# There are 4 laws at work simultaneously.

All of them must apply, namely, Ohm's law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, and the conservation of energy law. A transformer cannot output more power than inputted, due to CEL (conservation of energy law). Right off the bat, it should be obvious that the secondary power, which is Isec*Vsec must equal the primary power, Ipri*Vpri, minus losses. Faraday's law, FL, relates the magnetic flux density, B, to the voltage, V, and the frequency, f. Ampere's law, AL, relates the magnetic field intensity, H, to the current, I. Also, B and H are interrelated through the permeability mu, which is analogous to Ohm's law (for magnetics). Ohm's law, OL, relate the current and voltage at the secondary with the load resistance. Most transformers are driven at their primary by an independent power source which is generally a "constant voltage" source. Current transformers can be discussed later. The voltage source magnitude, V, frequency, f, and primary turns number, Np, and the core area, A, determine the magnetic flux density, B, per FL. This magnetic flux almost completely links, or couples into the secondary winding. Since the core area is the same, as well as the frequency, only the number of turns differs, Ns. Just as FL describes the relation between Vp, f, A, and Np, it holds equally for Vs, f, A, and Ns. Again, f and A don't change, so that the ratio of volts to turns cannot change. Hence Vp/Np = Vs/Ns, since B, f, & A remain constant. When current is drawn by loading the secondary, a magnetomotive force, mmf, occurs, which tends to counter the existing core flux, which tends to reduce the voltage. But, by definition, the primary power source is a constant voltage type, which will supply whatever current needed to maintain a fixed voltage value. The primary current increases to a value needed to maintain the core flux. AL describes the relation. For a given secondary current, Is, and Ns, a magnetic field intensity, H, is given by AL. In the primary an equal and opposite H, or mmf if you will, must exist. Since H is almost equal in the primary and secondary, Np*Ip = Ns*Is. Since the volt per turn RATIO must be the same on each side, the winding with higher turns has a higher voltage, or emf. Since the amp-turns PRODUCT must be the same on both sides, the winding with the higher turns has the lower current, or mmf. It can't be any other way, as the CEL would be breached. Does this explanation make it clear? Because the primary has a constant voltage source, CVS, connected across its terminals. Remember the definition of a CVS. It will output any current neded to sustain a fixed voltage value. When the secondary is open, and a CVS is connected to the primary, a small current flows, called exciting current. The B-H curve of the core material, and the CVS value of voltage determine the magnetizing portion, Imag, of the exciting current. Hystersis and eddy current losses determine the loss portion of the exciting current. FL describes the relation between V, f, N, A, and B. For a transformer whose core has area A, and primary turns Np, the flux density B will be determined by the voltage and frequency of the CVS. AL describes the relation between magnetizing current Imag, primary turns Np, magnetic path length including gap(s) lc, and magnetic field intensity H. This B value links the secondary almost entirely. For a given B, f, A, and Ns, Vs is determined. Just as a fixed voltage determines the flux density value, a fixed flux density determines the induced voltage value. FL is bi-directional. Likewise with AL.