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Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015

DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)


FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

ANANTARA
CRP V UTS

1. Insomnia symptoms, including having difficulty initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, or having poor sleep
quality, are highly prevalent among heart failure (HF) patients. Recent studies indicate that the
prevalence of these symptoms among HF patients ranges from 23to 73%. However, it is largely
unknown whether insomnia is associated with later risk of HF among individuals who were free from
HF at baseline. There is a lack of large prospective studies of insomnia and risk of HF with adjustment
for established cardiovascular risk factors, psychological distress, and the presence of chronic somatic
disorders. Such an association seems plausible since insomnia is considered to be a disorder of chronic
activation of stress responses, with sympathetic arousal and activation of the hypothalamic pituitary
adrenal axis (HPA axis) which is accompanied by increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and
elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and circulating catecholamines. The investigators
prospectively investigated the association between insomnia symptoms and the risk of incident HF in a
large population-based cohort, taking into account a large number of established cardiovascular risk
factors, previous and/or incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Which of the following are the dependent and independent variables for the study?
A) Dependent : risk of incident heart failureIndependent : insomnia
B) Dependent : risk of incident heart failureIndependent : psychological distress
C) Dependent : risk of incident heart failureIndependent : chronic somatic disorders
D) Dependent : risk of incident heart failureIndependent : acute myocardial infarction
E) Dependent : risk of incident heart failureIndependent : established cardiovascular risk factors

2. Using a cohort study, the investigators want to know the effects of oral contraceptive (OC) use on heart
disease in women 40 to 44 years of age. Suppose from previous study we found that among 5,000
current OC users at baseline, 13 women develop a myocardial infarction (MI) over a 3-year period,
whereas among 10,000 non-OC users, 7 develop an MI over a 3-year period.

Which of the following are the correct steps for the investigators to calculate the sample size?
A) Decide the α (with Z1 – α) and β, with P2 = 13/5,000
B) Decide the α (with Z1 – α/2) and β, with P2 = 13/5,000
C) Decide the α (with Z1 – α) and β, with P2 = 7/10,000
D) Decide the α (with Z1 – α/2) and β, with P2 = 7/10,000
E) Decide the α (with Z1 – α) and β, with P2 = 20/15,000

3. Using a case-control study, the investigators want to test the hypothesis that there is an association
between early age at menarche (age when periods begin <11 years) and ovarian cancer. Suppose from
previous study we had 50 ovarian-cancer cases and 100 controls, all of whom were age 50 - 54. Ten of
the ovarian-cancer cases and 12 of the controls had an early age at menarche

Which of the following are the correct steps for the investigators to calculate the sample size?
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

A) Decide the α (with Z1 – α) and β, with P2 = 10/50


B) Decide the α (with Z1 – α/2) and β, with P2 = 10/50
C) Decide the α (with Z1 – α) and β, with P2 = 12/100
D) Decide the α (with Z1 – α/2) and β, with P2 = 12/100
E) Decide the α (with Z1 – α) and β, with P2 = 22/150

4. Using a cross-sectional study, the investigators want to estimate mean fasting blood glucose level
(mg/dl) among male age of 45 - 55-year-old in Kecamatan E.

Which of the following are the correct steps for the investigators to calculate the sample size?
A) Decide the α (with Z1 – α), decide the precision, and get the sample size
B) Decide the α (with Z1 – α/2), decide the precision, and get the sample size
C) Decide the α (with Z1 – α), perform a pilot study, and get the sample size
D) Decide the α (with Z1 – α/2), decide the precision, and perform a pilot study
E) Decide the α (with Z1 – α), decide the precision, and perform a pilot study

5. Using a cross-sectional study, the investigators want to estimate the prevalence of anemia during
pregnancy in Kabupaten F but with limited budget and time. To get the most accurate result, which of
the following are the most appropriate steps for the investigators to calculate the sample size?

A) Decide the α (with Z1 – α), decide the precision, and find the prevalence from literature
B) Decide the α (with Z1 – α/2), decide the precision, and find the prevalence fromliterature
C) Decide the α (with Z1 – α), decide the precision, and ask the local health department
D) Decide the α (with Z1 – α/2), decide the precision, and use prevalence = 50%
E) Decide the α (with Z1 – α), decide the precision, and perform pilot study

6. Childbearing is an established risk factor for urinary incontinence among young and middle-aged
women. It has been suggested that vaginal delivery is the main contributing factor, possibly because of
damage to important muscle tissue or nerves. However, pregnancy itself may causes mechanical
changes, hormonal changes, or both that can lead to urinary incontinence. Results of epidemiologic and
pathophysiological studies assessing the relation between the mode of delivery and incontinence have
been inconclusive. A methodologic problem in many studies is the relatively small number of
participants, who are sometimes drawn from selected populations. The investigators studied women in
the Norwegian Epidemiology of Incontinence in the County of Nord Trondelag (EPINCONT) study, a
large community-based study, to evaluate the risks of incontinence associated with cesarean section
and vaginal delivery.

Which of the following are the dependent and independent variables for the study?
A) Dependent : mechanical changes, hormonal changes, or bothIndependent : method of delivery
B) Dependent : method of deliveryIndependent : urinary incontinence
C) Dependent : urinary incontinenceIndependent : method of delivery
D) Dependent : method of deliveryIndependent : mechanical changes, hormonal changes, or both
E) Dependent : damage to important muscle tissue or nervesIndependent : method of delivery
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

7. Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux are common in pregnancy, but there are limited data on the risk
of birth defects associated with exposure to proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) in early pregnancy. The
investigators conducted a cohort study to assess the association between exposure to PPIs during early
pregnancy and the risk of major birth defects among all infants born alive in Denmark between January
1996 and September 2008.

Which of the following are the dependent and independent variables for the study?
A) Dependent : exposure to PPIs during early pregnancyIndependent : major birth defects among all
infants born alive
B) Dependent : major birth defects among all infants born aliveIndependent : exposure to PPIs during
early pregnancy
C) Dependent : gastroesophageal reflux in pregnancyIndependent : exposure to PPIs during early
pregnancy
D) Dependent : major birth defects among all infants born aliveIndependent : gastroesophageal reflux in
pregnancy
E) Dependent : exposure to PPIs during early pregnancy Independent : gastroesophageal reflux in
pregnancy

8. Because of increased rates of respiratory complications, elective cesarean delivery is discouraged before
39 weeks of gestation unless there is evidence of fetal lung maturity. Based on the background, the
investigators assessed associations between elective cesarean delivery at term (37 - 39 weeks) of
gestation and neonatal outcomes.

Which of the following are the dependent and independent variables for the study?
A) Dependent : neonatal outcomesIndependent : elective cesarean delivery at term
B) Dependent : elective cesarean delivery at termIndependent : neonatal outcomes
C) Dependent : fetal lung maturityIndependent : elective cesarean delivery at term
D) Dependent : elective cesarean delivery at termIndependent : fetal lung maturity
E) Dependent : before 39 weeks of gestationIndependent : elective cesarean delivery at term

9. A randomized trial was done to answer whether the knowledge of fetal oxygen saturation, as an adjunct
to electronic fetal monitoring, is associated with a change in the rate of cesarean deliveries or the
infant's condition at birth. The investigators randomly assigned 5341 nulliparous women who were at
term and in early labor to either "open" or "masked" fetal pulse oximetry. In the open group, fetal
oxygen saturation values were displayed to the clinician. In the masked group, the fetal oxygen sensor
was inserted and the values were recorded by computer, but the data were hidden.

Which of the following are the dependent and independent variables for the study?
A) Dependent : the infant’s condition at birth, rate of cesarean deliveries
Independent : knowledge of fetal oxygen saturation
B) Dependent : rate of cesarean deliveries, knowledge of fetal oxygen saturation
Independent : the infant’s condition at birth
C) Dependent : knowledge of fetal oxygen saturation, the infant’s condition at birth
Independent : rate of cesarean deliveries
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

D) Dependent : rate of cesarean deliveries


Independent : knowledge of fetal oxygen saturation
E) Dependent : the infant’s condition at birth
Independent : knowledge of fetal oxygen saturation

10. Benign breast disease is an important risk factor for breast cancer. One historical cohort study was
conducted using large group of women with benign breast disease to obtain reliable estimates of this
risk. The conclusion was that risk factors for breast cancer after the diagnosis of benign breast disease
include the histologic classification of a benign breast lesion and a family history of breast cancer.
Suppose one medical student wants to conduct a case control study to identify risk of breast cancer
among women in her region based on the previous study results.

Which of the following are the dependent and independent variables for her study?
A) Dependent : breast cancerIndependent : large group of women
B) Dependent : breast cancerIndependent : a family history of breast cancer
C) Dependent : breast cancerIndependent : histologic classification of a benign breast lesion
D) Dependent : breast cancerIndependent : family history of breast cancer, histologic classification of a
benign breast lesion
E) Dependent : breast cancerIndependent : large group of women, a family history of breast cancer

11. Using a cross-sectional study, the investigators want to compare systolic blood pressure (SBP in mmHg)
among OC users and non-OC users. Suppose from previous study we found a sample of twelve age of 35
- 39-year-old, non-pregnant, pre-menopausal OC users (mean SBP = 132.86 (SD = 15.34)) and twenty-
one age of 35 - 39-year-old, non-pregnant, pre-menopausal non-OC users (mean SBP = 127.44 (SD =
18.23)).

Which of the following condition is true for the current study? (s = combined SD for two groups)
A) Decide the α (with Z1 – α) and β, but unable to calculate s
B) Decide the α (with Z1 – α/2) and β, but unable to calculate s
C) Decide the α (with Z1 – α) and β, calculate s, and get the sample size
D) Decide the α (with Z1 – α/2) and β, calculate s, and get the sample size
E) Decide the α (with Z1 – α) and β, calculate s, but unable to get the sample size

12. Suppose from a study, the following baseline characteristics were observed:
Age (years)
Gender (male/female)
Medical history (myocardial infarction, hyperlipidemia, current smoker, percutaneous coronary
intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, hypertension, diabetes, chronic heart failure)
Chronic beta-blockers (Yes/No)
ST-elevation myocardial infarction location (anterior, inferior, lateral)
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)
Killip class (I, II, III)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Heart rate (beats/minute)
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score (highest total possible score 363)

Which of the following statements is appropriate?


A) There are three quantitative data
B) There are four quantitative data
C) There are five quantitative data
D) There are six quantitative data
E) There are seven quantitative data

13. Suppose from a study, the following baseline characteristics were observed:
Age (years)
Gender (male/female)
Current smoking (Yes/No)
Obesity (Yes/No)
Hypertension (Yes/No)
Diabetes mellitus (Yes/No)
HbA1c (%)
Serum Apolipoprotein A1 (mg/dL)
Serum Apolipoprotein B (mg/dL)
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)
Serum LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min per 1.73 m2)
Serum CRP (mg/dL)
Troponin T (ng/L)
Prior myocardial infarction (Yes/No)
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)
Angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease (no significant stenosis, single-vessel, double-
vessel, triple-vessel)
Treatment following baseline coronary angiography (no or medications only, percutaneous coronary
intervention, coronary artery bypass graft surgery)
Medications at discharge (aspirin, statins, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors,
loop diuretics)

Which of the following statements is appropriate?


A) There are nine quantitative data
B) There are ten quantitative data
C) There are eleven quantitative data
D) There are twelve quantitative data
E) There are thirteen quantitative data

14. Suppose from a study, the following baseline characteristics were observed:
Gender (Male/Female)
Diabetes mellitus (Yes/No)
Smoking (Never, former, current)
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

Alcohol (Abstainer, light drinker, moderate drinker, heavy drinker)


Physical activity (Inactive, moderately active, physically active)
Shift work (Yes/No)
Living alone (Yes/No)
Education (≤ 9 years, 10 - 12 years, > 12 years)
Use of sleep medication/sedative daily (Yes/No)

Which of the following statements is appropriate?


A) There are five qualitative data with nominal scale
B) There are six qualitative data with nominal scale
C) There are seven qualitative data with nominal scale
D) There are eight qualitative data with nominal scale
E) There are nine qualitative data with nominal scale

15. Suppose from a study, the following baseline characteristics were observed:
Region of enrollment (USA, Canada, Argentina, Brazil)
Race (White, Black, Hispanic, other)
Smoking status (Current, past, never)
Alcohol drinks in the past weeks (None, 1-4, 5-10, 11-20, >20)
Home meals (Almost none, 25%, 50%, 75%, almost all)
New York Heart Association functional class (I, II, III, IV)

Which of the following statements is appropriate?


A) There are two qualitative data with ordinal scale
B) There are three qualitative data with ordinal scale
C) There are four qualitative data with ordinal scale
D) There are five qualitative data with ordinal scale
E) There are six qualitative data with ordinal scale

16. Suppose from a study, the following baseline characteristics were observed:
Gender (Male/Female)
Age (years)
Working at age of 16 - 64 years (Yes/No)
Married (Yes/No)
Foreign-born (Yes/No)
Income (Low, moderate, high)
Education (<10 years, 10 - 12 years, > 12 years

Which of the following statements is appropriate?


A) There are three qualitative data with nominal scale
B) There are four qualitative data with nominal scale
C) There are five qualitative data with nominal scale
D) There are six qualitative data with nominal scale
E) There are seven qualitative data with nominal scale
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

17. Suppose from a study, the following baseline characteristics were observed:
Age (years)
Gender (Male/Female)
Hypertension (Yes/No)
Diabetes (Yes/No)
Dyslipidemia (Yes/No)
Chronic kidney disease (Yes/No)
Current smoking (Yes/No)
Previous myocardial infarction (Yes/No)
Previous percutaneous coronary intervention (Yes/No)
Previous coronary artery bypass graft (Yes/No)
Atrial fibrillation (Yes/No)
Stroke (Yes/No)
Peripheral arterial disease (Yes/No)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Heart rate (beats/minute)
Killip classification (Class 1, class 2, class 3, class 4)
Time to onset to admission (minute)

Which of the following statements is appropriate?


A) There are eleven qualitative data with nominal scale
B) There are twelve qualitative data with nominal scale
C) There are thirteen qualitative data with nominal scale
D) There are fourteen qualitative data with nominal scale
E) There are fifteen data with nominal scale

18. Suppose from a study, the following baseline characteristics were observed:
Age (years)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
Gender (Male/Female)
Heart rate (beats/minute)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Hypertension (Yes/No)
Current smoker (Yes/No)
Diabetes mellitus (Yes/No)
Hypercholesterolemia (Yes/No)
Symptom-to-balloon time (minutes)
Non-ST-elevation (Yes/No)
Territory of infarction (Left anterior descending artery, circumflex artery, right coronary artery)

Which of the following statements is appropriate?


A) There are four quantitative data
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

B) There are five quantitative data


C) There are six quantitative data
D) There are seven quantitative data
E) There are eight quantitative data

19. Suppose from a study, the following baseline characteristics were observed:
Age (years)
Gender (Male//Female)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
Hypertension (Yes/No)
Previous myocardial infarction (Yes/No)
Diabetes (Yes/No)
Smoking (Yes/No)
Heart failure (Yes/No)
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL /minute/1.73 m2)
Troponin T (ng/mL)
Killip class >1 (Yes/No)
Heart rate (beats/minute)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Infarct classification (Non-STEMI, STEMI)
Left anterior descending coronary artery involvement (Yes/No)
Multivesseldieasese (Yes/No)

Which of the following statements is appropriate?


A) There are four quantitative data
B) There are five quantitative data
C) There are six quantitative data
D) There are seven quantitative data
E) There are eight quantitative data

20. Suppose from a study, the following baseline characteristics were observed:
Age (years)
Gender (Male/Female)
Race (White, Black, Asian, Hispanic)
Previous myocardial infarction (Yes/No)
Previous percutaneous coronary intervention (Yes/No)
Previous coronary artery bypass grafting (Yes/No)
Atrial fibrillation or flutter (Yes/No)
Previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (Yes/No)
Peripheral artery disease (Yes/No)
Diabetes mellitus (Yes/No)
Hypertension (Yes/No)
ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (Yes/No)
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

Transfer from another acute-care facility (Yes/No)


Cardiac arrest on presentation (Yes/No)
Cardiogenic shock on presentation (Yes/No)
Heart failure within 2 weeks (Yes/No)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Hemoglobin (g/dL)
Creatinine (mg/dL)

Which of the following statements is appropriate?


A) There are fifteen qualitative data with nominal scale
B) There are sixteen qualitative data with nominal scale
C) There are seventeen qualitative data with nominal scale
D) There are eighteen qualitative data with nominal scale
E) There are nineteen data with nominal scale

21. Suppose from a study, the following baseline characteristics were observed:
Referred for cardiac rehabilitation (Yes/No)
Age (years)
Gender (Male/Female)
Current smokers (Yes/No)
Hypertension (Yes/No)
Diabetes mellitus (Yes/No)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Yes/No)
Hyperlipidemia (Yes/No)
Previous ischemic heart disease (Yes/No)
Cerebrovascular disease (Yes/No)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Heart rate (beats per minute)
ST-elevation myocardial infarction (Yes/No)
Killip Class 1 (Yes/No)
Cardiac arrest (Yes/No)
Reperfusion (Yes/No)
Revascularization (Yes/No)

Which of the following statements is appropriate?


A) There are eleven qualitative data with nominal scale
B) There are twelve qualitative data with nominal scale
C) There are thirteen qualitative data with nominal scale
D) There are fourteen qualitative data with nominal scale
E) There are fifteen qualitative data with nominal scale

22. Suppose from a study, the following baseline characteristics were observed:
Site of the study (Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Saskatchewan, United Kingdom, United States)
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

Age (years)
Gender (male/female)
Duration of treated diabetes (years)
Alcohol-related disorder (Yes/No)
Atrial fibrillation or flutter (Yes/No)
Cancer (Yes/No)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Yes/No)
Coronary artery disease (Yes/No)
Dyslipidemia (Yes/No)
Hypertension (Yes/No)
Peripheral vascular disease (Yes/No)
Coronary revascularization (Yes/No)
Myocardial infarction (Yes/No)
Stroke (Yes/No)
Neuropathy (Yes/No)
Renal disease (Yes/No)
Duration of treatment with incretin-based drugs (<365 days, 365 - 729 days, ≥ 730 days)

Which of the following statements is appropriate?


A) There are fourteen qualitative data with nominal scale
B) There are fifteen qualitative data with nominal scale
C) There are sixteen qualitative data with nominal scale
D) There are seventeen qualitative data with nominal scale
E) There are eighteen qualitative data with nominal scale

23. Suppose the investigator want to compare fasting serum-


cholesterol levels among recent immigrants to country G with
typical levels found in the general population of country G. Suppose
it is assumed that the cholesterol levels in general population are
approximately normally distributed with mean 190 mg/dl. Blood
test were performed on 100 immigrants, and it was observed that
the mean was 181.52 mg/dl, with standard deviation of 30 mg/dl.

From the above options given, what is the value of the test
statistic?
) A
) B
) C
) D
) E

24. Suppose a new treatment for pain relief is to be tested among patients with disease P. The measure of
pain relief will be the percent change in pain level as reported by the patient after taking the medication
for 1 month.
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

What do type II error mean in this situation?


A) To conclude that the treatment has an effect when in fact it has an effect
B) To conclude that the treatment has an effect using inappropriate statistical method
C) To conclude that the treatment has an effect when in fact it doesn’t have an effect
D) To conclude that the treatment doesn’t have an effect when in fact it has an effect
E) To conclude that the treatment doesn’t have an effect when in fact it doesn’t have an effect

25. The investigators want to compare cholesterol level of the children


whose fathers have died from heart disease versus the children
whose fathers do not have a history of heart disease. Suppose from
100 children whose fathers have died from heart disease, the
observed mean and standard deviation of the cholesterol level are
207.3 mg/dl and 35.6 mg/dl. Another 80 children whose fathers do
not have a history of heart disease are also identified and the
observed mean and standard deviation of the cholesterol level are
193.4 mg/dl and 17.3 mg/dl. It is assumed that the variances of the
two groups are not equal.

From the options given above, ff the assumptions for parametric


test are not met, which of the following is the correct alternative
test?
) A
) B
) C
) D
) E

26. The investigators want to compare cholesterol level of the


children whose fathers have died from heart disease versus the
children whose fathers do not have a history of heart disease.
Suppose from 100 children whose fathers have died from heart
disease, the observed mean and standard deviation of the
cholesterol level are 207.3 mg/dl and 35.6 mg/dl. Another 80
children whose fathers do not have a history of heart disease are
also identified and the observed mean and standard deviation of
the cholesterol level are 193.4 mg/dl and 17.3 mg/dl. It is
assumed that the variances of the two groups are not equal.

For the options given above, what is the value of the test statistic?
) A
) B
) C
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

) D
) E

27. An important hypothesis in hypertension research is that the sodium


restriction may lower blood pressure. However, it is difficult to achieve
sodium restriction over long term, and dietary counseling in a group
setting is sometimes used to achieve this goal. The investigators
measures the urinary sodium excretion (mEq/8hr) from 25 subjects at
baseline and after 1 week of dietary counseling. At baseline, the mean
and the standard deviation of the sodium excretion are 17.65 mEq/8hr
and 10.56 mEq/8hr, respectively. After one week, the mean and the
standard deviation of the sodium excretion are 16.5 mEq/8hr and 11.63,
respectively. The standard deviation of the difference is 12.22.

From the options given above, if the assumptions for parametric test are
not met, which of the following is the correct alternative test?
) A
) B
) C
) D
) E

28. An important hypothesis in hypertension research is that the sodium


restriction may lower blood pressure. However, it is difficult to achieve
sodium restriction over long term, and dietary counseling in a group
setting is sometimes used to achieve this goal. The investigators
measures the urinary sodium excretion (mEq/8hr) from 25 subjects at
baseline and after 1 week of dietary counseling. At baseline, the mean
and the standard deviation of the sodium excretion are 17.65 mEq/8hr
and 10.56 mEq/8hr, respectively. After one week, the mean and the
standard deviation of the sodium excretion are 16.5 mEq/8hr and
11.63, respectively. The standard deviation of the difference is 12.22.

From the above options,what is the value of the test statistic?


) A
) B
) C
) D
) E
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

Pictures below for number 29-34

29. The Women's CARE study examined the current use of OCs as a risk factor for breast cancer in women
ages 35 to 64. Current use was defined as use of combination oral contraceptives within six months
preceding the reference date. One of the findings described in the following contingency table:

What is the expected count for non-user among case group?


A) (372 x 1,152)/2,384
B) (372 x 1,232)/2,384
C) (372 x 2,012)/2,384
D) (2,012 x 1,152)/2,384
E) (2,012 x 1,232)/2,384

30. The Women's CARE study examined the current use of OCs as a risk factor for breast cancer in women
ages 35 to 64. Current use was defined as use of combination oral contraceptives within six months
preceding the reference date. One of the findings described in the following contingency table:

What is the expected count for current user among case group?
A) (372 x 1,152)/2,384
B) (372 x 1,232)/2,384
C) (372 x 2,012)/2,384
D) (2,012 x 1,152)/2,384
E) (2,012 x 1,232)/2,384

31. The Women's CARE study examined the current use of OCs as a risk factor for breast cancer in women
ages 35 to 64. Current use was defined as use of combination oral contraceptives within six months
preceding the reference date. One of the findings described in the following contingency table:

What is the expected count for current user among control group?
A) (372 x 1,152)/2,384
B) (372 x 1,232)/2,384
C) (372 x 2,012)/2,384
D) (2,012 x 1,152)/2,384
E) (2,012 x 1,232)/2,384

32. The Women's CARE study examined the current use of OCs as a risk factor for breast cancer in women
ages 35 to 64. Current use was defined as use of combination oral contraceptives within six months
preceding the reference date. One of the findings described in the following contingency table:
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

What is the expected count for non-user among control group?


A) (372 x 1,152)/2,384
B) (372 x 1,232)/2,384
C) (372 x 2,012)/2,384
D) (2,012 x 1,152)/2,384
E) (2,012 x 1,232)/2,384

33. The Women's CARE study examined the current use of OCs as a risk factor for breast cancer in women
ages 35 to 64. Current use was defined as use of combination oral contraceptives within six months
preceding the reference date. One of the findings described in the following contingency table:

Which of the following is the proportion of current user among case group?
A) 172/372
B) 172/980
C) 172/1,152
D) 200/1,032
E) 200/1,232

34. The Women's CARE study examined the current use of OCs as a risk factor for breast cancer in women
ages 35 to 64. Current use was defined as use of combination oral contraceptives within six months
preceding the reference date. One of the findings described in the following contingency table:

Which of the following is the proportion of current user among control group?
A) 172/372
B) 172/980
C) 172/1,152
D) 200/372
E) 200/1,032

35. One medical student wanted to test a hypothesis that birthweight of an infant is associated with
smoking status of the mother during first semester of pregnancy. She recorded birthweights of infants
(grams) and smoking status of the mother and divided the smoking status into four groups: non-
smoker, ex-smoker, current smoker and smokes less than 1 pack per day, and current smoker and
smokes 1 pack per day or more.

If the assumptions for parametric test are not met, which of the following is the correct alternative test?
A) Friedman test
B) Kruskal – Wallis test
C) Wilcoxon sum-rank test
D) Wilcoxon signed-rank test
E) Kolgomorov – Smirnov test
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

36. One medical student wants to test a hypothesis that women with higher childhood socioeconomic status
(SES) have earlier age at menarche. Suppose she identifies 40 girls with low childhood SES and 30 girls
with high childhood SES and observes mean age at menarche for girls with low and high childhood SES
are 13.4 years with standard deviation of 1.4 years and 12.9 years with standard deviation of 1.5 years,
respectively. It is assumed that the variances of the two groups are equal.

If the assumptions for parametric test are not met, which of the following is the correct alternative test?
A) Friedman test
B) Kruskal – Wallis test
C) Wilcoxon sum-rank test
D) Wilcoxon signed-rank test
E) Kolgomorov – Smirnov test

37. One medical student wants to test a hypothesis that women with higher childhood socioeconomic status
(SES) have earlier age at menarche. Suppose she identifies 40 girls with low childhood SES and 30 girls
with high childhood SES and observes mean age at menarche for girls with low and high childhood SES
are 13.4 years with standard deviation of 1.4 years and 12.9 years with standard deviation of 1.5 years,
respectively. It is assumed that the variances of the two groups are equal.

From the options given above, what is the value of the test statistic?

38. Suppose a new treatment for pain relief is to be tested among patients with disease P. The measure of
pain relief will be the percent change in pain level as reported by the patient after taking the medication
for 1 month.

What do type I error mean in this situation?


A) To conclude that the treatment has an effect when in fact it has an effect
B) To conclude that the treatment has an effect using inappropriate statistical method
C) To conclude that the treatment has an effect when in fact it doesn’t have an effect
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

D) To conclude that the treatment doesn’t have an effect when in fact it has an effect
E) To conclude that the treatment doesn’t have an effect when in fact it doesn’t have an effect

39. Suppose serum-cholesterol level in spouse pairs (husband and wife) was measured to determine
whether there is correlation between cholesterol levels in spouses. Suppose that the coefficient of
correlation is 0.31 based on 51 spouse pairs.

From the options given above, what is the value of the test statistics?

40. One medical student wants test a hypothesis that there is a correlation between variable K and L. To test
the hypothesis H0: r = 0 versus H1: r ≠ 0, with significance level α, which of the following is the correct
decision rule to reject H0 using t test?
A) t >tn – 1, 1 – α or t < -tn – 1, 1 – α
B) t >tn – 1, 1 – α/2 or t < -tn – 1, 1 – α/2
C) t >tn – 2, 1 – α or t < -tn – 2, 1 – α
D) t >tn – 2, 1 – α/2 or t < -tn – 2, 1 – α/2
E) t >tn – 3, 1 – α or t < -tn – 3, 1 – α

41. Which of the following is the correct property of correlation coefficient?


A) Its magnitude indicates how close the points are to the curve line
B) Its sign indicates the proportion of the variability of the relationship
C) Variable X and Y can be interchangeable without affecting its magnitude
D) Its value is valid only within the range of values of X and Y in the population
E) Correlation between x and y does necessarily imply a cause – effect relationship

42. In simple linear regression, to test the hypothesis H0: β1 = 0 versus H1: β1 ≠ 0, with significance level α,
which of the following is the correct decision rule to reject H0 using t test?
A) t >tn – 1, 1 – α or t < -tn – 1, 1 – α
B) t >tn – 1, 1 – α/2 or t < -tn – 1, 1 – α/2
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

C) t >tn – 2, 1 – α or t < -tn – 2, 1 – α


D) t >tn – 2, 1 – α/2 or t < -tn – 2, 1 – α/2
E) t >tn – 3, 1 – α or t < -tn – 3, 1 – α

43. In simple linear regression, to test the hypothesis H0: β1 = 0 versus H1: β1 ≠ 0, with significance level α,
which of the following is the correct decision rule to reject H0 using F test?
A) F > F1, n – 1, 1 – α
B) F > F1, n – 2, 1 – α
C) F > F1, n – 3, 1 – α
D) F > F1, n – 4, 1 – α
E) F > F1, n – 5, 1 – α

44. In simple linear regression, which of the following is true if H0: β1 = 0 is not rejected

A) Assuming that we have made a type II error, although the relationship between X and Y may be
linear it is not strong enough for X to be of much value in predicting and estimating Y
B) Assuming that we have made a type II error, the relationship between X and Y is not linear. Some
curvilinear model provides a better fit to the data
C) Assuming that we have not made a type II error, The relationship is linear and sufficient strength to
justify the use of sample regression equation to predict and estimate Y for given value of X
D) Assuming that we have not made a type II error, There is a good fit of the data to a linear model, but
some curvilinear model might provide an even better fit
E) Assuming that we have not made a type II error, the relationship between X and Y is not linear. Some
curvilinear model provides a better fit to the data

45. In simple linear regression, which of the following is true if H0: β1 = 0 is rejected?

A) Assuming that we do not commit a type I error, the relationship is linear and sufficient strength to
justify the use of sample regression equation to predict and estimate Y for given value of X
B) Assuming that we do not commit a type I error, although the relationship between X and Y may be
linear it is not strong enough for X to be of much value in predicting and estimating Y
C) Assuming that we do not commit a type I error, the relationship between X and Y is not linear. Some
curvilinear model provides a better fit to the data
D) Assuming that we do commit a type I error, the relationship is linear and sufficient strength to justify
the use of sample regression equation to predict and estimate Y for given value of X
E) Assuming that we do commit a type I error, there is a good fit of the data to a linear model, but some
curvilinear model might provide an even better fit

46. One medical student wants to test a hypothesis that there is a score difference given from two
examiners during SOOCA examination in Faculty of Medicine, University of H (for one examination room
only).

If the assumptions for parametric test are not met, which of the following is the correct alternative test?
A) Friedman test
Tim Akademik ANANTARA 2015
DivisiSL (Soal Latihan)
FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

B) Kruskal – Wallis test


C) Wilcoxon sum-rank test
D) Wilcoxon signed-rank test
E) Kolmogorov – Smirnov test