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Chapter 11

11-1aSupporting the Social Needs of Students:

Creating a Collaborative Environment
 If we want students to express their own opinions on controversial issues,
or to feel comfortable challenging others' points of view, they need to feel
assured that they will not be criticized or reprimanded for doing so.
 Barell (2007) referred to this as an “invitational environment” while
Kolodner and her colleagues (2003) described it as a “culture of

the Cognitive Needs of
Students: Promoting Content Learning
 the primary reasons we use authentic instruction is to promote students'
deep understanding of subject-matter content through the process
 The research conducted by Newmann et al. (2001) in the Chicago Public
Schools illustrated that even for students in highly disadvantaged schools,
their ability to “master the basics,” as measured by standardized tests,
improved when teachers assigned work that demanded both complex
thinking and detailed communication about issues that were important in
their lives.
 Finally, the use of frequent checkpoints and record-keeping devices can
keep students focused on their learning goals and provide opportunities
for reinforcement or redirection.

11-2aAccessto Up-to-Date Hardware,

Software, and Connectivity
 The U.S. Department of Education ( Gray, Thomas & Lewis, 2010) reported
that in 2009 a computer was available either in the classroom or could be
brought into the classroom at a ratio of 1.7 students per computer.
 According to the U.S. Department of Education ( Wells & Lewis, 2006), in
2005 virtually 100 percent of all schools across the nation reported some
type of Internet connection in their schools. In 2009, 95 percent of
available computers had Internet access ( Gray, Thomas, & Lewis, 2010).

11-2bAccess to Meaningful, High-Quality, and

Culturally Responsive Content
 reported in 2010, approximately 75 percent of all teens own a mobile
phone ( Lenhart, Ling, Campbell & Purcell, 2010).
 Providing high-quality content is a challenge, especially as you reach out to
meet the needs of all of your students, including those who are not part of
the dominant culture.

11-2cAccess to Tech-Knowledgeable Teachers

 teachers who lack knowledge of how to use technology are inadequately
prepared to provide their students with meaningful access to technologies
that may be readily available in a school.

11-3aUnderstanding Your Culture and the

Culture of Others
 You should also consider the connection between school and society and
how you have been impacted as a member of different education-related
settings and roles, whether as a student, teacher, parent, or otherwise.
 different cultures may have different ways of expressing these things, all
cultures hold beliefs and exhibit resulting patterns of behaviors in each of
these areas ( Peace Corps, 2002).

11-3bWorking with Students to Develop

Cultural Understanding
 students can create short presentations or movies of their personal and
family histories to share with the class
 he goal is to understand what attributes others bring to the educational
settings and how prior knowledge and experiences can be leveraged for
positive educational outcomes.

11-3cRespecting Cultural Diversity in the

 In some communities that rely strongly on an oral tradition that involves
sharing and reflection, disseminating information via mass media—
including television and the Internet—can be perceived negatively
( Wiburg, 2003).
 Reflect on technologies you already know that can support these
strategies, and consider others mentioned in this section that you would
like to know more about