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A matrix is a set or

1 2 4 group of numbers

4 − 1 5 arranged in a square

or rectangular array

3 3 3 enclosed by two

brackets

A matrix is denoted by a bold capital letter and

the elements within the matrix are denoted by

lower case letters (e.g. matrix [A] with elements amn)

𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑎13

𝑎2𝑛 𝑎2𝑛 𝑎23

𝐀𝒎𝒙𝒏 =

𝑎𝑚1 𝑎𝑚2 𝑎33

𝑎𝑚𝑛 𝑎𝑚𝑛 𝑎43

m : number of row

n : number of column

mn

TYPES OF MATRICES

1 1 Square matrix

Diagonal matrix

1 0 0

Column matrix

3 7 1

1 1 4

Row matrix

0 2 0

7 − 7

3 0

1 1 6

7 6 2 0 0 1

Rectangular matrix 𝑚=𝑛

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0

1 8 9 0

0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 6 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 6 0

0 0 0 0 0 3

0 0 0 1

Null (zero) matrix Triangular matrix

0 0 0 6

Unit or Identity

Scalar matrix

matrix

determinants

Determinant is a scalar

calculated from a square

matrix.

Theorems of Determinants:

• The number of terms in the expansion of a

determinant of order n is n!

• If the corresponding rows & columns of a

determinant are interchanged, the value is

unchanged

• If two columns or rows of a determinant are

interchanged the sign is changed

• If all elements in any column or row of a

determinant are zero, the value of the determinant

is zero

Theorems of Determinants:

• If two columns or rows of a determinant have their

elements identical or proportional, the value of the

determinant is zero

• If each element of a column or row is multiplied by

the same number k, the value of the determinant is

multiplied by k

• If each element of column or row of a determinant

is multiplied by the same number k and added to

the elements of another column or row, the value of

the determinant is unchanged

Rank of a Square Matrix

rank of a matrix is the

highest order of the

matrix with a non-zero

determinant

1. What is the rank of Matrix A?

1 −2 −1 shift: 4: 7(det)

A = −3 3 0 shift: 4: 3(MatA)

2 2 4 𝟎

mode: 6: 1(MatA) : 1(3x3) 𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒌 ≠ 𝟑

rank of a matrix is the

highest order of the

matrix with a non-

zero determinant

1. What is the rank of Matrix A?

1 −2 −1

A = −3 3 0 rank of a matrix is the

2 2 4 highest order of the

matrix with a non-

det = 3 − 6 zero determinant

det = −3 𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒌 = 𝟐

2. Evaluate the determinant of A:

2 3 −4 mode: 6: 1(MatA) : 1(3x3)

A= 3 −1 −2

4 −7 −6

A. -30

B. -10 shift: 4: 7(det)

C. 30 shift: 4: 3(MatA)

D.82

𝟖𝟐

3. Compute the determinant of x:

4 −1 2 3 𝒎𝟏

x= 2 0 2 1

10 3 0 1

8 −2 4 6 𝒎𝟐

A. 0 𝒎𝟏 is proportion 𝒎𝟒

B. 12 If two columns or rows of a

C. 10 determinant have their elements

identical or proportional, the

D.1 value of the determinant is zero

4. Compute the determinant of x:

4 −1 2 3 by: pivotal method

x= 2 0 2 1 choose a11 as the pivot

10 3 0 1

make a11 equal to 1

14 2 4 5

1 2 3

4 1 −

4 4 4

x= 2 0 2 1

10 3 0 1

14 2 4 5

4. Compute the determinant of x:

4 −1 2 3 by: pivotal method

x= 2 0 2 1 choose a11 as the pivot

10 3 0 1

make a11 equal to 1

14 2 4 5

1 2 3

4 1 −

4

MatC (1x3)

4 4

x= 2 0 2 1 −𝟐𝟖

MatB 10 3 0 1 MatA (3x3)

(3x1) 14 2 4 5 4det( MatA− MatBMatC)

3 1 2

5. If A = −2 −1 0 , then, what is the

0 2 −1

cofactor of the first row second column element?

−2 0

Minor a12 (M12) =

0 −1

Cofactor a12 (C12) = signed Minor a12 (M12)

1+2 −2 0

Cofactor a12 (C12) = −1

0 −1

Cofactor a12 (C12) = (−1)(2) −𝟐

6. What is the transposed matrix of

3 1 2

A = −2 −1 0 ?

0 2 −1

3 −2 0

𝑇

A = 1 −1 2

2 0 −1

Matrix Operation

➢ Matrix Addition

➢ Matrix Subtraction

➢ Matrix Multiplication

➢ Matrix Division

Matrix Multiplication

(m x r ) x (r x n) = (m x n)

𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒:

(4 x 2 ) x (2 x 5) = (4 x 5)

Matrix Multiplication

(m x r ) x (r x n) = (m x n)

𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒:

(4 x 2 ) x (2 x 5) = (4 x 5)

Matrix Multiplication

(m x r ) x (r x n) = (m x n)

𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒:

(4 x 2 ) x (2 x 5) = (4 x 5)

Matrix Multiplication

(m x r ) x (r x n) = (m x n)

𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒:

(4 x 2 ) x (2 x 5) = (4 x 5)

2 1 −1 2

8. If A = , and B = then find A + 2B.

−1 3 1 1

MatA MatB

(2x2) (2x2)

0 5

A + 2B = MatA + 2MatB =

1 5

9. Given the matrix equation, solve for x and y.

1 1 x 2

=

3 2 y 0

mode: 5: 1

𝑥 = −4

𝑦=6

4 5 0 1 0 0

10. If A = 6 7 3 and B = 0 1 0 what is AxB?

1 2 3 0 0 1

Unit Matrix

𝐴𝑛𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑥 𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑦 𝑏𝑦 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑥 𝑖𝑠

𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑥 𝑖𝑡𝑠𝑒𝑙𝑓

4 5 0

AxB = 6 7 3

1 2 3

−𝟏

Inverse of a Matrix (𝐀 )

steps:

𝐃: determinant

𝐓: transpose

𝐀: adjoint of the transpose

𝐃: divide the adjoint by the determinant

11. Evaluate the Inverse Matrix A.

cos θ −sin θ

A=

steps: sin θ cos θ

𝐃: determinant

−1 cos θ sin θ

𝐓: transpose A = −sin θ cos θ

𝐀: adjoint of the transpose

𝐃: divide the adjoint by the determinant

12. What is the inverse of the coefficient matrix?

Referring to the following systems of equations:

10x + 3y + 10z =5

8x – 2y + 9z = 5

8x + y – 10z = 5

−1

10 3 10 A−1 = (MatA)

A = 8 −2 9 11 20 47

8 1 −10 806 403 806

−1 76 90 −5

A = −

403 403 403

MatA(3x3) 12 7 −22

403 403 403

7. What is the classical Adjoint of A?

2 3 −4

𝐴= 0 −4 2 MatA(3x3)

1 −1 5

D. T. A. D. = A−1

−1

Aadj = (MatA) x det(MatA)

−18 − 11 − 10

adj = 2

A 14 −4

4 5 −8

13. Find the quotient of A/B if:

1 3 1 2

A= and B =

4 2 1 3

MatA MatB

(2x2) (2x2)

A ✓ −1 −1 𝟎 𝟏

= AB = MatA MatB =

B 𝟏𝟎 −𝟔

14. Determine the eigenvalues of the matrix

5 3

A= .

0 2

5− 𝜆 3

A=

0 2 −𝜆 𝜆 =5&2

det A = (5 − 𝜆)(2 − 𝜆)− 0

0 = (5 − 𝜆)(2 − 𝜆)

Complex numbers

𝒙 + 𝒋𝒚

𝒂 + 𝒃𝒊 rectangular form

𝒓∠𝜽 polar form

𝒓𝒆 𝜽𝒋 exponential form

𝒓𝒄𝒊𝒔 trigonometric form

𝑟(cos 𝜃 + 𝑖 sin 𝜃)

Complex numbers

Absolute value/Modulus (𝒓)

𝐫= 𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐲 𝟐

Amplitude/Argument (θ)

−𝟏

𝒚

θ= 𝒕𝒂𝒏

𝒙

15. Simplify i 29 + i 21 + i. 𝒊 = 1∠90

𝒊 rectangular form 𝒊𝟐𝟗 = 𝟏𝟐𝟗 ∠(𝟗𝟎𝒙𝟐𝟗)

mode: 2(complex) 𝒊 𝟐𝟏 𝟐𝟏

= 𝟏 ∠(𝟗𝟎𝒙𝟐𝟗)

𝒊 shift: 2: 3 29 21

i + i +i

𝑖 +𝑖 + 𝑖 = 3𝑖

15. Simplify i 29 + i 21 + i.

𝒏𝒐𝒕𝒆:

𝑖29 + 𝑖21 + 𝑖

𝟎. 𝟐𝟓 = 𝒊 𝒅𝒊𝒗𝒊𝒅𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒆𝒙𝒑𝒐𝒏𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒃𝒚 𝟒

𝟎. 𝟓 = −𝟏

𝒊 + 𝒊 + 𝒊

𝟎. 𝟕𝟓 = −𝒊

𝐖𝐍 = 𝟏 𝟑𝒊

16. Simplify (3 – i) 2 – 7 (3 – i) + 10

mode: 2(complex) : input

−3+i

17. The complex expression 3 + 4𝑖 is

equivalent to:

A.5 ( cos 53.13 + jsin 53.13) mode: 2(complex)

B. 5 ( cos 33.15 + jsin 33.15) 3 + 4𝑖

C. 5 ( cos 33.15 - jsin 33.15) shift: 2: 3

D.5 ( cos 53.13 - jsin 53.13)

r = 5 θ = 53.13

𝒓𝒄𝒊𝒔: 𝑟(cos 𝜃 + 𝑖 sin 𝜃)

18. What is the simplified expression of the

6+j2.5

complex number ?

3+j4

1.12 − 0.66𝑖

j120°

19. If A = 40e , B = 20∠ − 40,

C = 26.46 + j0, solve for A + B + C.

mode: 2(complex): input

40∠120 + 20∠ − 40+

j120°

19. If A = 40e , B = 20∠ − 40,

C = 26.46 + j0, solve for A + B + C.

mode: 2(complex): input

40∠120 + 20∠ − 40+ 26.46

21.78 + 21.285𝑖

shift: 2: 3 𝟑𝟎. 𝟖 ∠ 𝟒𝟓

20. Evaluate j j

20. Evaluate 𝒊𝒊

𝒙 + 𝒋𝒚 𝒓∠𝜽 𝜽𝒋

𝒓𝒆

π

𝑖

𝒊 = 1∠90 = 1e 2

π π 2

𝒊 = (1e 2 𝑖 )𝑖 = e2 𝑖 2

𝑖 = −1

𝒊 𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑒:

π

𝒊 −

𝒊 =e 2 = 0.2078

𝑗

21. Evaluate −𝑗?

𝑖

21. Evaluate −𝑖 ?

𝒙 + 𝒋𝒚 𝒓∠𝜽 𝜽𝒋

𝒓𝒆

π

1∠ − 90 − 𝑖

= 1e 2

−𝒊 = 3π

𝑖

1∠270 1e 2

1 3π 1 3π

𝑖 𝑖

(−𝑖) 𝑖 = (1e 2 ) = e2 = 111.317

Trigonometric-hyperbolic

relationship

sin(𝑥 ± 𝑗𝑦) = sin 𝑥 cosh 𝑦 ± jcos 𝑥 sinh 𝑦

cos(𝑥 ± 𝑗𝑦) = cos 𝑥 cosh 𝑦 ∓ 𝑗 sin 𝑥 sinh 𝑦

sin(𝑗𝑦) = 𝑗 sinh 𝑦

cos(𝑗𝑦) = cosh 𝑦

22. Evaluate sin (j0.78).

sin(𝑗𝑦) = 𝑗 sinh 𝑦

sin(𝑗0.78) = 𝑗 sinh 0.78

sin(𝑗0.78) = 0.86j

Roots of Complex Numbers

1 θ + 𝑘(360)

𝑍= rn∠

n

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒:

𝑘 = 0, 1, 2, 3, … . 𝑛 − 1

n = no. of roots

23. Determine the cube roots of 8∠120°.

r θ

23. Determine the cube roots of 8∠120°.

n=3 r θ

1 120 + 0(360)

𝑍1 =83 ∠

3

2∠40°

1 120 + 1(360)

𝑍2 = 83 ∠

3 2∠160°

1 120 + 2(360)

𝑍3 = 83 ∠

3 2∠280°

24. Find the principal 5 th (5 (cos 150 + j sin 150)).

r=5 θ = 150

24. Find the principal 5 th (5 (cos 150 + j sin 150)).

r=5 θ = 150 n = 5 𝑍1 =?

1 θ+ 𝑘(360)

𝑍= rn∠

n

1 150 + 0(360)

𝑍1 = 55 ∠

5 𝟏. 𝟑𝟖 ∠ 𝟑𝟎°

NATURAL LOGARITHM OF COMPLEX NUMBERS

ln(𝒓𝒆 ) = ln(𝒓𝒄𝒊𝒔)

𝜽𝒋

ln(𝒓𝒆 ) = ln(𝒓) 𝜽𝒋

+ ln(𝒆 )

ln(x + jy) = ln(𝒓) + 𝜽𝒋

for r & 𝛉 mode: rad

Pol(x, y)

25. Evaluate ln (3 +j4).

for r & 𝛉 mode: rad

Pol(3 , 4 ) 1.609 + 0.927 i

r = 5 θ = 0.927

ln(3 + j4) = ln(5) + 0.927j

26. Evaluate ln (-5)

ln(x + jy) = ln(𝒓) + 𝜽𝒋

for r & 𝛉 mode: rad

Pol(−5 , 0 ) 1.609 + 𝜋𝑖

r = 5 θ = 3.141592

ln(−5) = ln(5) + 3.141592j

Fourier Series

𝜽𝒋

𝒓𝒆 = 𝒓(cos𝜽 + jsin𝜽)

+ −𝜽𝒋

𝒓𝒆 = 𝒓(cos𝜽 − jsin𝜽)

𝜽𝒋 −𝜽𝒋

𝒓𝒆 + 𝒓𝒆 = 𝟐𝒓(cos𝜽)

𝜽𝒋

𝒓𝒆 = 𝒓(cos𝜽 + jsin𝜽)

− −𝜽𝒋

𝒓𝒆 = 𝒓(cos𝜽 − jsin𝜽)

𝜽𝒋 −𝜽𝒋

𝒓𝒆 − 𝒓𝒆 = 𝟐𝒓(sin𝜽)

27. One term of a Fourier Series in

cosine form is 10 cos40πt. Write it in

exponential form.

j40πt

A.5e

j40πt −j40πt

B.5e + 5e

−j40πt

C.10e

j40πt

D.10e

27. One term of a Fourier Series in

cosine form is 10 cos40πt. Write it in

exponential form.

𝟐𝒓(cos𝜽) = 𝜽𝒋 −𝜽𝒋

A.5e j40πt 𝒓𝒆 + 𝒓𝒆

B.5e j40πt

+ 5e −j40πt r = 5 𝜃 = 40𝜋𝑡

−j40πt

C.10e

j40πt

D.10e

28. Evaluate the terms of a Fourier

j10πt −j10πt

Series 2e + 2e @ t=1.

A.2 cos 10π 𝜽𝒋

𝒓𝒆 + 𝒓𝒆 −𝜽𝒋

= 𝟐𝒓(cos𝜽)

B.2 sin 10π

C.4 cos 10π r = 2 𝜃 = 10𝜋𝑡

D.4 sin 10π 2ej10πt −j10πt

+ 2e = 4(cos10𝜋𝑡)

@t=1

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