indirect mi ti gli ci vi to me to you to him/it to us to you Object of Prepositions me te lui noi voi me you him/it her/it/you us you them/you she/it/you (s. la. li and le.) and you (p. and p. li.

I ate it. My head hurts. and before plural nouns. I haven't eaten it. but quale (which) and quanto (how much/many) must agree. but after the non. pronouns go before the entire verb as well. Note that these words do not require a noun to follow them. / I have a headache. My finger hurts. Non lo ho mangiato. Mi fa male il dito.Hai mangiato la pasta? Did you eat the pastry? La ho mangiata. If the noun is plural. 62. Ho mal di testa. Mi fanno male gli occhi. Parts of the Body hand foot ear eye tongue face hair nose tooth lip la mano il piede l'orecchio l'occhio la lingua la faccia i capelli il naso il dente il labbro mouth finger la bocca il dito fingernail l'unghia elbow arm knee leg head neck il gomito il braccio il ginocchio la gamba la testa il collo shoulder la spalla la gola stomach lo stomaco throat You can use the expressions Ho mal di + body part or Mi fa male + definite article and the body part to say that something hurts. quale is used. you have to use mi fanno male instead of mi fa male. quali is used. Interrogative Pronouns Most of the question words are invariable (they don't have to agree with the noun). Before singular nouns. Quale camicetta compri? Which blouse are you buying? Quali maglioni compri? Which pullovers are you buying? Quali compri? Which ones are you buying? . My eyes hurt. In negative sentencs. 63.

Lei è la sola persona nella quale (or in cui) io abia fudicia. An antecedent is the noun or pronoun that the relative pronoun refers back to. trova un tresoro. animal or thing. Quello che. They can also be found in exclamations." " read dire . What you're writing is wrong. or show emphasis. quello che. He who feels well doesn't go to the doctor. Disjunctive Pronouns Disjunctive pronouns are used independently of the verb. Quanto is masculine singular. quel che. quanti is masculine plural and quante is feminine plural. il quale (and its forms). Che is invariable and never used with a preposition. to Say/Tell. Cìo che scrivi è sbagliato. To Read. and rarely in casual conversation.Quanto has four forms that follow the regular adjective pattern. Non capisco quello che dice. 65. quanta is feminine singular. One who finds a friend. They refer to things only and mean "what" or "that which. Cui is also invariable. finds a treasure. Per le pillole di cui has bisogno ci vuole la ricetta. but it is always used with a preposition. The relative pronouns in Italian are che. what. to Laugh leggere . Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns connect a dependent clause and a main clause together in a sentence. The relative pronouns in English are that. which. writing and for clarity. cui. and ciò che. When the antecedent is a definite say/tell ridere . and whose. che. You are the only person whom I trust." Chi sta bene non va dal dottore. chi. I don't understand what he's saying. When the antecedent is unknown or indefinite. Il quale and its forms can be used with articles or articles plus prepositions. The pills (of) which you need require a prescription. quel che. . chi is used when referring to people." "the one who" and takes a verb in the third person singular form. The girl whom you see is my sister. La ragazza che vedi è mia sorella. Quanto denaro hai? How much money do you have? Quante camicette compri? How many blouses are you buying? Quanto costa? How much does it cost? 64. whom. It is mainly used in formal speech. and cìo che are all invariable and laugh leggo leggiamo leggi leggete legge leggono dico dici dice diciamo dite dicono rido ridi ride ridiamo ridete ridono 66. È une medicina la quale (or che) non fa male allo stomaco. They are the pronouns which follow prepositions. cui or a form of il quale is used. It's medicine that doesn't upset your stomach. It is invariable and means "he/she who. Chi trova un amico.

Example Sentences I live in Paris. 68. Amo te. I'll come with you. Fortunati voi! Lucky you! 67. Ci vivo. Ne ho. not him. of them. I have five sisters. on. it. I have some (of them). at. Ho delle mele. I have some noi te voi lui / lei loro Vengo con te. I love you. of it) and ne (some. under. Vivo a Parigi. to. Ci and Ne Ci (there. and ne will replace phrases that begin with some or a number. Animals giraffe elephant zebra lion leopard parrot rhinoceros koala snake la giraffa l'elefante la zebra il leone il gattopardo il pappagallo il rinoceronte il koala il serpente . about it. non lui.I ate four of them. etc. I have five (of them). I live there. of it) are both pronouns that go before the verb and they replace prepositional phrases. Ho cinque sorelle. Ne ho cinque. Ci will replace phrases that begin with in. Quante caramelle hai mangiato?How many candies did you eat? Ne ho mangiate quattro.

chimpanzee lo scimpanzé polar bear tiger bull fox monkey wolf turtle l'orso bianco la tigre il toro la volpe la scimmia il lupo la tartaruga 69. L'avevo già notato. -ina. The endings -ino and -uccio also express endearment. Suffixes Suffixes may be attached to nouns. and -uccia are diminutives that express smallness. Non avevo avuto ancora occasione. The final vowel of the word should be dropped before adding the suffixes. The endings -ino. -accia. I had been to one of his concerts. The endings -aacio. Ero andato ad un suo concerto. -ello. -astra. It consists of the imperfect of avere or essere (whicheer auxiliary verb the main verb takes in the past indefinite tense) and a past participle. letter lettera small letter letterina large parcel paccone ragazzaccio parcel pacco boy Tesorino mio! My sweetheart! Amoruccio mio! My sweet love! ragazzo bad boy ." It indicates an event that happened prior to another event in the past. The endings -one and -ona are augmentatives and express largeness. adjectives or adverbs. Erano già stati a Sanremo. I hadn't had the opportunity yet. and -azza imply ugliness or poor quality. -azzo. -etta. -uccio. They had already been in Sanremo. 70. I had already noticed it. -astro. -ella. Pluperfect Tense The pluperfect or past perfect tense corresponds to the English "had + past participle. -etta.

The rent will be payed by my parents. Passive L'affito è pagato dai miei genitori. The Impersonal "Si" Si can be used as a reflexive pronoun. The rent is paid by my parents. I contratti sono firmati dalle ragazze. we./Writing paper is sold here. It corresponds to "one. Passive Voice In passive sentences. Adverbs Most adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. In active sentences. L'affito sarà pagato dai miei genitori. Essere should be in the same tense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence. 73. the people in general. Qui si vende carta da lettere. or they" in English and always use the third peron form of the verb (either singular or plural depending on the object). you. and cattivo (bad) is male. The contracts are signed by the girls. the subject does the action. Si vendono anche matite? Do you also sell pencils? Qui non si parla francese. 72. However. The passive form consists of the verb essere plus the past participle of the main verb followed by da (by) and its contractions. but it can also be used as an impersonal pronoun. the subject receives the action of the verb. The room was decorated by Carlo.71. La stanza è stata arredata da Carlo. Adjectives ending in -le or -re drop the final -e before adding -mente. if the l or r is preceded by a vowel. The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject. Adjective recente comoda finale regolare Adverb recentemente comodamente finalmente regolarmente recently comfortably finally regularly Note that the adverbial form of buono (good) is bene. . Active I miei genitori pagano l'affitto. My parents pay the rent. the meaning of both sentences is the same. We sell writing paper here. We don't speak French here./French is not spoken here. The passive form is only possible with transitive verbs and is much more common in English than in Italian.

tell to ask to finish to offer to permit to promise to know to dream to hope to try. To Give and to Receive dare . attempt .to receive ricevo ricevi riceve riceviamo ricevete ricevono 76. stand to return to come aspettare cercare cessare chiedere comandare credere decidere dimenticare dire domandare finire offrire permettere promettere sapere sognare sperare tentare to wait for to look for to cease to ask to command to believe to decide to forget to say. although the preposition is not always translated into English. Verb + a + another infinitive Verb + di + another infinitive aiutare andare cominciare continuare correre imparare insegnare invitare mandare passare pensare preparare provare risuscire servire stare tornare venire to help to go to begin to continue to run to learn to teach to invite to send to stop by to think of to prepare to try to succeed to be good for to stay. Infinitives followed by Prepositions The following verbs require a or di when followed by another give do dai dà diamo date danno ricevere . Post Office and Bank post office mailbox mail carrier mailbag price scale package stamp letter address postal worker newspaper magazine la posta la cassetta delle lettere il postino il sacco della posta il prezzo la bilancia il pacchetto il francobollo la lettera l'indirizzo l'impiegata postale il giornale la rivista bank file cabinet guard safe safety deposit box checkbook credit card bills coins deposit slip pen check bank teller la banca la schedario il custode la cassaforte la cassetta di sicurezza il libretto degli assegni la carta di credito i biglietti le monete il modulo per i depositi la penna l'assegno il cassiere 75.

(Unless the object pronoun is loro. To Follow seguire . If the object is a noun. I'm having my hair cut. Faccio studiare i ragazzi. Office / School Supplies . The sentence Abbiamo fatto mandare il pacco a Maria can mean two things: 1) We had Mary send the package or 2) We had the package sent to Mary. If the first meaning is intended. When a causative sentence has two objects. 80. then it always follows the infinitive. Fare Causative The verb fare can be followed by an infinitive to express the idea of having someone do something or having something done. Mi faccio tagliare i capelli. I make the boys study.) Note that farsi can also be used in a causative construction when one is having something done to oneself. Il maestro fa leggere lo studente. but if the object is a pronoun. The Beach beach island lighthouse pier lifeguard coconut seashore surfboard sand lounge chair beach umbrella picnic suntan lotion beach ball sea shell seaweed la spiaggia l'isola il faro il molo il bagnino il cocco il litorale la tavoletta da surf la sabbia la sedia a sdraio l'ombrellone il picnic la crema abbronzante il pallone la conchiglia l'alga marina clam sand castle fins goggles palm tree beach towel oar rowboat sea gull seal sea lion wave sailboat waterskiing ocean liner hut l'ostrica il castello di sabbia le pinne la maschera subacquea la palma l'asciugamano il remo la barca a remo il gabbiano la foca l'otaria l'onda la barca a vela lo sci nautico la nave la capanna 78. the preposition da instead of a can be used. Li faccio studiare. the person being made to do something becomes the indirect object. Abbiamo fatto fare quelle sedia. We had that chair made. I make them study. then da can replace a.77. To avoid ambiguity with the indirect object. it follows the infinitive. it precedes the verb follow sèguo seguiamo sègui seguite sègue seguono 79. In Italian. Il maestro fa leggere la lettura allo studente. the indirect object is introduced by a. The teacher makes the student read the passage. The teacher makes the student read.

ma non è a casa. potere. One difference between English and Italian usage of the past conditional is . It is also used in hypothetical situations with "if" clauses or with events or actions that may occur in the future. It is used to express unfulfilled requests. use the future stem and these endings for the three types of verbs. As in the future tense. or events which had the possibility to fulfill themselves. Prendereste un caffè? Would you like some coffee? Sarei più contenta. Dovere. Verbs endings in -ciare and -giare drop the final i in all forms of the present conditional.) -ei -emmo -esti -este -ebbe -ebbero Gli parlerei. and volere all have irregular forms in the present conditional: dovere potere volere dovrei dovremmo potrei potremmo vorrei vorremmo dovresti dovreste potresti potreste vorresti vorreste dovrebbe dovrebbero potrebbe potrebbero vorrebbe vorrebbero The past conditional expresses the same basic idea as the present conditional. It is formed by using the present conditional of avere or essere and the past participle of the main verb.chalkboard la lavagna eraser chalk desk pencil book notebook paper page pen backpack mistake exam clock dictionary il cancellino il gesso il banco la matita il libro il quaderno la carta la pagina la penna lo zaino lo sbaglio l'esame (m) l'orologio il dizionario student (m) lo studente 81. To form the present conditional. situations that did not occur. I would talk to him. but didn't. but he's not at home. but probably won't. I would be happier. (The verbs that have irregular future forms are also irregular in the conditional tense. verbs ending in -care and -gare add an h after the c or g for pronunciation. Conditional Tenses The conditional tense expresses "would" and is used with requests and doubts.

to drive conduco conduciamo conduci conducete conduce condúcono 84..that when expressing a future action from the viewpoint of the past. la banca? la toilette? l'autonoleggio? doh-veh lah bahn-kah lah twah-let-tah oon bahn-koh-maht low-toh-no-led-joh an automatic cash machine? un bancomat? . Travelling / Airport Where is. Italian uses the past conditional whereas English uses the present conditional... He said that he would come. To Drive condurre . Ha detto che sarebbe venuto.. Parts of a Car / Gas Station gas pump gas cap gas can trunk roof seat door tire license plate bumper headlight hood windshield wiper steering wheel oil can radiator battery jumper cables screwdriver hammer wrench nut screw wheel tires air pump flat tire la pompa di benzina il coperchio del serbatoio il bidone per la benzina il bagagliaio il tetto il sedile lo sportello la gomma la targa il paraurti il fanale il cofano il tergicristallo il volante il oliatore il radiatore la batteria i cavi per l'avviamento il cacciavite il martello la chiave il dado la vite la ruota le gomme la pompa pneumatica la gomma a terra 83. the bank? the bathroom? the car rental? Dov'è. 82.

Use of the Infinitive . Directional Words straight ahead sempre diritto to the right to the left down there behind in front of next to across from after near far from a destra a sinistra laggiù dietro davanti a accanto a dirimpetto a dopo vicino a lontano da 86.the taxi stand? the phone? the ticket office? the train station? the bus stop? the subway? the airport? the currency exchange? the information booth? the lost baggage office? the entrance? the exit? flight il posteggio dei taxi? il telefono? la biglietteria? la stazione? la metropolitana? l'aeroporto? l'ufficio cambio? l'ufficio informazioni? l'entrata? l'uscita? ticket reservation smoking non smoking baggage suitcase passport gate boarding pass Lira il biglietto il volo eel poh-stehd-joh day taks-see eel teh-leh-foh-noh lah bee-lyeht-teh-ree-ah lah stah-zee-oh-neh lah meh-tro-poh-lee-tah-nah lah-eh-roh-por-toh loo-fee-choh kahm-byoh loo-fee-choh een-for-maht-zee-ohn-ee lehn-trah-tah loo-shee-tah la fermata dell'autobus? la fair-mah-tah dell ow-toh-boos l'ufficio oggetti smarriti? loo-fee-choh ohd-jeht-tee smahr-ree-tee la prenotazione fumatori non fumatori il bagaglio la valigia il passaporto l'uscita la carta d'imbarco lire round-trip ticket il biglietto di andata e ritorno 85.

They came without having telephoned. Before leaving. fear. Viaggiare stanca. She returned after having bought the tickets. prima di and senza. It is formed with the auxiliaries essere or avere and the past participle of the verb.The infinitive can be used after certain prepositions. Travelling is tiring. In this case. such as per. Letting. Siamo pronto per uscire. The final -e of the auxiliary verb is commonly dropped. I heard Teresa sing. opinions. uncertainty. and is used much more frequently in Italian. The past infinitive may be used after senza and dopo. vedere and sentire plus the infinitive. I saw the children sleep. Prima di partire. It is mainly used in dependent clauses (sentences introduced by a conjunction that do not have a complete meaning) that are introduced by che. 87. Many common verbs have irregular present subjunctive forms: avere essere andare bere dare dire abbia abbiamo sia siamo vada andiamo beva beviamo dia diamo dica diciamo abbia abbiate sia siate vada andiate beva beviate dia diate dica diciate abbia abbiano sia siano vada vadano beva bevano dia diano dica dicano . Ho sentito cantare Teresa. È ritornata dopo aver comprato i biglietti. Senza dire niente. Without saying anything. The infinitive may also function as a noun. the English translation is also the gerund form. Verbs ending in -ciare and -giare drop the i from their stems. Subjunctive Mood The Subjunctive mood expresses doubt. seeing or hearing someone do something is expressed by the forms of lasciare. hope. We are ready to go out. possibility. etc. and adding these new endings: -are -ere 1st -ire 2nd -ire -i -iamo -a -iamo -a -iamo -isca -iamo -i -iate -a -iate -a -iate -isca -iate -i -ino -a -ano -a -ano -isca -iscano Verbs ending in -care and -gare add an h before all endings of the present subjunctive. the gerund form is usually used. whereas in English. Sono venuti senza aver telefonato. Ho veduto dormire i bambini. The present subjunctive of regular verbs is formed by dropping the normal endings.

.to doubt. unless the possessive pronoun follows the verb essere. è possibile . unless they state a fact. volere . affinché . che. and dubitare . è sicuro . Uses of the Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive is used after verbs expressing hope. purché .provided that. . desire. Some common expressions are è necessario . and they have the same forms as the possessive adjectives. usually essere and an adjective or's probable. use di with the infinitive instead of the subjunctive. as long as and nel caso che in the event that. and è vero .to want. Spero che lei vinca. such as sebbene .to desire. Non so se i musei siano know.che.che.before. I doubt that they'll come.88. The indicative is used after these expressions of certainty: è certo it's's's sure... Non credo di averlo perso. desiderare . I hope that she wins. The subjunctive is also used after impersonal be sure. And if the subject of both verbs in the sentence is the same. è meglio it's better. and sapere . I don't know if the museums are's necessary. The subjunctive is also used after a relative superlative che. Dubito che loro vengano. Possessive Pronouns The possessive pronouns replace a noun. and after il primo. command or doubt such as sperare . be certain. and è probabile . I know that the museums are open. in which case it is omitted.even though.. l'ultimo. They always require an article. So che i musei sono aperti. But verbs that express certainty or fact used in the affirmative sense (and not negative) require the indicative. Certain conjunctions require the subjunctive as well. essere certo . benché . prima che .it's true. such as essere sicuro . wish. and il solo. I don't think that I lost it.

The Farm farm windmill barn cottage hay corral stable barrel lasso saddle stool hoe rake pitchfork shovel tractor silo loft chicken coop farmhouse la fattoria il mulino a vento il granaio il villino il fieno il recinto la stalla il barile il laccio la sella lo sgabello la zappa il rastrello il forcone la pala il trattore il silo il fienile il pollaio la cascina 91. I'm talking to mine. 90. and is used mainly in writing and rarely in speech. It is not a compound tense. I'm not talking to your mother. This car is mine. Historical Past The historical past or past absolute is used to indicate a completed action.Non parlo a tua madre. Parlo alla mia. and is formed by dropping the regular stems of the verbs and adding these endings: -are -ere -ire -ai -ammo -ei -emmo -ii -immo -asti -aste -esti -este -isti -iste . Questa macchina è mia.

Just add the past participle to the historical past of avere or essere. Use the regular stem and regular endings for the other three forms. -ero. . so use the irregular stem for these three forms and add these endings: -i. infinitive chiedere chiudere conscere decidere leggere mettere nascere prendere irregular stem chieschiusconobbdecislessmisnacqupresinfinitive rispondere sapere scegliere scrivere vedere venire vivere volere irregular stem risposseppscelsscrissvidvennvissvoll- The past perfect of the historical past is formed the same way as the past perfect of the indicative.-ò -arono -è -erono -ì -irono Avere and essere and many other verbs are irregular in the historical past: avere essere fare dire ebbi avemmo fui fummo feci facemmo dissi dicemmo avesti aveste fosti foste facesti faceste dicesti diceste ebbe ebbero fu furono fece fecero disse dissero dare bere stare diedi demmo bevvi bevemmo stetti stemmo desti deste bevesti beveste stesti steste diede diedero bevve bevvero stette stettero The following verbs are irregular only in the io. -e. lui/lei and loro forms. The verbs are all either -ere or -ire verbs.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful