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All of them must apply, namely, Ohm's law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, and the conservation of energy law. A transformer cannot output more power than inputted, due to CEL (conservation of energy law). Right off the bat, it should be obvious that the secondary power, which is Isec*Vsec must equal the primary power, Ipri*Vpri, minus losses. Faraday's law, FL, relates the magnetic flux density, B, to the voltage, V, and the frequency, f. Ampere's law, AL, relates the magnetic field intensity, H, to the current, I. Also, B and H are interrelated through the permeability mu, which is analogous to Ohm's law (for magnetics). Ohm's law, OL, relate the current and voltage at the secondary with the load resistance. Most transformers are driven at their primary by an independent power source which is generally a "constant voltage" source. Current transformers can be discussed later. The voltage source magnitude, V, frequency, f, and primary turns number, Np, and the core area, A, determine the magnetic flux density, B, per FL. This magnetic flux almost completely links, or couples into the secondary winding. Since the core area is the same, as well as the frequency, only the number of turns differs, Ns. Just as FL describes the relation between Vp, f, A, and Np, it holds equally for Vs, f, A, and Ns. Again, f and A don't change, so that the ratio of volts to turns cannot change. Hence Vp/Np = Vs/Ns, since B, f, & A remain constant. When current is drawn by loading the secondary, a magnetomotive force, mmf, occurs, which tends to counter the existing core flux, which tends to reduce the voltage. But, by definition, the primary power source is a constant voltage type, which will supply whatever current needed to maintain a fixed voltage value. The primary current increases to a value needed to maintain the core flux. AL describes the relation. For a given secondary current, Is, and Ns, a magnetic field intensity, H, is given by AL. In the primary an equal and opposite H, or mmf if you will, must exist. Since H is almost equal in the primary and secondary, Np*Ip = Ns*Is. Since the volt per turn RATIO must be the same on each side, the winding with higher turns has a higher voltage, or emf. Since the amp-turns PRODUCT must be the same on both sides, the winding with the higher turns has the lower current, or mmf. It can't be any other way, as the CEL would be breached. Does this explanation make it clear? Because the primary has a constant voltage source, CVS, connected across its terminals. Remember the definition of a CVS. It will output any current neded to sustain a fixed voltage value. When the secondary is open, and a CVS is connected to the primary, a small current flows, called exciting current. The B-H curve of the core material, and the CVS value of voltage determine the magnetizing portion, Imag, of the exciting current. Hystersis and eddy current losses determine the loss portion of the exciting current. FL describes the relation between V, f, N, A, and B. For a transformer whose core has area A, and primary turns Np, the flux density B will be determined by the voltage and frequency of the CVS. AL describes the relation between magnetizing current Imag, primary turns Np, magnetic path length including gap(s) lc, and magnetic field intensity H. This B value links the secondary almost entirely. For a given B, f, A, and Ns, Vs is determined. Just as a fixed voltage determines the flux density value, a fixed flux density determines the induced voltage value. FL is bi-directional. Likewise with AL.

or LL. divided by the core cross sectional area. is the magnetic flux density B. the magnetizing current is directly related to H via Ampere's law. so does a specific voltage determine a flux. I've "thought about it" a lot. and is in phase-quadrature with the input voltage. 60 Hz is connected across the primary. an EMF is developed across the primary coil. the value of magnetic field intensity H. and spent years developing custom transformers as well as teach a power lab as a grad teaching assistant. Ac. Also. without the core. the core area. Ip does just the opposite and restores them. But. Think about it. Is=Vs/Rs. FL. Believe me. the frequency. The amplitude of the core flux density B. H increases drastically as does Imag. Faraday's law generates a voltage across the secondary coil. Faraday's law. When the primary voltage Vp is countered by the mmf of the secondary load. phi. due to the primary inductance. A CVS of 120V. It is this primary coil current that generates the magnetic flux amplitude in the core. Does this make things clear? BR. and consequently a specific B & H value. because the ideal transformer with no load looks like an inductance (remember jwL). of turns. To illustrate. The current in the primary coil is 90 degrees out of phase with the primary voltage. in tesla. Just as a specific value of flux determines the voltage. and the field intensity H. is determined by the B-H curve of the core material. the primary voltage amplitude. When you apply a voltage to the primary connections. The value of B without the core is approximately the same as with the core. So this is why the magnetic flux excitation is independent (mostly) of the secondary load current. is bidirectional. Otherwise power would diminish greatly as soon as a load is connected. Ac. The only magnetic flux in the core that is not cancelled by Lenz's law is the original excitation. To say that the primary current is what generates the magnetic flux amplitude is not correct. Imag can increase by orders of magnitude. the CVS outputs a larger current whose mmf opposes the secondary mmf. In other words. But remember that the primary flux (& secondary since the coupling is very good) is determined by the value of the CVS.When a load resistance is connected across the secondary. Is is induced in accordance with OL. Claude More on the original transformer question. is determined by the primary voltage. Then. A CVS forces a specific voltage value. . The flux density B is determined by Vp. This current Is is accompanied by an mmf which counters the original emf. Now remove the core altogether. not primary current. AL. and Np the primary no. and therefore the induced output voltage is in phase with the voltage across the primary coil. This mmf would tend to reduce the flux density B. just as Is and its mmf tend to reduce the flux and emf. f. But the induced voltage is 90 degrees out of phase with the magnetic flux amplitude (remember dB/dt -->jwB). consider a wound bobbin with the ferromagnetic core installed. The magnetic flux. in m^2. The magnetic flux amplitude in the core in phase with the input voltage is independent of the transformer load current because of Lenz's Law. known as Lenz' law. a little less since the magnetizing current increases greatly and I*R resistive drops increase resulting in less emf across the winding. in weber.

or infinite. is power. we know that in the core (from Maxwell's equations) [2] curl H = J where H is the magnetic excitation (amp turns per meter). But that is static. [4] B = u u0 H where u = relative permeability and u0 is the permeability of free space. Time changing energy. When a transformer is powered under no-load conditions.With time changing magnetic fields. No ferromagnetic material has been found with a permeability of zero.4 Tesla) will overheat at 50 Hz. if we plug [1] into [5] we get [6] B = u u0 N V/jwL1 So the magnetic field in the core is in phase quadrature with the applied voltage (power factor angle nearly 90 degrees). So it is impossible to set up a time changing flux without BOTH Ip & Vp. and J is current density. Thus the magnetic field B depends explicitly on the coil current I. Does this help? Claude I respecfully disagree. the POWER is . Under time-variation. dw/dt. Because the POWER required to excite a transformer under no load conditions depends on the power factor. So [5] B = u u0N I.68 Tesla.Furthermore.4 Tesla = 1. This is why transformers designed specifically for 60 Hz (where the peak fields are about 1. Hence B & H cannot exist independently. In the iron. Since B is in volt-seconds per turn-meter^2. it is impossible to have a flux unless Ip & Vp are BOTH NON-ZERO. & H is in amp-turns per meter. [1] I = V/jwL1. and is in phase with I. where the peak fields would be (60/50) x 1. This may also be written [3] H = NI where NI is the coil amp-turns per meter. But power is I*V. This issue has been laid to rest in the 19th century. and the peak amplitude varies inversely with excitation frequency w. In terms of transformer performance. Under static conditions a dc current has a dc magnetic flux w/o a voltage. both Ip & Vp are needed for time varying flux. current and voltage are BOTH needed since a time changing ENERGY is present. Specifically. Is it Ip or Vp that creates the core magnetic flux? It is BOTH. the primary inductance L1 determines the excitation current.

For a current transformer. FL. Then multiplying by mu gives B. It's equivalent. CT. Then dB/dt gives Vs. Both are always in effect. For a voltage xfmr. Both methods give the same result. Ampere's law which you stated. The core flux is established by both the current & voltage in the primary. If the source powering the primary was a constant current source. Remember that Lp = mu*Np^2*Ac/lc. your method is more direct. Vs = B*4. Then you establish H. Both approaches give the correct result. FL works both ways. and Faraday's law. as well as Is. driven by a CVS. also FL. while Ip determines H. But my way is easier because the primary is generally driven from a CVS. Imag doesn't matter. But one can measure or compute the Imag value to get H. CCS.e. the only Maxwell's equation that determines the core excitation is curl H = J. whereas AL is shorter computation for a CT. The end result is the same. the B value is determined by Vp.V*I = VI cos(90 degrees) = ~0. Transformers operate under 2 of Maxwell's laws. Then. where lc is the core's path length. which is what you did.44*f*Ac*Ns. Have I helped? Claude . But you start with Imag = Vp / j*omega*L to get the Imag value. Summarizing. i. But I started with B = Vp/(4. then times mu to get B.44*f*Ac*Np). Vp determines B. curl H = J. your method is more direct. etc.. but FL gives a more direct answer for a VT. curl E = -dB/dt. Then Vs = (Ns/Np)*Vp. which is Faraday's Law.

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