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3.1 INTRODUCTION

The general form of a quadratic function is f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c ; a, b, c are constants and a ≠ 0

Quadratic Functions Quadratic Equations

General form is f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c General form is ax 2 + bx + c = 0

a, b, c are constants a, b, c are constants

x is independent variable while f ( x ) is x is unknown

dependent variable

The highest power of the x is 2 The highest power of the x is 2

Involves one variable only Involves one variable only

(i) f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 3 x − 4 is a quadratic function because the highest power of the x is 2 and Involves one

variable only.

(ii) f ( x ) = 3x + 2 is not a quadratic function because the highest power of the x is 1, not 2.

(iii) f ( x ) = 3 x 2 + 4 y − 2 is a not quadratic function because it involves two variables.

f : x → ax 2 + bx + c . f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c is actually the value (or image) f for a given value of x.

1. Do you know that a non-zero number when squared will be always positive.

2. So the minimum value of squared number is 0.

So, what is the minimum value when we find the square of a number?

Minimum value of x2 is 0.This is obtained when x = 0.

The minimum value of a squared number is

2

zero. When (........) = 0 , we would know

For example f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 − 4 . the minimum value for the function.

The minimum value for f ( x ) is − 4

when x − 1 = 0

x = 1.

Page | 30

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4

Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

the minimum value of x2 – 8 is 0 – 8 = – 8

the minimum value of x2+ 100 is 0 + 100 = 100

The minimum value of x2is 0,

It means x 2 ≥ 0 2

When (........) = 0 , we would know the

So,

minimum or maximum value for the

− x2 ≤ 0 function. The minimum value of a squared

Hence the maximum value of – x2 is 0 number is zero.

the maximum value of -x2+ 5 is -0 + 5=5

the maximum value of –x2– 3 is -0 + 3 =– 3.

2

The maximum value for f ( x ) is − 4 zero. When (........) = 0 , we would know

when x − 1 = 0 the minimum value for the function.

x = 1.

We can state the minimum value of a quadratic function in the form f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q , a > 0. From

that,

We can also state the Maximum Value of a Quadratic Function in the form

f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q , a < 0

Example 1:

Express f ( x) = x 2 − 3x − 4 in form f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q. Hence, find the coordinates of the turning point

of the graph.

The coordinates of the turning point means

f ( x) = x 2 − 3x − 4 the coordinates of the minimum of maximum

3 3 point for the function. For this question, it is

= x 2 − 3x + ( − ) 2 − ( − ) 2 − 4

2 2 minimum point because a > 0

3 9

= (x − )2 − − 4

2 4

3 25 This is in the form a (x + p)2 + q. The value

= (x − )2 −

2 4 of a is 1.

25

The minimum value for f ( x ) is −

4

3 3 25

when x − = 0 ( ,− )

2 2 4

3

x= f(x) is the value for y. This is because f(x) is

2

the y-axis.

the function has a minimum point.

If the value of a of a quadratic function is less than zero, then the

function has a maximum point.

Page | 31

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4

Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

Example 2:

Express f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 8 x − 14 in form f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q. Hence, find the coordinates of the turning

point of the graph.

The coordinates of the turning point means

2 the coordinates of the minimum of maximum

f ( x) = −2 x + 8 x − 14

point for the function. For this question, it is

= −2[ x 2 − 4 x + (−2) 2 − (−2) 2 + 7] maximum point because a < 0

= −2[( x − 2) 2 − 4 + 7]

= −2[( x − 2) 2 + 3] This is in the form a (x + p)2 + q. The value

= −2( x − 2) 2 − 6 of a is -2 which is less than 0.

The maximum value for f ( x ) = −6

when x − 2 = 0 ( 2, -6)

x=2

EXERCISE 3.2

1. State the minimum value of the following function and the corresponding value of x

(a) f ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 − 8

(b) g ( x ) = 2 x 2 + 5 x − 1

2. State the maximum value of the following function and the corresponding value of x

(a) f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + 4 x + 3

(b) g ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x − 5

3. Given that the minimum value of the quadratic function f ( x ) = 2 x 2 + px + q is 1 when x = −3 , find

the value of p and of q.

Page | 32

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4

Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

1. To express quadratic function f(x) = ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x+ p)2 + q, we have to use completing

the square that we have learned in chapter 2.

2. From the minimum point of a graph, we can know the equation of the axis of symmetry for the graph.

The equation is based on the value of x of the coordinates of the turning point.

3. If the turning point is (2,3), hence the equation of axis of symmetry is x = 2 .

Example 1:

f ( x) = x 2 a = 1, b = 0 and c = 0

x -2 -1 0 1 2

f(x) 4 1 0 1 4

sketch the graph

Example 2:

f ( x) = − x 2 a = − 1, b = 0 and c = 0

x -2 -1 0 1 2

f(x) -4 -1 0 -1 -4

sketch the graph.

Page | 33

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4

Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

Example 3:

Sketch the graph of f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 3 a = 1, b = − 4 and c = 3

f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 3

f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + (−2) 2 − (−2) 2 + 3

f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 2 − 4 + 3

f ( x) = ( x − 2) 2 − 1

when x − 2 = 0

x=2

Minimum point is (2,3).

x = 0,

f (0) = (0) 2 − 4(0) + 3

=3

The point is (0,3)

sketch the graph.

Example 4:

Express the function f ( x ) = 1 + 4 x − 2 x 2 in the form of a(x+ p)2 + q. Hence

(a) state the minimum or maximum point.

(b) the equation of axis 0f symmetry a = − 2, b = 4 and c = 1

1

f ( x) = −2( x 2 − 2 x − )

2

1

= −2[ x 2 − 2 x + (−1) 2 − (−1) 2 − ]

2

Page | 34

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4

Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

1

= −2[( x − 1) 2 − 1 − ]

2

1

= −2[( x − 1) 2 − 1 − ]

2

1

= −2[( x − 1) 2 − 1 − ]

2

3

= −2[( x − 1) 2 − ]

2

2

= −2[( x − 1) + 3

a < 0, so it is maximum value

The maximum value of f ( x ) = 3

when x − 1 = 0

x =1

So, the maximum point is (1, 3).

EXERCISE 3.3

1. Express the quadratic function y = x 2 − 12 x + 13 in the form of y = ( x + b) 2 + c . State the minimum

point and the y-intercept. Hence, sketch the graph of the function y.

2. Express the quadratic function f ( x ) = 2 − x 2 − 4 x in the form of f ( x ) = q − ( x + p ) 2 . Determine

the maximum point and the y-intercept. Hence, sketch the graph of the function f(x).

3. Given that the curve y = m − (2 x + n) 2 has a maximum point (1, 4), find the values of m and of n.

Hence, sketch the curve.

4. For the quadratic function g ( x ) = 2 x 2 − 3 x + 2 , find the equation of the axis of symmetry.

3.4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN “b2 – 4ac” AND THE POSITION OF GRAPH f(x)= y

1-If b 2 − 4ac > 0 ,the graph cuts x-axis at two different points

f(x) f(x)

x x

a>0 a<0

Page | 35

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4

Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

f(x) f(x)

a>0 a <0

1-If b 2 − 4ac < 0 ,the graph does not touch the x-axis

f(x) f(x)

a>0 a<0

Curve lies above the x-axis Curve lies below the x- axis

because f(x) is always positive. because f(x) is always negative

In Form Three, we have learned about linear inequalities. For example when x − 1 > 0 , x > 1 .

Example:

Given x − 1 > 0 . Find the range of values of x.

x −1 ≥ 0

x ≥1

•

1

From the line graph, we know the range of values of x.

Page | 36

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4

Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

To solve the quadratic inequality for example ( x + 1)( x − 3) > 0 , we use the graph sketching method.

f(x)

f(x)

Example 1:

Find the range of x if 4m 2 − 36 > 0

Solution:

4m 2 − 36 > 0

m2 − 9 > 0

Let

m2 − 9 = 0

m2 = 9

m = ±3

-3 3 m

Page | 37

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4

Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

Example 2:

Find the range of the values of k if the equation x 2 + 2kx − 5k − 6 = 0 has two real roots.

Solution:

two real roots also means two different roots:

b 2 − 4ac > 0

(2k ) 2 − 4(1)(−5k − 6) > 0

4k 2 − 4(−5k − 6) > 0

4k 2 + 20k + 24 > 0

k 2 + 5k + 6 > 0

Let

k 2 + 5k + 6 = 0

(k + 2)(k + 3) = 0

k + 2 = 0 or k + 3 = 0

k = −2 or k = −3

y = k 2 + 5k + 6

-3 -2 k

Example 3:

Find the range of the values of x for which if the equation x( x + 2) ≤ 15

Solution:

x( x + 2) ≤ 15

x 2 + 2 x − 15 ≤ 0

Let

x 2 + 2 x − 15 = 0

( x + 5)( x − 3) = 0

x + 5 = 0 or x − 3 = 0

k = −5 or x = 3

Page | 38

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4

Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

y

y = x 2 + 2 x − 15

-5 -2 x

EXERCISE 3.3

1. Find the range of values of x for each of the following inequalities.

(a) x( x + 1) < 20

(b) x 2 − 3x < 2 x

(c) x (7 − 5x ) > 2

2. Given that y = 2 x 2 + 3x , find the range of values of x for which y > 9.

3. Find the range of values of k given that x 2 + (k − 1) x + 2 + k = 0 has two different roots.

4. If the straight line y = k , where k is a constant, does not intersect the curve y = 2 x 2 − 6 x + 5 , show

1

that k < .

2

1 5

1. The graph of the function f ( x ) = p − 2(q − x )2 has a maximum point at , − . Find the value

2 2

of p and q.

2. Given the quadratic function y = −2 x 2 + 6 x − 3 , express f(x) in the form p( x + q) 2 + r , where p, q

and r are constants. Hence, sketch the graph of the function y.

3 Given that the straight line y = 2 x − n cuts the curve y = x 2 + nx − 2 at two points, find the range of

the values of n.

4. The quadratic equation px 2 − 4 x = p − 5 , where p ≠ 0 , has real and different roots. Find the range

of values of p.

5. By expressing the function f ( x ) = 3 x 2 − 6 x + 5 in the form a( x − p) 2 + q , or otherwise, find the

minimum value of f(x).

6. Given that the quadratic function f ( x ) = px 2 + 4 x − q , where p and q are constants .Given that the

curve y = f ( x ) has a maximum point (-1, 5).State the values of p and q.

Page | 39

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4

Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

7. Diagram shows the graph of a quadratic function y = f ( x ) . The straight line y = − 9 is tangent to

the curve y = f ( x ) .

y

0 1 7 x

y = −9

(b) Express f(x) in the form ( x + p ) 2 + q , where p and q are constants.

x

0

−2

y = ( p − 1) x 2 + 2 x + q

(b) Find the range of values of p.

9. Find the range of values of k given that the straight line x + y = 1 does not intersect the curve

x2 + y2 = k .

Page | 40

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