This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

**Carrier frequency offset over a
**

Fast time-varying multipath channel

ABSTRACT:

1. In this paper, we present a novel joint algorithm to estimate

the symbol timing and carrier frequency offsets of wireless orthogonal

frequency division multiplying (OFDM) signals.

2. We develop a general ML estimation algorithm that can

accurately calculate symbol timing and carrier frequency offsets over

a fast time varying multipath channel.

3. To reduce overall estimation complexity, the proposed

scheme consists of two estimation stages (i) Coarse synchronization ʹ

LS method and (ii) Fine synchronization ʹ MS method.

4. This coarse-to-find method provides good tradeoff between

estimation accuracy and computational complexity.

INTRODUCTION:

1. OFDM technique is used for providing high speed data

transmission.

2. Because of Intersymbol interference(ISI) and Intercarrier

interference(ICI) synchronization errors can result.

3. To avoid this error we go to identify the begining of the

individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM)

symbols.

4. We can find the offsets jointly or separately.

5. OFDM is used in mobile multipath environments, a fast time-

varying multipath channel model is more desirable than a

White Gaussion Noise channel model for simulating real

wireless OFDM communication system.

6. This estimation involves a two-step process (i) Coarse

synchronization ʹ to find rough symbol offsets (ii) Fine

synchronization ʹ to find fair offsets based on the coarse

synchronization.

7. The proposed fine synchronization technique can obtain more

accurate results.

8. While its computational complexity is drastically reduced due

to the two-step estimation process.

9. The result of this paper is organized as follows:

(i) We introduce the OFDM signal model over time-

Varying multipath channel in section-II.

(ii) The coarse synchronization technique is then

explained in details in section-III, followed by the fine

synchronization technique in section-IV.

10. Simulation results are provided in section-V. Finally we

conclude our paper in section-VI.

OFDM SIGNALS AND CHANNEL MODEL:

1. In an OFDM system, N complex data symbols are modulated

onto N-subcarriers by using the inverse fast fourier transform(IFFT) on

the transmitter side.

2. The last Nc IFFT samples are used to form a guard interval(GI)

that is inserted at the beginning of each OFDM symbol.

3. The baseband modulated signal s(n), after the parallel to serial

convertsion and IFFT can be expressed as, Equation ->(1)

Type equation heieǤ

Where dk(i) ʹ data symbols used in modulating the k-th subcarrier of

the i-th frame (or) data block.

Frame period is M=N+Nc.

4. These data symbols, coming from a certain modulation

constellation in a finite symbol set, can be assumed to be

equiprobable and statistically independent of different subcarriers

and frames.

5. dk(i) can therefore be approximated as zero mean random

variables with correlation

Equation

Where * is a conjugate operator. g(.) is a dicrete rectangular window

function of size M.

X(n) is a output signal after s(n) has passed through a fast time-

varying multipath channel with impulse response h(n,l)

Type equation heieǤ

6. In wireless communication receivers are subjected to reflection

and scattering from natural and man-made objects.

7. Received signals after having been sampled by an analog to

digital converter(ADC) can be expressed as,

Equation

Where ne belongs to [0,M-1] is the symbol timing offset.

8. The timing offset has an unkown integer value (ie) an

integermultiple of the sampling period and the fractional timing offset

can be be neglected in OFDM systems because it has little affect on

OFDM performance.

9. ͚ ͚ denotes the carrier frequency offset caused by the Doppler

effect and the instability of carrier frequency oscillators at both the

transmitter and the received ends.

10. w(n) is white complex gaussion noise zero mean and a

variance of ͚ ͚ , which is independent of the signal dk(i).

11. The autocorrelation function of a received OFDM signal r(n)

is given by

Equation

12. The autocorrelation function Rr(n,m) is M-periodic in ͚n͛ for

every m, or Rr(n,m)=Rr(n+M,m).

13. The received signal r(n) is cyclostationary but is not a wide

sense stationary process (wssp).

14. We can rewrite Rr(n,m) as compact matrix format when m=N.

Equation

A ʹ Toeplitz matrix of size M*(M+Nc-1).

By taking the modulus operation of Rr, b= equation

Where b->

The Least Square method(LS) estimator of ne is given by

Equation

Where b^-> estimate of b.

||.||2 denote the Euclidean normal.

Since Rr*(n,m)=Rr(n,-m) in Rr, we obtain the frequency offset

͚ ͚ estimation as

Equation

FINE SYNCHRONIZATION:

1. We will discuss the fine synchronization techniquefor timing

and frequency offsets estimation based on the ML function.

2. Received signals r(n) are independent of each other expect of

signals that are spaced N samples apart and that are correlative within

the same OFDM symbol interval, due to the GI.

3. r(n) can be modeled as an approximate complex Gaussian

process using the central limit theorem, provided that N is large

enough.

4. We assume an observation window to be a vector

r=[r(0),͙͙..r(2N+Nc-1)] composed of 2N+Nc consecutive samples of

r(n). The length of this window has been selected sothat there are at

least Nc correlated samples, regardless of timing offset ne.

5. The autocorrelation function is not zero when n is within a

limited region and m=N. We can rewrite the autocorrelation function

for the observation vector r as

Equation

Where

6. To derive the ML estimation of symbol timing and carrier

frequency offsets over a fast time-varying multipath channel as was

previously defined, we can classify the ML estimation into three cases

depending on the timing offset ne as follows.

CASE 1:

0<=ne<=N-Nc

1. The relative positioning of OFDM symbols and an observation

window in case one is shown in fig1. To obtain the joint ML estimation

of ne and ͚ ͚ we calculate a likelihood function.

2. Under the previous assumption, the correlation between is

nonzero only in the regions F1(1) and F2(1), where

F1(1)={n|ne<=n<=ne+Nc-1} and F2(1)={n|ne+Nc<=n<=ne+2Nc-2}.

3. The additional region F2͛ is the multipath spread of the GI of

the k-th OFDM symbol.

4. The joint probability density function (pdf) of vector r can be

expressed as

Equation

Where R=F(1)UF2(1), p(.) denotes the PDF of the variables.

By maximizing the log-likelihood function we get join ML

estimators of ne and ͚ ͚

Ne^

CASE 2:

N-Nc+1<=ne<=N-1

Fig2 displays the relative positioning of OFDM symbols and an

observation window in case two . The correlation of sampling signals

within the observation window is nonzero only in regions.

F1(2), F2(2) and F3(2), where

F1(2)={n|ne<=n<=ne+Nc-1},

F2(2)={n|ne+Nc<=n<=N+Nc-1},

And F3(2)={n|0<=n<=ne+Nc-N-2}.

The region F2(2) is the multipath spread of the GI of the k-th OFDM

symbol. Case two differs from case one in that the length of region

F2(2) is reduced due to limited observation window length.

The region F3(2) is the multipath spread of the GI of the (k-1)-

th OFDM symbol.

The joint PDF of vector r in this case has the same formula as (I)

expect that R=F1(2)UF2(2)UF3(2).

By maximizing its log-likelihood function the joint ML

estimators of ne and ͚ ͚ can be obtained as

Equation

CASE 3:

N<=ne<=N+Nc-1

The relative positioning of OFDM symbols and an observation

window in case three is represented in Fig3.

Unlike both case one and case two, the observation window is

continuously shifted to the left, which contains F1(3), F2(3) and F3(3).

Where F1(3)={n|ne<=n<=N+Nc-1},

F2(3)={n|0<=n<=ne-N-1} and

F3(3)={n|ne-N<=n<=ne-N+Nc-2}.

F1(3) is part of the GI in the k-th OFDM symbol. F3(3) similar to F3(2) is

the multipath spread of the GI of the (k-1)th OFDM symbol.

The joint PDF of vector r in this case is the same as that in (I)

expect that R=F1(3) U F2(3) U F3(3).

By maximizing the log-likelihood function the joint ML

estimators of ne and ͚ ͚ can be obtained.

From the previous discussion we can conclude that the

estimators ne^ and ͚ ͚ are tightly coupled with each other.

The estimation procedure can be described as follows. Ne

takes a value from 0 to N+Nc-1 and ͚ ͚ is then computed for each

given ne^ from 0 to N-Nc-1 and ͚ ͚ is then computed for each given ne

accordingly to (b),(d) and (f).

Ne^ is computed based on (a),(c) &(e). The expected ͚ ͚ is

finally obtained from (b),(d) and (f) after ne has been estimated.

(ii) The coarse synchronization technique is then explained in details in section-III.5. While its computational complexity is drastically reduced due to the two-step estimation process. 8. . This estimation involves a two-step process (i) Coarse synchronization to find rough symbol offsets (ii) Fine synchronization to find fair offsets based on the coarse synchronization. followed by the fine synchronization technique in section-IV. a fast timevarying multipath channel model is more desirable than a White Gaussion Noise channel model for simulating real wireless OFDM communication system. Finally we conclude our paper in section-VI. The last Nc IFFT samples are used to form a guard interval(GI) that is inserted at the beginning of each OFDM symbol. OFDM SIGNALS AND CHANNEL MODEL: 1. 6. OFDM is used in mobile multipath environments. The proposed fine synchronization technique can obtain more accurate results. The result of this paper is organized as follows: (i) We introduce the OFDM signal model over timeVarying multipath channel in section-II. N complex data symbols are modulated onto N-subcarriers by using the inverse fast fourier transform(IFFT) on the transmitter side. Simulation results are provided in section-V. In an OFDM system. 7. 2. 10. 9.

. dk(i) can therefore be approximated as zero mean random variables with correlation Equation Where * is a conjugate operator. g(. can be assumed to be equiprobable and statistically independent of different subcarriers and frames.l) 6. 5. Received signals after having been sampled by an analog to digital converter(ADC) can be expressed as.3.M-1] is the symbol timing offset. 4. Equation ->(1) Where dk(i) data symbols used in modulating the k-th subcarrier of the i-th frame (or) data block. Frame period is M=N+Nc. X(n) is a output signal after s(n) has passed through a fast timevarying multipath channel with impulse response h(n.) is a dicrete rectangular window function of size M. These data symbols. The baseband modulated signal s(n). Equation Where ne belongs to [0. coming from a certain modulation constellation in a finite symbol set. after the parallel to serial convertsion and IFFT can be expressed as. In wireless communication receivers are subjected to reflection and scattering from natural and man-made objects. 7.

The autocorrelation function Rr(n. w(n) is white complex gaussion noise zero mean and a variance of .m) is M-periodic in n for every m. denotes the carrier frequency offset caused by the Doppler effect and the instability of carrier frequency oscillators at both the transmitter and the received ends. which is independent of the signal dk(i).m). By taking the modulus operation of Rr. . 9. The received signal r(n) is cyclostationary but is not a wide sense stationary process (wssp). 10. 11. or Rr(n. b= equation Where b-> The Least Square method(LS) estimator of ne is given by Equation Where b^-> estimate of b.m) as compact matrix format when m=N. We can rewrite Rr(n.8. The timing offset has an unkown integer value (ie) an integermultiple of the sampling period and the fractional timing offset can be be neglected in OFDM systems because it has little affect on OFDM performance. 13.m)=Rr(n+M. 14. Equation A Toeplitz matrix of size M*(M+Nc-1). The autocorrelation function of a received OFDM signal r(n) is given by Equation 12.

3. We will discuss the fine synchronization techniquefor timing and frequency offsets estimation based on the ML function. We can rewrite the autocorrelation function for the observation vector r as Equation Where 6.||2 denote the Euclidean normal.m)=Rr(n. Received signals r(n) are independent of each other expect of signals that are spaced N samples apart and that are correlative within the same OFDM symbol interval.-m) in Rr.||.r(2N+Nc-1)] composed of 2N+Nc consecutive samples of r(n). . Since Rr*(n. 2. r(n) can be modeled as an approximate complex Gaussian process using the central limit theorem. We assume an observation window to be a vector r=[r(0). The autocorrelation function is not zero when n is within a limited region and m=N. 4. we obtain the frequency offset estimation as Equation FINE SYNCHRONIZATION: 1. 5. provided that N is large enough. due to the GI. The length of this window has been selected sothat there are at least Nc correlated samples.. To derive the ML estimation of symbol timing and carrier frequency offsets over a fast time-varying multipath channel as was . regardless of timing offset ne.

The correlation of sampling signals within the observation window is nonzero only in regions. where F1(1)={n|ne<=n<=ne+Nc-1} and F2(1)={n|ne+Nc<=n<=ne+2Nc-2}.previously defined. By maximizing the log-likelihood function we get join ML estimators of ne and Ne^ CASE 2: N-Nc+1<=ne<=N-1 Fig2 displays the relative positioning of OFDM symbols and an observation window in case two . The additional region F2 is the multipath spread of the GI of the k-th OFDM symbol. 2. 3. .) denotes the PDF of the variables. we can classify the ML estimation into three cases depending on the timing offset ne as follows. 4. Under the previous assumption. p(. The joint probability density function (pdf) of vector r can be expressed as Equation Where R=F(1)UF2(1). the correlation between is nonzero only in the regions F1(1) and F2(1). The relative positioning of OFDM symbols and an observation window in case one is shown in fig1. CASE 1: 0<=ne<=N-Nc 1. To obtain the joint ML estimation of ne and we calculate a likelihood function.

The region F2(2) is the multipath spread of the GI of the k-th OFDM symbol.F1(2). The region F3(2) is the multipath spread of the GI of the (k-1)th OFDM symbol. Unlike both case one and case two. And F3(2)={n|0<=n<=ne+Nc-N-2}. . F2(3)={n|0<=n<=ne-N-1} and F3(3)={n|ne-N<=n<=ne-N+Nc-2}. F2(2)={n|ne+Nc<=n<=N+Nc-1}. Where F1(3)={n|ne<=n<=N+Nc-1}. Case two differs from case one in that the length of region F2(2) is reduced due to limited observation window length. F2(2) and F3(2). where F1(2)={n|ne<=n<=ne+Nc-1}. The joint PDF of vector r in this case has the same formula as (I) expect that R=F1(2)UF2(2)UF3(2). which contains F1(3). F2(3) and F3(3). the observation window is continuously shifted to the left. By maximizing its log-likelihood function the joint ML estimators of ne and can be obtained as Equation CASE 3: N<=ne<=N+Nc-1 The relative positioning of OFDM symbols and an observation window in case three is represented in Fig3.

(d) and (f). The estimation procedure can be described as follows.(d) and (f) after ne has been estimated. . Ne takes a value from 0 to N+Nc-1 and is then computed for each given ne^ from 0 to N-Nc-1 and is then computed for each given ne accordingly to (b). From the previous discussion we can conclude that the estimators ne^ and are tightly coupled with each other.(c) &(e). Ne^ is computed based on (a). F3(3) similar to F3(2) is the multipath spread of the GI of the (k-1)th OFDM symbol. The joint PDF of vector r in this case is the same as that in (I) expect that R=F1(3) U F2(3) U F3(3).F1(3) is part of the GI in the k-th OFDM symbol. By maximizing the log-likelihood function the joint ML estimators of ne and can be obtained. The expected is finally obtained from (b).

- 04.14102507
- 10.1.1.83.6245
- Reduction to the Pole of Magnetic Anomalies Using Analytic Signal
- Giles Stability of ODE Solvers
- 1687-6180-2013-52
- Manenti Pres
- Dann Sparse
- How to Make a Histogram
- 10.1.1.2.5255
- Micrometer Screw Gauge
- deip
- Elastic Foundation
- Analytical and Approximate Solution to Free Vibration of Nonlinear Oscillators
- The Pid Report
- Elastic Instability of Pressurized Cylindrical Shells Under Compression or Bending
- burrus92_splines
- Nielsen - Global Upscaling of Permeability
- Dynamic_Analysis_by_Component_Mode.pdf
- ch10a_particle
- no absen 2
- 10.1.1.6.7968
- Anisotropic Parameters and P-wave Velocity for Orthorhombic Media
- fft tutorial.pdf
- Spectrum
- CommentsOnTheSavitzkyGolayConvolutionMethodForLeastSquaresFitSmoothingAndDifferentiationOfDigitalData
- Chapter4 (2W) - Signal Modeling -Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling
- Fundamentals of Fast Sim Alg for RF Circuits
- ocean acoustics
- SOBI Paper[1]

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd