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PRACTICAL RESEARCH I

Module 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research


What is RESEARCH?
Etymology
The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go
about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound
word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning 'search'. The earliest recorded use of the
term was in 1577.
RESEARCH
 The process of solving problems and finding facts in an organized way.
 a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding
of a topic or issue ( John W. Creswell)
 a process of looking for a specific answer to a specific question in an organized,
objective and reliable way. (Payton, 1979)
Practical Research
Practical research is a form of academic research which incorporates an element of practice in
the methodology or research output. It is a research directed towards problems which have a
practical, “day-to-day” nature.

LESSON 1: The Importance of Research in Daily Life

Importance of Research
1. Importance of Research in the Advancement of Society:
- As our demands increases, the requirement of research also rises. It can also be said that
research is what that makes our lives easier. It is just the result of the curiosity or anew new
innovative idea.
2. Importance of Research to Humankind:
1. Helps in understanding the society:
2. Helps in knowing the culture:
3. For more awareness, research is needed:
4. For making the right choices for a career:
5. Knowing the truth:
6. Update about the technology:
7. Differences between good and bad:

3. Importance of Research to students


1. Enhances the knowledge:
2. Clarifies confusion:
3. To have a proper understanding of the subject:
4. To learn about the methods and issues:
6. Learn to create a balance between the collaborative and individual work:

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7. To know the interest:

LESSON 2: Characteristics, Processes, and Ethics of Research

Characteristics of Research
1. Empirical- Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher.
2. Systematic - follows orderly and sequential procedure.
3. Cyclical- Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a
problem.
4. Analytical- Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether
historical, descriptive, and experimental and case study.
5. Critical- Research exhibits careful and precise judgment.
6. Methodical- Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic
method and procedures.
7. Replicability- The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the
researcher at valid and conclusive results.

Process of Research
1. Select a general problem
-Identifying a compelling research question is the first step to a successful research
project. What issue, problem, or topic are you interested in exploring? State your topic as a
question.

2. Review the literature of the problem


- Do a preliminary search to determine whether there is enough information out there for
your needs and to set the context of your research. Find background information about the
problem. To frame your research project, and to ensure that your research question has not
already been examined, you must conduct a literature review.

3. Formulate a Hypothesis or a Problem Statement


- Depending on your research question and methodology, you will be required to
formulate a research hypothesis OR a problem statement based on your research question.
A research hypothesis is an educated prediction that provides an explanation for an observable
(measurable) event or condition. A problem statement is both a reiteration of the problem that
the study will address and the justification for studying the problem.

4. Select a Research Design


- Deciding what you will research will help to determine how you will design your
research project. Will it be qualitative or quantitative? What methodology and design will you
choose? What methods - techniques and tools - will you use to collect, analyze, and interpret
your data?

5. Collect data.

6. Analyze and present the data.

7. Interpret the results and state conclusions or generalizations regarding the problem.

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- Once your experiment has concluded and/or data have been collected, it is time to
analyze the data using methods determined by your research methodology and design. Next,
you must interpret the results. It is important that your interpretation is supported by the
evidences.

8. Report the Research Findings


- The purpose of research is to share knowledge. Once your research has concluded, it
is important to share your results. You might write an article for publication, prepare a white
paper, or present your research at a conference either as part of a panel discussion or a poster
presentation.

Factors to Consider in Selecting a Research Problem


1. Researcher‘s area of interest
2. Availability of funds
3. Investigator‘s ability and training

How to develop your topic:


Selecting a topic can be the most challenging part of a research assignment. Since this
is the very first step in writing a paper, it is vital that it be done correctly. Here are some tips for
selecting a topic:
1. Select a topic within the parameters set by the assignment.
2. Select a topic of personal interest to you and learn more about it. The research for and writing
of a paper will be more enjoyable if you are writing about something that you find interesting.
3. Select a topic for which you can find a manageable amount of information. Do a preliminary
search of information sources to determine whether existing sources will meet your needs. If
you find too much information, you may need to narrow your topic; if you find too little, you may
need to broaden your topic.
Once you have identified your topic, it may help to state it as a question. By posing your subject
as a question you can easily identify the main concepts or keywords to be used in your
research.

Ethics in Research

Ethics generally is considered to deal with beliefs about what is right or wrong, proper or
improper, good or bad. According to a dictionary definition (Webster‘s 1968), to be ethical is to
conform to accepted professional practice.

Ethical considerations in conducting research


1. Objectivity and integrity
2. Respect of the research subjects‘right to privacy and dignity and protection of subjects from
personal harm
3. Presentation of research findings
4. Misuse of research role
5. Acknowledgement of research collaboration and assistance 6. Distortions of findings by
sponsor

Unethical practices in conducting research


1. Deceiving a respondent about the true purpose of a study

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2. Asking a respondent questions that cause him or her extreme embarrassment; guilt emotional
turmoil by remaining him or her of an unpleasant experience
3. Invading the privacy of a respondent
4. Studying the respondents or research subjects without their knowledge
5. When analyzing the data—revealing only part of the facts, presenting facts out of context,
falsifying findings or offering misleading presentation such as lying with statistics

LESSON 3: Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Definition of Quantitative and Qualitative Research


 Quantitative research is a type of educational research in which the researcher decides
what to study; asks specific, narrow questions; collects quantifiable data from
participants; analyzes these numbers using statistics; and conducts the inquiry in an
unbiased, objective manner.
 Qualitative research is a type of educational research in which the researcher relies on
the views of participants; asks broad, general questions; collects data consisting largely
words (text) from participants; describes and analyzes these words for themes; and
conducts the inquiry in a subjective, biased manner.
Types of Quantitative Research
*Descriptive research – Objective is accurate depiction of the characteristics of a person,
situation or groups and or frequency with which certain phenomenon occurs.
*Correlational research -Express the interrelationship among variables of interest without any
active intervention by the researcher
*Quasi-experimental research - conducted to determine the effects of treatment or independent
variables on the dependent or outcome variables. It lacks the control of the design, sample or
setting.
*Experimental research-it examines the cause and effect relationship between independent and
dependent variables under highly controlled conditions.

Types of Qualitative Research


*Phenomenological research- concerned with lived experience of human. It is an approach to
thinking about what life experiences of people are like and what they mean.
*Grounded theory research- seeks to describe and understand the key social psychological and
structural processes that occur a social setting. A major component is the discovery of a core
variable that is central in explaining what is going on in that social scene.
*Ethnographical research- the primary research tradition within anthropology, which provides a
framework for studying the meanings, patterns, and experiences of a defined cultural group in a
holistic fashion.

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*Historical research- narrative description or analysis of events that occurred in the remote or
recent past.
*Case studies- in Depth examination and analysis of people or group of people in relation to
nursing issues or problems that are important to the client and the researcher.
*Field studies -natural investigations done in the community, such as in nursing home, housing
projects and clinical wards.

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Comparison Chart

BASIS FOR QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH


COMPARISON
Meaning Qualitative research is a method Quantitative research is a research
of inquiry that develops method that is used to generate
understanding on human and numerical data and hard facts, by
social sciences, to find the way employing statistical, logical and
people think and feel. mathematical technique.
Nature Holistic Particularistic
Approach Subjective- based on somebody's Objective
opinions or feelings rather than based on facts: based on facts rather
on facts or evidence than thoughts or opinions

Research type Exploratory Conclusive


investigation of something: a
careful An investigation or study decision based on facts: a decision
of something such as data, a made or an opinion formed after
particular subject, or possible considering the relevant facts or
courses of action evidence

Reasoning Inductive Deductive


reaching conclusion based on conclusion drawn: a conclusion drawn
observation from available information

Sampling Purposive Random


useful: having a use or purpose without pattern: done, chosen, or
. occurring without an identifiable
pattern, plan, system, or connection
random checks

Data Verbal Measurable


Inquiry Process-oriented Result-oriented
Hypothesis Generated Tested
create something: to bring
something into existence or effect

Elements of Words, pictures and objects Numerical data


analysis
Objective To explore and discover ideas To examine cause and effect
used in the ongoing processes. relationship between variables.
Methods Non-structured techniques like Structured techniques such as surveys,
In-depth interviews, group questionnaires and observations.
discussions etc.
Result Develops initial understanding Recommends final course of action

Here are some guidelines that can help you develop the right question for your study.

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Quantitative Research Questions:


1. Usually start with ‘ how,’ ‘what’ or ‘why’.
2. Contain an independent and a dependent variable.
3. Look at connections, relations or comparisons between variables.

Types of quantitative research questions with examples:


1. Descriptive questions are usually simple questions that ask about ‘how much’ or
‘how often’ or look for a list of things/factors.
Example: How often do people aged 30 to 40 visit their parents?

2. Causal questions try to determine a relationship between two variables or they


compare two variables.
Example: How does stress at work relate to quality of life in people working night shifts?
(a relationship question)
Example: How do lean participants compare to obese participants in their frequency and
intensity of food cravings? (a comparison question)

3. Predictive questions try to forecast an outcome. Studies that result from these
questions are often controversial as it is hard to single out one variable and
unquestionably link it to an outcome. You need to be confident that you can indeed
ensure a controlled environment, one in which you are able to control for other variables
and observe only the effect of your chosen variable.
Example: Does a stressful work environment lead to higher turnover rates?

Qualitative Research Questions:


1. Usually start with ‘what’ or ‘how’ (avoid beginning qualitative questions with ‘why’ as
this implies cause and effect).
2. Identify the central phenomenon you plan to explore (tell in your question what you
are going to describe, explore, generate, discover, understand).
3. Avoid the use of quantitative words such as relate, influence, effect, cause.
With qualitative research, you will usually have one central question and possibly also
some sub-questions to narrow the phenomenon under study further. The sub-questions
will generally be more specific.
Examples of qualitative research questions:
1. What is it like growing up in a single-parent family in a rural environment?
2. What are the experiences of people working night shifts in health care?
3. How would overweight people describe their meal times while dieting?

Types of Research

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1. Based on Application of Research Method


- Pure research deals with concepts, principles, or abstract things. This type of
research aims to increase your knowledge about something.
- Applied research- the intention of research is to apply your chosen research to
societal problems or issues, finding ways to make positive changes in society.
2. Based on Purpose of the Research
a. Descriptive Research
 type of research aims at defining or giving a verbal portrayal or picture of a
person, thing, event, group situation, etc.
 Liable to repeated research because its topic relates itself only to a certain period
or a limited number of years.
b. Correlational Research
 Shows relationships or connectedness of two factors, circumstances, or agents
called variables that affects the research.
c. Explanatory Research
 Type of research elaborates or explains not just the reasons behind the
relationship of two factors, but also the ways by which such relationship exist.
d. Exploratory Research
 Purpose is to find out how reasonable or possible it is to conduct a research
study.
e. Action Research
 Type of research, studies an ongoing practice of a school, organization,
community or institution for the purpose of obtaining results that will bring
improvements in the system.
3. Based on the type of Data Needed
a. Quantitative research
b. Qualitative research

LESSON 4: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life

Qualitative Research
 Research type that puts premium high or high value on people’s thinking or point
of view conditioned by their personal traits.
 Usually takes place in soft sciences like social sciences, politics, economics,
humanities, education, psychology, nursing, and all business- related subjects.
 An act of inquiry or investigation of real- life events.

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Characteristics of a Qualitative Research


1. Human understanding and interpretation
2. Active, powerful, forceful
3. Multiple research approaches and methods
4. Specificity to generalization
5. Contextualization
6. Diversified data in real- life situations
7. Abounds with words and visuals
8. Internal analysis

Strengths of Qualitative Research


1. Issues can be examined in detail and in depth.
2. Interviews are not restricted to specific questions and can be guided/redirected by the
researcher in real time.
3. The research framework and direction can be quickly revised as new information
emerges.
4. The obtained data based on human experience is powerful and sometimes more
compelling than quantitative data.
5. Subtleties and complexities about the research subjects and/or topic are discovered
that are often missed by more positivistic inquiries.
6. Data usually are collected from a few cases or individuals so findings cannot be
generalized to a larger population. Findings can however be transferable to another
setting.

Limitations of Qualitative Research 1. Research quality is heavily dependent on the


individual skills of the researcher and more easily influenced by the researcher's
personal biases and idiosyncrasies. 2. Rigor is more difficult to maintain, assess, and
demonstrate. 3. The volume of data makes analysis and interpretation time consuming.
4. It is sometimes not as well understood and accepted as quantitative research within
the scientific community 5. The researcher's presence during data gathering, which is
often unavoidable in qualitative research, can affect the subjects' responses. 6. Issues
of anonymity and confidentiality can bring/result to problems when presenting findings
7. Findings can be more difficult and time consuming to characterize in a visual way.

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Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life


 Qualitative research is a type of educational research in which the researcher relies on
the views of participants; asks broad, general questions; collects data consisting largely
words (text) from participants; describes and analyzes these words for themes; and
conducts the inquiry in a subjective, biased manner.

Characteristics of a Qualitative Research


1. Human understanding and interpretation
2. Active, powerful and forceful
3. Multiple research approaches and methods
4. Specificity to generalization
5. Contextualization
6. Diversified data in real- life situations
7. Abounds with words and visuals
8. Internal analysis

Strengths of Qualitative Research

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1. Issues can be examined in detail and in depth.


2. Interviews are not restricted to specific questions and can be guided/redirected by the
researcher in real time.
3. The research framework and direction can be quickly revised as new information
emerges.
4. The obtained data based on human experience is powerful and sometimes more
compelling than quantitative data.
5. Subtleties and complexities about the research subjects and/or topic are discovered
that are often missed by more positivistic inquiries.
6. Data usually are collected from a few cases or individuals so findings cannot be
generalized to a larger population. Findings can however be transferable to another
setting.

Limitations of Qualitative Research


1. Research quality is heavily dependent on the individual skills of the researcher and
more easily influenced by the researcher's personal biases and idiosyncrasies.
2. Rigor is more difficult to maintain, assess, and demonstrate.
3. The volume of data makes analysis and interpretation time consuming.
4. It is sometimes not as well understood and accepted as quantitative research within
the scientific community
5. The researcher's presence during data gathering, which is often unavoidable in
qualitative research, can affect the subjects' responses.
6. Issues of anonymity and confidentiality can bring/result to problems when presenting
findings
7. Findings can be more difficult and time consuming to characterize

Qualitative Research in Different Areas of Knowledge

C
Chapter III: Identifying the Inquiry and Stating the Problem

Subject Matter of the Inquiry or Research


You begin your research work with a problem; that is, having a problem or topic
to work on. A topic is researchable if the knowledge and information about it are
supported by the evidence that is observable, factual and logical.

Guidelines in Choosing a Research Topic


1. Interest in the subject matter
2. Availability of information
3. Timeliness and relevance of the topic
4.Limitations on the subject
5. Personal resources

Research Topics to be AVOIDED

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1. Controversial topics- topics that depend greatly on the writer’s opinion, which may
tend to be biased or prejudicial.
2. Highly technical subjects- topics that require an advances study, technical
knowledge, and vast experiences.
3. Hard-to-investigate subjects- a subject is hard to investigate if there are no
available reading materials about it.
4. Too broad subjects – topics that are too broad will prevent you from giving an in-
depth analysis of the subject matter.
5. Too narrow subjects- subjects that are so limited or specific that an extensive or
thorough searching or reading for information about these is necessary.
6. Vague subjects- topics like these will prevent you from having a clear focus on your
paper. Example: titles beginning with indefinite adjectives such as, “several, many,
some”; Several Comments on the RH Law, Some Remarkable Traits of a Filipino

Research Problem VS Research Question

Research Problem
 Problem makes you worry and pushes you to exert considerable effort in finding
solution and you consider research as the remedy for getting over the problem.
 When you decide to do research, you begin with a problem that will lead you to a
specific topic to focus on.
 It enables you to generate a set of research question.

Research Questions
 Specific questions about a behavior, event or phenomena of interest that you
wish to seek answers for in your research.
 It can delve into issues of what, why, how, when and so forth.
 To get a good idea of the problem, you must have a rich background knowledge
about the topic through the RRL (Review of Related Literature)
 To give your study a clear direction, you have to break this big, overreaching,
general question into smaller or specific research questions.
 Specific questions also called sub- problems, identify or direct you to the exact
aspect of the problem that your study has to focus on.

Example:
Research Problem: The need to have a safer, comfortable, and healthful walk or
transfer of students from place to place in the UST campus.
Research Topic: The Construction of a Covered Pathway in the UST Campus
General Question: What kind of covered path should UST construct in its campus?
Specific Questions:
1. What materials are needed for the construction of the covered pathway in the
UST campus?
2. What roofing material is appropriate for the covered path?

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3.In what way can the covered pathway link all buildings in the campus?
4. What is the width and height of the covered path?
5. How can the covered path realize green architecture?

Guidelines in Formulating Research Questions


1. Establish a clear relation between the research questions and the problem or topic.
2. Base your research questions on your RRL (Review of Related Literature) because
existing published works help you to get good background knowledge of the research
problem.
3.Formulate research questions that can arouse your curiosity.
4. State your research questions in such a way that they include all dependent and
independent variables.
5. Let the set of research questions or sub- problems be preceded by one question
expressing the main problem of the research.
6. Avoid asking research questions that are answerable with “yes or no”.
7.Be guided by the acronym SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, time-
bounded) in formulating the research questions.

Developing Research Questions for Qualitative Research

Qualitative Research Questions


 Questions are exploratory and descriptive often deals with WHAT and HOW
questions
 Focus on questions such as, WHAT IS HAPPENING, WHAT ARE PEOPLE
DOING, and WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO THEM.
 Qualitative researchers are often interested in explaining WHY or HOW
individuals DO or DON’T DO certain things.

Qualitative Research seeks to answer questions about:


1. Why people behave the way they do?
2. How opinions and attitudes are formed?
3. How people are affected by the events that go on around them?
4. How and why cultures and practices have developed in the way they have?

Criteria for Evaluating Research Questions


1. They should be CLEAR.
2. They should be RESEARCHABLE.
3. They should have connections with established theory and research.
4. Your research questions should be linked to each other.
5. They should at the very least hold out the prospect of being able to make an original
contribution.
6. The research questions should be neither too broad nor too narrow.

Writing the Statement of the Problem

Elements to be included on the Statement of the Research Problem

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1. Research Questions
2. Research Objectives
3. Significance of the Study/ Research
4. Scope and Delimitation of the Study

1. Research Questions
 It guides the entire research process.
 General and Specific questions
2. Research Objectives
 It determines everything that follows including selection of data
collection and methods. When formulating research objectives
indicate what the research will do.
How to Formulate Research Objectives?
1. Usually uses the word “to”, followed by a verb. Some of the most commonly
used verbs for some qualitative research objectives includes, identify, explore,
describe, understand and explain.
Example: discover (grounded theory), explain or seek to understand
(ethnography), explore a process (case study), describe the experiences
(phenomenology)
2. Avoid verbs or action words that connotes or imply a directional orientation
such as, affect, influence, impact, determine, cause and relate.
3. Significance of the Study
 Includes the importance of the study to the specific audience that
the research in intended to.
 Importance of the study to the researchers, practitioners and policy
makers.
 Researcher should include at least three reasons why the study is
important and how the study helps improve practice and policy.
4. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
 It indicates the boundaries, exceptions, reservations and
qualifications in your study.
 Scope is mainly the coverage of your study.
 Delimitation is the limitation of your study.
Sample:

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Chapter IV: Learning from Others and Reviewing the Literature

Lesson I: Review of Related Literature (RRL)

Literature is an oral or written record of man’s significant experiences that are


artistically conveyed in a prosaic manner. Embodied in any literary work like essay,
novel, journal, story, biography, etc.

Review of Related Literature- is an analysis of man’s written or spoken knowledge of


the world. You examine representations of man’s thinking about the world to determine
the connection of your research with what people already know about it.

“When one reviews the literature, the usual tasks involve are the ff:
summarizing key elements of a research study, the problem being addressed, the
central purpose, information about the sample or subjects and the key results or
findings”

Purpose of Review of Related Literature (RRL)

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1. To obtain background knowledge of your research.


2. To relate your study to the current condition or situation of the world.
3. To expand, prove, or disprove the findings of previous research studies.
4. To increase your understanding of the underlying theories, principles, or concepts of
your research.
5. To explain technical terms involved in your research study.
6. To highlight the significance of your work with the kind of evidence it gathered to
support the conclusion of your research.
7. To avoid repeating previous studies.
8. To recommend the necessity of further research on a certain topic.

Styles or Approaches of RRL or Review of Related Literature

1. Traditional Review of Related Literature


 Way to summarize present forms of knowledge on a specific subject.
 Your aim here is to give an expanded or new understanding of an existing work.
 Does not require you to describe your method of reviewing literature but expects
you to state your intentions in conducting the review and to name the sources of
information.

Different Types of Traditional Review


1. Conceptual Review- analysis of concepts or ideas to give meaning to some
national or world issues.
2. Critical Review- focuses on theories or hypotheses and examines meanings and
results of their application to situations.
3. State-of-the Art Review- makes the researcher deal with the latest research
studies on the subject.
4. Expert Review- encourages a well- known expert to do the RRL because of the
influence of a certain belief on him/her.
5. Scoping Review- prepares a situation for a future research work in the form of
project making about community development, government, policies, and health
services, among others.

2. Systematic Review of Literature


 A style of RRL that involves sequential acts of review of related literature.
 Wide and thorough search for all studies.

The Process of Review of Related Literature

Stage 1. Search for Literature


 The stage where you look for sources of knowledge, data, information to answer
your research questions or to support your assumptions about your research
topic.

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 Sources of knowledge are the ff: Internet, books, journals, published literary
reviews, theses, dissertations, posters, leaflets, research studies in progress and
other library materials, social media networks, and other online encyclopedia.

Stage 2. Reading the Source Material


 The stage of reading, understanding, or making the materials meaningful.
 Stage where you criticize or evaluate, apply and create things about what you
have read.
 Permits you to modify, construct, or reconstruct ideas from your research.

Stage 3. Writing the Review


 Idea connection and organization to form an overall understanding by
paraphrasing or summarizing the reading material.
 In writing the review you are free to fuse your opinions with the author’s ideas.
 A good approach to writing an excellent review is adopting good opening
sentences of articles that should chronologically appear in the paper.
 Opening an article with a bibliographical list that begins with the author’s name
like the ff.is NOT GOOD.
o Aquino (2015) said…
o Roxas (2017) stated…
o Perez (2017) wrote…
 Examples of BETTER article openings are the ff.
o One early work by (Aquino, 2015) proves that…
o A research study by (Roxas, 2017) stated that…
o Another study by (Perez, 2017) wrote…
 The ff. are transitional devices and active verbs to link or express author’s ideas
in your paper:
o Transitional devices- also, additionally, again, similarly, a similar opinion,
however, conversely, on the other hand, nevertheless, a contrasting
opinion, a different approach etc.
o Active verbs- analyze, argues, assess, assert, claim, compare, contrast,
conclude, criticize, debate, defend, define, demonstrate, discuss
distinguish, differentiate, evaluate, examine, emphasize, expand, explain,
exhibit, identify, illustrate, imply, indicate, judge, justify, narrate, outline,
persuade, propose, question, relate to, report, review, suggest,
summarize.

Standard Styles in Related Literature Citations or References

The cardinal principle in research is acknowledging or recognizing the owners of


the ideas or knowledge that you intend to include in your research paper.

The ff. are the three terms used to express your appreciation for, or recognition of
people’s ownership of borrowed ideas:

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1. Acknowledgment- the beginning portion of the work that identifies individuals who
have contributed something for the production of the paper.
2. References or Bibliography- a complete list of all reading materials, including
books, journals, periodicals, etc. from where the borrowed ideas came from.
3. Citation or In-text Citation- references within the main body of the text, specifically
in the Review of Related Literature.
Purposes of Citation
1. To give importance and respect to other people for what they know about the field.
2. To give authority, validity, and credibility to other’s people’s claims, conclusions, and
arguments.
3. To prove your broad and extensive reading of authentic and relevant materials about
your topic.
4. To help readers find or contact the sources of ideas easily.
5. To permit readers to check the accuracy of your work
6. To save yourself from plagiarism.

Basic Methods or Styles of Referencing

1. MLA – Modern Language Association


2. APA- American Psychological Association

Styles of Citation

1. Integral Citation
- A way of citing or referring to the author whose ideas appear in your work.
- Using active verbs like claim, assert, state etc. to report the author’s ideas.
Examples of Integral Citation:
APA MLA

One study by Manalo (2015) reveals… One study by (Manalo 70) …


The latest work by (Lee, 2015) asserts… The latest work by (Lee 123) …
According to Abad et al. (2015) context is… According to (Aba et al:54) …

2. Non- integral Citation


- The stress is given to the piece of information rather than to the owner of the
ideas.
Examples of Non- Integral Citation:
1. The Code of Ethics for Intercultural Competence give four ways by which people from
different cultural background can harmoniously relate themselves with one another.
(De la Cruz, 2015)
2. The other components of Intercultural Competence which are also present in SFG
are: context, appropriateness and emotions. (Santos and Daez, 2016).

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Patterns of Citation
1. Summary
 Citation is a shortened version of the original text and picking out only the most
important ideas of the text.
2. Paraphrase
 Explaining what the text means to you using your own words.

3. Short Direct Quotation


 Only a part of the author’s sentence, the whole sentence or several sentences,
not exceeding 40 words is what you can quote or repeat in writing.
 Necessary that you give the number of the page where readers can find the
copied words.
Example:
Contexts is influenced by these four factors “language, culture, institutions, and
ideologies.” (Aranda, 2015, p.8)

4. Long Direct Quotation or Block Quotation, or Extract


 Copy the author’s exact words numbering from 40 up to 100 words.
 Quote judiciously because having so many quoted words or lines in your paper
signals your lack of understanding of such part of the text.
 Frequent copying of author’s words indicates lack of originality in conducting the
research work.
Example:
The latest study by (Hizon, 2015) reveals the social nature of language.
Stressing this nature of language, he says:
Language features result from the people use language to meet their social needs. In
their interactions, they use language to describe, compare, agree, explain, disagree, and so on. Each
language function requires a certain set of language features like nouns for naming, adjectives for
comparing verbs for agreeing. (p.38)

5. Tense of verbs for reporting


 Active verbs are effective words to use in reporting authors’ ideas.
 Present the authors’ ideas in any of these tenses: present, simple past, or
present perfect tense.
Example:
Present tense- Marcos explains…
Past tense- Marcos explained…
Present perfect tense- Marcos has explained…

Plagiarism
 Act of quoting or copying the exact words of the writer and passing the quoted words off as your
own words.
 Using the words of the original text in expressing your understanding of the reading material.

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 The right way to AVOID plagiarism is to express the borrowed ideas in your own words.
 Taking ownership of what do not belong to you is a criminal act that is punishable by
imprisonment and indemnity or payment of money to compensate for any losses incurred by the
owners of expression that you copied without their permission.
 Safest way to avoid plagiarism is to be aware of the fact that the copied words are not yours.
 If you want these words to appear on your research paper, you must reveal the name of the author,
including the pieces of information (title, date, place of publication, publisher, etc.) about the books
from where you copied the words. (Hammersely, 2013)

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