A No-Nonsense, Fully Illustrated Guide to the Correct Executions of Latin Rhythms

RHYTHMS COVERED. Bolero. GUajira • Cha-Cha. Mambo. 6/8 • Plena • Bomba • Merengue INSTRUMENTS COVERED • Conga. Bongo Timbale. Cowbell Gulro • Torpedo Tambora

• Vibra-Slap • Afuche/Cabasa

Musical Advisor: Nelson Gonzalez • Text By: Martin Cohen • Musical Notation By: ReynaldO Jorge OCopyrighted

Latin Percussion Ventures, Inc



The material contained in this album, unquestionably, is African in origin. It may have had a stop-over in Cuba, Puerto Rico, or the Dominican Republic. but its roots should not be forgotten. This African heritage was very much preserved in Cuba, augmented by their Spanish culture.

The need for this instructional material has existed for years. Those percussionists outside the Latin community have lacked the exposure to the top Latin drummers, and even today's Latin youngbloods have, in many cases, missed the opportunity to experience the beauty of Cuban rhythmic harmony. The stress in this album is on Cuban rhythms as Cuba has done so much in refining their African rhythmic heritage, always retaining the original "funk" while meshing it with international musical happenings. It was the Cubans who Introduced mechanical tuning to the bongo and the conga drum.

Any listener to contemporary jazz and rock can't help but notice the growing influx of Latin rhythmic elements into these musical groups. While rhythms suitable for these particular musical situations may depart from this recorded musical material, mastering this material will leave the drummer well prepared to "stretch out" in whatever musical situation he finds himself. Remember, the Cubans devoted many years to developing their playing techniques. Don't sell what they've learned short! Master these techniques before going beyond. DOing so will make possible the easier learning of new material, purer sounds, and greater playing speed.


Of the various components of the Latin rhythm section, the bongo and conga drums require the most attention in order for the newcomer to these instruments to extract their correct sound. When a drum is struck with a stick or mallet it is rather easy to get the right sound. When it's skin against skin, it's a different story.

There are both similarities and differences between playing. bongos and congas; the bongo requiring a more fingeroriented technique, whereas, the conga drum requires more wrist action. I n both cases it is not mere brute force that'll get the correct sound, but a combination of correct hand and finger positions, attacking the skins with the correct speed.

The following descriptions of playing techniques were written for the right-handed drummer. Left-handed drummers should reverse the order of hand and drum positions.


While some drummers play the conga drum standing using a stand (Fig. 1), it is more traditionally played in a seated position (Fig. 2). A conga drum mounted on a stand has greater volume, as the sounds can exit from the open bottom unimpeded. The sound thus produced has a somewhat different quality than when the drum is played while resting on the floor.

Playing the conga in the seated position requires that it be tilted forward slightly to get a fuller sound. One significant advantage of playing the conga while seated is that it offers the advanced player a greater variety of tones. This is made possible by raising the drum somewhat by grasping it between one's knees as a beat is struck. Very often a drummer finds himself playing in a carpeted room. This playing situation dampens the drum's sound substantially (equally true with bongos) and it is a common practice to place a wooden board under the drum(s) when such situations are encountered.

The sounds typically extracted from the conga drum, playing the basic tumbao, can best be described by discussing one hand at a time.



(A) OPEN TONE: This creates a full, unmuffled sound. For this the hand is quickly removed from the head after striking it to allow it to vibrate in a sustained fashion (Fig. 3). Note all fingers, except the thumb, strike the head in a flat position.

(8) THE SLAP: This is perhaps the most difficult of all sounds to get. It takes mucho practice. Be patient. Once mastered it's pure joy! It's the failure to get this correct sound that makes for a tumbao lacking in authenticity and separates the amateur from the pro.

To get the slap the fingers are held in a cup-like fashion (Fig. 4). All fingers strike the head simultaneously. It is the tips of the fingers that strike the surface. It must be done quickly and as the fingers touch the head they are "drawn" toward the edge of the drum. This point may be confusing since the fingertips really don't move after striking. It's more of a hint of motion. Correctly executed it should be a sharp sound, significantly higher in pitch than the open tone sound. This higher pitch is further assisted by the left hand resting firmly on the head as the right hand strikes it.


Many newcomers to the conga drum underestimate the role played by the left hand, as the sound from the right is most pronounced. The left hand puts in the "tasty" accents, and most important, serves to keep your timing together. The basic sounds from the left hand are two in number:

- The heel of the hand (Fig. 5) followed by,

- the tips of the fingers (Fig. 6).

The secret in attaining speed in playing is to avoid raising the hands off the surface of the drum. If you watch a top drummer you'll notice his hands sliding across the surface rather than being raised from it. Of course, soloing may require a departure from this technique.



We have chosen the slowest tempo in Latin music, the Bolero, to begin with. Notice the weakness of sound tram the heel of the left hand when one drum is used for the Bolero. This would be reinforced by the martillo of the bongos.



the downbeat of one

1. heel of left hand (Fig. 5)

2. fingertips of left hand (Fig. 6)

3. slap right hand (Fig. 4) 4 fingertips of left hand

• 5 heel of left hand

6. open tone of right hand (Fig. 7) "7 heel of left hand

8. open tone of right hand

'The weakness of sound from heel of left hand. which is basically an open tone when using two drums, would be filled by the martillo of the bongo (open tone when fingertips of right hand strike large drum of the bongo).

PATTERN (TWO CONGAS) starting on downbeat of one

1. heel of left hand

2. fingertips of left hand

3. slap right hand

4. fingertips of left hand

'5. heel of left hand

6. open tone on lower or second drum with right hand

7. open tone of high or first drum with right or left hand

8. open tone of lower or second drum with right hand

• 5b. fingertips of left hand GUAJIRA

This tempo is slightly faster than the Bolero. Notice the emphasis on the slaps and on the single open tone when one drum is used.

ONE CONGA starting on the downbeat of one:

1. heel of left hand

2. fingertips of left hand

'3. slap right hand

4. fingertips of left hand

5. heel of left hand

6. fingertips of left hand

7. two open tones with right hand

8. heel of left hand

9. fingertips of left hand

'10. slap right hand

11. fingertips of left hand

12. heel of left hand

13. fingertips of left hand

'14. one open tone with right hand 15. fingertips of left hand

'Notice the emphasis on the slaps, #3 & #10, and on thesingle open tone, #14.


This pattern is the same as above with the exception of #11 & #12, which are two open tones on the lower, or second drum.


The difference between the Cha-Cha, using one drum, and the Guajira, is that for Cha-Cha you play two open tones instead of the single open tone.


1. heel of left hand

2. fingertips of left hand

3. slap right hand

4. fingertips of left hand

5. heel of left hand

6. fingertips of left hand

7. two open tones with right hand, and back to #1


Same as above with the following additions:

8. heel of left hand

9. fingertips of left hand

10. slap right hand

11. two open tones on lower, or second drum, with right hand

12. fingertips of left hand

13. two open tones on high, or first drum, with right hand


The Mambo, using one or two conga drums, is played the same way as the Cha-Cha, except the tempo is faster.

6/8 TIME

When one drum is used you could get a heavier bass sound from the right hand by raising the drum with heels and knees slightly.


1. open tone with right hand

2. open tone with left hand

*3. heel of left hand

'You may sometimes hit the center of the drum with the heel of right hand while raisinq the drum slightly as stated above to get a heavier bass sound.


This pattern is the same as above with the exception of #3, which is an open tone on the lower, or second drum, with the right hand.


Notice that this rhythm is played with only two drums.

1. open tone on lower or second drum with right hand

2. repeat #1

3. open tone on high or first drum with left hand The first open tone is played on the count of 1.


This rhythm is played on one drum. Usually, at the same time, another drummer is soloing on the higher drum.

Start this example on the second half of the third beat.

1. open tone with left hand

2. open tone with right hand

3. slap right hand

4. slap left hand

5. slap right hand


This rhythm is played using one drum. It is either played using both hands, or by using a stick in the right hand. The tambora can be substituted for the second rhythm pattern.


1. open tone with right hand

2. slap right hand

3. open tone with right hand

4. slap right hand

5. open tone with right hand

6. open tone with left hand

7. open tone with righl hand

8. open tone with left hand


1. or 2. open tone on center of skin with stick

2. light rim shot (on edge of conga drum)

3. slap on center of skin with left hand


4. two light rim shots (right hand w/stick)

5. slap on center of skin with left hand

6. light rim shot (right hand w/stick)

7. open tone with left hand

Refer to page 8 for method of playing Merengue on Tambora.


The basic rhythm played on this instrument is called the martillo. If you were to phonetically sing the rhythm, it would go "Dicky-Docky-Dicky-Ducky".

It is essential in correctly mastering the martillo that the bongos be correctly held between the legs, small half to the left with the drum resting comfortably on the calves of the legs or between the knees (should that be more comfortable). Of prime importance is keeping the wrists of both hands fixed on one's thighs throughout the rhythm. This technique avoids unnecessary hand motion and will enable the most up-tempo rhythms to be quickly mastered.



Notice that the open tone of the martillo on the large or low

drum serves to reinforce the sound of the heel of the left hand of the conga drum when only one conga drum is used in Bolero.


1. rest side of left thumb on small head while edge of head is struck with fingertips of right hand (Fig. 8)

2. fingertips of left hand strike head centrally (Fig. 9)

3. same as #1 except left hand is not on drum (Fig. 10)

4. side of left thumb strikes head centrally (Fig. 11)

5. same as #1

6. same as #2

7. open tone on large or low drum with fingertips of right hand

8. side of left thumb strikes head centrally


The Bongo slap, a technique often used in soloing is. as in the case of the conga drum, difficult to master. When properly mastered its sound is ear-piercing and of very high pitch. (Fig. 12) shows the right hand slapping the small head (referred to as the Macho). Note cupped-like position of fingers. The secret to the execution of the correct slap is both the position of fingers and the speed of the attack. In observing Jose Mangual. Sr .. perhaps the greatest of all bongo players, you will notice that his right hand appears to "wipe" the surface of the drum while executing his slap.



This pattern is similar to that of the Bolero's. Notice the slap of the left hand.


1 rest side of left thumb on head of small drum while edge of head IS struck with fingertips of right hand.

2. fingertips of left hand strike head centrally

3 open tone on small drum (same as #1)

4 side of left thumb strikes head centrally

5 same as ;;1

6. same as #2

open tone on large or low drum (fingertips of right hand strike large drum)

'8 strike edge of small drum with fingertips of left hand (Fig 13)

9. same as #7

10 same as #2
11. same as #3
12. same as #4
13. same as #1
14. same as #2
15. same as #7
16. same as #4 'While not referred to as a slap. this step should result in a sound that is similar. being sharp and high-pitched in nature.


For this rhythm a bongo player usually plays the Cuban-style Guiro (Fig. 14).


1. very brief. light down-stroke, going immediately into-

2. a sustained up-stroke of substantial volume,

3. brief down-stroke. longer in duration and of greater volume than #1.

4. same as #3. only an up-stroke.


The Mambo is played the same as Guajira, except the tempo is faster.

6/8 TIME

Two different patterns are offered.


1. open tone on lower, or larger, drum

2. rim shot with left hand SECOND PATTERN

1. open tone on lower, or larger. drum

2. rim shot with left hand

3. rim shot with left hand


Plena on the bongos is played as a series of sharp slaps played on the small drum following the pattern heard on the record Here the bongo substitutes for the pandereta (plenera). a traditional Plena instrument from Puerto Rico resembling a tambourine with head, but without jingles.


For his rhythm the bongo player could play the high conga drum soloing along with the tune. or he can play the Bongo Cowbell (LP206). (Fig. 15) shows the correct way to hold the cowbell. Pattern IS two beats near closed end of cowbell, with a pause.


Like in the Cha-Cha. the bongo player usually plays the guiro or the tam bora.


One long stroke followed by five short strokes.



The right hand holding stick strikes the side of the right shell (Fig. 16).


Notice the accentuation with the left hand without the stick on the large or left skin of the timbale (Fig. 17).


fig. 11: RIgId atIck *It_ IIde 0' .....

flg.11: HoI

The pattern is played by hitting the right shell of the timbales with a stick while the left hand, without stick, accentuates 2 & 4 on the larger or left head. 4 is open and 2 is a light slap.

fig. 11: RIm IIIot

The pattern is played with a stick striking the large or mambo cowbell (Fig. 20) in the center of the bell while the left hand again accents 2 & 4 as in Cha-Cha or Guajira.


Notice the abanico, an important part of the cha-cha rhythm, and the use of the small cha-cha bell. Also notice again the accentuation with the left hand.

6/8 TIME

This can be played on any bell with the right hand, while the left hand, without a stick, accentuates the first beat of the pattern with a strong open tone on the large, or lower, head of the timbales.

This example of the cha-cha pattern starts with the abanico which is played on the small head of the timbale and consists of a rim shot (Fig. 18), followed by a roll (Fig. 19) and completed by another rim shot.


This rhythm is played with both hands using sticks, each hand hitting its respective head.

You next ride the cha-cha bell while the left hand (without stick) accents 2 & 4 on the larger or lower pitched head of the timbales.


This rhythm is played on the large or mambo cowbell with both hands using sticks as on the record.


This rhythm can be played with either the mambo cowbell or with the smaller cha-cha cowbell. Again notice the accentuation with left hand.


Played with a stick in each hand. The right hand stick strikes the center of the lower or larger drumhead while the left hand stick plays rim shots.



On this record the second of the two rhythm patterns played on the conga drum duplicates the sound of the tambora.

The rhythm pattern for the tam bora is as follows:

1. open tone with stick in right hand striking head centrally (Fig. 21)

2. with stick in right hand execute four rim shots (Fig. 22) while left hand answers with 2 slaps (Fig. 23)

3. open tone with left hand (Fig. 24)

4. three open tones with stick in right hand (Fig. 21)

5. one open tone with left hand (Fig. 24)

6. one open tone with stick in right hand (Fig. 21)

fig. 21: StIck In rIghllwncl strtkH had 01 ....... ,. cenInIHy.


fig. 25: Nelson Gonzalez ..ted .. TlmINllel.


heads used are from younger animals than used for congas and, consequently, thinner. The tuning of the small head is generally very high and this means that frequent head replacement is necessary. By reducing the tension on the heads after you're finished playing, the life of the heads can be greatly extended.


The conga drum of today, unlike the drum of years ago, features mechanical tuning. The forerunner to this modernday version was tuned by heating the head over a can of sterno. Today, tuning is accomplished using a wrench.

While playing the bongos in a seated position is most typical, there are times. such as for show presentations, that the instrument is played in a standing position using sticks. For this Latin Percussion, Inc. offers a bongo mounting bracket (LP202) which, when used in conjunction with their bongo stand (LP332) permits easy mounting of the bongos.

Three sizes cover virtually every musical requirement. Latin Percussion, Inc. offers three sizes of conga drums - 11" quinto, 117'.' conga and 12'h" tumbadora.


These metal-shell drums are played either sealed or standing with the large or low pitched shell to the left. For years the accepted standard size heads for timbales were 13" and 14". With the introduction of electronics to Latin bands it became apparent that a larger. louder sounding drum would be required. Latin Percussion, Inc. met this need with a larger timbale having 14" and 15" heads.

While the original conga drums were made of wood using used wine, olive oil or similar barrels, the Latin Percussion, Inc. congas are made of steel-reinforced fiberglass. This new version makes for a nearly indestructible construction with greater sound volume.

The most important component of the drum is its head, which is made of rawhide. For years it was assumed that the best skin for congas was mule, however, it is doubtful that it was really mule that was used. More than likely it was either cow, steeror bull - as such animals are more routinely slaughtered.

The Latin Percussion, Inc. Timbale has a centrally located cowbell bracket on which are usually mounted two cowbells - a cha-cha cowbell. such as the LP204 Black Beauty Cowbell. along with a mambo cowbell. such as the LP322 Prestige Line Mambo Cowbell. From the drummers position, the mambo cowbell is to the right and below the cha-cha cowbell (Fig. 25).

Some timbale drummers utilize a Cuban technique for mounting the cowbell whereby a sponge rubber ball is slit in two places - one to accept a cha-cha cowbell handle. the other slips over the rim of the small shell. The open end of the cowbell rests on the head and when the bell is struck, not only does the bell itself sound, but the skin vibrates as well making for a fuller sound. The LP384 Charanga-Style Bracket (Fig. 26) accomplishes this without the need for the sponge rubber ball.

In choosing a head it is terribly important to avoid heads that are too heavy. As a matter of fact, the pros-in-the-know much prefer heads that are on the thin side. They are louder, easier to play and don't kill your hands.

Many newcomers to the conga drum ask about the proper way to care for the head. Aside from slackening the tension after use there's little else that can be done to preserve the quality of the drumhead.


As with the conga drum the forerunner to the modern bongo did not have the mechanical tuning which is now standard. The Latin Percussion bongo's heads are 7W' and 8%" and shells are around 6'h" high. The shells are of wood and the

The timbale is played by striking the heads, the sides of the shells, and the cowbells.

fig. %7: Menngue gutro (Torpedo).

FIg. 29: V1bnt-S111p


FIg. 30: NeUve Much.

fig. 31: AIucheIC8IIMa

Untapered wooden sticks of varying diameters are used with timbales and are chosen to suit both the drummer's preference as well as the type of music played. You may use hardwood dowels obtained from a lumber yard or those sticks sold by Latin Percussion, Inc. which have rounded ends to minimize damage to the drumheads, and are varnish coated.


The Tambora is a double headed drum originating in the Dominican Republic which is traditionally used for playing the Merengue. It is suspended from the neck by a strap. A stick, of approximately1/2" diameter, is held in tne right hand which strikes both the center of the head, as well as the edge of the drum over the wooden shell. The left hand without a stick plays both slaps and open tones on the left head.

5/16" Dia. X 15" -

Popular in charanga bands where a light, delicate sound is called for.

A good all-around size. Fits most requirements.

Good where more volume is required.

Used where the timbale player must be heard above a lar'~e

band. Same size that Tito Puente uses. (His, though, are cut down to approximately 13" in length.)

Latin Percussion, Inc. also offers a fiberglass version in three different weights which last considerably longer than the wooden sticks, but yield a brighter, more metallic sound when used on the sides of the shells.

3/8" Dia. X 15" -


Two styles of guiros are used on this record. The Cuban-style is made from a gourd whose insides have been removed and the surface cut with a series of grooves. Typical Cuban music calls for a coarse, rather than fine, groove arrangement (Fig.

'" 14). --

7/16" Dia. X 15" -

1/2" Dia. X 15" -

The second style guiro is referred to by Latin Percussion, Inc. as the Torpedo, available in both large and small sizes (LP302A and LP302B respectively). The Torpedo is stainless steel and its playing surface is textured. It is played by rubbing with a fork-like scraper (Fig. 27). The LP Torpedo is filled with a special material permitting it to double as a shaker.


The maracas shown in (Fig. 28) are the Latin Percussion, Inc. Professional Maracas which are a plastic version of the handmade rawhide variety so popular with professionals. Latin Percussion, Inc. is now offering a rawhide version (LP394). The sound of the varieties are quite similar with the rawhide ones offering a "drier" sound. Both models sold by Latin Percussion, Inc. are supplied in matched pairs.


Latin music requires the use of various types of cowbells, each for a particular application. The following is a general summary of the types available and their use.

Sell Typo Rhythm, U.ed For Oyerall LP Name end Catatog Number
e .·en. Cha-CM 4-71S" LP204A or B
Black Beauty Cowbell
'Aamoo Mamoo Guaracha 8- S" LP20S T.mbale Cowbell
Merengue etc 8-9116" LP229 Mambo Cowbell
7-9/1S" lP322 Presnqe Une Mambo Cowbell
Bongo usee nana nelll by 8-1 8" LP206A or 8
Bongo player uSing a Bongo (HanO) Cowbell
heavy wOOde,., Dealer
such as LP268 Deluxe
Cowbell Beater
HeavIer gauge than
all other bells HE VIBRA-SLAP

This patented instrument of Latin Percussion, Inc. was designed to serve as a dependable substitute for the traditional jawbone of an ass. The jawbone was made from an actual lower jawbone of a jackass, mule or horse. When the jawbone was dry, the teeth became loose in their socket and when held by the jawbone's chin and the cheek was struck the entire structure was set into vibration, with the hollow bone cavity serving as a resonator for the chattering teeth. The

The above chart is merely a rough guide to cowbell selection. Ultimate selection is a personal choice.


sound from this instrument is a great accent-type sound, but it is a delicate structure that is easily broken.

The Latin Percussion, Inc. Vi bra-Slap creates a very similar sound that is very predictable, rich in color and can sustain its sound far longer than the jawbone (see Fig. 29).


Another patented instrument of Latin Percussion, Inc. is the Afuche/Cabasa. This instrument was created to serve as' a more durable substitute for the traditional version (Fig. 30). The problem with the original Afuche is that the beads are held together with steel wire which ultimately broke from use.

The Latin Percussion, Inc. Afuche/Cabasa (Fig. 31) utilizes steel ball chain which is most durable. The sound created by this modern version is far more versatile and has greater volume.


Both Latin Percussion, Inc.'s African and standard claves are

of a very unique design intended to give a deeper, richer sound than that produced when two plain sticks are struck together. To get the optimum sound from these claves it is essential that the large half be held correctly! If not properly held you won't get the correct sound. Study (Fig. 32) for finger position. Notice that the fingers are held together forming an air-tight sound chamber. Strike the large half directly above the center of the cutout. A little practice is all it takes to get it right.


The guiding star of Latin rhythms is the clave, a double meaning word referring to both a two-bar rhythmic pattern, as well as the special wooden strikers used to produce it. The rhythmic pattern is one that is felt in all Latin rhythms, whether or not the musical group includes a clave player. The clave can be either the 3/2 or 2/3 variety.

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