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Process Equipment Design and Piping Engineering


Lecture 09
Module 4: Design of Bolted Flanges and Gaskets

Reference: Lecture delivered at SPCE by Aker Solutions (2016)

Lecture Outcomes

At the end of lecture, student should be able to

• Discuss different types of flanges and gaskets

• Select a type of gasket for specified service conditions

• Calculate thickness of bolted flange

What is bolted flange?
A flange is a method of connecting equipment, pipes, valves, pumps, etc. to
form a process equipment system.
It also provides easy access for cleaning, inspection or modification.
Flanges are usually welded or screwed to pressure parts.
Flanged joints are made by bolting together two flanges with a gasket
between them to provide a seal.

A bolted flange connection is a combination of many factors (Flange, Bolts,

Gaskets, Process, Temperature, Pressure). All these various elements are
interrelated and depend upon one another to achieve a leak proof joint.

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Flange Facing
Flange face is contact surfaces to seat the sealing gasket material.
➢ Raised Face

➢ Ring Joint Face

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Flange Facing
➢ Tongue and Groove face

➢ Male and Female Face

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Gasket Types – Flat Soft Metal Gasket

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Gasket Types – Spiral Wound Gasket

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Gasket Types – Octagonal / Oval Ring gasket

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Gasket Types – Corrugated Gasket
Gasket Types – Metal Jacketed Gasket
Gasket Types and Surface finish

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Ref: Moss Dennis, Pressure vessel Design Manual
Gasket Type Selection

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Ref: Moss Dennis, Pressure vessel Design Manual
Gasket m and Y Factors
➢ Gasket materials are classified by two factors Y and m
➢ Y (Min. Design Seating Stress)- A flange must be designed to create
sufficient compressive load (usually expressed in stress, as psi) on the
gasket contact area to create an initial seal. The gasket must conform to
the flange surface (serrations)and must be compressed enough to seal off
any internal voids or spaces. This stress is basically the "Y" value. With
the Y value load acting on the gasket before system is pressurized is
➢ m(Gasket Factor) - Provides the additional preload needed in the flange
fasteners to maintain the compressive load on the gasket
after internal pressure is applied to a joint. The flange must
have sufficient strength and bolting to hold the joint together
against the hydrostatic end force, and to apply some
additional "net stress" on the gasket.
m= (bolt load – hydraulic end force) / [(gasket contact area)* Internal pressure]

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m and y factors for different types of gaskets

Slide 15
Effective gasket widths for different types of gaskets

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Flange Design Procedure
1. Calculate gasket OD and ID
𝑑𝑖 ≈ 𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 𝐼𝐷 + 10 𝑚𝑚
𝑑𝑜 𝑦−𝑝𝑚
𝑑𝑖 𝑦−𝑝(𝑚+1_

2. Calculate effective gasket diameter (G)

𝐵𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑎𝑠𝑘𝑒𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ, 𝑏0 = 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑁 𝑖𝑠 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑔𝑎𝑠𝑘𝑒𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ
𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑔𝑎𝑠𝑘𝑒𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ
𝑏 = 𝑏𝑜 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑏𝑜 ≤ 6.3 𝑚𝑚
= 2.5 𝑏𝑜 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑏𝑜 > 6.3 𝑚𝑚

𝐺 = 𝑑𝑜 − 2𝑏 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑏𝑜 > 6.3 𝑚𝑚

= (𝑑𝑜 + 𝑑𝑖 )Τ2 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑏𝑜 ≤ 6.3 𝑚𝑚

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Flange Design Procedure …contd.
3. Calculate bolt size
𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑, 𝑊𝑚1 = 𝐺 2 𝑝 + 2𝑏𝜋𝐺𝑚𝑝
𝐺𝑎𝑠𝑘𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑, 𝑊𝑚2 = 𝜋𝑏𝐺𝑦
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 , 𝐴𝑚1 =
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑔𝑎𝑠𝑘𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 , 𝐴𝑚2 =

𝐴𝑚 = 𝑀𝑎𝑥(𝐴𝑚1 , 𝐴𝑚2 )
𝐺 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚
𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑥. 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑠, 𝑛 ≈ ; 𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 4
𝜋 2 𝐴𝑚
𝑑𝑏 − 4 ≈ 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑏 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑡
4 𝑛
𝜋 2
𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑡, 𝐴𝑏 ≈ 𝑛 × 𝑑𝑏 − 4

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Flange Design Procedure …contd.
4. Calculate flange moments
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟, 𝐶 = 𝑑𝑜 + 𝑑𝑏 + 12 𝑚𝑚
𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟, 𝐴 = 𝐶 + 2𝑑𝑏 + 12 𝑚𝑚
𝐺𝑎𝑠𝑘𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑, 𝑊 = (𝐴𝑚 + 𝐴𝑏 )Τ2 × 𝑓𝑏
𝐺𝑎𝑠𝑘𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡, 𝑀𝑎 = 𝑊 ×
𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡, 𝑀𝑜 ≈ 𝑊𝑚1 ×

5. Calculate flange thickness

𝑡 ≈ 0.72

𝑀 = 𝑀𝑎𝑥 (𝑀𝑎 , 𝑀𝑜 )
1 𝐾 2 log10 𝐾 𝐴
𝑌= 0.66845 + 5.71690 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐾 =
𝐾−1 𝐾 2 −1 𝐵
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Numerical Problem

Design flange with flat face with following data:

Design pressure : 2.76 MPa
Design temperature : 400 deg. C
Flange material : SA105 B
Bolt material : SA193 B7
Gasket material : PTFE
Gasket factors : m = 2.75, y = 25.5 MPa
Shell inside diameter : 815 mm
Allowable flange stress : 89.3 MPa
Allowable bolt stress : 137.9 MPa (operating and gasket seating)

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