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typical value for a probability distribution. It may also be called a centre or location of the

distribution. Colloquially, measures of central tendency are often called averages. The

The most common measures of central tendency are the arithmetic mean, the

median and the mode. A central tendency can be calculated for either a finite set of values

or for a theoretical distribution, such as the normal distribution. Occasionally authors use

central tendency to denote “the tendency of quantitative data to cluster around some

central value.”

variability, dispersion and central tendency are the often characterized properties of

distributions. Analysts may judge whether data has a strong or a weak central tendency

CONTENTS

Advantages

Median – Disadvantages 3

Problems 5-7

.

1

ARITHMETIC MEAN

“Statics is the science of average”

(Dr Bowly)

MEANING

Arithmetic mean is the most widely used and popular measure of central tendency,

which is based on all items of the central tendency, which is based on the all items of the

series.

Arithmetic mean is obtained by adding all items and dividing the total by total

number of items.

Therefore,

The number of values

ADVANTAGES OF MEAN

In the calculation of Arithmetic Mean every item of the series is taken into

account.

necessary.

sampling fluctuations.

2

DISADVANTAGES OF MEAN

In case of open end class interval we have to assume the limits of such intervals

and a little variation in (X) can take place. Such is not the case with median and

If the data are not symmetrically distributed, Arithmetic Mean does not represent

MEDIAN (M)

“ Median is the value of the middle item in an array.”

(J.R. Stockton and Clark)

MEANING

Median is the value of the middle item of a series when the series is

their size from the smallest to the largest and descending means arrange of value in

ADVANTAGES OD MEDIAN

It is useful in case of open end classes. It means if the extreme values are not

3

It can be determined easily in open end series and unequal class intervals. It can be

calculated graphically.

DIADNANTAGES OF MEDIAN

It is not based on all the observation of the series, hence may not be representative

many causes.

It is not capable to future algebraic treatment like mean, geometric mean and

harmonic mean.

It cannot be determined if the data are not arranged in proper from either ascending

or descending order.

At time, it produce a value which is never found in series and gives functional and

impracticable result.

4

MODE (Z)

Mode is the value which has greatest frequency density in its immediate

neighborhood.”

(A.M Tuttle)

MEANING

Mode may be defined as the value that occurs most frequently in a statistical

distribution. In French language “Mode” means “Fashion” around this value. There is high

concentration of the values. It is neither the central value nor the average value of total

ADVANTAGES OF MODE

Mode is the term that occurs must in the series . Hence, it is not an isolated value

like median.

series.

For open end intervals it is not necessary to known the length of open intervals.

With only just a single glance on data we can find it’s value, it is simplest.

DISADVANTAGES OF MODE

Mode is based only on concentrated value, other values are not taken in account.

If the number of term is too large, only then we can call it as vthe representative

value.

5

Mode is not so rigidly defined, solving the problem by different methods we would

It cannot be determined from a series of unequal class interval unless they are

PROBLEM

The following are the marks secured by students in their annual examination of

19 28 94 99 97 92 98 80 88 89

38 68 78 78 37 76 74 85 27 17

59 94 82 88 89 84 77 78 65 81

32 61 55 49 91 79 63 76 57 74

15 37 84 89 79 65 79 91 87 78

90 93 49 89 62 65 65 67 79 91

46 45 80 81 74 63 65 67 68 68

10-20 || 2

20-30 || 2

30-40 |||| 4

40-50 |||| 4

50-60 ||| 3

60-70 |||| |||| |||| 14

70-80 |||| |||| |||| 15

80-90 |||| |||| |||| 15

90-100 |||| |||| | 11

6

CALCULATION OF MEAN

X F M FM

10-20 2 15 30

20-30 2 25 50

30-40 4 35 140

40-50 4 45 180

50-60 3 55 155

60-70 14 65 910

70-80 15 75 1125

80-90 15 85 1275

90-100 11 95 1045

Total ∑70 ∑4915

∑f 70

CALCULATION OF MEDIAN

X F CF

10-20 2 2

20-30 2 4

30-40 4 8

40-50 4 12

50-60 3 15

60-70 14 29

70-80 15 44

80-90 15 59

90-100 11 70

TOTAL N=70

2

= 70 = 35th item

2

= 35th item represent 70–80

7

f

= 70 + 70/2-29 X 10

15

= 70 + 35-29 X 10

15

= 70 + 6 X 10

15

= 70 + 4 = 74

CALCULATION OF MODE

GROUPING TABLE

10-20 2

4

20-30 2 8

6 10

30-40 4

8 11

40-50 4

7 21

50-60 3

17 32

60-70 14

29

70-80 ⑮ 44

30 41

80-90 ⑮ 26

90-100 11

ANALYSIS TABLE

F √ √

1+2 √ √

2+3 √ √

1+2+3 √ √ √

2+3+4 √ √ √

3+4+5 √ √ √

TOTAL 0 0 0 0 1 3 6 4 1

Therefore,

Δ1+Δ2 1+0

8

CONCLUSION

Statics may be called as the science of average. The average is also called central value.

Thus average are the value which lie between 2 definite value and it is the reason that the values

Mean, Median and Mode are three statistical measures commonly used to summarize data

sets. They are known by the common name average. In its broadest sense, the average is simply

REFERANCE

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