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# Additional Mathematics Module Form 4

## Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

3.1 INTRODUCTION
The general form of a quadratic function is f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c ; a, b, c are constants and a ≠ 0

General form is f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c General form is ax 2 + bx + c = 0
a, b, c are constants a, b, c are constants
x is independent variable while f ( x ) is x is unknown
dependent variable
The highest power of the x is 2 The highest power of the x is 2
Involves one variable only Involves one variable only

## 3.1.1 Recognizing a quadratic function

(i) f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 3 x − 4 is a quadratic function because the highest power of the x is 2 and Involves one
variable only.
(ii) f ( x ) = 3x + 2 is not a quadratic function because the highest power of the x is 1, not 2.
(iii) f ( x ) = 3 x 2 + 4 y − 2 is a not quadratic function because it involves two variables.

## * Note: The proper way to denote a quadratic function is

f : x → ax 2 + bx + c . f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c is actually the value (or image) f for a given value of x.

## 3.2 MINIMUM VALUE AND MAXIMUM VALUE OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION

1. Do you know that a non-zero number when squared will be always positive.
2. So the minimum value of squared number is 0.

So, what is the minimum value when we find the square of a number?
Minimum value of x2 is 0.This is obtained when x = 0.
The minimum value of a squared number is
2
zero. When (........) = 0 , we would know
For example f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 − 4 . the minimum value for the function.
The minimum value for f ( x ) is − 4
when x − 1 = 0
x = 1.

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Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

## The minimum value of x2+ 3 is 0 + 3 = 3

the minimum value of x2 – 8 is 0 – 8 = – 8
the minimum value of x2+ 100 is 0 + 100 = 100
The minimum value of x2is 0,
It means x 2 ≥ 0 2
When (........) = 0 , we would know the
So,
minimum or maximum value for the
− x2 ≤ 0 function. The minimum value of a squared
Hence the maximum value of – x2 is 0 number is zero.
the maximum value of -x2+ 5 is -0 + 5=5
the maximum value of –x2– 3 is -0 + 3 =– 3.

## For example f ( x ) = −( x − 1) 2 − 4 . The minimum value of a squared number is

2
The maximum value for f ( x ) is − 4 zero. When (........) = 0 , we would know
when x − 1 = 0 the minimum value for the function.
x = 1.

We can state the minimum value of a quadratic function in the form f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q , a > 0. From
that,
We can also state the Maximum Value of a Quadratic Function in the form
f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q , a < 0

Example 1:
Express f ( x) = x 2 − 3x − 4 in form f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q. Hence, find the coordinates of the turning point
of the graph.
The coordinates of the turning point means
f ( x) = x 2 − 3x − 4 the coordinates of the minimum of maximum
3 3 point for the function. For this question, it is
= x 2 − 3x + ( − ) 2 − ( − ) 2 − 4
2 2 minimum point because a > 0
3 9
= (x − )2 − − 4
2 4
3 25 This is in the form a (x + p)2 + q. The value
= (x − )2 −
2 4 of a is 1.
25
The minimum value for f ( x ) is −
4
3 3 25
when x − = 0 ( ,− )
2 2 4
3
x= f(x) is the value for y. This is because f(x) is
2
the y-axis.

## If the value of a of a quadratic function is greater than zero, then

the function has a minimum point.
If the value of a of a quadratic function is less than zero, then the
function has a maximum point.
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Example 2:
Express f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 8 x − 14 in form f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q. Hence, find the coordinates of the turning
point of the graph.
The coordinates of the turning point means
2 the coordinates of the minimum of maximum
f ( x) = −2 x + 8 x − 14
point for the function. For this question, it is
= −2[ x 2 − 4 x + (−2) 2 − (−2) 2 + 7] maximum point because a < 0
= −2[( x − 2) 2 − 4 + 7]
= −2[( x − 2) 2 + 3] This is in the form a (x + p)2 + q. The value
= −2( x − 2) 2 − 6 of a is -2 which is less than 0.
The maximum value for f ( x ) = −6
when x − 2 = 0 ( 2, -6)
x=2

EXERCISE 3.2
1. State the minimum value of the following function and the corresponding value of x
(a) f ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 − 8
(b) g ( x ) = 2 x 2 + 5 x − 1
2. State the maximum value of the following function and the corresponding value of x
(a) f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + 4 x + 3
(b) g ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x − 5
3. Given that the minimum value of the quadratic function f ( x ) = 2 x 2 + px + q is 1 when x = −3 , find
the value of p and of q.

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## 3.3 GRAPH OF QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS

1. To express quadratic function f(x) = ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x+ p)2 + q, we have to use completing
the square that we have learned in chapter 2.
2. From the minimum point of a graph, we can know the equation of the axis of symmetry for the graph.
The equation is based on the value of x of the coordinates of the turning point.
3. If the turning point is (2,3), hence the equation of axis of symmetry is x = 2 .

## 3.3.1 Basic Equation of quadratic function and its graph

Example 1:
f ( x) = x 2 a = 1, b = 0 and c = 0

x -2 -1 0 1 2
f(x) 4 1 0 1 4

## By using the information given,

sketch the graph

Example 2:
f ( x) = − x 2 a = − 1, b = 0 and c = 0

x -2 -1 0 1 2
f(x) -4 -1 0 -1 -4

## By using the information given,

sketch the graph.

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Example 3:
Sketch the graph of f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 3 a = 1, b = − 4 and c = 3

f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 3
f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + (−2) 2 − (−2) 2 + 3
f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 2 − 4 + 3
f ( x) = ( x − 2) 2 − 1

## The minimum value of f ( x ) = 3

when x − 2 = 0
x=2
Minimum point is (2,3).

x = 0,
f (0) = (0) 2 − 4(0) + 3
=3
The point is (0,3)

## By using the information given,

sketch the graph.

Example 4:
Express the function f ( x ) = 1 + 4 x − 2 x 2 in the form of a(x+ p)2 + q. Hence
(a) state the minimum or maximum point.
(b) the equation of axis 0f symmetry a = − 2, b = 4 and c = 1

1
f ( x) = −2( x 2 − 2 x − )
2
1
= −2[ x 2 − 2 x + (−1) 2 − (−1) 2 − ]
2

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Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

1
= −2[( x − 1) 2 − 1 − ]
2
1
= −2[( x − 1) 2 − 1 − ]
2
1
= −2[( x − 1) 2 − 1 − ]
2
3
= −2[( x − 1) 2 − ]
2
2
= −2[( x − 1) + 3
a < 0, so it is maximum value
The maximum value of f ( x ) = 3
when x − 1 = 0
x =1
So, the maximum point is (1, 3).

## The equation of axis of symmetry is x = 1 .

EXERCISE 3.3
1. Express the quadratic function y = x 2 − 12 x + 13 in the form of y = ( x + b) 2 + c . State the minimum
point and the y-intercept. Hence, sketch the graph of the function y.
2. Express the quadratic function f ( x ) = 2 − x 2 − 4 x in the form of f ( x ) = q − ( x + p ) 2 . Determine
the maximum point and the y-intercept. Hence, sketch the graph of the function f(x).
3. Given that the curve y = m − (2 x + n) 2 has a maximum point (1, 4), find the values of m and of n.
Hence, sketch the curve.
4. For the quadratic function g ( x ) = 2 x 2 − 3 x + 2 , find the equation of the axis of symmetry.

3.4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN “b2 – 4ac” AND THE POSITION OF GRAPH f(x)= y

1-If b 2 − 4ac > 0 ,the graph cuts x-axis at two different points
f(x) f(x)

x x

a>0 a<0

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Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

## 1-If b 2 − 4ac = 0 ,the graph touches the x-axis

f(x) f(x)

a>0 a <0

1-If b 2 − 4ac < 0 ,the graph does not touch the x-axis
f(x) f(x)

a>0 a<0

Curve lies above the x-axis Curve lies below the x- axis
because f(x) is always positive. because f(x) is always negative

In Form Three, we have learned about linear inequalities. For example when x − 1 > 0 , x > 1 .

Example:
Given x − 1 > 0 . Find the range of values of x.
x −1 ≥ 0
x ≥1

1
From the line graph, we know the range of values of x.

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Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

To solve the quadratic inequality for example ( x + 1)( x − 3) > 0 , we use the graph sketching method.

f(x)

## If f(x) < 0, the range of values of x:

f(x)

Example 1:
Find the range of x if 4m 2 − 36 > 0

Solution:
4m 2 − 36 > 0
m2 − 9 > 0

Let
m2 − 9 = 0
m2 = 9
m = ±3

-3 3 m

## If m 2 − 9 > 0 , the range of values of m is m < −3 , m > 3 .

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Example 2:
Find the range of the values of k if the equation x 2 + 2kx − 5k − 6 = 0 has two real roots.

Solution:
two real roots also means two different roots:
b 2 − 4ac > 0
(2k ) 2 − 4(1)(−5k − 6) > 0
4k 2 − 4(−5k − 6) > 0
4k 2 + 20k + 24 > 0
k 2 + 5k + 6 > 0
Let
k 2 + 5k + 6 = 0
(k + 2)(k + 3) = 0
k + 2 = 0 or k + 3 = 0
k = −2 or k = −3

y = k 2 + 5k + 6

-3 -2 k

## If k 2 + 5k + 6 > 0 , the range of values of k is k < −3 , k > −2 .

Example 3:
Find the range of the values of x for which if the equation x( x + 2) ≤ 15

Solution:
x( x + 2) ≤ 15
x 2 + 2 x − 15 ≤ 0
Let
x 2 + 2 x − 15 = 0
( x + 5)( x − 3) = 0
x + 5 = 0 or x − 3 = 0
k = −5 or x = 3

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Chapter 3- Quadratic Functions SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

y
y = x 2 + 2 x − 15

-5 -2 x

## If x 2 + 2 x − 15 ≤ 0 , the range of values of x is − 5 ≤ x ≤ 3 .

EXERCISE 3.3
1. Find the range of values of x for each of the following inequalities.
(a) x( x + 1) < 20
(b) x 2 − 3x < 2 x
(c) x (7 − 5x ) > 2
2. Given that y = 2 x 2 + 3x , find the range of values of x for which y > 9.
3. Find the range of values of k given that x 2 + (k − 1) x + 2 + k = 0 has two different roots.
4. If the straight line y = k , where k is a constant, does not intersect the curve y = 2 x 2 − 6 x + 5 , show
1
that k < .
2

## CHAPTER REVIEW EXERCISE

1 5
1. The graph of the function f ( x ) = p − 2(q − x )2 has a maximum point at  , −  . Find the value
2 2
of p and q.
2. Given the quadratic function y = −2 x 2 + 6 x − 3 , express f(x) in the form p( x + q) 2 + r , where p, q
and r are constants. Hence, sketch the graph of the function y.
3 Given that the straight line y = 2 x − n cuts the curve y = x 2 + nx − 2 at two points, find the range of
the values of n.
4. The quadratic equation px 2 − 4 x = p − 5 , where p ≠ 0 , has real and different roots. Find the range
of values of p.
5. By expressing the function f ( x ) = 3 x 2 − 6 x + 5 in the form a( x − p) 2 + q , or otherwise, find the
minimum value of f(x).
6. Given that the quadratic function f ( x ) = px 2 + 4 x − q , where p and q are constants .Given that the
curve y = f ( x ) has a maximum point (-1, 5).State the values of p and q.

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7. Diagram shows the graph of a quadratic function y = f ( x ) . The straight line y = − 9 is tangent to
the curve y = f ( x ) .
y

0 1 7 x

y = −9

## (a) Write the equation of the axis of symmetry of the curve.

(b) Express f(x) in the form ( x + p ) 2 + q , where p and q are constants.

## 8. Diagram below shows the graph of the function y = ( p − 1) x 2 + 2 x + q .

x
0
−2

y = ( p − 1) x 2 + 2 x + q

## (a) State the value of q.

(b) Find the range of values of p.

9. Find the range of values of k given that the straight line x + y = 1 does not intersect the curve
x2 + y2 = k .

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