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You are on page 1of 36

Budgeting

ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS

12-1 a. Cash flow, which is the relevant financial variable, represents the

actual flow of cash. Accounting income, on the other hand, reports

accounting data as defined by Generally Accepted Accounting

Principles (GAAP).

b. Incremental cash flows are those cash flows that arise solely from

the asset that is being evaluated. For example, assume an existing

machine generates revenues of $1,000 per year and expenses of $600

per year. A machine being considered as a replacement would generate

revenues of $1,000 per year and expenses of $400 per year. On an

incremental basis, the new machine would not increase revenues at

all, but would decrease expenses by $200 per year. Thus, the annual

incremental cash flow is a before-tax savings of $200. A sunk cost

is one that has already occurred and is not affected by the capital

project decision. Sunk costs are not relevant to capital budgeting

decisions. Within the context of this chapter, an opportunity cost

is a cash flow which a firm must forgo to accept a project. For

example, if the project requires the use of a building which could

otherwise be sold, the market value of the building is an opportunity

cost of the project.

resulting from accepting a project less the resulting increases in

spontaneous liabilities, or accruals and accounts payable. A net

working capital change must be financed just as a firm must finance

its increases in fixed assets.

d. Salvage value is the market value of an asset after its useful life.

Salvage values and their tax effects must be included in project cash

flow estimation.

budgeting analysis of an asset being considered as a replacement for

an existing asset that is still productive. Thus, the decision

involves mutually exclusive projects--either retain the existing

asset or replace it with a new asset.

projects that have unequal lives. Each project is replicated such

that they will both terminate in a common year. If projects with

lives of 3 years and 5 years are being evaluated, the 3-year project

The Dryden Press items and derived items copyright © 1999 by The Dryden Press Answers and Solutions: 12 - 1

would be replicated 5 times and the 5-year project replicated 3

times; thus, both projects would terminate in 15 years.

original life divided by the present value annuity factor for the

original life and cost of capital. In other words, it is the annual

cash flow over the project's original life, which when discounted at

the cost of capital has a present value equal to the project's NPV.

The equivalent annual annuity provides another means of comparing

mutually exclusive projects with different lives.

for each year of a project's life. Not all projects maximize their

NPV if operated over their engineering lives and therefore it may be

best to abandon a project prior to its potential life. An

abandonment option can also reduce the riskiness of a project. We

will discuss this in Chapter 13.

i. The real rate of return (k r), or, for that matter the real cost of

capital, contains no adjustment for expected inflation. If net cash

flows from a project do not include inflation adjustments, then the

cash flows should be discounted at the real cost of capital. In a

similar manner, the IRR resulting from real net cash flows should be

compared with the real cost of capital. Conversely, the nominal rate

of return (kn) does include an inflation adjustment (premium). Thus

if nominal rates of return are used in the capital budgeting process,

the net cash flows must also be nominal.

in their forecasts for potential capital projects. Thus, managers

tend to overstate the revenues and understate the costs of a project,

causing an upward bias in the estimated NPV of the project.

discounted cash flows plus the value of options embedded in the

project. For instance, the true value of a project which includes an

option to expand the business line will be greater than its NPV using

a straight DCF analysis. Furthermore, a project which limits a

company’s future growth opportunities implies that the NPV of the

project is actually greater than the true value of the project.

12-2 Only cash can be spent or reinvested, and since accounting profits do

not represent cash, they are of less fundamental importance than cash

flows for investment analysis. Recall that in the stock valuation

chapters we focused on dividends and free cash flows, which represent

cash flows, rather than on earnings per share, which represent

accounting profits.

12-3 Since the cost of capital includes a premium for expected inflation,

failure to adjust cash flows means that the denominator, but not the

numerator, rises with inflation, and this lowers the calculated NPV.

Answers and Solutions: 12 - 2 The Dryden Press items and derived items copyright © 1999 by The Dryden Press

12-4 Generally, the failure to employ common life analysis in such situations

will bias the NPV against the shorter project because it "gets no

credit" for profits beyond its initial life, even though it could

possibly be "renewed" and thus provide additional NPV.

12-5 a. Because the firm has depreciated the asset to a book value which is

less than its salvage value; that is, the firm has taken excess

depreciation. Thus, the firm must declare this excess as income and

pay ordinary taxes on it. This is called "recapture of

depreciation."

replaced. The relevant depreciation is the incremental depreciation

shown on Line 9.

investment.

multiplying by (1 - T) has the effect of subtracting out the taxes

that this savings will create:

click here to view equation.

CF = (R - C)(1 - T) + TD.

This can be seen at an intuitive level by simply asking the question,

"Would depreciation be more valuable as a tax shelter if tax rates

were high or low?" The answer is "high," and multiplying by TD will

produce a higher value if T is high than will be true if we multiply

by (1 - T).

12-6 Capital budgeting analysis should only include those cash flows which will be

affected by the decision. Sunk costs are unrecoverable and cannot be changed, so

they have no bearing on the capital budgeting decision. Opportunity costs

represent the cash flows the firm gives up by investing in this project rather than its

next best alternative, and externalities are the cash flows (both positive and

negative) to other projects that result from the firm taking on this project. These

cash flows occur only because the firm took on the capital budgeting project;

therefore, they must be included in the analysis.

The Dryden Press items and derived items copyright © 1999 by The Dryden Press Answers and Solutions: 12 - 3

12-7 When a firm takes on a new capital budgeting project, it typically must

increase its investment in receivables and inventories, over and above

the increase in payables and accruals, thus increasing its net working

capital. Since this increase must be financed, it is included as an

outflow in Year 0 of the analysis. At the end of the project’s life,

inventories are depleted and receivables are collected. Thus, there is

a decrease in NWC, which is treated as an inflow in the final year of

the project’s life.

analysis. In a new project, all cash flows must be implicitly

recognized, but in a replacement analysis only those cash flows which

change due to the replacement are considered. Incremental cash flows

are the correct ones to analyze because we are trying to determine if

they are sufficient to provide the return required on the incremental

investment.

Answers and Solutions: 12 - 4 The Dryden Press items and derived items copyright © 1999 by The Dryden Press

SOLUTIONS TO END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS

NWC Investment 3,000,000

Initial investment outlay $12,000,000

Sales revenues $10,000,000

Operating costs 7,000,000

Depreciation 2,000,000

Operating income before taxes $ 1,000,000

Taxes (40%) 400,000

Operating income after taxes $ 600,000

Add back depreciation 2,000,000

Operating cash flow $ 2,600,000

Depreciation (80%) 16,000,000

Book value $ 4,000,000

Tax on gain = $1,000,000(0.4) = $400,000.

AT net salvage value = $5,000,000 - $400,000 = $4,600,000.

Increase in annual after-tax cash flows: NCF = $9,000.

Present value of annual cash flows:

PV = $9,000(6.1446) = $55,301. NPV = $55,301 - $40,000 = $15,301.

Because NPV is positive, the firm should replace the old machine.

0 10% 1 2 10

├───────────┼───────────┼────── ··· ─────┤

-40,000 9,000 9,000 9,000

With a financial calculator, input the appropriate cash flows into the cash flow

register, input I = 10, and then solve for NPV = $15,301.

12-5 1. Net investment at t = 0:

Net investment outlay (CF0) $82,500

2. After-tax

Year Earnings T(ΔDep) Annual CFt

1 $16,200 $ 6,600 $22,800

2 16,200 10,560 26,760

3 16,200 6,270 22,470

4 16,200 3,960 20,160

5 16,200 3,630 19,830

6 16,200 1,980 18,180

7 16,200 0 16,200

8 16,200 0 16,200

Notes:

ΔDep = Depreciation on the new machine.

Dep Dep

Year Rate Basis Depreciation

1 0.20 $82,500 $16,500

2 0.32 82,500 26,400

3 0.19 82,500 15,675

4 0.12 82,500 9,900

5 0.11 82,500 9,075

6 0.06 82,500 4,950

7-8 0.00 82,500 0

1 $22,800 0.8929 $ 20,358

2 26,760 0.7972 21,333

3 22,470 0.7118 15,994

4 20,160 0.6355 12,812

5 19,830 0.5674 11,252

6 18,180 0.5066 9,210

7 16,200 0.4523 7,327

8 16,200 0.4039 6,543

Sum = PV inflows = $104,829

Less: Cost = CF0 82,500

NPV = $ 22,329

Alternatively, place the cash flows on a time line:

0 12% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

├──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┤

-82,500 22,800 26,760 22,470 20,160 19,830 18,180 16,200 16,200

With a financial calculator, input the appropriate cash flows into the cash flow

register, input I = 12, and then solve for NPV = $22,329.

The NPV of the investment is positive; therefore, the new machine should be

bought.

12-6 Plane A: Expected life = 5 years; Cost = $100 million; NCF = $30 million; COC =

12%.

Plane B: Expected life = 10 years; Cost = $132 million; NCF = $25 million; COC =

12%.

0 12% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A: ├─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

-100 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

-100

-70

Install

Enter these values into the cash flow register: CF 0 = -100; Equation

CF1-4 = 30;Editor

CF5 =and double-

-70; CF6-

10 = 30. Then enter I = 12, and press the NPV key to get

click here to view equation.

0 12% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

B: ├─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

-132 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

Enter these cash flows into the cash flow register, along with the interest rate, and

press the NPV key to get NPV B = 9.256 $9.26 million.

Project A is the better project and will increase the company's value by $12.76

million.

12-7 0 10% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A: ├─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

-10 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

-10

-6

CF1-4 = 4. Then enter I = 10, and press the NPV key to get NPV A = $2.679

million. However, this does not consider the fact that the project can

Installrepeated

be Equation Editor and double-

again. Enter these values into the cash flow register:

click here to view equation. ; CF1-3 = 4; CF4 = -6; CF5-8 = 4. Then enter I =

10, and press the NPV key to get Extended NPV A = $4.5096 $4.51

million.

0 10% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

B: ├─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

-15 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

Enter these cash flows into the cash flow register, along with the

interest rate, and press the NPV key to get NPV B = $3.672 $3.67

million.

Machine A is the better project and will increase the company's value

by $4.51 million.

The problem could also be worked using the equivalent annual annuity

method (EAA); using a calculator, we find EAA A as follows: N = 4, I =

10, PV = -2.679, FV = 0, and then solve for PMT = $0.845 million. We

find EAAB as Install Equation Editor

follows: N = and8, double-

I = 10, PV = -3.672, FV = 0, and then

solve for click here to view equation. million. Thus, the EAA approach

results in the same decision. Machine A should be chosen since it has

the higher EAA.

Price ($108,000)

Modification (12,500)

Increase in NWC (5,500)

Cash outlay for new machine ($126,000)

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3

1. After-tax savings $28,600 $28,600 $28,600

2. Depreciation tax savings 13,918 18,979 6,326

Net cash flow $42,518 $47,579 $34,926

Notes:

= $44,000(0.65)

= $28,600.

$120,500, times the MACRS allowance percentages of 0.33, 0.45, and

0.15 for Years 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Depreciation expense in

Years 1, 2, and 3 is $39,765, $54,225, and $18,075. The

depreciation tax savings is calculated as the tax rate (35%) times

the depreciation expense in each year.

Tax on SV* (19,798)

Return of NWC 5,500

$50,702

*Tax on SV = ($65,000 - $8,435)(0.35) = $19,798.

d. The project has an NPV of $10,841; thus, it should be accepted.

0 ($126,000) ($126,000)

1 42,518 37,963

2 47,579 37,930

3 85,628 60,948

NPV = $ 10,841

0 12% 1 2 3

├───────────┼───────────┼───────────┤

-126,000 42,518 47,579 34,926

50,702

85,628

the cash flow register, input I = 12, and then solve for NPV =

$10,841.

____ __________ __________ __________ __________

0 0 0 0 0

1 $5,000,000 $5,000,000 0 0

2 9,000,000 5,000,000 $4,000,000 $1,360,000

3 7,000,000 5,000,000 2,000,000 680,000

4 6,000,000 5,000,000 1,000,000 340,000

5 4,500,000 5,000,000 ( 500,000) ( 170,000)

6 3,500,000 5,000,000 (1,500,000) ( 510,000)

7 3,500,000 5,000,000 (1,500,000) ( 510,000)

8 3,500,000 5,000,000 (1,500,000) ( 510,000)

9 3,500,000 5,000,000 (1,500,000) ( 510,000)

10 3,000,000 5,000,000 (2,000,000) ( 680,000)

11 1,500,000 0 1,500,000 510,000

PV @ 10% = $674,311

Install Equation

With Editor and double-

a financial calculator,Install Equationthe

input Editorfollowing:

and double- CF 0 = 0,

click here to view equation. = 0, click here to view equation. = 1360000, CF3

Install680000,

= Equation Editor

CF4and double-

= 340000, Install

CF5Equation

= Editor and double-

-170000, CF6 = -510000,

click here to view equation. = 4, click here to view equation. = -680000, CF11

= 510000, and I = 10 to solve for NPV = $674,310.51.

Therefore, the value of the firm would increase by $674,311, each

year, if it elected to use standard MACRS depreciation rates.

Price ($70,000)

Modification (15,000)

Change in NWC (4,000)

_______

($89,000)

b. The operating cash flows follow:

_______ _______ _______

After-tax savings $15,000 $15,000 $15,000

Depreciation shield 11,220 15,300 5,100

_______ _______ _______

Net cash flow $26,220 $30,300 $20,100

$25,000(0.6) = $15,000.

depreciable basis, $85,000, times the MACRS allowance

percentage of 0.33, 0.45, and 0.15 for Years 1, 2 and

3, respectively. Depreciation expense in Years 1, 2,

and 3 is $28,050, $38,250, and $12,750. The

depreciation shield is calculated as the tax rate

(40%) times the depreciation expense in each year.

Tax on SV* (9,620)

Return of NWC 4,000

_______

$24,380

*

Tax on SV = ($30,000 - $5,950)(0.4) = $9,620.

____ _____________ _________

0 ($89,000) ($89,000)

1 26,220 23,836

2 30,300 25,041

3 44,480 33,418

_______

NPV = ($ 6,705)

= -89000, CF1 = 26220, CF2 = 30300, CF3 = 44480, and I = 10 to solve

for NPV = -$6,703.83.

Gain = $65,000 - $55,000 = $10,000.

Tax effect = $10,000(0.34) = $3,400.

Price ($150,000)

SV (old machine) 65,000

Tax effect (3,400)

________

Initial outlay ($ 88,400)

Year Percentage Basis Allowance, New Allowance, Old

Depreciation

____ __________ ___________ ______________ ______________

____________

1 33% $150,000 $49,500 $9,000 $40,500

2 45% 150,000 67,500 9,000 58,500

3 15% 150,000 22,500 9,000 13,500

4 7% 150,000 10,500 9,000 1,500

5 9,000 (9,000)

(ΔDepreciation)(T).

CF1 = ($50,000)(0.66) + ($40,500)(0.34) = $33,000 + $13,770 =

$46,770.

CF2 = ($50,000)(0.66) + ($58,500)(0.34) = $33,000 + $19,890 =

$52,890.

CF3 = ($50,000)(0.66) + ($13,500)(0.34) = $33,000 + $4,590 = $37,590.

CF4 = ($50,000)(0.66) + ($1,500)(0.34) = $33,000 + $510 = $33,510.

CF5 = ($50,000)(0.66) + (-$9,000)(0.34) = $33,000 - $3,060 = $29,940.

Salvage value on old machine

(Opportunity cost) (10,000)

_______

Nonoperating CF ($10,000)

d.

0 15% 1 2 3 4 5

├────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┤

(88,400) 46,770 52,890 37,590 33,510 29,940

(10,000)

______

19,940

Enter cash flows into cash flow register, I = 15, and then solve for

NPV = $46,051.19 $46,051.

Therefore, the firm should replace the old machine.

12-12 a. Using a financial calculator, input the following: CF 0 = -190000,

CF1 = 87000, Nj = 3, and I = 14 to solve for NPV190-3 = $11,981.99

$11,982 (for 3 years).

Using a financial calculator, input the following: CF 0 = -360000,

CF1 = 98300, Nj = 6, and I = 14 to solve for NPV360-6 = $22,256.02

$22,256 (for 6 years).

Both new machines have positive NPVs, hence the old machine should

be replaced. Further, since its adjusted NPV is greater, choose

Model 360-6.

The problem could also be worked using the equivalent annual

annuity method (EAA); using a calculator, we find EAA (190-3)

$5,161:

EAA(360-6) $5,723:

0 14% 3 6 9

├───────────┼───────────┼───────────┤

───────────────── 11,982

0 6 7 8 9

├─── ··· ────┼──────────┼──────────┼──────────┤

-360,000 98,300 98,300 98,300

──────────┘ │ │ 180,000

─────────────────────┘ │ │

────────────────────────────────┘ │

───────────────────────────────────────────┘

+ $180,000(PVIF14%,3)](PVIF14%,6) = -$4,688.

12-13 a. NPV of abandonment after Year t:

click here to view equation. = 23750, and I = 10 to solve for NPV1 =

-$909.09 -$909.

Using a financial calculator, input the following: CF 0 = -22500,

click here to view equation. = 6250, CF2 = 20250, and I = 10 to solve for

NPV2 = -$82.64 -$83.

Using a financial calculator, input the following: CF 0 = -22500,

click here to view equation. = 6250, Nj = 2, CF3 = 17250, and I = 10 to

solve for NPV3 = $1,307.29 $1,307.

Using a financial calculator, input the following: CF 0 = -22500,

click here to view equation. = 6250, Nj = 3, CF4 = 11250, and I = 10 to

solve for NPV4 = $726.73 $727.

Using a financial calculator, input the following: CF 0 = -22500,

Install Equation Editor and double-

click here to view equation. = 6250, Nj = 5, and I = 10 to solve for NPV 5

= $1,192.42 $1,192.

The firm should operate the truck for 3 years, NPV3 = $1,307.

b. No. Abandonment possibilities could only raise NPV and IRR. The

value of the firm is maximized by abandoning the project after Year

3.

Cost = 1,000($105) 105,000

________

Net before tax $ 33,000

Taxes (34%) 11,220

________

Net after tax $ 21,780

as

$21,780

-$150,000 + _______ = -$4,800.

0.15

follows:

(1 + kr)(1 + i) = 1.15

(1 + kr)(1.06) = 1.15

kr = 0.0849

$21,780

-$150,000 + _______ = $106,537.

0.0849

After adjusting for expected inflation, we see that the project has a

positive NPV and should be accepted. This demonstrates the bias that

inflation can induce into the capital budgeting process: Inflation

is already reflected in the denominator (the cost of capital), so it

must also be reflected in the numerator.

b. If part of the costs were fixed, and hence did not rise with

inflation, then sales revenues would rise faster than total costs.

However, when the plant wears out and must be replaced, inflation

will cause the replacement cost to jump, necessitating a sharp output

price increase to cover the now higher depreciation charges.

Price ($180,000)

Modification (25,000)

Change in NWC (7,500)

________

($212,500)

_______ _______ _______

(1) After-tax savings $49,500 $49,500 $49,500

(2) Depreciation tax savings 23,001 31,365 10,455

_______ _______ _______

Net cash flow $72,501 $80,865 $59,955

Notes: (1) The after-tax cost savings is $75,000(1 - T) =

$75,000(0.66) = $49,500.

(2) The depreciation expense in each year is the depreci-

able basis, $205,000, times the MACRS allowance

percentage of 0.33, 0.45, and 0.15 for Years 1, 2 and

3, respectively. Depreciation expense in Years 1, 2,

and 3 is $67,650, $92,250, and $30,750. The

depreciation shield is calculated as the tax rate

(34%) times the depreciation expense in each year.

Tax on SV* (22,321)

Return of NWC 7,500

_______

$65,179

*

Tax on SV = ($80,000 - $14,350)(0.34) = $22,321.

BV in Year 4 = $205,000(0.07) = $14,350.

____ _____________ __________

0 ($212,500) ($212,500)

1 72,501 65,910

2 80,865 66,831

3 125,134 94,015

________

NPV = $ 14,256

CF0 = -212500, CF1 = 72501, CF2 = 80865, CF3 = 125134, and I = 10 to

solve for NPV = $14,255.60.

$50,000, the NPV would be negative; therefore, the uncertainty about

the salvage value could cause the project to be rejected. A salvage

value of $51,251 (rounded to $51,000) would make you indifferent to

the project.

h. When the base price of the machine is increased to $200,000, the NPV

is ($52). You would be indifferent to the project at a machine cost

of $199,928 (rounded to $199,900).

Salvage value, old 200,000

Tax savings due to loss on sale

($500,000 - $200,000) 0.40 120,000

__________

Cash outlay for new machine ($ 880,000)

Year Percentage Basis Allowance, New Allowance, Old

Depreciation

____ __________ ___________ ______________ ______________

____________

2 32 1,200,000 384,000 100,000 284,000

3 19 1,200,000 228,000 100,000 128,000

4 12 1,200,000 144,000 100,000 44,000

5 11 1,200,000 132,000 100,000 32,000

(ΔDepreciation)(T).

$221,000.

CF2 = ($275,000)(0.6) + ($284,000)(0.4) = $165,000 + $113,600

=$278,600.

CF3 = ($275,000)(0.6) + ($128,000)(0.4) = $165,000 + $51,200 =

$216,200.

CF4 = ($275,000)(0.6) + ($44,000)(0.4) = $165,000 + $17,600 =

$182,600.

CF5 = ($275,000)(0.6) + ($32,000)(0.4) = $165,000 + $12,800 =

$177,800.

value = ($175,000 - $72,000)(0.4) = $41,200. After-tax salvage

value, new = $175,000 - $41,200 = $133,800.

accepted. Buying the new machine would increase the value of the

firm by $31,789.

f. (1) If the expected life of the old machine decreases, the new

machine will look better as cash flows attributable to the new

machine would increase. On the other hand, a serious

complication arises: the two projects now have unequal lives,

and an estimate must be made about the action to be taken when

the old machine is scrapped. Will it be replaced, and at what

cost and with what savings?

(2) The higher capital cost should be used in the analysis, and

this would reduce the NPV of the new machine.

g. NPV = $15,296. The NPV is positive, although its NPV is less than

the other machine's NPV of $31,789. Thus, the new supplier's machine

should not be bought in place of the other supplier's bottling

machine because the alternative machine's NPV is $31,789 - $15,296 =

$16,493 less than the original machine being considered.

= 3.6% + 8.0% = 11.6%.

Real WACC:

0 1 2 3

_________ ______ ______ ______

($18,800) $5,100a $5,100 $5,100

2,482b 3,384 1,128

_______ ______ ______ ______

($18,800) $7,582 $8,484 $6,228

a

(R - VC - FC)(1 - T) = ($30,000 - $15,000 - $6,500)(0.60) = $5,100.

b

(Dep)(T) = $6,204(0.4) = $2,482.

When calculating the NPV based upon real cash flows, the firm's real

WACC should be utilized. If the nominal WACC were used, the discount

rate would include an inflation premium, while the cash flows would

not. The calculation would bias NPV downward.

Install Equation Editor and double-

click here to view equation. = 7582, CF2 = 8484, CF3 = 6228, and I = 5.28

to solve for NPV = $1,393.28 $1,393. Therefore, the project should

be accepted. If the analyst had used the nominal WACC with real cash

flows, an erroneous reject decision would have been made.

click here to view equation.

d. First, we must determine the relevant nominal cash flows:

0 1 2 3

_________ _______ _______ _______

Investment ($18,800)

Rev $31,800 $33,708 $35,730

VC 15,900 16,854 17,865

FC 6,890 7,303 7,742

_______ _______ _______

Net Rev $ 9,010 $ 9,551 $10,123

_______ _______ _______

Net Rev (1 - T) $ 5,406 $ 5,731 $ 6,074

Dep (T) 2,482 3,384 1,128

_______ _______ _______

Net CF $ 7,888 $ 9,115 $ 7,202

Now, since these are nominal cash flows, the NPV can be found using

click here to view equation.

the nominal WACC:

Alternatively, with a financial calculator, input the following: CF0

= -18800, CF1 = 7888, CF2 = 9115, CF3 = 7202, and I = 11.6 to solve

for NPV = $768.26.

The NPV is less than that found in Part c because the depreciation

savings do not increase with inflation.

0 1 2 3

_________ _______ _______ _______

Investment ($18,800)

Rev $31,800 $33,708 $35,730

VC 16,125 17,334 18,634

FC 6,988 7,512 8,075

_______ _______ _______

Net Rev $ 8,687 $ 8,862 $ 9,021

_______ _______ _______

Net Rev (1 - T) $ 5,212 $ 5,317 $ 5,413

Dep (T) 2,482 3,384 1,128

_______ _______ _______

Net CF $ 7,694 $ 8,701 $ 6,541

= 7694, CF2 = 8701, CF3 = 6541, and I = 11.6 to solve for NPV = -

$213.54 -$214.

The unanticipated inflation premium would have caused the

project's NPV to decrease from $768 (as calculated in part d) to

-$214. This would have caused the project to decrease the value of

the firm by $214.

for inflation, but the market cost of capital would be, hence

NPVs would be downward biased.

(2) Long-term projects would have a greater downward bias because

of the compounding in the denominator of the NPV equation.

(3) Cash flows should be adjusted to reflect expected inflation.

MINI CASE

TO ITS PRODUCT MIX, AND THE CAPITAL BUDGETING ANALYSIS IS BEING

CONDUCTED BY JOAN SAMUELS, A RECENTLY GRADUATED FINANCE MBA. THE

PRODUCTION LINE WOULD BE SET UP IN UNUSED SPACE IN CROCKETT’S MAIN

PLANT. THE MACHINERY’S INVOICE PRICE WOULD BE APPROXIMATELY

$200,000; ANOTHER $10,000 IN SHIPPING CHARGES WOULD BE REQUIRED;

AND IT WOULD COST AN ADDITIONAL $30,000 TO INSTALL THE EQUIPMENT.

FURTHER, THE FIRM’S INVENTORIES WOULD HAVE TO BE INCREASED BY

$25,000 TO HANDLE THE NEW LINE, BUT ITS ACCOUNTS PAYABLE WOULD RISE

BY $5,000. THE MACHINERY HAS AN ECONOMIC LIFE OF 4 YEARS, AND

CROCKETT HAS OBTAINED A SPECIAL TAX RULING WHICH PLACES THE

EQUIPMENT IN THE MACRS 3-YEAR CLASS. THE MACHINERY IS EXPECTED TO

HAVE A SALVAGE VALUE OF $25,000 AFTER 4 YEARS OF USE.

(BEFORE TAXES AND EXCLUDING DEPRECIATION) IN EACH OF THE NEXT 4 YEARS.

THE FIRM’S TAX RATE IS 40 PERCENT, AND ITS OVERALL WEIGHTED AVERAGE

COST OF CAPITAL IS 10 PERCENT.

CASH FLOWS.

ANSWER: WE HAVE FIVE CASH FLOWS, AS FOLLOWS:

Mini Case: 12 - 20 The Dryden Press items and derived items copyright © 1999 by The Dryden Press

B. 1. CONSTRUCT INCREMENTAL OPERATING CASH FLOW STATEMENTS FOR

THE PROJECT’S 4 YEARS OF OPERATIONS.

ANSWER: GET THE DEPRECIATION RATES FROM TABLE 12-2 IN THE BOOK. NOTE THAT

BECAUSE OF THE ½ YEAR CONVENTION, A 3-YEAR PROJECT IS DEPRECIATED

OVER 4 CALENDAR YEARS:

1 0.33 $240 $ 79

2 0.45 240 108

3 0.15 240 36

4 0.07 240 17

$240

HERE ARE THE ANNUAL OPERATING CASH FLOWS (IN THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS):

1 2 3 4

NET REVENUES $125 $125 $125 $125

DEPRECIATION 79 108 36 17

BEFORE-TAX INCOME $ 46 $ 17 $ 89 $108

TAXES (40%) 18 7 36 43

NET INCOME $ 28 $ 10 $ 53 $ 65

PLUS DEPRECIATION 79 108 36 17

NET OPERATING CF $107 $118 $ 89 $ 82

The Dryden Press items and derived items copyright © 1999 by The Dryden Press Mini Case: 12 - 21

B. 2. DOES YOUR CASH FLOW STATEMENT INCLUDE ANY FINANCIAL FLOWS

SUCH AS INTEREST EXPENSE OR DIVIDENDS? WHY OR WHY NOT?

ANSWER: THE CASH FLOW STATEMENT SHOULD NOT INCLUDE INTEREST EXPENSE OR

DIVIDENDS. THE RETURN REQUIRED BY THE INVESTORS FURNISHING THE

CAPITAL IS ALREADY ACCOUNTED FOR WHEN WE APPLY THE 10 PERCENT COST OF

CAPITAL DISCOUNT RATE, HENCE INCLUDING FINANCING FLOWS WOULD BE

"DOUBLE COUNTING." PUT ANOTHER WAY, IF WE DEDUCTED CAPITAL COSTS IN

THE TABLE, AND THUS REDUCED THE BOTTOM LINE CASH FLOWS, AND THEN

DISCOUNTED THOSE CFs BY THE COST OF CAPITAL, WE WOULD, IN EFFECT, BE

REHABILITATE THE PRODUCTION LINE SITE. SHOULD THIS COST BE INCLUDED IN THE

ANALYSIS? EXPLAIN.

ANSWER: THE $100,000 COST TO REHABILITATE THE PRODUCTION LINE SITE WAS

INCURRED LAST YEAR, AND PRESUMABLY ALSO EXPENSED FOR TAX PURPOSES.

SINCE, IT IS A SUNK COST, IT SHOULD NOT BE INCLUDED IN THE ANALYSIS.

ANOTHER FIRM AT $25,000 A YEAR. SHOULD THIS BE INCLUDED IN THE ANALYSIS?

IF SO, HOW?

ANSWER: IF THE PLANT SPACE COULD BE LEASED OUT TO ANOTHER FIRM, THEN IF

CROCKETT ACCEPTS THIS PROJECT, IT WOULD FOREGO THE OPPORTUNITY TO

RECEIVE $25,000 IN ANNUAL CASH FLOWS. THIS REPRESENTS AN OPPORTUNITY

COST TO THE PROJECT, AND IT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN THE ANALYSIS. NOTE

THAT THE OPPORTUNITY COST CASH FLOW MUST BE NET OF TAXES, SO IT WOULD

BE A $25,000(1 - T) = $25,000(0.6) = $15,000 ANNUAL OUTFLOW.

Mini Case: 12 - 22 The Dryden Press items and derived items copyright © 1999 by The Dryden Press

C. 3. FINALLY, ASSUME THAT THE NEW PRODUCT LINE IS EXPECTED TO

DECREASE SALES OF THE FIRM’S OTHER LINES BY $50,000 PER YEAR. SHOULD

THIS BE CONSIDERED IN THE ANALYSIS? IF SO, HOW?

"EXTERNALITY" WHICH MUST BE CONSIDERED IN THE ANALYSIS. IF THE

FIRM'S SALES WOULD BE REDUCED BY $50,000, THEN THE NET CASH FLOW LOSS

WOULD BE A COST TO THE PROJECT. NOTE THAT THIS ANNUAL LOSS WOULD NOT

BE THE FULL $50,000, BECAUSE CROCKETT WOULD SAVE ON CASH OPERATING

COSTS IF ITS SALES DROPPED. NOTE ALSO THAT EXTERNALITIES CAN BE

POSITIVE AS WELL AS NEGATIVE.

The Dryden Press items and derived items copyright © 1999 by The Dryden Press Mini Case: 12 - 23

D. DISREGARD THE ASSUMPTIONS IN PART C. WHAT IS CROCKETT’S

NET INVESTMENT OUTLAY ON THIS PROJECT? WHAT IS THE NET NONOPERATING CASH

FLOW AT THE TIME THE PROJECT IS TERMINATED? BASED ON THESE CASH FLOWS,

WHAT ARE THE PROJECT’S NPV, IRR, MIRR, AND PAYBACK? DO THESE INDICATORS

SUGGEST THAT THE PROJECT SHOULD BE UNDERTAKEN?

PRICE ($200,000)

FREIGHT & INSTALLATION (40,000)

CHANGE IN NET WORKING CAPITAL (20,000)*

($260,000)

$5,000 = $20,000. THE INCREMENTAL CASH OUTLAY FOR NET WORKING

CAPITAL IS JUST AS "REAL" AS COSTS OF THE EQUIPMENT, FREIGHT, AND

INSTALLATION, SO IT MUST BE INCLUDED IN THE NET INVESTMENT OUTLAY.

WHEN THE PROJECT IS TERMINATED AT THE END OF YEAR 4, THE EQUIPMENT

CAN BE SOLD FOR $25,000. BUT, SINCE IT HAS BEEN DEPRECIATED TO A $0

BOOK VALUE, TAXES MUST BE PAID ON THE FULL SALVAGE VALUE. ALSO, WE

ASSUME THAT THE FIRM'S WORKING CAPITAL WILL RETURN TO ITS ORIGINAL

POSITION UPON PROJECT TERMINATION, SO THE NET WORKING CAPITAL

INVESTMENT REQUIRED AT TIME = 0 WILL BE RECOVERED AT t = 4. FOR THIS

PROJECT, THE TERMINATION CASH FLOW IS $35,000:

TAX ON SALVAGE VALUE (10,000)

RECOVERY OF NET WORKING CAPITAL 20,000

NET TERMINATION CASH FLOWS $35,000

HERE ARE ALL THE PROJECT'S CASH FLOWS LAID OUT ON A SINGLE TIME

LINE (IN THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS):

WE CAN INPUT THESE VALUES IN THE CASH FLOW REGISTER OF A CALCULATOR,

ALONG WITH k = I = 10%, AND PRESS THE NPV BUTTON TO FIND NPV =

$81.573 (IN THOUSANDS). THEN PRESS IRR TO FIND IRR = 23.8%.

THEN COMPOUND THE OPERATING CASH FLOWS TO TIME 4 AND ADD THE

TERMINAL CASH FLOW TO GET THE TV = 500.10. THEN ENTER THE FOLLOWING:

N = 4, PV = -260, PMT = 0, AND FV = 500.10 TO SOLVE FOR MIRR =

17.77%.

THE PAYBACK PERIOD IS 2.4 YEARS. ALL OF THESE CALCULATIONS

INDICATE THAT CROCKETT SHOULD UNDERTAKE THE PROJECT.

RATHER THAN A NEW, OR EXPANSION, PROJECT. DESCRIBE HOW THE ANALYSIS WOULD

DIFFER FOR A REPLACEMENT PROJECT.

TO THE EXISTING PROJECT. THESE TYPICALLY IMPACT AN ANALYSIS IN THE

FOLLOWING WAYS:

THUS, THE MARKET VALUE OF THE OLD MACHINE WOULD BE A CASH

INFLOW AT TIME 0, WHILE THE TAX EFFECTS FROM THE SALE WOULD

CONSTITUTE (A) A TIME 0 OUTFLOW IF THE OLD MACHINE IS SOLD AT A

PRICE ABOVE ITS BOOK VALUE BUT (B) AN INFLOW IF THE SALE PRICE

IS FOR LESS THAN BOOK VALUE.

CHANGES WHICH WOULD OCCUR IF THE NEW SYSTEM REPLACED THE CURRENT

SYSTEM.

DEPRECIATION IF THE NEW SYSTEM IS INSTALLED VERSUS CONTINUING WITH

THE CURRENT SYSTEM.

• FINALLY, SELLING THE CURRENT MACHINE NOW MEANS THAT THE FIRM WILL

NOT RECEIVE THE SALVAGE VALUE AT THE END OF THE OLD MACHINE'S

ORIGINAL LIFE. THUS, THE OLD ASSET'S ORIGINAL EXPECTED SALVAGE

VALUE, NET OF TAXES AND AT THE OLD EXPECTED END-OF-LIFE, IS AN

OUTFLOW IF THE REPLACEMENT PROJECT IS ACCEPTED.

F. EXPLAIN WHAT IS MEANT BY CASH FLOW ESTIMATION BIAS. WHAT

ARE SOME STEPS THAT CROCKETT’S MANAGEMENT COULD TAKE TO ELIMINATE THE

INCENTIVES FOR BIAS IN THE DECISION PROCESS?

ANSWER: CASH FLOW ESTIMATION BIAS IS THE TENDENCY ON THE PART OF MANAGERS TO

BE OVERLY OPTIMISTIC WHEN ESTIMATING A PROJECT'S CASH FLOWS.

COMPANIES SHOULD ROUTINELY COMPARE THE CASH FLOW ESTIMATES SUBMITTED

IN THE PROJECT EVALUATION PROCESS WITH THOSE ACTUALLY REALIZED,

REWARD THOSE MANAGERS WHO ARE DOING A GOOD JOB, AND PENALIZE THOSE

WHO ARE NOT. (HOWEVER, THE CASH FLOWS ARE MUCH HARDER TO ESTIMATE IN

SOME LINES OF BUSINESS THAN IN OTHER LINES, AND THIS MUST BE TAKEN

INTO CONSIDERATION IN THE EVALUATION PROCESS.) WHEN THERE IS

EVIDENCE THAT CASH FLOW BIAS IS PRESENT, THE PROJECT'S CASH FLOW

ESTIMATES SHOULD BE LOWERED, OR THE COST OF CAPITAL SHOULD BE RAISED,

IN ORDER TO OFFSET THE BIAS.

HERE MIGHT HAVE OPTION VALUE OVER AND ABOVE THE INDICATED NPV? IF SO, HOW

MIGHT THIS BE HANDLED?

THAT MANAGERS MUST CONSIDER WHEN EVALUATING A CAPITAL PROJECT. THIS

IS CALLED MANAGERIAL OPTION VALUE. CONSEQUENTLY, MANAGERS MIGHT BE

WILLING TO ACCEPT A NEGATIVE NPV PROJECT IF IT WILL LEAD TO A

POSITIVE NPV PROJECT IN THE FUTURE. FOR EXAMPLE, A FIRM MIGHT

UNDERTAKE A PROJECT IN POLAND THAT IS EXPECTED TO YIELD A NEGATIVE

NPV IF IT BELIEVES THAT UNDERTAKING SUCH A PROJECT IS A WAY TO GET

ITS "FOOT IN THE DOOR" TO PURSUE FUTURE POSITIVE NPV PROJECTS

THROUGHOUT EASTERN EUROPE. MANAGERS WILL ATTEMPT TO QUANTIFY THE

OPTION VALUE; HOWEVER, IN MANY INSTANCES ONLY A QUALITATIVE

EVALUATION IS POSSIBLE. IT IS UNLIKELY THAT THE PROJECT CURRENTLY

BEING CONSIDERED BY CROCKETT HAS MANAGERIAL OPTION VALUE SINCE IT

INVOLVES ADDING ONLY ONE MACHINE, WHICH WILL MERELY SUPPORT A NEW

PRODUCT LINE. HOWEVER, IF CROCKETT'S MANAGERS BELIEVE THERE IS

MANAGERIAL OPTION VALUE THEN THEY SHOULD ATTEMPT TO QUANTIFY THE

VALUE, OR AT LEAST MAKE A QUALITATIVE JUDGMENT CONCERNING THE OPTION

VALUE.

H. ASSUME THAT INFLATION IS EXPECTED TO AVERAGE 5 PERCENT

OVER THE NEXT 4 YEARS. DOES IT APPEAR THAT CROCKETT’S CASH FLOW ESTIMATES

ARE REAL OR NOMINAL? THAT IS, ARE ALL THE CASH FLOWS STATED IN THE TIME 0

DOLLARS OR HAVE THE CASH FLOWS BEEN INCREASED TO ACCOUNT FOR EXPECTED

INFLATION? FURTHER, WOULD IT APPEAR THAT THE 10 PERCENT COST OF CAPITAL IS

A NOMINAL OR REAL INTEREST RATE? DOES IT APPEAR THAT THE CURRENT NPV IS

BIASED BECAUSE OF INFLATION EFFECTS? IF SO, IN WHAT DIRECTION, AND HOW

COULD ANY BIAS BE REMOVED?

ANSWER: IT APPEARS THAT THE CASH FLOW ESTIMATES ARE REAL, THAT IS, THEY ARE

STATED IN YEAR 0 (OR YEAR 1) DOLLARS, BECAUSE THE CASH REVENUES AND

COSTS ARE CONSTANT OVER THE 4-YEAR PERIOD EVEN THOUGH INFLATION IS

EXPECTED TO AVERAGE 5 PERCENT.

kds , HOWEVER, THE 10 PERCENT COST OF CAPITAL ESTIMATE IS A NOMINAL COST

BECAUSE THE ESTIMATES OFANDWHICH MAKE UP THE FIRM'S WACC, INCLUDE

INVESTORS' INFLATION PREMIUMS. SINCE AN INFLATION PREMIUM IS

INCLUDED IN THE DENOMINATOR (THE DISCOUNT RATE), BUT INFLATION IS NOT

CONSIDERED IN THE NUMERATOR (THE CASH FLOWS), THE CALCULATED NPV IS

BIASED DOWNWARD. THE BEST SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM IS TO RECAST THE

CASH FLOW ESTIMATES TO INCLUDE THE IMPACT OF INFLATION OVER TIME.

USING A SPREADSHEET PROGRAM, THIS ADJUSTMENT IS AS EASY AS IT IS

NECESSARY.

I. IN AN

UNRELATED ANALYSIS, JOAN WAS ASKED TO CHOOSE

EXPECTED

BETWEEN THE FOLLOWING TWO MUTUALLY NET CASH

EXCLUSIVE FLOWS

PROJECTS:

YEAR PROJECT S PROJECT L

0 ($100,000) ($100,000)

1 60,000 33,500

2 60,000 33,500

3 -- 33,500

4 -- 33,500

SELECTED IS EXPECTED TO BE REPEATED INTO THE FORESEEABLE

FUTURE. BOTH PROJECTS HAVE A 10 PERCENT COST OF CAPITAL.

FOLLOWS:

INPUT THE FOLLOWING: CF0 = -100000, CF1 = 60000, NJ = 2, AND I =

10 TO SOLVE FOR NPVS = $4,132.23 $4,132.

INPUT THE FOLLOWING: CF0 = -100000, CF1 = 33500, NJ = 4, AND I =

10 TO SOLVE FOR NPVL = $6,190.49 $6,190.

HOWEVER, IF WE MAKE OUR DECISION BASED ON THE RAW NPVS, WE WOULD

BE BIASING THE DECISION AGAINST THE SHORTER PROJECT. SINCE THE

PROJECTS ARE EXPECTED TO BE REPLICATED, IF WE INITIALLY CHOOSE

PROJECT S, IT WOULD BE REPEATED AFTER 2 YEARS. HOWEVER, THE RAW NPVS

DO NOT REFLECT THE REPLICATION CASH FLOWS.

PROJECTS' EXTENDED NPVS. WHICH PROJECT SHOULD BE CHOSEN?

ANSWER: THE SIMPLE REPLACEMENT CHAIN APPROACH ASSUMES THAT THE PROJECTS WILL

BE REPLICATED OUT TO A COMMON LIFE. SINCE PROJECT S HAS A 2-YEAR

LIFE AND L HAS A 4-YEAR LIFE, THE SHORTEST COMMON LIFE IS 4 YEARS.

PROJECT L'S COMMON LIFE NPV IS ITS RAW NPV:

THAT THE REPLICATED PROJECT'S CASH FLOWS ARE IDENTICAL TO THE FIRST

SET OF CASH FLOWS, THEN THE REPLICATED NPV IS ALSO $4,132, BUT IT

"COMES IN" IN YEAR 2. WE CAN PUT PROJECT S'S CASH FLOW SITUATION ON

A TIME LINE:

THUS, WHEN COMPARED OVER A 4-YEAR COMMON LIFE, PROJECT S HAS THE

HIGHER NPV, HENCE IT SHOULD BE CHOSEN. PROJECT S WOULD HAVE THE

HIGHER NPV OVER ANY COMMON LIFE.

I. 3. REPEAT THE ANALYSIS USING THE EQUIVALENT ANNUAL ANNUITY

APPROACH.

ANSWER: THE EQUIVALENT ANNUAL ANNUITY (EAA) APPROACH FINDS THE CONSTANT

ANNUITY PAYMENT (EAA) WHOSE PRESENT VALUE IS EQUAL TO THE PROJECT'S

RAW NPV OVER ITS ORIGINAL LIFE:

PROJECT S'S RAW NPV IS $4,132. TO FIND THE ANNUITY PAYMENT (EAA)

USING A CALCULATOR, ENTER N = 2, I = 10, PV = -4132, FV = 0, AND

SOLVE FOR PMT = $2,380.82 $2,381. THUS, A 2-YEAR ANNUITY OF $2,381

PER YEAR, WHEN DISCOUNTED AT 10 PERCENT, IS EQUIVALENT TO PROJECT S'S

RAW NPV OF $4,132.

USING THE SAME PROCEDURE, WE FIND THAT A 4-YEAR ANNUITY OF $1,953

IS EQUIVALENT TO PROJECT L'S NPV OF $6,190: ENTER N = 4, I =10, PV =

-6190, FV = 0, AND SOLVE FOR PMT = $1,952.76 $1,953.

IF EACH PROJECT WERE REPLICATED CONTINUOUSLY, WE WOULD HAVE A

CONTINUOUS STRING OF EAA CASH FLOWS, AND, OVER ANY COMMON LIFE, THE

PROJECT WITH THE HIGHER EAA WOULD HAVE THE HIGHER VALUE. SINCE EAA S

> EAAL, THE EAA APPROACH INDICATES THAT PROJECT S SHOULD BE SELECTED.

NOTE THAT THE REPLACEMENT CHAIN AND EAA APPROACHES ALWAYS LEAD TO THE

SAME DECISION. THEREFORE, EITHER CAN BE USED--WE USE WHICHEVER IS

EASIEST TO USE AND EXPLAIN TO DECISION MAKERS IN THE PROBLEM AT HAND.

YEARS WILL INCREASE TO $105,000 BECAUSE OF INFLATIONARY PRESSURES. HOW

SHOULD THE ANALYSIS BE HANDLED NOW, AND WHICH PROJECT SHOULD BE CHOSEN?

PROJECT IS NOT IDENTICAL TO THE ORIGINAL, AND THE EAA APPROACH CANNOT

BE USED. IN THIS SITUATION, WE WOULD PUT THE CASH FLOWS ON A TIME

LINE AS FOLLOWS:

WITH THIS CHANGE, THE COMMON LIFE NPV OF PROJECT S IS LESS THAN THAT

FOR PROJECT L, AND HENCE PROJECT L SHOULD BE CHOSEN.

J. CROCKETT IS ALSO CONSIDERING ANOTHER PROJECT WHICH HAS A

INITIAL

PHYSICAL LIFE OF 3 YEARS; THAT INVESTMENT

IS, THE MACHINERY WILLEND-OF-YEAR

BE TOTALLY WORN OUT

AND OPERATING NET ABANDONMENT

AFTER 3 YEARS. HOWEVER,

YEAR IF THE PROJECT WERE ABANDONED PRIOR

CASH FLOWS VALUETO THE END OF

3 YEARS, THE MACHINERY WOULD HAVE A POSITIVE SALVAGE (OR ABANDONMENT)

0 ($5,000) $5,000

VALUE. HERE ARE THE PROJECT’S ESTIMATED CASH FLOWS:

1 2,100 3,100

2 2,000 2,000

3 1,750 0

IS OPERATED FOR THE FULL 3 YEARS? WOULD THE NPV CHANGE IF THE COMPANY

PLANNED TO ABANDON THE PROJECT AT THE END OF YEAR 2? AT THE END OF

YEAR 1? WHAT IS THE PROJECT’S OPTIMAL (ECONOMIC) LIFE?

ANSWER: HERE ARE THE TIME LINES FOR THE 3 ALTERNATIVE LIVES:

NO ABANDONMENT:

NPV = $123.

ABANDON AFTER 2 YEARS:

NPV = $215.

ABANDON AFTER 1 YEAR:

NPV = $273.

YEARS, (2) THAT A PROJECT'S ENGINEERING LIFE DOES NOT ALWAYS EQUAL

ITS ECONOMIC LIFE, AND (3) THAT THE ABILITY TO ABANDON A PROJECT MAY

MAKE AN OTHERWISE UNATTRACTIVE PROJECT ACCEPTABLE. WE WILL SEE, IN

THE NEXT CHAPTER ON RISK ANALYSIS IN CAPITAL BUDGETING, THAT THE

ABILITY TO ABANDON A PROJECT IF THINGS ARE NOT GOING WELL CAN HAVE A

MAJOR EFFECT ON THE ACCEPTABILITY OF THE PROJECT IN THE FIRST PLACE.

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