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Civil Engineering

Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018

■■ China’sunique woven timber arch bridges

■■ Using building information modelling for planning a high-speed rail project in Norway

■■ A new, more efficient waterwheel design for very-low-head hydropower schemes

■■ Three-dimensional modelling for seismic assessment of plain concrete arch bridges
ISSN 0965 089 X
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Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers

Civil Engineering
Volume 171  Issue CE3  August 2018

CONTENTS  August 2018

Civil Engineering Contact Information

Simon Fullalove
tel: +44 20 7665 2448
Journals Manager:
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tel: +44 20 7665 2242
EDITORIAL General manager, ICE Publishing:
Mike Cookson
BRIEFING Steve Jackson, Structural Promotions Ltd.
12 Lawrance Way, Bourne,
Lincolnshire PE10 0HU, UK
Civil engineers need to start gearing up now for an electric vehicle future 99 tel: +44 1778 420 857
fax: +44 1778 424 771
Using robots to help close the gap between designing and making 100 email:
Helping civil engineers to realise the benefits of off-site construction 101 Published by
ICE Publishing
Updated online technical advice service for humanitarian engineers used for One Great George Street,Westminster
Nepal project 102 SW1P 3AA, UK

MONITOR ICE Publishing is a division of Thomas

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the Institution of Civil Engineers
Books 104 Production editing by Paul Allanson
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TECHNICAL PAPERS Using fibre sourced from responsibly
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China’s unique woven timber arch bridges ISSN 0965-089X (Print)

1751‑7672 (Online)
H. Zhou, J. Leng, M. Zhou, Q. Chun, M. F. Hassanein and W. Zhong 115 © The authors and the Institution of Civil
Engineers, 2018
Using building information modelling for planning a high-speed rail project Available online at
in Norway
M. Tveit and K. Gjerde 121 Subscription Information
Subscription enquiries and notification of
A new, more efficient waterwheel design for very-low-head hydropower change of address should be sent to the
schemes Customer Services department,
ICE Publishing,
D. R. Carruthers, P. Carruthers and R. Wade 129 One Great George Street, Westminster
Three-dimensional modelling for seismic assessment of plain concrete arch tel: +44 20 7665 2460
fax: +44 20 7537 2529
bridges email:
A. Mahmoudi Moazam, N. Hasani and M. Yazdani 135 Civil Engineering, 4 issues per year
(plus two special issues)
2018 subscription price:
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UK £206; EU £234; Elsewhere £254
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PAGE 118 PAGE 128 PAGE 131 PAGE 138 of changes of address should be sent to
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Chairman Philippe Bouillard, BSc, MSc, PhD, Hab, MICE, FAUA, Sebastian Lewandowski, Highways England, Birmingham, UK
Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium Eva Linnell, MEng, CEng, MICE, Atkins, Bristol, UK
David Atherton, BSc, MSc, CEng, CGeol, FICE, FIMMM, FCIWEM, MCIWM, FGS, Andrew Martin, BEng, MSt, CEng, MICE, MIStructE, COWI A/S, The papers and articles express the
Peter Brett Associates, Reading, UK Kongens Lyngby, Denmark opinions of the authors, and do not
Yancheng Cai,BEng, MEng, PhD, MIASS, MICE, CEng, The University of Mike Napier, BSc, ACGI, CEng, FICE, FIoD, FCIHT, Costain, Maidenhead, UK necessarily reflect the views of the ICE,
Hong Kong, Hong Kong, PR China David Oloke, Progressive Concept Consultancy Ltd, Walsall, UK TTL, or the Editorial Panel. Papers are
John J. Carroll, BEng, CEng, FICE, Independent Consultant, Liverpool, UK Neil Owen, BSc, CEng, MICE, Independent Consultant, formally refereed by the editorial panel
John Clifton, BSc, CEng, CEnv, FICE, FCIHT, MCMI, Independent Birmingham, UK whereas, to ensure topicality, Briefing
Consultant, Santa Barbara de Nexe, Portugal Priti Parikh, PhD, CEng, MICE, FRSA, University College London, UK articles are not refereed.
Ben Cogswell, CEng, MICE, MCIHT, AECOM, Bahrain John Porter, CEng, FICE, FHKIE, MASCE, MAPM, Continental
Ian Finlay, Quantum Global Solutions, Dubai, United Arab Engineering Corporation, Taiwan Civil Engineering is indexed in the
Emirates Jamie T. Radford, MA, MEng, Mott MacDonald, Cambridge, UK Science Citation Index Expanded
Veronica Flint Williams, BEng, CEng, FICE, MAPM, Environment Colin Rawlings, BSc, DIC, MSc, CEng, MICE, MASCE, CGeol, FGS, CH2M/HS2
Agency, Leeds, UK Ltd, London, UK
Amrit Ghose, BA, BAI, MSc, CEng, CEnv, FICE, FCIHT, Waterman Stuart Ross, MEng, CEng, MICE, MCIArb, LLM, Arup, London, UK
Infrastructure & Environment Ltd, Redhill, UK P. J. Rudden, RPS Group, Killiney, Republic of Ireland
Nick Gorst, BEng, PhD, CEng, MICE, PIEMA, British Precast, Leicester, UK Alpa Sheth, VMS Consultants Pvt, Ltd, Mumbai, India
David Hobson, HS2 Ltd, Birmingham UK Andy Simpson, MEng(Hons), CEng, MICE, Andrew Waring
Jeder Hseih, PhD, Continental Engineering Corporation, Associates, Romsey, UK
Taipei, Taiwan Alessandra Villa, CEng, MICE, Dott. Ing., Arup, London, UK

The Editorial Panel is presently looking for new contractor, digital expert and female members to start in November 2018.
Interested Members, Fellows and non-Members should e-mail their CV to 97
Civil Engineering Editorial
Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018 Lewandowski
ICE Publishing: All rights reserved

EDITORIAL  August 2018

Sebastian Lewandowski MSc, CEng, MICE
Highways England, Birmingham, UK

Welcome to the August 2018 issue of Civil Engineering. The final paper takes us back to the topic of challenges of
As I write this editorial, I am back in my hometown of protection and preservation of existing structures. Iran remains
Toruń, Poland, which managed to preserve its medieval spatial one of the most seismically active countries in the world. You
layout and architecture remarkably well. As I walked down the may remember news about the tragic earthquake in 2017
narrow streets surrounded by brick buildings, I came to the near the Iran–Iraq border that damaged more than 500
realisation that it is also down to us, as engineers, to preserve villages in the region.
our cultural heritage – especially in times of numerous Mahmoudi Moazam et al. (2018) look at computer
ongoing major developments. modelling methods to understand behaviour of plain concrete
It is our responsibility to celebrate, learn from and improve arch bridges under seismic loading to keep Iran’s century-old
upon successes of our predecessors. Papers in this issue touch railway infrastructure safe and operational.
on some of these aspects. I hope that the wide spectrum of topics covered in this issue
Considering China’s rapid economic growth and accelerated will mean you will find something of interest, irrespective of
urbanisation, I am particularly pleased to present the first your engineering specialism. Let us not forget that what we
paper. Zhou et al. (2018) describe the genealogy of woven build today forms part of our heritage for the generations of
timber arch bridges. The authors help us to understand this tomorrow.
almost 1000-year-old concept and describe methods used in Remember too that you can access our most recent articles
construction. Ahead of Print through the ICE Virtual Library at www.
They conclude by giving an overview of what is being done
today to preserve these truly unique timber structures. You
may also be interested in a previously published paper by
Zhong et al. (2017) on a related topic – the world’s oldest References
wooden pagoda.
Two authors from Norway contribute our second paper, Carruthers DR, Carruthers P and Wade R (2018) A new, more efficient
which is about the initial stages of what will likely become our waterwheel design for very-low-head hydropower schemes. Proceedings
of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering 171(3): 129–134,
generation’s legacy – high-speed rail. In parallel with the UK’s
development of the 530 km HS2 project, Norway is planning
Mahmoudi Moazam A, Hasani N and Yazdani M (2018) Three-dimensional
to deliver 270 km of new high-speed rail by 2034. Tveit and modelling for seismic assessment of plain concrete arch bridges.
Gjerde (2018) describe the approach taken to deliver the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering 171(3):
master plan for the Sorli-to-Brumunddal section. 135–143,
More specifically, they explain how building information Tveit M and Gjerde K (2018) Using building information modelling for
modelling allowed smooth flow of information and brought planning a high-speed rail project in Norway. Proceedings of the
Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering 171(3): 121–128, https://
together teams from across different regions to allow
collaborative delivery to a demanding timescale while meeting
Zhong J, Wang L, Li Y and Zhou M (2017) Solving the mystery of China’s
numerous project challenges. thousand-year-old wooden pagoda. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil
We then move on to a paper on renewable energy – but Engineers – Civil Engineering 170(4): 169–173,
unusually it is about improvements to concepts that have been jcien.16.00034.
around for centuries. Carruthers et al. (2018) explain how a Zhou H, Leng J, Zhou M et al. (2018) China’s unique woven timber
newly developed waterwheel design differs from traditional arch bridges. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil
ones. Engineering 171(3): 115–120,

The authors describe the unique design’s numerous CALL FOR PAPERS: Civil Engineering relies entirely on material contributed by
advantages in the context of water volume, speed and civil engineers and related professionals. Illustrated articles of 600 words and
papers of 2000 to 3500 words are welcome on any relevant civil engineering
depth, based on a prototype they built and tested at Abertay topic that meets the journal’s aims of providing a source of reference material,
University in Scotland. promoting best practice and broadening civil engineers’ knowledge, Please
contact the editor for further information

Civil Engineering Civil engineers need to start gearing up now for an electric vehicle future
Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018 Evans
ICE Publishing: All rights reserved

BRIEFING Transport

Civil engineers need to start gearing up

now for an electric vehicle future
Chris Evans of Rolton Group says civil engineers need a cohesive strategy to cope with the
transport and energy infrastructure demands likely to result from a surge in electric vehicle use
within the next 7 years.

The UK government’s commitment to energy supply on specific sites and go

ban solely petrol and diesel car sales towards meeting environmental targets.
by 2040 means the clock is ticking
for transport and energy engineers to Vehicle-to-grid solutions
ensure the nation’s infrastructure is
ready for electric vehicles (EVs). There is even the possibility of
However, EV uptake could be EV batteries being combined in
much quicker both in the UK and vehicle-to-grid solutions to provide
worldwide, with EV batteries and grid-balancing services, with
internal combustion engine costs set the UK government committing
to reach commercial parity as early as £30 million to developing such ‘V2G’
2020. Nissan estimates that EV prices The UK now has 12 000 EV charging points
technologies. With US$90 billion
will draw level with conventional cars by global investment in EV research
2025 (Campbell, 2018). and development, many countries
Society could therefore be facing have the opportunity to progress
a widespread uptake of EVs in the 2017). It is even predicted that EV commercial growth and academic
next 7 years, with a potential major charging will create a new peak hour, prowess (Lienert, 2018).
impact on transport and energy with UK demand rising by as much as Priority must however be given to
infrastructure. 8 GW by 2030. strengthening energy infrastructure,
Although the grid theoretically has which is already struggling to adjust
Charging demands the capacity to meet the predicted to the integration of renewable
demands, higher EV uptake in generation schemes. Transport, energy
In the UK, the government certain areas combined with a lack and communications networks are
is investing £400 million in EV of infrastructure investment has the becoming inextricably linked and a
infrastructure. Together with the many potential to create significant local cohesive strategy to deliver a robust
private companies entering the market, challenges, including partial blackouts. and future-proof energy infrastructure
this has led to more than 12 000 EV will be vital to meet society’s evolving
charging points being installed and the Significant opportunities transport needs.
network continues to grow.
However, there is no cohesive Despite such challenges, the rising References
national strategy for EV charging, popularity of EVs presents the UK
resulting in many different facilities and and other nations with significant Campbell P (2018) Nissan sees 2025 as turning
point for electric cars. Financial Times, 18
some locations remaining poorly served. opportunities. February. See
The mainstream shift from fuel tanks Regulatory changes could reduce 1326-11e8-940e-08320fc2a277 (accessed
to batteries will be a huge international the risk of power demands exceeding 30/05/2018).
Lienert P (2018) Global carmakers to invest
challenge. Transport has largely been availability through smart EV charging, at least $90 billion in electric vehicles.
powered by burning large volumes of enabling distribution network operators Reuters, 15 January. See
petrol and diesel, which will eventually to ensure charging is off-peak. article/us-autoshow-detroit-electric/global-
be taken as electricity from the grid – an Reducing the legislative restrictions on electric-vehicles-idUSKBN1F42NW (accessed
immense change in capacity and load network operators would also facilitate 30/05/2018).
Ward V (2017) Don’t boil the kettle while
profile demands. investment the grid desperately needs. charging your electric car because it will blow
As more owners plug in EVs, the UK’s Moreover, facilitating off-grid the fuse, National Grid warns. The Telegraph,
National Grid has warned people they renewable power supply and storage 21 August. See
may have to choose between boiling solutions would meet EV power electric-car-will-blow-fuse-national/ (accessed
a kettle or charging their car (Ward, requirements (at least in part), secure 30/05/2018).

For further information please contact: Jenny Baker Tel: +44 1933 414566 Email: Web:

Civil Engineering Using robots to help close the gap between designing and making
Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018 Watts
ICE Publishing: All rights reserved

BRIEFING Technology

Using robots to help close the gap between

designing and making
The construction industry’s approach to design for manufacture and assembly is to use remote
off-site factories. Andrew Watts of Newtecnic says greater use of robotics and local, flexible
‘construction laboratories’ is a better way.

The conventional approach to design

for manufacture and assembly (DfMA)
in construction is to design standard
components and then have them made
in remote factories to be delivered and
assembled on-site.
However, the opportunity now
exists for the construction industry to
deploy the very latest technology and
take a lead in manufacturing using
local ‘construction laboratories’. These
temporary factories would employ local
skilled craftspeople, use locally sourced
materials and deploy very advanced
production machinery to achieve mass
Unlike single-purpose DfMA factories
The new KAFD metro station facade in Riyadh will be maintained by people, cobots and drones
that require years of operation to turn
a profit, small, flexible and efficient
manufacturing cells are easy to scale These will feed data back to the There will be a construction
through the building cycle. This means building’s cloud-hosted digital twin. laboratory on-site using additive
that the right equipment will always be High-resolution building and system manufacturing to make replacement
available to match current needs. performance data will then be shared facade panels from the latest
Furthermore, as construction and with, and coupled to, the on-site materials. And each new component
maintenance robots become more construction laboratory equipped will fit perfectly because it is developed
advanced, they will increasingly interact with three-dimensional printers which from data collected using lidar scans
with the construction laboratories: fabricate components that perfectly fit from the as-built structure.
generating, checking, moving and the structure.
installing both new and replacement New methods reduce risk
building parts. Metro facade project
Industry players and stakeholders
Robot-friendly design A recent example is the Zaha are perhaps mistaken in the belief that
Hadid-designed facade of the King new methods and technologies present
Projects that Newtecnic is currently Abdullah Financial District (KAFD) increased risk. In fact, the opposite is
engineering are planned to deploy metro station in Saudi Arabia, part true because by using technology it is
construction laboratories from the of the US$22·5 billion Riyadh metro possible to reduce risk while creating
earliest stages of construction. They are project due for completion in 2021 more imaginatively conceived buildings
also being designed with future robotics (see figure). at lower cost that use less energy, are
in mind. We have engineered the concrete more durable and look better.
For example, we anticipate that composite facade as a modular cassette They also take less time to make and,
inspection, monitoring and precise system suitable for future robot access, on completion, appear effortless. This
measurement of normally concealed maintenance and replacement. It is seemingly impossible list of advantages
areas behind panels and within a envisaged that people and cobots will has been proven across the world where,
completed building’s fabric will be work together cleaning, maintaining in partnerships with developers, architects
executed by small flying drones and and updating the facade over the next and engineers, collaboration over data
robots equipped with lidar and cameras. 60 years. reveals absolute truths about buildings.

For further information please contact: Andrew Watts Tel: +44 7962 550970 Email: Web:

Civil Engineering Helping civil engineers to realise the benefits of off-site construction
Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018 White and Mather
ICE Publishing: All rights reserved


Helping civil engineers to realise the

benefits of off-site construction
In 2019, UK government departments will favour bids for construction contracts that offer off-
site manufacturing. Gavin White and Andrew Mather of Ramboll offer guidance to civil engineers
on how to make projects ‘off-site ready’.

Off-site construction encompasses a Alongside technical analysis, the overall

huge range of disciplines and systems – approaches to off-site construction were
from factory-made concrete, steel and also assessed, including procurement,
cross-laminated timber components to building information modelling (BIM)
facade units complete with windows and and design collaboration, to highlight
balconies, fully fitted volumetric building opportunities for further value. This
modules and modular plant rooms. was compared with industry peers in
However, understanding the off-site the project’s off-site-ready score, with
benefits for a particular project can be benchmarks and further details for how
challenging – and only realised through to maximise value.
a coordinated and detailed approach.
While knowledge of off-site construction Lifting in an off-site-manufactured floor Conclusion
has been developing in the industry for plank at 250 City Road, London
a number of years, it remains a diverse Construction is changing, with higher
and fragmented market. standards expected and improvements in
At Ramboll we believe that realising delivery time of 50% demanded by the
the benefits of off-site manufacturing Off-site reviews UK government in its Construction 2025
for a particular project requires a project- industrial strategy (HMG, 2013). The
specific, holistic review based on important Understanding constraints and housing shortage fuels the need for
lessons learned over the past decade. involving all disciplines are the basis change, while regulation and industry
of Ramboll’s project-specific ‘off-site adoption of BIM create opportunities for
Understanding constraints reviews’ that are now being offered data-driven construction techniques.
free online. These are in-depth holistic Off-site construction and digital
Off-site construction will only deliver reviews to find the right off-site systems design are well placed to deliver in this
value if its constraints are fully understood for a project, and culminate in a score space. Indeed, in last year’s Autumn
and lead the design approach. These for how ‘off-site ready’ the project Budget, chancellor Philip Hammond
constraints can be of manufacture, is. This provides an immediate and said government departments will,
handling, transportation, lifting or comparable indication of the relative ‘adopt a presumption in favour of offsite
installation, as well as project site-specific merits of different techniques. construction by 2019’ (HM Treasury,
criteria. Each part is important and should A recent example application is the 2017: section 5.2.1).
not be overlooked to avoid expensive Victoria Quarter in Ashford, Kent. This Market-leading developers and new
bespoke solutions late in the project. residential development by Neighbour disruptors alike are already targeting
The constraints of off-site consists of seven buildings of six to the off-site market – the rest of the
construction must also be considered seven storeys, with the majority of flat construction industry now needs to
holistically by all engineering disciplines. layouts being standardised. keep up.
Fire, acoustics, daylight assessments, Taking into account the client’s
energy performance, sustainability aims for the site and key drivers, we References
criteria, facade details and more used digital tools linked to our off-site
must all be developed closely with technical database to undertake rapid HMG (Her Majesty’s Government) (2013)
Construction 2025 – Industrial Strategy:
the architectural, structural, and option assessment of the building Government and Industry in Partnership. HM
mechanical, electrical and plumbing forms for the site, ranging from in situ Government, London, UK. See
(MEP) designs from a very early stage. concrete floors, walls and columns strategy (accessed 30/05/2018).
Furthermore, the technical design to fully fitted steel-frame modules. A HM Treasury (2017) Autumn Budget 2017. HM
must align with the procurement, cash master-planning tool then determined Treasury, London, UK. See
flow, supplier availability and client’s the off-site approaches that best aligned documents/autumn-budget-2017 (accessed
funding mechanism. with the client’s needs. 30/05/2018).

For further information please contact: Gavin White Tel: +44 7584 632 555 Email: Web:

Civil Engineering Updated online technical advice service for
Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018 humanitarian engineers used for Nepal project
ICE Publishing: All rights reserved

BRIEFING  Humanitarian engineering

Updated online technical advice service for

humanitarian engineers used for Nepal project
Cherry Franklin of RedR UK explains how the recently upgraded KnowledgePoint online advice
service for humanitarian engineers was used to support projects in post-earthquake Nepal.

In 2012, humanitarian charities means access is now possible in low- and the funders had a query about the
RedR UK, WaterAid, IRC Wash and bandwidth field conditions. The platform cost of laying a water pipe underground. I
Practical Action joined forces to also has an improved user experience was concerned about the maintenance
develop KnowledgePoint (www. and increased data security, and makes issues of keeping the pipe above ground, an online innovative use of gaming technology. and wanted to get a second opinion and
question-and-answer platform. It some practical, technical experience from
aims to give engineers and other Water supply in Nepal people in the field.
humanitarian workers in the field access ‘I received two answers to my question
to free and fast expert advice. One of the first humanitarian on KnowledgePoint, one of which was
In the past 6 years the platform has engineers to take advantage of the from a national technical expert, who was
gained over 136 000 users across 183 upgraded system was Lisa Varey, able to give me context-specific advice
countries. It now has a global network principal engineer at Westlakes based on a practical understanding of
of more than 150 technical experts Engineering in the UK, while working in the area. The information that I received
answering questions on topics ranging November last year to support a post- gave me the confidence to go back to the
from public health to security and earthquake project in Nepal. The aim of funders with a recommendation about
logistics. Experts must have at least the project was to build a water supply in laying the pipe underground and allowed
10 years of experience in their chosen Arguhat, a small rural community in the us to move forward with the project’ (see
specialism and demonstrate they are Gorkha region of Nepal, which had been Varey, 2017).
recognised within their field of expertise. badly affected by the 2015 earthquake. Lisa’s decision helped to reduce the
Humanitarian engineers often work Varey explains how she was quickly likely maintenance costs to the Arguhat
in remote locations with restricted able to get advice from local experts on community, increasing the potential
access to high-speed internet. A recent KnowledgePoint to help her design the life-span of the pipeline and making the
upgrade to the platform, funded by water supply project. ‘There had been a project more sustainable. Bassenthwaite
Elhra’s humanitarian innovation fund, design prepared in Nepal for the project Rotary Club is now in the process of
raising funds with the aim of completing
the water supply project during 2018.

Contextual understanding
Humanitarian engineers save countless
lives in emergencies by working in the
field to provide clean water, set up
shelters, rebuild infrastructure and much
more. They are often called on to work
in a wide variety of contexts, some of
which may be unfamiliar.
The upgraded KnowledgePoint
platform ensures humanitarian engineers
can quickly access high-quality, contextual
advice wherever they are in the world.

Varey L (2017) Rural gravity water supply in
Nepal. KnowledgePoint, 21 November. See
KnowledgePoint provides humanitarian engineers with online access to over 150 technical
experts worldwide rural-gravity-water-supply-in-nepal/ (accessed

For further information please contact: Cherry Franklin Tel: +44 20 7840 6005 Email: Web:

Flood Resilience
Edited by Manuela Escarameia
and Andrew Tagg

Flood Resilience provides an overview of research and latest

developments in the field of flood management. The book collates
innovative ideas, methodologies and practical approaches which
address engineering challenges during various stages of flooding,
from assessment of vulnerability of flood, through to implementation
of protective measures to management of extreme events in order to
promote faster recovery after the flood.

The book has been created from recent research published by ICE Publishing
(purposely diverse and complementary) and aims to provide readers with an
overall view of the areas where flood resilience approaches are relevant as well
as a snapshot of the advances in research and practice. It illustrates the breadth
of ideas, new ways of thinking, and practical implementation in the field of
flood resilience, and highlights the absolute need and benefit of working
collaboratively with a variety of partners and engagement with the public.
Price: £125.00
Edited by expert engineers with specialisations in engineering hydraulics, flood
iSBN: 978-0-7277-6393-8
risk assessment, emergency management and resilience of buildings, the book
addresses a wide spectrum of issues in which the ultimate aim is to reduce the FormaT: Hardbound
impacts of flooding. PuBliSh daTe: 24 May 2018
NumBer oF PageS: 208
Flood Resilience contains chapters on:
Section 1 - Flood risk and resilience:
1. Planning resilient urban waterfronts using adaptive pathways Manuela Escarameia is a Technical
2. Making urban flood resilience more operational: current practice Director who specialises in
3. Building a resilient system of defence against flooding from the Rhône engineering hydraulics at HR
4. An organisation for improving flood resilience in Thailand Wallingford in Oxfordshire, UK.
5. Techniques for valuing adaptive capacity in flood risk management Andrew Tagg is a Technical Director
6. Enhancing urban flood resilience – a case study for policy implementation in Flood Management at HR
Section 2 - Building flood resilience: Wallingford in Oxfordshire, UK.
7. Testing innovative technologies to manage flood risk
8. Methods of assessing flood resilience of critical buildings
Section 3 - Urban drainage flood resilience: To order:
9. Liverpool integrated urban drainage: a partnership approach Online
10. Sustainable drainage systems: helping people live with water Email
Section 4 - Urban planning and flood resilience: Phone +44 (0)1892 83 22 99
11. Flood Resilient Redevelopment-Cincinnati’s Central Riverfront Fax +44 (0)1892 83 72 72
Civil Engineering Monitor: Books
Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018
ICE Publishing: All rights reserved



Built: the hidden stories Delay and disruption claims in Progressive collapse of
behind our structures construction (3rd ed.) structures (2nd ed.)
by Roma Agrawal, published by by Ali Haidar and Peter Barnes, by Uwe Starossek, published by ICE
Bloomsbury, 2018, £16·80, reviewed by published by ICE Publishing, 2017, £55, Publishing, 2018, £70, reviewed by
Veronica Flint Williams, Environment reviewed by Veronica Flint Williams, Philippe Bouillard, Université Libre de
Agency, UK Environment Agency, UK Bruxelles, Belgium

Roma Agrawal is a great storyteller. I It was a joy to read this book, which I This is the second edition of Uwe
enjoyed the breadth of engineering she have to admit I managed in one sitting. It Starossek’s book on progressive collapse
covered in this book and also the depth of clearly explains the basis of the law in of structures. Like the first edition,
learning from its historical context. After relation to claims for delays and disruption, the book elucidates very clearly and
quoting from Isaac Newton that, ‘we and the requirements of different forms of thoroughly the essential notions related
are standing on the shoulders of giants,’ contract for a valid claim. Helpfully, it links to progressive and disproportionate
she provides plenty of examples of how this to relevant case law. collapse.
we have built on the understanding of The authors detail the criteria for It opens with a very clear and large
Roman and other civilisations to get to evaluation and assessment of claims. They description of progressive collapse
the structures of today. present the basis for positive presentation typologies, which will definitely open
The book’s easy style and compelling of arguments and evidence most likely the reader’s mind on such possible
storytelling make it suitable for anyone to deliver acceptance. The book includes failures. After a short demonstration
wishing to understand the world of model answers for presenting claims of the inadequacy of the ordinary
engineering. Non-engineers wishing and ordering the evidence in a logical design procedures, Starossek presents
to understand our world and the built way to lead the reader (or assessor) in an the principles for designing against
environment we all live in will have their effective way to a logical conclusion. disproportionate collapse and introduces
eyes opened. I would recommend this book to all the design method concepts on a few
I would particularly recommend this construction professionals, both those applications.
book to students who wish to pursue starting their career and also experienced A very positive aspect of the book
a career in engineering. I have noticed individuals. This includes those in a is that it is not limited to buildings
many young people attending interviews commercial role, but also anyone but presents the concepts for any
today lack the language of engineering undertaking a role with a commercial structures. In the second edition, the
and the ability to bring engineering into implication – which would be most of us. author adds two chapters perfectly
their interview conversations – this book Truly it would be a great efficiency in aligned with the philosophy of the book
will be of great help to them. our sector if the subject area was better giving an overview of current codes
Overall, Built is an enjoyable and understood, such that poorly presented or guidance documents (UFC, GSA,
inspiring read. My review copy is going or spurious claims were avoided and Eurocode and ASCE) and very clear and
to a young friend to help her choose a well-presented and justified claims were detailed guidelines which could serve as
career in engineering. promptly settled. guidance.

Civil Engineering Monitor: Books
Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018


The book is definitely a very valuable claimed by the author, it should however misses important recent contributions
tool for design engineers, researchers or give detailed methods and data so that to give a fair overview and accurate
anyone interested in progressive collapse examples could be reproduced or tested. advice on possible design and verification
concepts. To be comprehensive, as From a research perspective, the author methods.


The ICE Library maintains one of the most comprehensive collections of civil engineering books in the
world, including all titles from ICE Publishing (shown in bold below). New books received in the past
3 months include the following.
101 things I learned in engineering school J Kuprenas and M Frederick £8·64
Analysis of engineering structures and material behavior J Brnic £99·95
Bridges: a history of the world’s most spectacular spans (new ed.) J Dupre £20·00
Buckling and post-buckling structures II: experimental, analytical and numerical studies M Aliabadi £139·00
Building governance and climate change: regulation and related policies R Lorch et al. £115·00
Building regulations pocket book R Tricker and S Alford £19·99
Coastal engineering (3rd ed.) D Reeve £45·00
Contractual procedures in the construction industry (7th ed.) A Ashworth £45·99
Development of ultra-high performance concrete against blasts: from materials to structures C Wu et al. £170·00
Engineering in perspective: lessons for a successful career T Ridley £36·00
Fatigue design of steel and composite structures (2nd ed.) ECCS £50·00
Guide to good practice in the management of time in major projects: dynamic time modelling (2nd ed.) CIOB £54·95
Handbook of soil mix walls N Huybrechts and N Denies £180·00
Health and safety pocket book (2nd ed.) G Hunt £24·99
How to write bids that win business: a guide to improving your bidding success rate and winning more D Molian and others £45·00
Hydropower P Breeze £39·95
Initial professional development for civil engineers (2nd ed.) P Waterhouse £30·00
Innovation in wind turbine design (2nd ed.) P Jamieson £78·50
Leading and managing professional services firms in the infrastructure sector T Ellis £42·99
Making cities smarter: designing interactive urban applications M Tomitsch £32·00
Metric handbook: planning and design data (6th ed.) P Buxton £39·99
Natural capital: theory and practice of mapping ecosystem services P Kareiva et al. £43·50
New code of estimating practice (8th ed.) CIOB £64·95
Offshore wind energy technology O Anaya-Lara et al. £93·50
Operational readiness guide: a guide to ensuring long term effectiveness in the design and construction BIFM £29·99
Plain language BIM I Miskimmin £21·24
Port designer’s handbook (4th ed.) C Thoresen £120·00
Professional negligence in construction (2nd ed.) B Patten and H Saunders £170·00
Replenish: the virtuous cycle of water and prosperity S Postel £16·35
Sentinels of the sea: a miscellany of lighthouses past R Grant £13·56
Sequential excavation for tunnels and shafts C Felice £95·00
Smart water technologies and techniques D Owen £89·95
Steel connection analysis P Rugarli £99·95
Structural health monitoring of large civil engineering structures H Chen £84·95
Sustainable building design: principles and practice M Keeping and D Shiers £55·00
Sustainable desalination handbook: plant selection, design and implementation G Gude £138·00
The bridge: how the Roeblings connected Brooklyn to New York P Tomasi £13·47
The finite element method: fundamentals and applications in civil, hydraulic, mechanical and B Zhu £135·00
aeronautical engineering
Underground spaces unveiled: planning and creating the cities of the future H Admiraal and A Cornaro £70·00
Wheelchair housing design guide (3rd ed.) M Horn £35·00
Will it stand up? A professional engineer’s view of the creation of the London 2012 Olympic stadium D Mason £16·99

All books can be borrowed from the ICE Members’ Resource Hub on the second floor of 1 Great George Street, London, SW1P 3AA from
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Civil Engineering Monitor: ICE Proceedings
Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018
ICE Publishing: All rights reserved

MONITOR  ICE Proceedings

ICE Proceedings
In addition to Civil Engineering, ICE Proceedings includes 18 specialist journals. Papers and articles
published in the most recent issues are listed here. Summaries of all these and other papers and articles
published can be read free in the ICE Virtual Library at

Bridge Engineering Integration of a mechanical energy-storage Forensic Engineering

unit in a road pavement energy-harvesting
Innovation in bridge construction device Engineering response to natural
171, No. BE2, June 2018, 79–140 F. Duarte, A. Ferreira and P. Fael disasters
PAPERS 171, No. FE1, February 2018, 1–46
The design and construction of PAPERS
the Pont Briwet Viaduct, UK Engineering and Boosting disaster resilience
J. N. Barnes and J. C. Gill Computational Mechanics through advance public–private–people
Innovative digital design delivery for the partnerships
Ordsall Chord in Manchester, UK Application of numerical methods M. Kumaraswamy, K. K. W. Wong and J. Zhang
B. Duguid, J. Hyde and H. Pullan within the Eurocode framework Planning transport functions following a major
Low-impact cable system adopted for the Awa 170, No. EM4, December 2017, Wellington, New Zealand, earthquake
Shirasagi Ohashi Bridge, Japan 133–176 R. Mowll and D. Russell
S. Takeichi, K. Terada and D. Saito PAPERS Some structural aspects of top-down
Jacked installation of underbridges Non-linear analysis of concrete structures: a demolition of concrete buildings
J. C. Thomson, A. Robinson and C. Howe practical design approach to Eurocode T. Lohmann
An unconventional viaduct design for the A82 G. Walker, S. Abhyankar and D. Gration
road widening Use of geotechnical numerical methods with
Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Engineering
R. Stroscio, J. MacCombe, A. Casewell and
M. Francescon A. S. Lees 171, No. GE3, June 2018, 189–281
Pinned joints – their design and real behaviour PAPERS
M. Šmak, J. Kala and F. Hokeš A parametric database study of
Refined shear correction of polygonal plates no-erosion filter tests
Construction Materials with static loads P. Tabatabaie Shourijeh, A. Soroush,
Fourth International Conference on T.-C. Lim S. Shams Molavi and S. Ramezani Fouladi
Sustainable Construction Materials Simplified approach to the design of
and Technology (SCMT4) segmental tunnel linings
171, No. CM3, June 2018, 93–132 Engineering History and N. A. Do, D. Dias and P. Oreste
PAPERS Heritage Cone penetration testing in thinly inter-
Sustainable road bases with microbial layered soils
171, No. EH2, May 2018, 45–89
precipitation T. I. Van der Linden, D. A. De Lange and M. Korff
H. Porter, N. K. Dhami and A. Mukherjee Improved geotechnical properties in salt-
Introduction to ‘Steel skeleton
Ceramic waste powder: from landfi ll to treated highly sensitive landslide-prone clays
construction in Chicago’ by
sustainable concretes T. Eide Helle, S. Nordal and P. Aagaard
D. Friedman
A. S. El-Dieb, M. R. Taha, D. Kanaan and S. T. Aly Pile load test of jacked open-ended prestressed
D. Friedman
Energy benefits of cement-based plaster high-strength concrete pipe pile in clay
Laser scan-baed structural assessment of
containing hybrid phase-change material H. Kou, J. Chu, W. Guo and M. Zhang
wrought iron bridges: Guinness Bridge, Ireland
M. Kheradmand, M. Azenha, J. P. Castro-Gomes Analysis of vertically loaded jet-grout-pile-
N. Gyetvai, L. Truong-Hong and D. F. Laefer
and J. L. B. Aguiar strengthened piles of expanded cross-section
Improving the properties of recycled concrete L. W. Ren, W. D. Guo and Y. B. Deng
aggregates by accelerated carbonation Permeation grouting and excavation at
Engineering Sustainability
Z. Zhao, S. Remond, D. Damidot, L. Courard and Victoria station, London
F. Michel Smart cities M. Packer, R. Newman, C. Prangley and I. Heath
171, No. ES4, June 2018, 167–220
Green Township Index: Malaysia’s
Ground Improvement
sustainable township rating tool 171, No. GI2, May 2018, 61–122
171, No. EN2, May 2018, 47–89 R. Y. J. Siew PAPERS
PAPERS Scenario analysis of embodied greenhouse gas Rammed aggregate pier
Waynergy People – application in emissions in UK construction installation effect on soil
an operational environment J. Giesekam, J. Barrett and P. Taylor properties
F. Duarte, A. Ferreira and Performance enhancement of green concrete D. A. Saftner, J. Zheng, R.A. Green, R. Hryciw and
J. P. Champalimaud G. V. Suresh and J. Karthikeyan K. Wissmann
Energy harvesting from vehicular traffic over Exploring participatory visions of smart Soil improvement using recycled aggregates
speed bumps: a review transport in Milton Keynes from demolition waste
G. del Castillo-García, E. Blanco-Fernandez, A.-M. Valdez, M. Cook, S. Potter and C. Henzinger and D. Heyer
P. Pascual-Muñoz and D. Castro-Fresno P.‑A. Langendahl Effect of fly ash on the bearing capacity of
Renewable energy systems for sports To dig or not to dig? Place and perception in stabilised fine sand
complexes: a case study subsurface housing S. Mahvash, S. López-Querol and
E. Park and S. J. Kwon N. Tkachenko, S. Bricker and S. A. Jarvis A. Bahadori‑Jahromi

Civil Engineering Monitor: ICE Proceedings
Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018

MONITOR  ICE Proceedings

The impact of dry unit weight and cement Development of an advertisement tax Urban Design and
content on the durability of sand–cement system based on a geographic information Planning
blends system
N. C. Consoli and L. F. Tomasi M. Alkan and H. G. Surmeneli 171, No. DP3, June 2018, 97–142
Influence of electrochemical treatment on a The Mauritian construction industry: assessing PAPERS
typical laterite sector capacity Planned built environments and
A. L. Ayodele and O. A. Agbede K. Appasamy and P. Paul city transformation: urban design
Observations from a parametric study of the Operational efficiency of the right-turning in Montreal, 1956–2015
seismic design of soil nailing merging area at an intersection F. Racine
F. A. Villalobos, S.A. Villalobos and P. L. Oróstegui H. Zhang, Y. Chen, S. Zhao, H. Liu and S. Liang A psycholinguistic approach towards
anthropological urban theories
O. Vernoos
Management, Smart Infrastructure and Residential districts of soviet modernism:
Procurement and Law Construction history and prospects for further
Major and megaproject project development
170, No. SC4, December 2017, A. Eremeeva and L. Venatovskaya
management 80–98
171, No. MP2, May 2018, 43–88 Eco-metropolis planning conditioned by
PAPER the growth ideology: the case of Greater
PAPERS The smart city: challenges for the
Understanding the critical success factors for Copenhagen
civil engineering sector J. Xue
delivery of megaprojects in Colombia E. Cosgrave
D. M. Cepeda, M. Sohail and O. O. Ogunlowo
Risk-based tender evaluation using
multicriteria decision analysis in Trinidad and Structures and Buildings
Tobago Waste and Resource
171, No. SB7, July 2018, 503–580 Management
D. Samuel
Comparison of dispute boards and statutory
Flexural study of concrete beams 171, No. WR2, May 2018, 33–61
adjudication in construction
with basalt fibre polymer bars PAPERS
R. Lopez and A. Amara
L. Li, J. Lu, S. Fang, F. Liu and S. Li Importance of adding waste
Probabilistic safety evaluation of a river bridge plastics to high-performance
Maritime Engineering substructure against floods concrete
K. W. Liao, W. C. Kung and J. W. Chen A. I. Al-Hadithi and M. F. Alani
170, No. MA3+4, September and
Seismic response of reduced scale stone Compacted sawdust ash–lime-stabilised
December 2017, 83–143
masonry building soil-based hydraulic barriers for waste
M. M. Rafi , S. H. Lodi, S. A. Qazi, A. Kumar and containment
Development of a numerical
F. Verjee O. O. Ojuri and O. E. Oluwatuyi
model for simulating bed-level
changes in front of a sea wall Fuzzy logic for estimating chloride diffusion in
M. Ansari, M. A. Lashteh Neshaei and concrete
M. A. Mehrdad W. Mazer, M. G. Lima and R. A. Medeiros-Junior
Velocities inside flushing culverts induced by A review on the seismic behaviour of irregular Water Management
waves bridges 171, No. WM3, June 2018, 123–176
D. Bujak, D. Carević and H. Mostečak R. Akbari and S. Maalek PAPERS
Offshore monopile in the southern North Sea: Generalised stage–discharge
Part I, calibrated input sea state relationship for rectangular
A. J. Edesess, D. Kelliher, A. G. L. Borthwick and weirs
G. P. Thomas Pavement engineering M. Bijankhan, C. Di Stefano and V. Ferro
Liquefaction analysis on a seabed under 171, No. TR3, June 2018, 125–182 Study of flow and hydraulic jump along side
combined wave and current loadings PAPERS weirs
X. Zhang, G. Zhang, X.-L. Du and Y. Han Effects of pavement surface M. Jalili Ghazizadeh, J. Attari and S. Farhadi Rad
deformations on lane-changing Predicting the sequent depth ratio of a B-F
behaviours hydraulic jump on a river-bed rock chute
Municipal Engineer M. M. Aydın and A. Topal M. Shokrian Hajibehzad and M. Shafai Bejestan
171, No. ME2, June 2018, 65–125 Study of ravelling failure on dense graded Flow-induced horizontal and vertical vibration
PAPERS asphalt pavement of sluice gates
Sustainable humanitarian Q. You, N. Zheng and J. Ma A. Jafari, A. Kabiri-Samani and F. Behnamfar
engineering in practice – the East High-strength steel-fibre-reinforced concrete: Water distribution network optimisation
Bali Poverty Project potential use for ground slabs applications using a modified central force optimisation
J. S. Younger, D. J. Booth, D. E. Parry and K. M. Aldossari, W. A. Elsaigh and method
K. Kurniawan M. J. Alshannag A. Jabbary, H. T. Podeh, H. Younesi and
Transformative technologies for safely Ride quality stability of jointed plain-concrete A. H. Haghiabi
managed sanitation road pavements with short slabs Field trials of a new monitoring system
M. Sohail, S. Cavill and O. O. D. Afolabi M. Pradena and L. Houben for water pumps in Sierra Leone and The
Selecting wastewater sites using analytical Failure modes and mechanisms of pavements Gambia
hierarchy and geographic information system in saline foundations A. Swan, P. Skipworth, L. Walker and
M. Kafil and M. Albaji J. Zhang, X. Weng, B. Qu, J. Liu, B. Yang and Y. Li G. Thursfield

In addition to substantial discounts on ICE journal subscriptions, ICE members can also subscribe to the ICE Virtual
Journal, offering access to 15 papers from any volume for £37·50. Visit for more information

Civil Engineering Monitor: ICE Proceedings
Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018
ICE Publishing: All rights reserved

MONITOR  ICE Proceedings

Award-winning papers for free download

On 8 October 2018 ICE president Robert Mair will present awards to the following papers published
in the various ICE Proceedings journals in 2017. Journal editorial panels nominated their best papers
and  an awards committee, chaired by Nigel Wright, allocated the awards. These award-winning
papers can be downloaded for free from the ICE Virtual Library’s ‘ICE Publishing Awards 2018’ page at

Bridge Engineering
Walton Bridge – a new arch bridge over the River Thames, UK, by Chris R. Hendy, David A. Smith and June John Henry Garrood King Medal
Manuela Chiarello
Methods for flutter stability analysis of long-span bridges: a review, by Tajammal Abbas, Igor Kavrakov and December Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya
Guido Morgenthal Prize
Civil Engineering
Crossrail project: a deep-mined station on the Elizabeth line, London, by Adrian St. John, John Barker, May Coopers Hill War Memorial Prize
Stephen Frost and David Harris
Construction Materials
Optimising construction with self-compacting concrete, by David Rich, Jacqueline Glass, Alistair G. F. Gibb, April Thomas Howard Medal
Christopher I. Goodier and Graham Sander
Appraisal of small modular nuclear reactors with ‘real options’ valuation, by Giorgio Locatelli, Marco Pecoraro, May James Watt Medal
Giovanni Meroni and Mauro Mancini
Engineering and Computational Mechanics
Hydraulic jumps and breaking bores: modelling and analysis, by Hang Wang, Xinqian Leng and Hubert Chanson March Benjamin Baker Medal
Air–water interactions in urban drainage systems, by Steven J. Wright, Jose G. Vasconcelos and James W. Lewis September Thomas Telford Premium Prize
Engineering History and Heritage
Engineer’s approach to conservation, by Stephen Fernandez May Thomas Telford Premium Prize
Understanding the behaviour of wrought-iron riveted assemblies: manufacture and testing in France, May Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya Prize
by Linamaria Gallegos Mayorga, Stéphane Sire, Muriel Ragueneau and Bernard Plu
Engineering Sustainability
Community-responsive adaptation to flooding in Kibera, Kenya, by Joe Mulligan, Jamilla Harper, Pascal October Richard Trevithick Prize
Kipkemboi, Bukonola Ngobi and Anna Collins
Forensic Engineering
Grounds for concern: geotechnical issues from some recent construction cases, by David Tonks, November Thomas Telford Premium Prize
Eugene Gallagher and Ian Nettleton
Geotechnical Engineering
Settlement of floor slabs on stone columns in very soft clays, by Richard S. Pugh February Russell Crampton Prize
Ground Improvement
Creep improvement factors for vibro-replacement design, by Brian G. Sexton, Vinayagamoothy Sivakumar February Thomas Telford Premium Prize
and Bryan A. McCabe
Management, Procurement and Law
Design hazard identification and the link to site experience, by Graham Hayne, Bimal Kumar and Billy Hare April Parkman Medal
Maritime Engineering
Multivariate extreme value modelling of sea conditions around the coast of England, by Ben Gouldby, March W. G. Curtin Medal
David Wyncoll, Mike Panzeri, Mark Franklin, Tim Hunt, Dominic Hames, Nigel Tozer, Peter Hawkes,
Uwe Dornbusch and Tim Pullen
Rock armour for birds and their prey: ecological enhancement of coastal engineering, by Larissa A. Naylor, Mairi June Halcrow Prize
MacArthur, Stephanie Hampshire, Kieran Bostock, Martin A. Coombes, Jim D. Hansom, Rowan Byrne and
Tristan Folland
Municipal Engineer
Walking and cycling on shared-use paths: the user perspective, by Hannah Delaney, Graham Parkhurst and September James Hill Prize
Steve Melia
Structures and Buildings
Serviceability performance of steel–concrete composite beams, by R. Mark Lawson, Dennis Lam, February Frederick Palmer Prize
Eleftherios S. Aggelopoulos and Sebastian Nellinger
Damage-control evaluation of high-strength steel frames with energy dissipation bays, by Ke Ke, Yiyi Chen and September Tso Kung Hsieh Award
Liang-Jiu Jia
Air quality in enclosed railway stations, by John E. Thornes, Alice Hickman, Chris Baker, Xiaoming Cai and April Safety in Construction Medal
Juana Maria Delgado Saborit
Teenage trespass on the railways – a systems approach, by Patrick E. Waterson, Victoria L. Kendrick and October Francis William Webb Prize
Peter J. Underwood
Vehicles for rural transport services in sub-Saharan Africa, by Ron Dennis and Keith Pullen December Rees Jeffreys Award
Urban Design and Planning
Teaching urbanism: the Delft approach, by Steffen Nijhuis, Egbert Stolk and MaartenJan Hoekstra June Reed and Mallik Medal
Waste and Resource Management
Wallasea Island Wild Coast Project, UK: circular economy in the built environment, by Martin Cross February George Stephenson Medal
Contribution of ‘Real Nappies for London’ to local authority waste prevention – 2012–2016, by Charles Warner, August and Thomas Telford Premium Prize
Hilary Vick, Alice Walker and Kimberley Hill November
Water Management
Temporal scour evolution at non-uniform bridge piers, by Giuseppe Oliveto and Maria Cristina Marino October Robert Alfred Carr Prize

Port Designer’s Handbook,
Fourth edition
Carl A. Thoresen

Now in its fourth edition, Port Designer’s Handbook is the definitive guide
to the layout, design and construction of harbours and port structures.
Fully in line with the latest PIANC recommendations, this book covers
all aspects of port planning and design from the impact of natural
conditions on harbours, to health and safety, and the maintenance
and repair of port structures as well as channel and harbour basins. Price: £120.00
Particular attention is given to the impact from ships, including berthing
iSBN: 9780727763075
requirements, ship dimension tables and container terminals.
Format: Hardbound
This fully revised edition has also seen the material updated to PuBliSh Date: April 2018
provide coverage of
PaGe SiZe: 246 x 189mm
■ New design and construction methods of the quay structures NumBer oF PaGeS: 664
■ Floating berth structures for large vessels
■ Detailed evaluation of the necessary mooring system Carl A. Thoresen

■ Evaluation of the bollard system and layout Carl A. Thoresen is a freelance

special/technical adviser in port
■ New design and evaluation of the fender system according to and coastal engineering. Thoresen
the new PIANC recommendation started his career in 1965 and has
worked on over 800 different port
■ Concrete in port structures
and harbour projects. The works
■ And much more. have been planning and technical/
economical evaluations, design,
With an intuitive layout where the reader can easily find information on preparations of tender documents,
practical construction methods, Carl A. Thoresen’s guide is an essential tender evaluations and negotiation,
construction supervision, maintenance
purchase for all practicing port and harbour engineers, designers and
and rehabilitation work as well as
contractors, as well as students new to this continually developing area. waterways, channels and harbour
basins, multi-purpose and commercial
ports, cruise terminals for cruise vessels
amongst many more. He has chaired
six PIANC working groups (116, 153,
Available as hardback and eBook: 145, 135, 48 and 33), has given over
Online 350 lectures on port design and is
linked with five professional societies
in his native Norway.
Phone +44 (0)1892 83 22 99
Civil Engineering Monitor: ICE review
Volume 171 Issue CE3 August 2018
ICE Publishing: All rights reserved


ICE review
A review of recent developments at the Institution of Civil Engineers by ICE president Robert
Mair. For further information please contact the press office on +44 20 7665 2107, email or visit

Brunel International Lectures Global Engineering Congress

Linda Miller of Bechtel has ICE has published the programme
started delivering ICE’s 12th Brunel and confirmed speakers for the Global
International Lecture series. The touring Engineering Congress, which is taking
lectures began in London on 12 June place on 22–26 October 2018 at
2018 and, over the next 16 months, One Great George Street in London.
Linda will visit other cities in the UK and Together with the World Federation of
worldwide, including Auckland, Hong Engineering Organisations, ICE aims
Kong, New Delhi, Vancouver and Cape to gather the worldwide engineering
Town. This year’s Smeaton lecture looked at the community at the event to agree a
Challenging the industry on the impact of metro systems on major cities global response to deliver the UN’s
future of transport, her lecture covers sustainable development goals.
the demands of the next generation Speakers include Hartwig Schaefer,
and makes a call to action to leaders Smeaton Lecture 2018 vice president of global themes at the
and engineers involved in transport This year’s Smeaton Lecture took place World Bank; Danielle Gaillard Picher,
infrastructure around the world. at ICE’s headquarters in London on 17 July director of policy and programmes at
Linda reveals six ‘inescapable’ ways 2018. Covering the impact of metros on the World Water Council; and Michèle
of working required to deliver modern the world’s great cities, it was delivered by Blom, director general at the Ministry of
transport mega-projects. She also past ICE president Professor Tony Ridley Infrastructure and the Environment in
discusses how transport projects can help and Richard Anderson, managing director the Netherlands.
improve people’s economic prospects, of the Railway Technology Strategy Centre The 5-day programme of lectures,
deliver social justice and contribute to at Imperial College London. panel discussions and workshops will
solving environmental problems. Named after John Smeaton, one of tackle topics including governance,
Linda is currently a construction the founders of our profession, and security and standards for artificial
director on the Sydney Metro, Australia’s supported by the Smeatonian Society, the intelligence technologies; robotics and
biggest public transport project. She lecture covered themes from the history the future of work; resilience against
was previously project manager on and development of civil engineering. In natural disasters; engineering answers
the Crossrail Farringdon station and the spirit of ICE’s 200th anniversary, this to water scarcity and its economic
Connaught tunnel projects in London, year’s lecture brought out lessons learned impact; and increasing the economic
the latter involving bringing a 135-year- from the past that are essential for viability of renewable energy sources.
old disused tunnel back to life. twenty-first-century civil engineers. For further details and to book,
All lecture dates can be found Tony drew on his own experiences visit
at and achievements in metro engineering engineering-congress.
international-lecture-series. over the course of his career. He was
the first director general of the Tyne and
Wear Passenger Transport Executive,
after which he led the Hong Kong Mass
Transit Railway Corporation and London
Underground before joining the board
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Cite this article Research Article Keywords: bridges; history; timber
Zhou H, Leng J, Zhou M et al. (2018) Paper 1700046 structures
China’s unique woven timber arch bridges. Received 07/11/2017
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering 171(3): 115–120, Accepted 07/02/2018 Published online 16/03/2018

ICE Publishing: All rights reserved

Civil Engineering

China’s unique woven timber arch bridges

1 Haifei Zhou PhD 4 Qing Chun PhD
Doctoral candidate, School of Architecture, Southeast University, Professor, School of Architecture, Southeast University, Nanjing,
Nanjing, China China
2 Jiawei Leng PhD 5 Mostafa Fahmi Hassanein PhD
Professor, School of Architecture, Southeast University, Nanjing, Associate Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta,
China (corresponding author: Egypt
3 Man Zhou PhD 6 Wenzhou Zhong PhD
Assistant Professor, College of Civil Engineering, Central South Doctoral candidate, School of Architecture, Southeast University,
University, Changsha, China Nanjing, China and School of Environment and Society, Tokyo
Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan

1 2 3 4 5 6

Woven timber arch bridges date back over 1000 years in China but were only rediscovered in the 1980s. Combining
‘beam-weaving’ techniques with mortise-and-tenon joints, they provide visually elegant structures with strong
mechanical performance. As reported in this paper, the ‘warp and weft’ design has been enjoying a resurgence in
recent years, not just for bridges but also in architecture and furniture. The origins, cultural significance and renaissance
of woven arch bridges are explored together with their distinctive structural features and construction methods.

1. Introduction The woven timber arch bridge, which is neither a continuous

arch rib nor a true truss system, appears to be a unique design. By
China has a long history of innovation in bridge design. Examples combining the traditional techniques of beam-weaving with mortise-
recently reported in this journal include the 1400-year-old Zhaozhou and-tenon connections, the bridge is assembled using several
Bridge in Hebei, the oldest open-spandrel stone arched bridge in the multiple-segment arch members composed of short timber beams.
world (Zhou et al., 2017), and the 2016 Yachihe Bridge in Guzhou, In addition to their innovative arch structure, woven timber arch
the world’s longest cable-stayed steel truss bridge (Yu et al., 2018). bridges were usually built with a traditional Chinese roof, which
Lesser known internationally but well known in China for their improved their structural stability and enhanced their appearance.
elegant and intricate construction are woven timber arch bridges, Invented almost 1000 years ago, the structures can span over 40 m
featuring arch rings of interlaced timber beams (Yang and Chen, with a typical span-to-rise ratio ranging from 2 to 7.
2010). This ancient design first caught the attention of modern According to a field survey 10  years ago, there are nearly 100
bridge engineer Tang Huan Cheng in 1954, not long after the such bridges remaining in China (Gong, 2009). Most of them were
famous Chinese painting ‘Along the River during the Qingming built by specialist builders who passed on their skills by word of
Festival’ was put on public display for the first time (Figure 1). mouth to apprentices or family members. Many of the existing
The painting was from the Song dynasty (960–1127) and represents bridges have been listed as ‘national key cultural relic protection
a busy scene around the Rainbow Bridge across Bian Canal in Bianjing. units’ of China. In 2009 their construction methods were also
With a span of about 20 m and simple, attractive design, the bridge added to the list of ‘intangible cultural heritage in need of urgent
attracted particular attention. However, the building techniques were safeguarding’ by Unesco.
unknown until similar existing structures were discovered in the south Many Chinese scholars, especially local culture researchers
of Zhejiang and the north of Fujian in the 1980s. and restoration experts, have conducted research into woven arch
bridges (Chun et al., 2015; Gong, 2009; Tang, 2010; Xue and Ye,
2014). However, these studies do not include a systematic review of
the evolution, structural system and construction technology. This
paper aims to give a clear genealogy of the bridge together with
its structural make-up and construction methods. The current status
and contemporary significance of the design are also discussed.

2.  Structural type

Figure 1. The Rainbow Bridge in the Chinese Earlier Song dynasty 2.1  Family of timber arch bridges
painting ‘Along the River during the Qingming Festival’ Historically, the first timber bridge was most likely a fallen tree
across a stream – the earliest single-span timber bridge. With the

Civil Engineering China’s unique woven timber arch bridges
Volume 171 Issue CE3 Zhou, Leng, Zhou et al.

demand for longer spans to cross swamps and rivers, intermediate into the tangent and radial truss arch timber bridge, a European
supports under the main timber beam became essential. But putting example being the 1749 Mathematical Bridge in Cambridge, UK.
additional supports directly under the beams exposed them to In China, the parallel form became the arciform cantilever beam
impacts from floods and vessels, resulting in the introduction of and the intersect form evolved into the woven arch bridge.
bracing from the ends (Figure 2). Historical documents indicate that the woven arch bridge was
According to a literature survey, three principal forms for invented in the Song dynasty 1000 years ago by a Chinese prison
bracing were developed – radial, intersect and parallel – and all guard to solve the safety problems of bridges with central pillars in
three evolved into trussed arch bridges. The radial form evolved flood situations (Tang, 2011).

(4) (7)

Beam bridge Radial bracing Tangent and radial

truss arch

(1) (2) (3) (5) (8)

Single-span beam Intermediate bracing Bracing from Intersect bracing Woven arch
the two ends

(6) (9)

Parallel bracing Arciform

cantilever beam

(5) (8)

(a) MeiShuBan Bridge, China (b) XiDong Bridge, China

(6) (9)

(c) A bridge over the Minjiang River, China (d) BaLing Bridge, China

Figure 2. Evolution analysis of timber arch bridges

Civil Engineering China’s unique woven timber arch bridges
Volume 171 Issue CE3 Zhou, Leng, Zhou et al.

2.2  Main structure integrated in a process similar to weaving. The longitudinal beams
The main structure of a woven timber arch bridge is composed are the ‘warp’ and the cross-beams inserted at each change in slope
of a basic system and an auxiliary system, both of which are made are the ‘weft’.
from multi-segment timber members (Tang, 2010). The basic
system, which appears in all structural variations, is a tri-segment 2.3  Accessory structure
system, while the number of segments in the auxiliary system The longitudinal timber members of the basic and auxiliary
normally ranges from one to five (Figure 3). systems are connected by the cross-beams. To improve overall
The more segments the auxiliary system has, the more lateral stability, diagonal bracing is added symmetrically on both
continuous the arch form of the bridge will be. The Rainbow shoulders of the arch (Figure 4). Columns are then erected at the
Bridge in the painting has a basic tri-segment system and an two ends and intermediate positions to carry the upper deck beams.
auxiliary tetra-segment system. In addition to the sequential structure under the bridge deck,
By arranging the two systems in an interlaced way through a timber superstructure is usually constructed over the deck in a
overlapping the longitudinal beams and inserting cross-beams traditional Chinese style with an imposing tiled roof. This improves
between them, the main structure of a woven timber arch bridge is the stability of the structure by increasing its self-weight.

Basic system


Auxiliary system

Mono-segment Di-segment Tri-segment Tetra-segment Penta-segment

Integrated structure

Figure 3. Structural variations of woven timber arch bridges

Overall structure


Multi-eave roof Deck beam

Kingposts and grasshopper legs

Diagonal bracing

Multi-segment auxiliary system

Substructure Tri-segment basic system

Figure 4. Typical structure of a woven timber arch bridge with roof

Civil Engineering China’s unique woven timber arch bridges
Volume 171 Issue CE3 Zhou, Leng, Zhou et al.

3.  Construction technology then made from chiselled mortises and tenons which are the key
to generating a strong structure through locking into each other
3.1 Preparation (Figure 5(b)).
In China, choosing an auspicious day for logging is considered
to be essential for getting high-quality timber and showing respect 3.2  Construction process
for nature. The cross-beams have the highest mechanical strength In most cases the bridge abutments are masonry structures made
requirements while the ridgepole is important culturally. In from pebbles from nearby watercourses or cut stone, which has
accordance with traditional Chinese geomancy beliefs, all bridge better load-bearing capacity.
members should be sourced from Abies fabri fir trees felled at The carpentry work on site starts by assembling the basic ‘tri-
designated times (Figure 5(a)). segment’ system. The cross-beams, called ‘bull-heads’ due to their
After that, the logs are processed into system members with key connecting function, are first put into position on the scaffold.
lengths calculated precisely to ensure exact fit. The joints are Sloping side members of the basic system are then installed, with


(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(e) (f)

Figure 5. Typical construction of a woven timber arch bridge: (a) logging, (b) bull-head cross-beam with chiselled mortises, (c) erection of
the arch structure on a scaffold, (d) completion of the arch structure, (e) construction of the superstructure and (f) completed bridge

Civil Engineering China’s unique woven timber arch bridges
Volume 171 Issue CE3 Zhou, Leng, Zhou et al.

one end mortised in a bull-head and the other in a ground beam In 1999, a five-part US Nova television series called Secrets of
close to the abutment. The basic tri-segment system is completed Lost Empires attempted to ‘ferret out long-forgotten secrets of early
when the horizontal central members are inserted between the two architects and engineers’. For one of the episodes, Nova put together
bull-heads (Figure 5(c)). a team of engineers, bridge historians and construction experts in
Four columns or ‘kingposts’, two at each end of the bridge, are Jinze, Shanghai to build a 15 m replica of the Rainbow Bridge.
then erected with coupling beams to carry the vertical loads of both It featured a basic tri-segment system and tetra-segment auxiliary
the bridge deck and roof. system, just like the Rainbow Bridge. However, instead of mortise-
The auxiliary system members are then inserted into the spaces and-tenon joints, nails and bamboo ropes were used to reflect its
between the basic system members and joined together at each likely original configuration. It was the first woven timber arch
slope change with cross-beams called ‘small bull-heads’. The bridge to be built since its rediscovery.
erection sequence is the same as that of the basic system, rising The publicity caused by the programme resulted in several more
from the two sides to the middle (Figure 5(d)). woven arch bridge builders being found. These included Zheng
Diagonal bracing is then added on both sides of the bridge to Duojin and Dong Zhiji, who were both nearly 80 years old and
complete the woven arch. By connecting the bull-heads and had not built such bridges for decades. However, they were able to
kingposts diagonally, the lateral stability of main arch is greatly instruct younger builders on the techniques and help bring about a
enhanced. Short columns, also known as grasshopper legs, are revival.
erected longitudinally along the bridge to bear the deck beams, Some well-known woven arch bridges destroyed by disasters
and they usually stand on the small bull-heads for structural have now been rebuilt. These include Wen Xing Bridge and the
convenience. Xue Zhai Bridge which were both destroyed by floodwater in
The deck pavement is installed using traditional methods 2016. Bridges that would have otherwise been destroyed by
over the timber deck slabs, which are arranged to create a gentle transport upgrades or hydro-power schemes have been dismantled
slope along the bridge. Indocalamus bamboo is laid on the slabs and moved to other places to ensure their continued survival.
as a bottom layer to protect the substructure from moisture, after In addition some new woven timber arch bridges have been built
which charcoal is used to improve the hygroscopic property of in recent years in mountainous areas. Table 1 shows the woven
the pavement. Sand and gravel is then used as both levelling and timber arch bridges constructed at public sites in China since 1999,
hygroscopic material before the final brick paving or stone pitching including new-build, rebuilt and relocated bridges.
is installed. This traditional pavement design is moisture-proof,
fire-proof, improves the durability of the bridge and increases its 4.3  Strengthening and protection
stability by significantly contributing to self-weight. Many existing woven timber arch bridges over 100 years old
A multiple-eave roof structure is built over the deck to provide have suffered from decay, termite invasion and lack of maintenance.
a public space and shelter the crossing from rain and wind This has led to structural deformation, failure of mortise-and-tenon
(Figure 5(e)). Finally, planks are installed on both sides of the bridge joints, cracking of arch members and splitting of bull-heads (Chun
to protect the arch members from natural infestation (Figure 5(f)). et al., 2015). To prevent these bridges from collapsing, efforts have
been made by local government, restoration experts and bridge
engineers to repair and/or strengthen them.
4.  Current situation Damage identification and strengthening methods based on new
technologies have been used to ensure the safety of the damaged
4.1  Destruction of historical remains structures. Timber members in good condition are usually confined
The south of Zhejiang and north of Fujian, where woven
timber arch bridges had survived for over a hundred years,
are mountainous areas with high rainfall. Many of the bridges
have since been destroyed by floods, mudslides, fire, material
deterioration, new road construction and hydro-power engineering.
For example, Yuqing Bridge, a three-span woven timber
arch bridge in Wuyishan, Fujian, was destroyed by fire in 2011
(Figure 6). Another two listed woven timber arch bridges in
Taishun, Zhejiang were destroyed by flooding caused by typhoon
Meranti in September 2016.
According to incomplete statistics, such disasters have affected
over 60 woven timber arch bridges since they were rediscovered
in the 1980s. Only a few of them had been properly protected or
rebuilt by the late 1990s (Cheng, 2013), and there were very few
builders who knew how to do so.

4.2  Removed, rebuilt and newly built bridges

Woven timber arch bridges were confirmed to have historical
value at a national conference on the technological history of
ancient bridges held at Hangzhou in 1986. Measures have since Figure 6. Yuqing Bridge was destroyed by fire in 2011, one of
been taken to save their endangered construction techniques so over 60 lost in recent years
they can be passed on to future generations.

Civil Engineering China’s unique woven timber arch bridges
Volume 171 Issue CE3 Zhou, Leng, Zhou et al.

Table 1. Woven timber arch bridges constructed in China since their rediscovery
Bridge name Location Main span: m Construction event Year Master
Qingpu Jinze, Shanghai 13·2 New build 1999 Team
New Nanxi Taishun, Zhejiang  5·9 New build 2003 Zeng Jiakuai
Tongle Taishun, Zhejiang 23·0 New build 2005 Dong Zhiji
Jinzao Pingnan, Fujian 32·5 Relocated 2005 Huang Chuncai
Zhangkeng Shouning, Fujian 33·4 Relocated 2006 Zheng Duojin
Changlaixi Shouning, Fujian 32·0 Relocated 2006 Zheng Duojin
Wugong Qingyuan, Zhejiang 19·9 Rebuilt 2007 Hu Miao
Mengzhou Qingyuan, Zhejiang 29·6 Rebuilt 2008 Wu Fuyong
Wuyanling Taishun, Zhejiang 18·0 New build 2009 Zeng Jiakuai
Mengyu Qingyuan, Zhejiang 28·2 Rebuilt 2010 Hu Miao
Baixiang Pingnan, Fujian 35·0 Rebuilt 2010 Huang Chuncai
Buxia Taishun, Zhejiang 23·0 New build 2010 Zeng Jiakuai
Feilong Shouning, Fujian 20·5 New build 2011 Zheng Duojin
Xiyang Taishun, Zhejiang 20·0 New build 2012 Zeng Jiakuai
Guihu Taishun, Zhejiang 40·3 New build 2013 Wu Fuyong
Yingxiu Taishun, Zhejiang 16·0 New build 2013 Zeng Jiakuai
Jiulong Lishui, Zhejiang 39·0 New build 2015 Hu Miao
Wenxing Taishun, Zhejiang 29·6 Rebuilt 2017 Zeng Jiakuai
Xuezhai Taishun, Zhejiang 29·0 Rebuilt 2017 Zheng Changgui

with steel plates to limit crack propagation and improve their load Decking and optional roof structures help to ensure the integral
capacity, while severely damaged members are replaced by new strength and stability of the bridges.
ones with the same dimensions. To protect existing historic structures in China, many woven
timber arch bridges have been removed, rebuilt and strengthened
4.4  Contemporary evolution in recent years by a growing team of specialist builders and bridge
The intricate architectural form and good mechanical experts. The revival of this unique structural design has also found
performance of woven timber arch bridges has provided inspiration its way into modern architecture and furniture design.
for designers in various fields. The 2012 Pritzker Prize architect
Wang Shu has used woven beam roof structures in much of his
work. The design has also been used in furniture (Figure 7). References
Cheng F (2013) The Construction Technology of Woven Timber Arch Bridges
5. Conclusion in Zhejiang and Fujian. Anhui Science and Technology Press, Anhui, China.
Chun Q, Van Balen K, Pan JW et al. (2015) Structural performance and
repair methodology of the Wenxing Lounge Bridge in China. International
The woven timber arch bridge, combining the technology of Journal of Architectural Heritage 9(6): 730–743.
beam-weaving and mortise-and-tenon joints, is a rediscovered Gong DF (2009) Investigation report on the timber arch bridges in Zhejiang
traditional Chinese structure with an elegant configuration and and Fujian. Proceedings of the 2009 Academic Seminar on Chinese
good mechanical performance. Its structural form probably Ancient Bridges, Fuzhou, China, pp. 208–220.
evolved from beam bridges with bilateral intersecting bracing Tang HC (2010) Chinese Timber Arch-bridge. China Building Industry Press,
around 1000 years ago. Beijing, China.
The main structure of the bridge is a basic tri-segment system Tang HC (2011) Chinese Ancient Bridges. China Building Industry Press,
interlaced with an auxiliary system with up to five segments. Beijing, China.
Xue YQ and Ye SS (2014) The Traditional Construction Techniques of
Wooden Arch Bridges. Zhejiang Photography Press, Zhejiang, China.
Yang Y and Chen B (2010) Removed, rebuilt and new timber arch bridges in
China. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Arch Bridges,
Fuzhou, China, pp. 413–418.
Yu X, Chen D and Xue M (2018) Yachihe Bridge, China: engineering the
world’s longest cable-stayed steel truss. Proceedings of the Institution of
Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering 171(1): 29–36,
Zhou M, Zhang J, An L, Zhang X and Li T (2017) Spanning over 1400 years:
China’s remarkable Zhaozhou Bridge. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil
Engineers – Civil Engineering 170(3): 113–119,
Figure 7. A bench inspired by the woven timber arch bridge design jcien.16.00023.

Cite this article Research Article Keywords: Building Information
Tveit M and Gjerde K (2018) Paper 1700039 Modelling (BIM); railway systems;
Using building information modelling for planning a high-speed rail project in Norway. Received 01/09/2017 transport planning
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering 171(3): 121–128, Accepted 18/01/2018 Published online 19/02/2018
Published with permission by the ICE under the CC-BY
4.0 license. (

Civil Engineering

Using building information modelling for

planning a high-speed rail project in Norway
1 Marit Tveit MSc 2 Kathrine Gjerde MSc
BIM Development Manager, Ramboll Norway, Kristiansand, Norway Project Manager, Ramboll Norway, Oslo, Norway

1 2

This paper explains how building information modelling was successfully used as an integrated part of the master-
planning process for the 30 km Sorli-to-Brumunddal high-speed rail project in Norway. It concludes that new technology,
cloud-based services and collaboration tools can dramatically improve the way complex multi-disciplinary infrastructure
projects can be planned, designed and implemented.

1. Introduction

Bane NOR, the state-owned company responsible for the

Norwegian national railway infrastructure, is building 270 km
of new double-track high-speed railway by 2034. The aim is to Hamar 0 km 40
relieve the population pressure on the capital, Oslo, by encouraging
people to live and work in the central eastern regions of Norway
(NMTC, 2016). The new track will contribute to efficient and
environmentally friendly passenger transport as well as increasing
the reliability of freight transport.
Known as the Intercity project, the new railway is designed for
a maximum speed of 250 km/h (Figure 1). The 30 km section that Hønefoss
runs from a timber terminal at Sorli by way of Stange and Hamar
to Brumunddal is currently at the end of the municipal master-
planning phase and is being developed by Rambøll Sweco ANS Oslo S
joint venture.
This paper describes the workflow in the preparation of the
municipal master plan, which also includes environmental
impact assessment and a technical master plan. It explains how
the geographically distributed team made up of two companies
and several sub-contractors co-operated and collaborated to Tønsberg Sarpsborg
reach the common goal of delivering a municipal master plan for Skien
governmental approval. Halden
Using building information modelling (BIM) processes, the
team focused the work on relevant tasks, involved important
stakeholders as well as all team members, and stuck to a Figure 1. Overview of the Intercity network (Bane NOR)
very tight time schedule. BIM as an integrated part of project
management has proved a success. The BIM strategy was drawn
up in the start-up phase and continued to be a central feature
throughout execution. The importance of connecting BIM goals 2.  Project background
to project goals is discussed, as well as the importance of having
a project management that assumes ownership of the BIM The Intercity project is a programme of several major projects,
processes. the last of which is due for completion in 2034. Figure 2 shows the
The development of BIM technology, cloud-based services and status of the project at July 2017 and the location of the section
collaboration tools has changed collaboration between humans, discussed in this paper. According to the government’s goals for
and between humans and machines, which in turn has changed the the project, the railway to Hamar is due to be opened in 2024, and
way large infrastructure projects can be implemented. to Brumunddal in 2026.

Civil Engineering Using building information modelling for planning
Volume 171 Issue CE3 a high-speed rail project in Norway
Tveit and Gjerde

The 30 km section runs through downtown Hamar, a town Municipal master plan
located 125 km north of Oslo (Figure 3). The Intercity section Lillehammer
Zoning plan
between Sorli and Brumunddal is planned for sustained speeds Built, or under construction
Moelv Project area
of up to 250 km/h for passenger trains. The new line will be Brumunddal
double-tracked, including sidings, through the towns of Stange 0 km 40 Hamar
(3000 citizens), Hamar (30 000 citizens) and Brumunddal (10 000 Stange
citizens). The line will pass through existing stations in Stange and
Brumunddal, but in Hamar three alternative station locations were
The 30 km section passes through valuable farmland, crosses
an internationally protected bird sanctuary area and runs close
to Mjosa, Norway’s largest lake, and protected historic railway Oslo Lufthavn
buildings. It runs through three different municipalities – Stange,
Hamar and Ringsaker – which means three parallel planning
Lysaker Lillestrøm
processes were needed. Sandvika Oslo S
The client demanded that construction of new tracks had to be Asker
possible while existing tracks were in daily and flexible use. The Drammen
construction cost is estimated to be approximately €1·5 billion
depending on the route chosen through Hamar.
The Ramboll Sweco team delivered 2400 documents in 1 year. Holmestrand Moss
Thanks to BIM, the optimisation period, in which the team worked Råde
Tønsberg Sarpsborg
on 12 different alternatives, lasted 3 months – it would normally Skien Torp Stokke
have taken 1 year. The impact study, principal plan and technical Fredrikstad Halden
plans were completed in just 7 months. Larvik

Figure 2. Status of Intercity network and location of Sorli-to-

3.  Key challenges Brumunddal section (Bane NOR)

To plan a high-speed double-track railway in Norway will always

be a challenge because of the country’s varying topography and
the time-consuming, but important, democratic planning processes.
Some of the most challenging issues that the Sorli-to-Brumunddal
section had to deal with are described in this section.
Akersvika bird sanctuary (Figure 4) is an area protected by
the Ramsar convention. This is an intergovernmental treaty that
provides the framework for national action and international co-
operation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their
resources. Akersvika lies south-east of the centre of Hamar, and
the existing railway passes the Ramsar area on a causeway and old
railway bridge. When planning a new line, the project team had to
minimise any impact on the protected area.
The line passes through some of the most valuable farmland
in Norway. The project team had to find the optimal route and Figure 3. Three-dimensional view of Sorli-to-Brumunddal section
take measures to minimise and mitigate negative effects on the
farmlands, while at the same time following the required curvature
and shortest path for a high-speed railway.
In some areas, the track is located very close to central buildings, to Bane NOR’s recommended trace, follow the edge of the lake in
such as the city hall in Hamar and the historical, protected railway Hamar. This means that the railway will create a visual barrier to
buildings at Espern in the centre of Hamar. The team had to find a Mjosa from the centre of town, as well as restrict use of the lake
compromise between the requirements set by a rigid line designed shore for recreation and residential use. The areas around the lake
for high speed and the considerations needed for protecting have also been flooded on several occasions in the past decades.
important buildings. A premise for the planning was to take into consideration a 200-
Figure 5 shows the location of alum shale in the project area. year flood, and design water-resistant submerged tunnels as well
When exposed to air, alum shale swells, meaning it has to be sealed as ensuring that the tracks remain above the critical level. This last
(e.g. with asphalt) during excavation. Alum shale also contains requirement conflicts with the desire to minimise the visual barrier
several toxic heavy metals that can destroy groundwater or kill fish created by the railway.
and plants if it enters a watercourse. Norway is a mountainous country and, though the topography
Mjosa is the largest freshwater lake in Norway and is valuable for the Sorli-to-Brumunddal section is relatively flat, it is still
as a recreation area. The new double-track railway will, according challenging for a railway. Freight trains place strict limitations on

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Figure 4. The route runs close to the Akersvika bird sanctuary (Erlend Bjørtvedt,

The project team is composed of two companies (that in

other cases are competing), Rambøll and Sweco, and several
subcontractors. The team members are geographically spread
out; they are in different office locations in Norway and also in
other countries such as Sweden, Denmark, Finland and India. In
addition, the client is also located in two different offices. The
challenge with such a diverse organisation is to ensure information
flow and that the whole team is on the correct track and heading in
the same direction at all times.

4.  Using BIM to meet challenges

Figure 5. Swelling alum shale areas have been integrated into the Designing Buildings Wiki (2018) defines BIM as, ‘a very broad
BIM model term that describes the process of creating digital information about
a building or other facility such as a bridge, highway, tunnel and
so on’. HMG (2012) defines it as a collaborative way of working,
underpinned by the digital technologies which unlock more
gradient and high-speed passenger trains place strict limitations on efficient methods of designing, creating and maintaining assets.
curvature. The line has been placed in the terrain while taking into BIM as an integrated part of the project management has proved
consideration three train stations, farmland and several vulnerable to be a success factor for the master-planning of the Sorli-to-
areas. Because of the topography, several tunnels need to be built. Brumunddal project. From the project team’s point of view BIM
Around the station areas, available areas for hub development is more than a digital three-dimensional (3D) drawing – it is a
had to be identified. It is a success criterion for the project that combination of technology and processes leading to state-of-the
these areas will be functional and attractive. In Hamar, three art project execution with collaboration between highly competent
alternative station locations were explored, which means that three team members. Through collaboration helped by BIM tools and
hub-development plans had to be investigated. processes the project team was able to meet all the above-listed
The Sorli-to-Brumunddal project has many stakeholders that had challenges.
to be either informed or involved. A thorough compliance plan was Figure 6 describes the distinct levels of a BIM system. The
essential to ensure a valuable information flow and involvement core of the system is the technology that must be present, with
of the critical stakeholders. Especially in the centre of Hamar, collaboration processes surrounding the technical core. The figure
powerful stakeholders argued for their desired station locations out illustrates that a project team should work with a 3D model and also
of the three options. This required good visualisation from the BIM create intelligent models with information or attributes attached.
model, and a well-crafted communication strategy to handle all Such information can include finishing materials, structural usage
three alternatives equally. and cost. 3D models/drawings have been produced for a long time
The client required the planning to make construction of the in infrastructure projects, but the information in the model has been
new tracks possible while existing tracks remain in daily use. and is still practically neglected.
This required an execution plan for the construction period to be The potential for enriching design models with attribute
completed in the early phase of the project. information has not yet been fully realised in the construction

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industry and has not been fully realised in this project. This is
caused both by restrictions in the design software and by engineers
and architects having to learn a new way of designing. In the Sorli- Unified controlled
to-Brumunddal project, some information was attached to the
objects for some discipline models. Synchronous
The focus was nevertheless on geometry in the early phase. An collaboration
Excel spreadsheet was used to gather information about the different
discipline models, and the information was shown as tooltips in the
common Autodesk Infraworks model. Examples of such information
were model owner, model last updated and model content. Intelligent
Figure 6 shows that BIM is not only about the model; it is models

also about synchronous collaboration and unified processes. The
real aim of using BIM in a project is to ensure continuous inter-
disciplinary collaboration.
The UK BIM maturity model shown in Figure 7 categorises Three-dimensional
types of technical and collaborative work with respect to BIM.
The model is an attempt to clarify BIM terminology and make
it standardised and understandable for both suppliers and clients
(BIM WP, 2011). The Sorli-to-Brumunddal project is clearly on
level 2, combining different discipline models within one multi- Figure 6. BIM as a socio-technical system
disciplinary model.
Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Data
4.1  How the project worked with BIM
The Sorli-to-Brumunddal project was defined as a model-based

project by the client. This means that all design should be in 3D,
and that models have priority over two-dimensional (2D) drawings. BIMs iBIM
It also means that 2D drawings should be extracted directly from BRIM

models. 2D 3D
In the start-up phase of the project, a BIM strategy was defined CPIC
IDM-common dictionary
IFC-common data
IFD-common processes Processes
and agreed upon. It is important to establish a BIM strategy to CAD BS 1192: 2007 ISO BIM
User guides CPIC, Avanti, BSI
ensure that the BIM goals support the project goals and that the
focus is on the entirety of the project. The client was focused on Drawings, lines, arcs, Models, objects, Integrated
using and detailing the BIM model further for every project phase. text and so on collaboration interoperable data
The following list shows the project’s major goals for using BIM
in the municipal master-planning phase
Figure 7. UK BIM maturity model (BIM WP, 2011: p. 16)
■■ efficient communication by using the model
■■ increased quality through inter-disciplinary insight
■■ reduction of total cost through reduction of drawings and focus ■■ low-level interface on virtual reality functionality and
on entirety navigation
■■ innovation through importing reliability and safety into the ■■ functionality for making quick 3D illustrations and movies.
These demands are characteristic for an early project phase. A more
Table 1 lists details of the BIM strategy. detailed project phase, for example construction, will have other
The project team consisted of people from several different demands such as technical collision control and attribute handling.
disciplines, working with several different types of software. The principle of one model means that all disciplines must
Input from all the disciplines was needed for the common multi- provide input to the BIM model either by design review and/
disciplinary model – that is, the BIM model. In the start-up phase or by specific or abstract objects. Traditionally, a BIM model
of the project the software for the BIM model was Infraworks, is made up of all the ‘hard core’ technical disciplines – such as
and the data flow from the different disciplines’ software was railway, construction and roads. The soft disciplines – such as area
established. planning; environment; reliability, availability, maintainability and
The choice of software was based on the following demands on safety (Rams); and safety, health and environment (HSE) – have
the BIM model traditionally not provided input to the model. One of the project’s
BIM goals was to include such abstract demands and objects in
■■ cloud-based, accessible for all project members the model. Figure 8 is a 3D visualisation from the model showing
■■ high performance when covering large geographical areas how registration of red-listed species has been added by the
■■ high visual quality to ensure collective understanding of the environmental discipline. Both the project team and client were
project’s consequences urged to provide input to the model through the design-review
■■ design review functionality process.

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Table 1. Details of BIM strategy

Overall goals Description of goal Outcome Measurement
Increased The project team will ■■ 80% of project team uses the BIM model ■■ User survey at the end of the design
efficiency use the BIM model to actively for design, in meetings and for period.
increase efficiency and multi-disciplinary control. ■■ 80% of the project team experienced
reduce the number of ■■ Reduction of the number of communication more effective communication in the
misunderstandings. platforms. project.
■■ BIM models will be an essential tool to
support and streamline internal and external
Increased Eliminate multi-disciplinary ■■ 80% of project members find that the BIM ■■ User survey at the end of the design
quality conflicts in early stages. model has contributed to reducing design period.
Increase quality of decision errors. ■■ 100% of all collisions/points of interest
underlay for decision makers. ■■ All disciplines deliver the necessary ground discovered by BIM are checked out.
Consider future enterprise models and discipline models at the accurate ■■ More than 70% of the project team
solutions. detail level for coordination. believes that the BIM model will
Ensure buildable solutions. ■■ Continuation of BIM model to the next contribute to increasing quality in the
Handle both entirety and details. project phase. next project phase.
Reduced cost Reduce production of ■■ BIM will reduce the number of drawings by ■■ User survey at the end of the design
drawings and consider other 30% compared to traditional projects. phase is submitted to client for feedback
factors that may reduce the ■■ Optimise solutions to save 10% of total cost. on eventual cost savings regarding total
overall project cost. project cost and drawing production.
■■ 100% of the client’s project managers
have gained insight into the design of
the project.
Innovation Importing Rams and HSE ■■ Abstract demands and objects are integrated ■■ Abstract objects in the model are actively
demands into the model. in the model. used for design review.
Rams, reliability, availability, maintainability and safety; HSE, safety, health and environment

Figure 8. Recorded endangered species and metadata is shown in the BIM model

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A BIM execution plan was established at the outset. The with respect to the interface between the disciplinary models. This
plan described BIM roles in the project (Figure 9), routines for should in the end contribute to ensuring that the public plan is
base data, nomenclature for files and layers, the model list, the feasible with respect to technical challenges within the area plan
exchange formats, software and installation information for multi- boundaries.
disciplinary models, the BIM cycle, the design-review process, and The team members had to write comments following a strict
templates and layout for drawing production. The plan is the most naming convention to make sorting and categorisation possible.
critical tool for ensuring that the whole project team succeeds with Each 14th day the comments were saved as a pdf file to keep as
the BIM workflow. a back-up and as documentation of the multi-disciplinary quality
To ensure the project team had the right focus at all times, a BIM control. The design-commenting tool in the software is still
cycle tightly connected to the project meeting plan was established immature, and the project experienced challenges going through
(Figure 10). As the figure shows, the cycle repeats itself every 14 the comments during the meetings caused by non-existent sorting
days, as follows. routines in the software. Most of the disciplines nonetheless used
the software as described, and contributed to ensuring high quality
■■ Day 1: project meeting with information from project in the inter-disciplinary design process.
management, project status review, design review in model Visual planning is a tool used in Lean methodology (LEI, 2018).
and visual planning. All tasks to be carried out or followed The core idea is to maximise customer value while minimising
up on are collected in one log, which is continuously updated waste. In simple terms, Lean means creating more value for
during the whole project period. Tasks to be solved by the customers with fewer resources. The project team used visual
means of integrated concurrent engineering (ICE) meetings are planning as part of the project meeting each 14th day. The team
identified, and ICE owners are pointed out. developed the routine throughout the project period, and will
■■ Day 2 and 8: ICE meetings are arranged. Fixed days are set to develop it further in the next project phase to make it more flexible
ensure that the required resources are available. for virtual meetings. The governing principle for visual planning
■■ Day 5: main discipline model is delivered. is to get each team member involved in the planning of his or
■■ Day 9: other discipline models are delivered. her own deliverances and deadlines, and to identify dependency
■■ Day 11: multi-disciplinary model is updated. relations to other disciplines. The main questions to be answered
■■ Day 12: all disciplines give input to the design by means of are what do I deliver, and when; and what do I need from other
commenting in the model using the Design Feed tool. Issues to disciplines, and when?
be handled at the next project meeting must fulfil the following Post-it notes in assorted colours were used for the process, and
requirements: the issue must be relevant for more than one the focus was on the next 4–6 weeks. Each Post-it note was placed
discipline, have a significant consequence for area use, have in co-operation with the disciplines involved (Figure 11). The
a significant cost consequence, and potentially cause a ‘show- result of the meeting was digitised into Excel after the meetings.
stop’ (objection). ICE is a methodology that demands well-prepared work sessions
in which specific tasks are to be solved. The Sorli-to-Brumunddal
The design-review process was described for the project team project used the ICE methodology in the 14-d cycle. Attendees at
in the BIM execution plan but was also available as a short video. the meetings were hand-picked for each session, and also included
The aim of the design-review process is to ensure quality control decision-makers to ensure short decision paths. The meetings
environmental disciplines

environmental disciplines
All disciplines, including

All disciplines, including

BIM coordinator
and client

and client

Geomatics manager

The BIM team

GIS manager
disciplinary model

Updated multi-

Model main

Visualisation manager
Model all



CAD manager

IT manager
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

leader X
manager X
Figure 10. BIM cycle in the project. PM, multidisciplinary
Figure 9. Roles in the BIM team meetings; SM, integrated concurrent engineering meetings

Civil Engineering Using building information modelling for planning
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Figure 11. Visual planning process using notes

always had specific goals and required decisions to be made during

Figure 12. ArcGIS online tool was used for field registrations
the meetings. Meeting attendees were expected to meet physically
– virtual attendance was accepted only in exceptional cases.
The BIM model was central in the meetings both as a
communication tool and as a work tool, when the ICE subject communication strategy and high-end visualisation products, in
required design to be executed during the meetings. The ICE addition to professional engineering. Using the BIM model as a
meeting methodology promoted inter-disciplinary co-operation base, many 3D illustrations, photograph montages and videos
and quality. It also required that all attendees were well prepared were produced in addition to the virtual reality model produced in
and provided input during the meeting. ICE sessions were in worst the BIM model. These products were used by local newspapers,
cases terminated if one or more of the attendees were not prepared. national television channels, social media, newsletters and public
The meeting room facilities were also important. ICE sessions meetings. They were invaluable instruments for achieving a
often took place in so-called ‘big’ rooms. These were rooms common understanding of a complicated project (Figure 13).
equipped with two or more TV screens, one smart board, good
audio-video technology, and access to wi-fi, power and screen- 4.2  Innovation through BIM
sharing for all attendees. In addition, nearby meeting rooms were The word ‘innovation’ originally comes from the Latin innovare,
accessible to allow team members time out during some sessions which means to renew or create something brand new. The Sorli-
that were irrelevant to them, or to work in silence if needed. to-Brumunddal project has been recognised as a project doing just
The experiences from use of the ICE methodology in the project that. In November 2016, the project received an international BIM
were positive. The project team reported, in a user survey, that the award at Autodesk University in Las Vegas in the category ‘large
ICE methodology resulted in termination of hanging tasks and infrastructure projects’. The following innovation drivers led the
efficient multi-disciplinary clarifications and decisions. project to such a prestigious award
Two important BIM roles in the project were the geographic
information system (GIS) manager and geomatics manager. All ■■ a demanding and ambitious client
base data in the project had to be controlled and verified by the ■■ project management with a will to change: new software, new
geomatics manager to ensure that base data were of high quality. process tools and types of meetings
This included both existing base data and land-survey data gathered ■■ dedicated and enthusiastic project members.
for the project. The geomatics manager was also responsible for
producing accurate terrain models and other models of existing The last of these points is arguably the most important. All project
situations in co-operation with the rest of the disciplines. members were important in order to complete such a complicated
The GIS manager had established an ArcGIS geodatabase for project. The experience from the project is that when people get to
GIS analyses, production of map illustrations and field registering know each other through physical meetings and milestone parties,
using the ArcGIS online tool. Figure 12 shows how the project’s they can create amazing collective results. This requires structured
landscape architect used the online tool to register farms, wells and empathetic project management and a trustful client.
and other points of interest. The results of the registrations were The project continues to work with innovation. While this
imported into the BIM model. paper was written, Trimble Quantm software was being explored
The BIM team also had a visualisation manager. The most to automate the search for feasible alternatives with better
important project goal for this phase was to get the plan adopted environmental and public outcomes. In addition, issue and tracking
by the municipalities. Achieving this goal required an effective software JIRA was being implemented to collect, categorise

Civil Engineering Using building information modelling for planning
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Figure 13. 3D visualisation of Hamar station

and prioritise all the actions carried out and decisions made in co-operation with competitors. When everyone shares knowledge,
the project. The issues arise from different sources, for example the whole industry benefits, further developing methods for smarter
design-review processes, internal and external meetings, visual project execution.
planning and stakeholders. The public knows that robots or machines will eventually replace
their jobs. One can see this as a threat, but human creativity and
4.3  Value added to the project the ability to solve complex tasks together cannot be replaced by a
The Sorli-to-Brumunddal project team handled information with computer or a machine. The value created from simply working in
a very high level of complexity in one multi-disciplinary model. a team of two or three, instead of working alone, is immeasurably
Combining monetary impacts and non-monetary impacts in one greater than the sum of the individual contributions. Success
model provided a powerful tool for identifying traces that would within digitalisation lies in the intersection between technology
serve as compromises between building costs and environmental and the creativity and knowledge of humans. This is what the team
costs. The project team continuously increased the maturity of the involved in the Sorli-to-Brumunddal project experienced.
project by moving the track or adding mitigating measures in an
iterative process.
Feeding the multi-disciplinary model with more than 50 different Acknowledgements
discipline models gave an excellent overview of interfaces and
needs for follow-up meetings on certain themes. It also revealed The authors would like to acknowledge the client, Bane NOR,
needs for modifications of certain discipline models, and kept the for being forward-leaning and co-operative with regards to the
inter-disciplinary quality in focus continuously throughout the BIM processes in this project. The authors would also like to
project period. acknowledge their co-operation partner, Sweco, for contributing to
The client had full insight into the multi-disciplinary model knowledge-sharing and a good team atmosphere.
throughout. The project team believed in an open dialogue with the
client and involved the client in the development of the project. This References
provided a valuable means for quality control throughout the project
period, and reduced or avoided misunderstandings and delays. BIM WP (Building Information Modelling Working Party) (2011) A Report
Collaboration and meetings with authorities and important for the Government Construction Client Group: Building Information
Modelling (BIM) Working Party Strategy Paper. Department of Business,
stakeholders were also important sources of information for the
Innovation and Skills, London, UK, URN 11/948.
model. The complete model was presented to the stakeholders,
Designing Buildings Wiki (2018)
giving them a full overview of impacts and a visualisation of the BIM_maturity_levels (accessed 30/01/2018).
project, thus finally making them able to make qualified evaluations
HMG (Her Majesty’s Government) (2012) Industrial Strategy: Government
of the different alternatives. and Industry in Partnership. Building Information Modelling. Department
of Business, Innovation and Skills, London, UK, URN 12/1327.
LEI (Lean Enterprise Institute) (2018) What is Lean? LEI, Cambridge, MA,
5. Conclusion USA. See (accessed 30/01/2018).
NMTC (Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications) (2016)
Planning a high-speed railway in Norway is complicated. By National Transport Plan 2018–2029. Meld. St. 33 (2016–2017) Report to
using BIM all the project members co-operated and provided the Storting (white paper). NMTC, Oslo, Norway. See https://www.ntp. (accessed 30/01/2018).
knowledge to the project. A large-scale project like this requires

Cite this article Research Article Keywords: hydraulics & hydrodynamics;
Carruthers DR, Carruthers P and Wade R (2018) Paper 1700051 renewable energy; waterways & canals
A new, more efficient waterwheel design for very-low-head hydropower schemes. Received 19/12/2017
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering 171(3): 129–134, Accepted 21/02/2018 Published online 06/04/2018

ICE Publishing: All rights reserved

Civil Engineering

A new, more efficient waterwheel design for

very-low-head hydropower schemes
1 David Ross Carruthers LL.M. Eur., MBA, LLB, MEng, BSc, FICE 2 Penelope Carruthers BSc, HND
Engineering Manager, Carruthers Renewables Limited, Perth, UK Chief Executive Officer, Carruthers Renewables Limited, Perth, UK
(corresponding author: (Orcid: 0000-0001-5954-3841)
(Orcid: 0000-0001-9014-3715) 3 Rebecca Wade MA, PhD
Senior Lecturer, Abertay University, Dundee, UK

1 2 3

Very-low-head hydropower constitutes a large untapped renewable energy source, estimated at 1 GW in the UK
alone. A new type of low-impact waterwheel has been developed and tested at Abertay University in Scotland to
improve the economic viability of such schemes. For example, on a 2·5 m high weir in the UK with 5 m3/s mean flow,
one waterwheel could produce an annual investment return of 7·5% for over 100 years. This paper describes the
evolution of the design and reports on scale-model tests. These show that the new design harnesses significant
potential and kinetic energy to generate power and handles over four times as much water per metre width
compared to traditional designs.

1. Introduction This paper describes the concept, design and testing of a new
waterwheel type. By applying hydrodynamics to basic design, the
For millennia waterwheels have powered flour mills, weaving wheel differs from traditional waterwheels in the same way that
mills and machine shops. However, when hydrodynamic theory wind turbines differ from windmills.
and manufacturing improved sufficiently to alter designs, water Waterwheels have several advantages over turbines, for
turbines had already replaced industrial waterwheels. example low environmental impact, simpler technology, higher
Modern materials have improved waterwheel efficiency to profitability and public acceptance. While thousands of wheels
96% (Quaranta and Revelli, 2015: p. 322). Despite this, recent have been studied, gaining accurate data, these studies were
attempts to repurpose waterwheels to harness very-low-head done under one set of conditions. This is because the wheel-
(VLH) hydropower have failed economically (Figure 1). These powered mechanisms would be damaged if sped up, or stop
attempts used traditional systems based on eighteenth-century working if slowed down. Unfortunately, few model tests have
understanding of force and energy transfer. Electricity generation ever been accurately recorded using major differences, such as
requires new systems. water flows.

2.  New design basis

The existing drive towards cheaper more efficient water turbines
ignores the simpler solution of using more water to generate more
electricity. The approach arises from environmental agencies
limiting the amount of water extracted from water courses to avoid
causing ecological damage.
To use more water, new systems must be developed that cause
less environmental damage than conventional, outflow systems
(Figure 2). To achieve this, a new waterwheel has been developed
(Figure 3) for use with inflow systems (Figure 4).
Increasing efficiency while reducing turbine costs only improves
the economics a little. This is because the scope for efficiency
improvement is limited – conventional system efficiencies range
from 84% (waterwheels) to 95% (Kaplan turbines). Also, the total
cost of all mechanical equipment is approximately 30% (NWHRM,
Figure 1. New 32 kW waterwheels at Canavese Canal, Turin 2009), so even halving this cost has less impact than doubling the
quantity of water.

Civil Engineering A new, more efficient waterwheel design for
Volume 171 Issue CE3 very-low-head hydropower schemes
Carruthers, Carruthers and Wade


Access road Headpond




Tailrace reach


Figure 2. Conventional outflow system for low-head hydropower Figure 3. 1:10 scale, 1·2 m dia. model of a new waterwheel
schemes (Gibeau et al., 2017). (Canadian Science Publishing) design developed for use with an inflow system

2.1  Basic design assumptions Weir

The basic design assumptions for the new waterwheel design are
as follows. Wheel
Natural flow
Minimising adverse ecological effect is important. By not Flume
of water
removing water from the watercourse, adverse ecological effects
are almost eliminated. At best the river’s ecology may be improved,
with good hydrology and civil engineering.
Increasing utilised water volume increases electricity output 0 m 12
and profitability while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. For
example, the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) Figure 4. Location of waterwheel in an inflow hydropower system
allows high water use where no water extraction from the river is
required. However, utilising a large percentage of a river’s naturally
highly variable flow requires high efficiencies over a greater flow
variation than current technologies can handle. Another misconception is that the maximum flows waterwheels
Smooth flow reduces turbulence, and thus energy loss. Wheels can handle cannot be significantly increased. Instead of directing
are also more fish friendly with higher water volumes and smoother the water to strike the blades (Figure 5), the new wheel allows the
flow. In addition, both kinetic (KE) and potential (PE) energy can water to flow horizontally deep into the blades (Figure 6) allowing
be harnessed. Modern hydrodynamic theory and materials can be greater volumes to be handled per rotation.
applied to improve waterwheels, for example a 1:2 scale model It is also wrongly assumed that existing designs need not be
at Politecnico di Torino (Quaranta and Revelli, 2015: p.  322) changed for variable flows, as efficiency curves are relatively flat.
achieved efficiency of 96%. Traditionally designers concentrated on maintaining steady power
Finally, lower land usage is good. Inflow systems allow output levels. Maximising electricity production requires all flows
installation in urban sites with no riverbank land available. Urban to be efficiently harnessed, generating maximum output over the
locations also reduce grid costs, transmission losses and civil seasons.
engineering costs. Waterwheels are generally considered to harness mainly KE or
PE, but not significant amounts of both. This is correct with water
2.2  Previous assumptions extracted from a millpond into a channel, but not with an inflow
Conventional assumptions continue to be made in recent system.
papers. For example, it is often wrongly assumed that fundamental In the UK, subsidies are considered essential for the development
waterwheel design cannot be improved, with only evolution rather of renewable energy due to the very low returns on investment.
than revolution being possible. In reality, modern hydrodynamics By using three to four times more water than outflow systems, the
can be used to minimise losses due to turbulence and splashing. new waterwheel allows three to four times more electricity to be
Additionally, adjusting the inlet and tailrace configuration can produced, revolutionising hydropower economics.
increase power output. The Politecnico di Torino (Quaranta Finally, the ecological effect of run-of-river hydropower
and Revelli, 2015) reports a combined 19% energy loss at a schemes is often considered insignificant, since urban rivers are
conventional inlet/outlet. heavily modified and polluted. In reality outflow systems can

Civil Engineering A new, more efficient waterwheel design for
Volume 171 Issue CE3 very-low-head hydropower schemes
Carruthers, Carruthers and Wade

Water entry to wheel

0 m 4


Stream flow

Figure 6. In the new waterwheel design, water flows horizontally

into the blades


Figure 5. In traditional waterwheel designs, the inflowing water V-notch

strikes the blades (Bibliographischen Institute, 1905) dynamometer weir

Level flume Stilling

significantly damage a river’s ecology (Anderson et al., 2015), tank
while inflow systems meet SEPA’s low impact question ‘Will the
scheme be powered by the flow of water through an existing weir
or dam (i.e. without removing water from the river channel)?’
(SEPA, 2015: p. 11), thereby gaining provisional approval.

3.  New design

Figure 7. Test set-up at Abertay University
A new design has been developed which allows the water to run
smoothly onto the blades without impact, with the blades gently
spiralling inwards (Figure 3). While harnessing PE with similar
efficiency to traditional wheels, KE is transferred by the forces The wheel has 41 blades, representing a distance apart of 1 m at
generated as the water changes direction flowing around the curved full scale. This is slightly less than typical traditional waterwheels,
blades, first into the wheel by momentum and then, as the wheel resulting in more blades than any previous model known to the
rotates, down the blade by gravity. authors.
Traditional waterwheel design theory assumes any water In the tests, the inlet water flowed from a header tank through
movement relative to the blade/bucket is a source of energy loss, so a V-notch weir, into a stilling tank, then by way of a horizontal,
water was stilled by directing it as close as possible to 90o onto the rectangular flume into the waterwheel. The water speed was
blade surface (Figure 5), also maximising the impact force. State- calculated from volume and water depth 40 mm before the flume
of-the-art waterwheel mathematical modelling ignores momentum, outlet. The rotation speed was measured electronically.
which leads to skewed conclusions (Denny, 2003; Schneider et al., The tests’ main purpose was to show KE being harnessed by
2009). the same device that efficiently harnesses PE. Figure 8 shows that,
To test both the structural stability and hydraulics of the new as the circumferential speed reduces below the inlet water speed,
design, tests were undertaken under a wide range of flows and the wheel energy output suddenly increases steeply. This increase
inlet heights in a model tank at Abertay University in Scotland. indicates KE capture. No previously published results show this
A 1:10 scale, stainless-steel model of the new wheel was tested, effect. Efficiency curves, measured in the conventional manner,
measuring 1·2 m in diameter by 0·1 m wide and with sheet plastic would show this increase if present.
in place of the proposed wooden blades (Figure 7). The 1:10 The secondary aim was to prove that the structure shows no
scale allowed the angle and channel sections to be modelled dynamic instability, despite the high flexibility of the individual
using 1 mm thick plate. members and small width/diameter ratio. Despite handling much

Civil Engineering A new, more efficient waterwheel design for
Volume 171 Issue CE3 very-low-head hydropower schemes
Carruthers, Carruthers and Wade

smaller than wind turbines. No conventional waterwheel, screw or

80 turbine can perform at high efficiency over the range of flows in a
75 PE
river. If the traditional design assumptions are ignored and a new
Poly. (PE+KE) type of waterwheel is placed directly in the river, the following
70 Poly. (PE) advantages are gained.

■■ Inflow systems (Carruthers et al., 2015) reduce the ecological
60 impact, so allowing a larger percentage of the river flow to be
used compared with an outflow system, thereby generating
more electricity.
50 ■■ Any inflow installation will have a smaller footprint than an
0 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40
outflow system (Mackie, 2015; SEPA, 2015, p. 11).
■■ Construction costs will be reduced (Harvie, 2015).

Figure 8. Waterwheel efficiency – energy output increases steeply

4.1  Greater volume
as the circumferential speed reduces below the inlet water speed
Zuppinger wheels have long been recognised as handling the
largest volume of water per metre width (1·2 m3/s per metre
more water than anticipated, with consequential increased power width) and as the most forgiving for variable flows (Rennie,
output and stresses, the wheel structure remained solid and moved et al., 1849: pp. 45–46). The new wheel harnesses PE in the same
smoothly. Nevertheless, two dynamometers were overloaded, way as Zuppingers and, at first glance, looks very similar, but
damaged and replaced, as the impressive power output potential tests show it can handle four times the volume per metre width,
became clear. and harness KE.
The tests confirmed the belief (Müller, 1899: p. 30, Teil 2) that Water enters the new wheel smoothly along the blade, while
axles should be 0·7 m to 1·0 m above the inlet water level, or traditional breast-shot wheels direct inlet water downward either
approximately a tenth of the wheel diameter. The efficiency of by a coulisse or an over-weir utilising the Coandă effect (Müller,
the wheel was measured at four different water flows, with the 1899; Müller and Wolter, 2004) to minimise motion on the blade.
efficiency increasing as the flow increased. The limit of this effect It is not safe to assume traditional practice was correct, being
could not be established as further pump capacity was needed. based on an incomplete understanding of the nature of energy
The increased ability to handle flow raised questions concerning (Carnot, 1803). Nevertheless, many modern papers state that
hydraulic similitude, with the only model test known to the authors movement of the water on the blades results in lost energy, ‘a
addressing this subject being that of Smeaton (1759: p. 101). The portion of the kinetic power dissipates impinging on blades, while
Reynolds numbers are 1·5 × 106 full size, and 1·5 × 104 model size, another portion dissipates running up the blades’ (Quaranta et al.,
meaning that a full-size waterwheel would be clearly in the range 2015: p. 3)
of turbulent flow, more so than the model. Assuming that KE is lost by impact on a flat surface, but not
Simple turbulence inducers were fitted close to the end of the by ‘running up the blades’, the strategy is to harness the KE in
model flume, but no measurable change occurred. This confirmed the water by altering the curve of the blade to allow smooth flow.
that the new waterwheel accepts a greater volume of water per metre That curved buckets/blades reduce impact losses has been known
width (>4 m3/s) than traditional breast-shot wheels. Combining this since Poncelet (1827) designed what is generally considered the
with the ability to handle greater variations in water flow allows most efficient KE wheel. Here very low heads, 0·75 m to 1·7 m
a reasonable wheel width to handle the maximum percentage of (Bozhinova et al., 2013), were used to speed up the water before
river flow allowed by SEPA (up to 80%). Historically, wrought- entering the wheel. Although using a curved blade to smoothly
iron wheels broader than 5 m (5 m3/s) proved to be dynamically slow down the water rising up the blade’s curve was integral to
unstable, which may set an upper limit on capacity, or could be a
result of the large impact forces in traditional design.
The Froude similitudes are close, almost identical at maximum
flow. Rebuilding the test rig, considering the higher flow volumes,
will enable maximum flow capacity to be determined accurately,
the losses due to mechanical friction to be measured and the precise
efficiency of the new wheel to be calculated. The surprisingly high
flows required the blades to be extended to prevent water loss over
the ends.

4.  Applying modern knowledge to a modern

Figure 9. The nineteenth-century Poncelet waterwheel lost half of
In maximising electricity output, supply variation is not a the water kinetic energy as water tumbled out
problem as variable flows cause power output changes much

Civil Engineering A new, more efficient waterwheel design for
Volume 171 Issue CE3 very-low-head hydropower schemes
Carruthers, Carruthers and Wade

the Poncelet wheel (Figure 9), the water then tumbled back down, The accepted ideas for ‘living force’ were ‘quantity of
so less than half of the KE was exploited. This process has never movement’, ‘accelerating force’, ‘retarding force’, ‘motor
been considered for other PE wheels, where simple impact could force’, ‘moving force’, ‘life force’ (Carnot, 1803: pp. 25–26).
harness up to half the KE. As sound and heat were not considered energy, KE losses were
attributed to the loss of ‘life force’ and later to KE dissipating.
4.2  Greater variation in speed ‘The theoretical results show that the big power losses are the
Placing the waterwheel in a river requires handling flows dissipation of the stream kinetic energy against the blades and
varying considerably from dry to storm conditions. This changes the hydraulic losses in the headrace’ (Quaranta and Revelli,
the base assumptions surrounding wheel design and theory. The 2015: p. 315).
new design harnesses KE by allowing the water to penetrate The KE that can be captured has long been thought to be 3%
further into the wheel, especially important as water speeds of available PE (Müller, 1899: p.  55, Teil 2), confirmed over the
increase. centuries by observing existing wheels and laboratory testing.
Traditional waterwheels have optimal efficiency at rotational However, existing wheels use lades, which were as level as
velocity 60% of water entry velocity (Quaranta et al., 2015: possible to minimise head loss, and laboratory models mimicked
p. 3). The ratio can be maintained over the year with median this.
conditions but sudden changes cannot always be catered for. A river’s maximum KE is generally greater at 20% to 30% of
By extending the blades well into the wheel body, the highest PE in spate conditions. Water current measurements are scarce,
anticipated speeds in spate conditions can be absorbed without especially those specifically for characterising hydro-kinetic
losses due to splashing, running beyond the ends of the blades potential. Surface observations for navigational purposes and river
or turbulence. discharge data are more common, but the accuracy and stringency
of such data are often not sufficient to carry out a reliable resource
4.3  Change in water depth assessment (Grabbe et al., 2009: p. 113).
The optimal wheel diameter is determined by the total head
available, including water depth at entry. Variable flow changes 4.6  Smooth flow
the inlet water depth and speed. As the wheel diameter cannot Simplified models of flow within PE wheels ignore momentum
be changed, variances in water depth were conventionally and water oscillation, so do not describe how blade shape affects
compensated for by changing the inlet over-weir height, or partially flow. Simply adapting the Poncelet curve is not optimal, as it is
closing sluices. With the new wheel, a 1 m range in the inlet water designed for accelerated water velocities, and dumps the water as it
depth has little effect on efficiency. reaches the end of the blade. A simplified spiral, the tightness and
During a spate, the water level at the tailrace may be above angle of which are informed by modern hydraulics, and applied
the lowest part of the wheel. The lower wheel moves in the same mathematics, is a good starting point.
direction as water in a river, as the wheel moves slower than the By avoiding impact through smoothly running the water onto the
river flood flow, the blades will not have to push the water leaving blades, the KE in the water is not reduced and remains available
the wheel against back water. For these reasons the lowest point for harnessing. By making the blades as smooth as possible, the
of the wheel can be set at the 50% downstream river exceedance turbulence is dimensionally much smaller than the blade, so the
level. This improves the breast-shot wheel’s head compared to water mass can flow as a unit smoothly up and down the curve
over-shot wheels, the lowest point of which must be higher than (Figure 6).
the 80% exceedance level to prevent ‘drowning’.

4.4  Change in wheel speed 5. Economics

Low wheel speeds of around 4 rpm (revolutions/min) are
frequently quoted as being optimum. With the ability to harness KE, The capital costs of installations at existing weirs with a fall
even lower rotational speeds have advantages and disadvantages between 2·5 m and 4 m, on rivers with a mean flow between 5
for the new wheel. and 3·5 m3/s were calculated using a UK standard price book
The slower the wheel turns the greater the KE difference in the for detailed bills of quantities drawn up according to the Civil
water between inlet and outlet – more KE can be harnessed and Engineering Standard Method of Measurement (CESMM 4;
there is more time to fill the blade space. However, there is also ICE, 2012). The operating costs were estimated from historical
more time for water to leak around the blade edges, greater speed data.
difference across the gearbox, and too slow and the entire system Using the calculated capital and operating costs, net present
fails, with water coming back down the blade trying to exit into the value calculations using an interest rate of 7·5%, and an electricity
flume. sale price equal to the 2017 wholesale price (£45/kWh) showed
positive values. Higher flows and/or higher weirs would be
4.5  Reduced impact losses extremely profitable.
Historically the inlet water for breast-shot wheels was directed
to impact the blades. In theory, water impacting a flat surface
extracts a maximum 50% of KE to add to the general waterwheel 6. Discussion
output. When wheel theory was being created (1750 to 1820),
what energy was and how energy transfer worked was not fully A patented waterwheel prototype has been built and extensively
understood. tested at Abertay University. By fundamentally changing the blade

Civil Engineering A new, more efficient waterwheel design for
Volume 171 Issue CE3 very-low-head hydropower schemes
Carruthers, Carruthers and Wade

curve and inclination, the way the water acts within the wheel has Denny M (2003) The efficiency of overshot and undershot waterwheels.
altered dramatically. By smoothing the water flow from the flume European Journal of Physics 25(2): 193–202.
onto and then along the blade, the water moves in an unbroken
Gibeau P, Connors BM and Palen WJ (2017) Run-of-River hydropower and
wave up and down the blades, a motion believed to be unique to salmonids: potential effects and perspective on future research. Canadian
this design. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 74(7): 1135–1149.
What others have already shown is that the effective energy
Grabbe M, Yuen K, Goude A, Lalander E and Leijon M (2009) Design of an
transfer in conventional wheels can be significantly improved, as experimental setup for hydro-kinetic energy conversion. The International
confirmed by the results from Politecnico di Torino (Quaranta, Journal on Hydropower & Dams 16(5): 112–116.
2017: p. 67). However, greater volume and speed variations can
Harvie W (2015) A New Approach to Small Scale Hydroelectricity
be accommodated in the new wheel while maintaining high levels
Generation. BSc thesis, Abertay University, Dundee, UK.
of efficiency. Test results will be used to determine the possible
relationships between the many variables. ICE (Institution of Civil Engineers) (2012) Civil Engineering Standard Method
of Measurement, 4th edn. ICE Publishing, London, UK.
Analysis of the prototype tests will aid developing a more
accurate theoretical model, which will be used to improve the Mackie G (2015) An Advanced Breast-shot Water Wheel: Assessment of
design process. What is already known is that the new design is Energy Output and Environmental Impact: Dean Village Case Study. MSc
thesis, Abertay University, Dundee, UK.
an entirely new type of wheel, the first to be designed for modern
electricity production and not mechanical tasks. Müller W (1899) Die Eisernen Wasserrader, 1st edn. Verlag von Veit &
Comp., Leipzig, Germany (in German).

Müller G and Wolter C (2004) The breastshot waterwheel: design and model
7. Conclusions tests. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Engineering
Sustainability 157(4): 203–211.
Directing the inlet water to flow smoothly through the wheel NWHRM (North West Hydro Resource Model) (2009) Hydro Resource
allows both PE and KE to be harnessed, with much larger volumes Evaluation Tool: Economic Assessment. Lancaster University, Lancaster,
of water per metre width being handled. UK. See
Currently the design of the full system is sufficiently developed (accessed 07/03/2018).

to be installed and operated profitably on very large numbers of Poncelet JV (1827) Mémoires sur les Roues Hydraulique a Aubes Courbes,
existing weirs. The level of profitability will depend on the water Mues Par-dessous, 2nd edn. La Société des Lettres, Sciences et Arts, et
flow regime and weir height. Subsidies may be needed to develop d’Agriculture de Metz, Metz, France (in French).
weirs lower than 2 m, unless there is a very substantial water flow, Quaranta E (2017) Investigation and Optimization of the Performance
more than 10m3/s, or the wheel is replacing electricity from a of Gravity Water Wheels. PhD thesis, Politecnico di Torino, Turin,
diesel generator. Italy.

Quaranta E and Revelli R (2015) Performance characteristics, power losses

and mechanical power estimation for a breastshot water wheel. Energy
Acknowledgements 87: 315–325.

Quaranta E, Fontan S, Cavagnero P and Revelli R (2015) Efficiency of

The authors are indebted to Abertay University for their traditional water wheels. Proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress:
permission to use the hydrology laboratory and to the members Deltas of the Future and what Happens Upstream, The Hague, the
of staff who contributed their time to assist them. Special thanks
are due to Bob Peter for his work on setting up, maintaining, and Rennie G, Fairbairn W, Croker BW et al. (1849) Discussion. On water-wheels
repairing the test equipment. with ventilated buckets. Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institution of
Civil Engineers 8: 59–66.

Schneider S, Saenger N, and Muller G (2009) Theoretische Beschreibung

References der Wirkungsweise eines Wasserrades am Beispiel Zuppingerrad. Treffen
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for Developers of Run-of-River Hydropower Schemes. SEPA,
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1st edn. L’Imprimerie de Craplet, Paris, France (in French). How can you contribute?
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PS41005_Tinto_Tues_v2.pdf (accessed 07/03/2018). happy to provide any help or advice you need.

Cite this article Research Article Keywords: bridges/computational
Mahmoudi Moazam A, Hasani N and Yazdani M (2018) Paper 1700048 mechanics/concrete structures
Three-dimensional modelling for seismic assessment of plain concrete arch bridges. Received 11/11/2017
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering 171(3): 135–143, Accepted 22/02/2018 Published online 06/04/2018

ICE Publishing: All rights reserved

Civil Engineering

Three-dimensional modelling for seismic

assessment of plain concrete arch bridges
1 Adel Mahmoudi Moazam PhD 3 Mahdi Yazdani PhD
Doctoral candidate, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of
and Seismology, Tehran, Iran Engineering, Arak University, Arak, Iran (corresponding author:
2 Nemat Hasani PhD
Associate Professor, Abbaspour School of Engineering, Shahid
Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

1 2 3

There are many century-old plain-concrete-arch railway bridges in Iran in need of seismic assessment. Given the
logistical difficulties of conducting field tests, the use of computer models is being investigated as an alternative.
Three-dimensional finite-element models were created for two bridges that had already been physically tested. After
calibration with the test results, the modelled bridges were then subjected to a modelled earthquake to evaluate their
behaviour under seismic loading. The results demonstrate that seismic response depends entirely on the geometrical
and material properties, and that bridges perform better in a transverse direction.

1. Introduction and considered the effects of their geometric properties on their

In recent years, structural assessment of railway arch bridges in In addition to static analyses and failure studies, many researchers
earthquake zones has become increasingly important to understand have focused on the dynamic behaviour of masonry arch bridges.
their non-linear dynamic behaviour under seismic loading. While Brencich and Sabia (2008) studied Tanaro Bridge in Italy, which
much can be understood from numerical modelling, the complex has 18 spans. They utilised the cylindrical core, Schmitt hammer
behaviour of the structures requires field tests to calibrate the and ultrasonic tests for estimating various characteristics of the
models. Bridge. Furthermore, dynamic tests were performed to capture
The first researchers in this field were Pippard and Heyman. dynamic characteristics of the structure, which included mode
Results of their studies were the semi-empirical method (Mexe) shapes, damping ratio and the first five mode frequencies. Among the
and the mechanism method (Page, 1993). The first finite-element physical characteristics of the bridge, the first frequency and damping
modelling of masonry arch bridges is reported by Crisfield and ratio were given as 7 Hz and 6%, respectively. The results of their
Packham (1987) and Choo et al. (1991). Page (1993) examined study show that the first frequency and damping ratio of a bridge are
experiments on stone arch bridges to calculate service and collapse reduced when infill parts are eliminated. Also, they computed the first
loads in static conditions, which confirmed that the bridges mode shape of a masonry arch bridge in the longitudinal direction.
behaved linearly under vertical loading. In India, Kishen et al. (2013) studied brick arch bridges, focusing
Fanning and Boothby (2001) performed field tests for masonry on dynamic tests. They examined a two-span arch bridge with each
arch bridges and compared their finite-element models with span being 17·5 m long. In the dynamic tests, trains with different
experimental results. They presented a three-dimensional (3D) speeds were used to find frequencies and dynamic magnification
model with details and believed that the geometry of arches and fact which give frequencies from 5 to 10 Hz.
walls, as structural elements, is an important factor for structural In Turkey, more studies have evaluated the dynamic and seismic
behaviour. Melbourne and Gilbert (1995) examined three multi- behaviour of masonry arch bridges (Bayraktar et al., 2010, 2011,
span brick arch bridges and investigated the effects of span number. 2015; Sevim et al., 2011a, 2011b, 2016). In these studies, field tests
Walker and Melbourne (1988) evaluated the effects of a spandrel were performed on three stone arch bridges with non-uniform span
wall on ultimate strength and found that it increases the ultimate lengths. Also, dynamic characteristics including the first mode
strength of a bridge up to 70%. Royles and Hendry (1991) focused frequency and damping ratio were calculated for these bridges.
on 24 arch bridges and verified infill and spandrel wall effects Bayraktar et al. (2010) suggested a damping ratio of 3%; they
on these structures. They concluded that masonry arch bridges also suggested a relation (f = 16·824 – 3·935ln(l)) for the first mode
behave in a 3D manner, with infill and spandrel walls increasing frequency. In this relation, l is the length of the largest span in metres
the strength of bridges from two to 12 times, which depends on and f is the first mode frequency in Hz. Additionally, they showed
the geometry of this type of bridge. De Arteaga and Morer (2012) these structures have three fundamental mode shapes: bending,
investigated six masonry arch bridges with various span numbers vertical in-plane and torsional out-of-plane modes. Bayraktar et al.

Civil Engineering Three-dimensional modelling for seismic
Volume 171 Issue CE3 assessment of plain concrete arch bridges
Mahmoudi Moazam, Hasani and Yazdani

(2015) performed linear and non-linear dynamic analysis of been performed on plain concrete arch bridges – for example, Marefat
three stone arch bridges under the north–south component of the et al. (2004, 2017), Ataei et al. (2016) and Moazam et al. (2017).
1992 Erzincan earthquake in Turkey and evaluated the dynamic In the study reported in this paper, 3D finite-element analyses
behaviour of these structures. Sevim et al. (2016) compared the of two different plain concrete arch bridges were performed.
near- and far-field behaviour of three stone arch bridges. First, a summary of experiments for plain concrete arch bridges is
Recently, by using non-linear dynamic analysis, Pelà et al. presented. Then an explanation is given of how the finite-element
(2013) used 28 earthquake records and performed 84 time-history models were calibrated using experimental tests results. The next
analyses. They investigated the effectiveness of non-linear static section assesses, the non-linear dynamic behaviour of the two
analysis and non-linear dynamic analysis for masonry arch bridges. bridges under the Manjil earthquake record. This is followed by a
They showed that pushover analysis overestimates the seismic discussion of the results.
assessment result compared to non-linear dynamic analysis.
Gencturk et al. (2012) investigated the behaviour of a single-
span arch bridge under earthquake loading conditions by using 2.  Description of the bridges and experimental
comprehensive 3D discrete finite-element modelling and limit results
analysis. They showed the first mode shape is accrued transversely
with a frequency of 8·4 Hz. They also showed the failure mechanism
of this structure is different in static and dynamic states. One of the comprehensive field experiments which considered
Furthermore, many studies have been published about two- plain concrete arch bridges was performed by Marefat et al. (2017),
dimensional (2D) and 3D analyses of these structures in linear, which examined two bridges with different geometries.
non-linear, plastic and fracture mechanics conditions (Accornero The bridges are located at kilometres 23 and 24 of the Tehran–
et al., 2016; Callaway et al., 2012; Cazzani et al., 2016; Conde Qom railway and consist of two 20 m arches and five 6 m arches,
et al., 2017; Costa et al., 2015; Karaton et al., 2017; Rovithis and respectively. They are both plain concrete structures with no
Pitilakis, 2016; Zampieri et al., 2016, 2018). reinforcement. Profiles of the bridges can be seen in Figure 1(a)
There are many old arch bridges in Iran that have been used as and Figure 1(b), and geometric characteristics of the bridges are
railway bridges for more than 70 years. Although these structures presented in Table 1. Cylindrical cores were taken from different
have served well under service load, none of them were designed parts to determine concrete quality, the results of which are
for seismic load. According to the Iranian seismic hazard zoning presented in Table 2.
map, most of these bridges are located in high-seismicity zones. In the static test, loading was carried out using 40 kN weights.
Therefore, evaluation of the behaviour of these structures under The load was increased gradually, and displacements were
earthquake loading is vital. measured at every 240 kN increment of load (see Figure 1(c)).
Three types of bridge exist: brickwork arch bridges, stone arch In the dynamic test, a 1200 kN six-axle locomotive passed over
bridges and plain concrete arch bridges. The main research into the bridges at different speeds. Variations of acceleration and
masonry arch bridges has been about static analysis and has focused deflection at the crown of the middle span of the km‑24 bridge and
on brick and stone bridges. Only a few experimental studies have the left span of the km‑23 bridge were recorded.

(a) (c)
29.20 m 29.20 m

Compacted soil
Concrete 20 m

Northern span
0 m 10

21.90 m 21.90 m
7.5 m Compacted soil


0 m 8
4.20 m

Figure 1. Geometric characteristics of bridges: (a) the km‑23 bridge, (b) the km‑24 bridge, (c) static test for km‑23

Civil Engineering Three-dimensional modelling for seismic
Volume 171 Issue CE3 assessment of plain concrete arch bridges
Mahmoudi Moazam, Hasani and Yazdani

Table 1. Geometric characteristics of the two bridges

Bridge No. of spans Span Shape of arch Thickness of Thickness of Arch Bridge Thickness of
length: m crown: m arch ends: m width: m height: m spandrel walls: m
km‑23 2 20 Segment of circle 1·1 1·9 3·9 8·0 1
km‑24 5 6 Half circle 0·7 1·1 3·9 7·3 1

Table 2. Properties of arch concrete based on cylindrical core tests

Item Compressive strength, f c: MPa Modulus of elasticity, E: GPa Density of concrete: kg/m3
Bridge km‑23 km‑24 km‑23 km‑24 km‑23 km‑24
Concrete fill 17·6 7·6 20·2 10·9 2300 2217
Arch 17·3 39·4 17·0 24·9 2280 2290
Pier 27·9 31·9 37·3 36·5 2350 2250

3.  Numerical simulation and calibration To use the Williams and Warnke fracture condition, the following
input data are needed
Actual behaviour of bridges depends on boundary
conditions, material properties, changing properties in sections, ■■ concrete modulus of elasticity (E)
discontinuities and connectivity. The behaviour of infill materials ■■ concrete Poisson’s ratio (ν)
and soil–foundation interaction should also be considered. ■■ uniaxial tensile cracking stress (fr)
However, all cases cannot be implemented in practice, so some ■■ uniaxial crushing stress (f ′c)
are implemented indirectly (Betti et al., 2008; Fanning and ■■ biaxial crushing stress (fcb)
Boothby, 2001; Fanning et al., 2001; Kishi et al., 2011; Kumar ■■ ambient hydrostatic stress state (σh)
and Bhandari, 2005; Milani and Lourenço, 2012; Toti et al., ■■ shear transfer coefficients for an open crack (βt)
2014). ■■ shear transfer coefficients for a closed crack (βc).
Based on existing research, this study presents a comprehensive
model for precise assessment of plain concrete arch bridges. The model uses a smeared crack model for both cracking in the
Different parts of the bridges – including arches, piers, tension zone and crushing in the compressive zone.
foundation, spandrel wall, wing wall and soil – were modelled in To use the Drucker–Prager yield criterion, the following input
detail to represent the actual behaviours of the km‑23 and km‑24 data are needed
Three-dimensional finite-element models of the bridges ■■ cohesion (c)
were created in Ansys software, which can be used for linear, ■■ angle of internal friction (ϕ)
non‑linear, static and dynamic analyses of structures. This ■■ angle of dilation (ψ).
involved 66 466 eight-node isoperimetric solid elements with
220 170 degrees of freedom for the km‑23 bridge and 64 951 The Drucker–Prager yield surface is defined by the follow equations
eight-node solid elements with 197 685 degrees of freedom for

the km‑24 bridge. Material properties were based on test results 1. √ J2 = αI1 + k
of cylindrical cores.
In the second step, in order to calibrate the model, static
and modal analyses were carried out to determine uncertain 6c cosϕ
parameters such as mechanical characteristics of the soil beneath 2. α= –
the bridges and boundary conditions. The modal and static √ 3 (3 − sinϕ)
analyses were repeated simultaneously until the models showed
the same fundamental frequencies and vertical deflection as the 2sinϕ
physical tests. 3. k= –
By calibrating the uncertain parameters, the models can √ 3 (3 − sinϕ)
represent the actual behaviour of the bridges. In the simulations,
non‑linear material models were considered based on a ‘smeared where I1 is the first stress invariant and J2 is the second deviator
crack model’ in fracture mechanics theory to allow for the stress invariant. In this study, the compressive strength of
formation of cracks perpendicular to the direction of principal concrete was obtained from field tests; therefore, other non-linear
stresses that exceed the tensile strength of the concrete. For parameters in the Williams and Warnke fracture condition could be
considering the non-linear response of a brittle concrete based calculated easily using the following equations
on a constitutive model for triaxial behaviour, the Williams and
Warnke fracture condition was modelled. Soil was modelled by 4. ν = 0·15 to 0·25
the Drucker–Prager yield criterion (Chen, 2007).

Civil Engineering Three-dimensional modelling for seismic
Volume 171 Issue CE3 assessment of plain concrete arch bridges
Mahmoudi Moazam, Hasani and Yazdani

5. σh = 0·67f c′ tests, the models of the km‑23 and km‑24 bridges were then used
to assess the seismic response of the bridges – as described in the
next section.
6. fcb = 1·2f c′

4.  Non-linear dynamic analysis

7. βt = 0·1 to 0·2
To determine the dynamic behaviour of the two plain concrete
arch bridges (km‑23 and km‑24) under earthquake loading, the
8. βc = 0·4 to 0·8 Manjil earthquake record was performed in two directions. The
Manjil earthquake occurred in 1990 and resulted in more than
40 000 deaths (Berberian et al., 1992). This earthquake, of 7·4
Also, the tension strength of concrete was assumed as fr = 0·15f c′. Richter magnitude, was one of the most destructive earthquakes
The element performed in a linear flexible state until either the in Iran; its epicentre was recorded at a distance of 214 km
specified tensile or compressive strength was exceeded. Cracking
or crushing of an element started once one of the element principal
stresses, at an element integration point, exceeded the tensile or
compressive strength of the continuum.
Cracked or crushed regions, as opposed to discrete cracks, were
formed perpendicular to the relevant principal stress direction,
with stresses being redistributed locally. Therefore, the element
was non-linear and needed an iterative solver. In the numerical
procedures, the formation of a crack was achieved by changing
the stress–strain relationships of the element to present a plane of
weakness in the requisite principle stress direction.
Verification of models and natural frequencies of numerical
simulations are presented and compared with experimental results
in Table 3. Figures 2 and 3 show modal deformations of the first
and the second modes of the bridges. The vertical deflection
of the bridges in the static case is compared with experimental
results and is shown in Figure 4.
In static analysis, the km‑23 bridge had non-linear behaviour
for the 7280 kN force applied in the field test. Therefore, 7280 kN
force was applied with 50 steps in the analysis procedure. Also,
due to linearity behaviour of the km‑24 bridge, only five steps were
used for the 5000 kN force in the analysis procedure.
Final mechanical properties of soils in the km‑23 and km‑24
bridges obtained from the calibration procedure are presented in
Table 4, together with concrete material properties. This result
demonstrates that the shear wave velocity (v) of soils was 708 m/s
and 624 m/s for the km‑23 and km‑24 bridges, respectively.
According to the seismic design code of Iran, there are four types
of soil in which the shear wave velocity 300 m/s≤ v ≤875 m/s of
soil (ground type II) shows a very dense soil profile (BHRC, 2005). Figure 2. Longitudinal displacement of the km‑23 bridge in (a)
As frequencies and static displacements in the numerical first mode, (b) second mode
simulations had good compatibility with the results of the field

Table 3. Comparison of natural frequencies identified in physical tests and numerical modelling
Bridge Experimental case/ First mode (longitudinal Second mode (transverse Third mode (vertical
finite-element model direction): Hz direction): Hz direction): Hz
km‑23 Physical test 3·5 5·9 8·6
Numerical model 4·66 5·66 8·28
Error 15·0 4·8 3·8
km‑24 Physical test 14·6 21·5 26·4
Numerical model 14·65 21·02 24·25
Error 0·3 2·2 8·1

Civil Engineering Three-dimensional modelling for seismic
Volume 171 Issue CE3 assessment of plain concrete arch bridges
Mahmoudi Moazam, Hasani and Yazdani

from the km‑23 and km‑24 bridges. Based on FEMA P659, the 0·02 s were assumed. The equations of motion and non-linear
earthquake record is a far-field earthquake (FEMA, 2009). Peak dynamic analysis were solved by the Newmark-beta method and
ground acceleration and time duration were 0·497g and 46 s, Newton–Raphson algorithm with a time increment dt = 0·005 s
respectively. and a total of 9200 steps. Linear variation of acceleration was
In non-linear dynamic analysis, element matrices were assumed with a variation of acceleration parameter γ = 0·5.
calculated by Gaussian numerical integration. Time intervals of Sensitivity analyses were carried out to assess the accuracy of the
adopted time discretisation (dt = 0·005).
Based on the work of Marefat et al. (2017), a Rayleigh damping
coefficient was used in which the damping ratios of the km‑23
and km‑24 bridges were considered as 5% and 10%, respectively.
Convergence was checked by the displacement control approach.

4.1  Longitudinal direction

Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8 show longitudinal displacement, velocity,
acceleration and stress histories at the crowns and maximum points
of the two bridges. Maximum displacement and stress fields were
obtained in 10·72 s and 9·94 s for the km‑23 and km‑24 bridges,
respectively. For the km‑23 bridge, the maximum point was
computed at the top of the bridge and for the km‑24 bridge the
maximum point was at the pier.
The results for each bridge are completely different. The
km‑24 bridge behaved linearly and had good strength, while the
km‑23 bridge behaved non-linearly with lower strength. Based on
convergence criteria, the failure mechanism of the km‑23 bridge
occurred at a time of 10·99 s. The study required significant
computing time: using a standard computer with a 2·6 GHz
processor and 12 Gb of random access memory, it took 28 h for
the km‑23 bridge and 121 h for the km‑24 bridge. Results of the
non‑linear dynamic analysis are compared in Table 5.
Based on the model, the km‑23 bridge would be badly damaged
in a major earthquake, with cracks predicted at the crown, springing
and skewback (the sloped part of the abutment supporting the arch)
Figure 3. Longitudinal displacement of the km‑24 bridge in (a) (Figure 9(a)). On the other hand, the km‑24 bridge looks like it
first mode, (b) second mode will perform much better. Certainly the field test indicated that the
km‑24 bridge was over-designed. As the bridge behaves linearly,

(a) (b)

8000 6000
Experimental results
Three-dimensional finite-element modelling
Load: kN

Load: kN


Experimental results
Three-dimensional finite-element modelling
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
Vertical deflection: mm Vertical deflection: mm

Figure 4. Static response comparison of the bridges at the crown: (a) left span of the km‑23 bridge, (b) middle span of the km‑24 bridge

Table 4. Soil properties determined by calibration

Bridge Density: kg/m3 Modulus of Poisson’s Cohesion coefficient: Friction angle: ° Velocity of shear
elasticity: GPa ratio MPa waves: m/s
km‑23 1800 0·7 0·33 0·4 33 624
km‑24 2000 0·9 0·33 0·5 35 708

Civil Engineering Three-dimensional modelling for seismic
Volume 171 Issue CE3 assessment of plain concrete arch bridges
Mahmoudi Moazam, Hasani and Yazdani

(a) (b)
0.07 0.0015
Crown Crown
0.05 Maximum Maximum
Displacement: m

Displacement: m
0.01 0.0005
–0.05 –0.0005
–0.11 –0.0015
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
Time: s Time: s

Figure 5. Time histories of longitudinal displacements for (a) the km‑23 bridge, (b) the km‑24 bridge

(a) (b)
0.80 0.03
Crown Crown
0.60 Maximum Maximum
Velocity: m/s

Velocity: m/s


0 0

–0.80 –0.03
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
Time: s Time: s

Figure 6. Time histories of longitudinal velocities for (a) the km‑23 bridge, (b) the km‑24 bridge

(a) (b)
8 2.0
Crown Crown
6 Maximum 1.5 Maximum

4 1.0
Acceleration: m/s2

Acceleration: m/s2

2 0.5
0 0
–2 –0.5
–4 –1.0
–6 –1.5
–8 –2.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
Time: s Time: s

Figure 7. Time histories of longitudinal accelerations for (a) the km‑23 bridge, (b) the km‑24 bridge

Civil Engineering Three-dimensional modelling for seismic
Volume 171 Issue CE3 assessment of plain concrete arch bridges
Mahmoudi Moazam, Hasani and Yazdani

(a) (b)
2.5 0.16


Stress: MPa

Stress: MPa
1.0 0.06


0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
Time: s Time: s

Figure 8. Time histories of longitudinal stresses at maximum point for (a) the km‑23 bridge, (b) the km‑24 bridge

Table 5. Results of non-linear dynamic analysis in the longitudinal

Bridge km‑23 km‑24
Bridge behaviour Non-linear Linear
Damaged parts Crown, springing Skewback
and skewback
Time of collapse: s 10·99 No collapse (a)
Peak displacement: cm 10·2 0·1
Peak velocity: cm/s 77 2·6
Peak acceleration: cm/s 2
736 144
Maximum pressure stress: MPa 21·2 10·68
Minimum tensile stress: MPa 2·21 0·157

damage and cracks are predicted to be limited and located at the
skewback (Figure 9(b)). Figure 9. Crack status in the longitudinal direction at (a) 10·72 s
In mechanism methods which predict failure mechanism of for the km‑23 bridge, (b) 9·94 s for the km‑24 bridge
masonry arch bridges, plastic hinges are formed at damaged
locations in the static case (Heyman, 1982). Based on Heyman
theory, these damage zones are similar to the modelled damage in
this study. 0.12
The km‑23 bridge has larger spans and lower quality material
than the km‑24 bridge; therefore, the structural capacity of the
km‑23 bridge is worse. It can be concluded from the model results 0.06
that plain concrete arch bridges with lower span length (l ≤ 10 m) 0.03
and high-quality material (e.g. for arches E ≥ 20 GPa), will not fail
Displacement: m

in a major earthquake. On the contrary, bridges that have longer
span length (l ≥ 10 m) and moderate material quality (E ≤ 20 GPa) –0.03

are more vulnerable. –0.06

4.2  Transverse direction
Based on convergence criteria, the modelled km‑23 bridge
collapsed in the transverse direction in 15·42 s, again indicating –0.15
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
that the structure would not resist a major earthquake. However, Time: s
the km‑24 bridge was again able to resist the earthquake with
linear behaviour in the transverse direction. Figure 10 shows the Figure 10. Time histories of transverse displacements for the
transverse displacement history of the km‑23 bridge. Maximum km‑23 bridge
displacement was obtained in 10·82  s. Figure 11 shows the

Civil Engineering Three-dimensional modelling for seismic
Volume 171 Issue CE3 assessment of plain concrete arch bridges
Mahmoudi Moazam, Hasani and Yazdani

Table 6. Results of non-linear dynamic analysis in the transverse


MX Bridge km‑23 km‑24

Bridge behaviour Non-linear Linear
Damaged parts Crown, springing Skewback
and skewback
–·181969 –·141411 –·100853 –·060295 –·019737
(a) Time of collapse: s 15·42 No collapse
Peak displacement: cm 14·3 0·54
Peak velocity: cm/s 72·4 10·25
MN Peak acceleration: cm/s2 832 389
Maximum pressure stress: MPa 14·3 5·1

–·238E–04 ·001175 ·002373 ·003571 ·004769

Minimum tensile stress: MPa 2·6 0·63

Figure 11. Maximum transverse displacement field at (a) 10·82 s

for the km‑23 bridge, (b) 9·96 s for the km‑24 bridge

transverse displacement field at 10·82 s and 9·96 s for the km‑23

and km‑24 bridges, respectively.
In the transverse direction, the maximum displacement of
the two bridges is located in their top nodes – different from the
responses in the longitudinal direction. Results of dynamic analysis
of the km‑23 and km‑24 bridges are compared in Table 6, which
shows no damage or cracks in both longitudinal and transverse
directions for the km‑24 bridge (only limited cracks appear in Figure 12. Crack status in the transverse direction at 10·82 s for
skewbacks). the km‑23 bridge
Significant damage occurred in the km‑23 bridge (Figure 12).
Maximum damage again occurred at the crown, skewback and
springing, so the failure mechanism was similar to the longitudinal results show, even with strong ground motion, bridges with lower
case. After comparison between Table 5 and Table 6, it is span length (l ≤ 10 m) and high-quality material (E ≥ 20 GPa) are
concluded that both structures have more strength and ductility in unlikely to fail (the km‑24 bridge). In contrast, bridges that have
the transverse direction. longer span length (l ≥ 10 m) and moderate-quality material (E ≤
20 GPa) are more vulnerable (the km‑23 bridge). As such, it seems
that seismic retrofitting of plain concrete arch bridges with l ≥ 10 m
5. Conclusions and E ≤ 20 GPa is necessary.
Additionally, the seismic performance of bridges in the
There are numerous concrete and masonry arch bridges in Iran longitudinal direction is worse than the performance in the
that have been used as railway bridges for more than 70 years. transverse direction. Ductility and damage of the bridges increase
These bridges were not designed for earthquake loading because when span length is increased, as there is no reinforcement. Also,
there were no seismic design codes in that time. In this study, as shown in the results, the failure mechanisms of static and
results of field tests were employed to develop 3D finite-element dynamic cases are similar.
models for plain concrete arch bridges with different geometric Finally, the first three natural frequencies in the range of 4·66–
and physical properties. 24·25 Hz, which were obtained from the initial 3D finite-element
The 1990 Manjil earthquake record is used for dynamic analysis models of two plain concrete arch bridges, can be extended to
to evaluate in-plane and out-of-plane dynamic behaviour of the all plain concrete arch bridges with span length 6 m ≤ l ≤ 20 m.
bridges during an earthquake. Results demonstrate that behaviour Non-linear dynamic analysis under earthquake loading within this
of these bridges under seismic loading depends on their geometric frequency range should be conducted.
and physical properties. The km‑23 bridge with a span length of When the frequency value of plain concrete arch bridges is
20 m had non-linear behaviour and collapse occurred, while the reduced, the bridges are more vulnerable (for example the km‑23
km‑24 bridge with a span length of 6 m has linear behaviour with bridge in the longitudinal direction). On the contrary, even with
limited damage. strong ground motion, when the frequency value of plain concrete
Therefore, according to the dynamic performances of the arch bridges is increased (for example the km‑24 bridge in the
bridges, it can be determined that the behaviour of this type of transverse direction), these bridges will not reach their structural
structure depends on span length and material properties. As the capacity and failure will not occur.

Civil Engineering Three-dimensional modelling for seismic
Volume 171 Issue CE3 assessment of plain concrete arch bridges
Mahmoudi Moazam, Hasani and Yazdani

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With a foreword
to the new edition by
incoming 2017-2018
ICE President
Lord Robert Mair

Disturbed Soil Properties and

Geotechnical Design, Second edition
Andrew Schofield and Stuart Haigh

Disturbed Soil Properties and Geotechnical Design Second edition

Andrew Schofield and Stuart Haigh
Description Disturbed Soil Properties and Disturbed Soil Properties and
Disturbed Soil Properties and Geotechnical
Geotechnical Design Design, Second Geotechnical Design
Second edition Second edition
edition describes the developments leading to the Original
Andrew Schofield and Stuart Haigh
Cam Clay model, focusing on fundamentals of the shearing of
Disturbed Soil Properties and Geotechnical Design, Second edition describes the developments leading to the
Original Cam Clay model, focusing on fundamentals of the shearing of soil. This book lays the groundwork of Andrew Schofield and Stuart Haigh
soil. The first edition explained and illustrated fallacies in past
understanding that should form the basis of geotechnical design and illustrates the fallacies associated with the
commonly used c-φ Coulomb soil mechanics.

work of engineering geologists, and laid groundwork for the

Due to a rapidly changing environment, engineers are going to have to have a better understanding of ground
behaviour in future to prevent catastrophic failures. The proposed additions to this book will assist geotechnical
engineers in acquiring this knowledge.
understanding that should form the basis of modern geotechnical
Disturbed Soil Properties and Geotechnical Design, Second edition:

design. • provides a comprehensive outline of recent developments in energy-based approaches to predict

deformations in geotechnical systems

• illustrates the fallacies associated with the commonly used c-φ Coulomb soil mechanics

With the changing environment, and the increasing size of

• describes the use of centrifuge modelling in geotechnical design, based on examples from the last four

construction projects, engineers now need a better understanding

Once armed with the simple concept of wet and dry of the critical state line, readers will fully understand
whether a sample will wish to contract or dilate, whether pore pressures generated during undrained shearing
will tend to the positive or negative, and conditions where ductile plastic deformation might change to

of ground behaviour to prevent future catastrophes such as

brittleness and fracture.

Full of technical and personal insights, this is a rewarding book that forces the rethinking of modern

the 1976 Teton Dam failure shown on the cover. The further
geotechnical engineering. Much like the first edition, this book remains an invitation for the unconverted
to re-examine the basic understanding of soil behaviour, and for the converted to ensure that the teaching,
vocabulary and nomenclature used in describing strength models for soil, accurately reflect the underlying

additions in this book will help geotechnical engineers acquire this


ICE Publishing

Disturbed Soil Properties and Geotechnical Design,

Second edition:
■ Provides an outline of the energy-based Cam-clay approach
that can predict geotechnical deformations
■ Illustrates further fallacies in commonly used c-ø Coulomb
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Once armed with the simple concepts of wet/weepy and dry/
thirsty sides of the critical state line, readers will better understand
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Full of technical and personal insights, this is a rewarding book Phone: +44(0) 1892 83 72 72
that forces the rethinking of modern geotechnical engineering.
Much like the first edition, this book remains an invitation for
the unconverted to re-examine the basic understanding of soil
behaviour, and for the converted to ensure that the teaching,
vocabulary and nomenclature used in describing strength models
for soil, accurately reflect the underlying concepts.
Initial Professional Development
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Patrick Waterhouse

Initial Professional Development for Civil Engineers provides a core
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