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# 1. What is rate of reaction?

Rate of reaction is the ________ at which reactants are converted into _________ in a chemical reaction.
Rate of reaction is a measurement of the change in the quantity of __________ or ________ against _____.

## 2. State five factors that affect the rate of reaction.

a)_________________________
b)_________________________
c)_________________________
d)_________________________
e)_________________________

## 3. Size of the particles

One kilogram of meat, cut into big pieces, takes a longer time to cook compared to one kilogram of meat into
small pieces. Explain why. (2 m)

Meat cut into small pieces have ________ size compared to the meat cut into big pieces. The _______ the size,
the ________ the ____________________ of the meat, hence the ________ the rate of reaction.

4. Temperature
Food store in a refrigerator lasts longer than food stored in a kitchen cabinet. Explain why. (4 m)

Temperature in refrigerator is __________. The lower temperature caused the bacteria to be less _______. A
little _______ is released by the bacteria. The rate of the food turns bad is ________.
Temperature in kitchen cabinet is __________. The higher temperature caused the bacteria to be more
_______. A _______ toxic is released by the bacteria. The rate of the food turns bad is ________.

5. Catalyst
Haber process is a chemical process to produce ________ from _______ and _____________.
The equation of this process is _____________________________
Temperature: _____________ pressure:___________ catalyst:_______________________

## _______ process is a chemical process to produce sulphuric acid.

The equation of this process is _____________________________
Temperature: _____________ pressure:___________ catalyst:_______________________

## 6. Collision theory and factors affecting the rate of reactions.

a) Effect of total surface area
When the size of a fixed mass of solid reactant is smaller, the ___________________ exposed to collision
with the particles of the other reactants is _______. Thus, the frequency of collision among the reacting
particles ________. The frequency of effective collision _______ and hence, the rate of reaction_________.

## b) Effect of concentration and pressure

An increase in the concentration of the solution of a reactant or in the pressure of gaseous reactant will result
in an _________ in the rate of reaction.
When the concentration of the solution of a reactant increases, the ______ of ______ per unit _______ of this
reactant also _________. Thus, the frequency of collision among the reacting particles ________. The
frequency of effective collision _______ and hence, the rate of reaction_________.
c) Effect of temperature
An increase in the temperature will increase the ________________ of the reacting particles.
The particles move _______ and collide more often with one another. Thus, the frequency of collision
________. More colliding particles have_____ energy which are enough to overcome the activation energy.
The frequency of effective collision _______ and hence, the rate of reaction_________.
Effect of catalyst
The presence of a catalyst in a chemical reaction allows the reaction to take place through an alternative path
which required a ________ in activation energy which can be shown in the energy profile diagram. Thus, the
colliding particles are able to achieve the activation energy. This means that the frequency of effective
collision _______ and hence, a ____ rate of reaction.

## Experiment Reactants Temperature/oC

I Excess calcium carbonate chips and 30 cm3 of 0.5 mol 30
dm-3 hydrochloric acid
II Excess calcium carbonate chips and 30 cm3 of 0.5 mol 40
dm-3 hydrochloric acid
III Excess calcium carbonate powder and 30 cm3 of 0.5 mol 40
dm-3 hydrochloric acid

## Chemical Equation: _____________________________________

i) Experiment I and II
The rate of reaction of experiment II is _______ compared to experiment I. The temperature of experiment II
is _______. The higher the temperature, the __________ the kinetic energy of the particles. The ___________
between hydrogen ions, H+ and calcium carbonate happened. The frequency of collision ________. The
frequency of ________ collision also increases. Hence, the rate of reaction _________.

## ii) Experiment II and III

The rate of reaction of experiment III is _______ compared to experiment II. The total surface area of the
reactants in experiment III is _______. The ___________ between hydrogen ions, H+ and calcium carbonate
happened. The frequency of collision ________. The frequency of ________ collision also increases. Hence,
the rate of reaction _________.