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# REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

## ECE 425: BASIC ELECTRONICS WITH MEASUREMENTS

LABORATORY REPORT 4

SUBMITTED BY:

FAZ, ALVIN B.

ME- 4102

SUBMITTED TO:

INSTRUCTOR

OBJECTIVE:

circuits,

## 3.) To measure the DC output voltages of these rectifier circuits

MATERIALS:

DMM; Oscilloscope; Resistors – (2) 2.2-k ohms (1) 3.3-k ohms; Diodes – (4)

## Silicon; Function generator

THEORY OF OPERATION:

## The primary function of half-wave and full-wave rectification systems is to establish

a DC level from a sinusoidal input signal that has zero average (DC) level.

## The half-wave voltage signal of Fig.2.1, normally established by a network with a

single diode, has an average or equivalent DC voltage level equal to 31.8% of the peak

voltage Vm.

That is,

## Vdc = 0.318 (Vpeak) V (Eq.2.1)

The full-wave rectifier signal of Fig.2.1 has twice the average or DC level of the

That is,

## Vdc = 0.636 (Vpeak) V (Eq.2.2)

For large sinusoidal inputs (Vm >> VT) the forward-biased transition voltage of a

diode can be ignored. However, for situations when the peak value of the sinusoidal signal

is not that much greater than VT, VT can have a noticeable effect on VDC.
In rectification systems the peak inverse voltage (PIV) or Zener breakdown

voltage parameter must be considered carefully. The PIV voltage is the maximum

reverse-bias voltage that a diode can handle before entering the Zener breakdown

region. For typical single diode half-wave rectification systems, the required PIV

level is equal to the peak value of the applied sinusoidal signal. For the four diodes

full wave bridge rectification system, the required PIV level is again the peak value,

but for a two-diode center tapped configuration, it is twice the peak value of the

applied signal.
PROCEDURE:

## PART 1. Threshold Voltage

Choose one of the four silicon diodes and determine the threshold voltage, VT,

VT = -1.023 V

## PART 2. Half-Wave Rectification

a. Construct the circuit of Fig.2.3 using the chosen diode of Part 1. Record the

measured value of the resistance. Set the function generator to 1000 Hz, 8-Vp-p

## sinusoidal voltage using the oscilloscope.

Rmeasured= 102.256 MΩ

## Figure 2.3 Half –wave rectifier

b. The sinusoidal input (e) of Fig 2.3 has been plotted on the screen of Fig.2.4.

Determine the chosen vertical and horizontal sensitivities. Note that the horizontal

## Horizontal sensitivity = 0.2 ms/cm

c. Using the threshold voltage of Part 1, determine the theoretical output voltage

vO for the circuit of Fig 2.3 and sketch the waveform on Fig.4 for one full cycle using
the same sensitivities employed in Part 2(b). Indicate maximum and minimum

4V
Input Waveform
Output Waveform

0V

-4 V

Figure 2.4

## d. Using the oscilloscope with the AC-GND-DC coupling switch in the DC

position, obtain the voltage vo and sketch the waveform on Fig.2.5. Before viewing

vo be sure to set the vo = 0V line using the GND position of the coupling switch.

## Use the same sensitivities as in Part 2(b).

3.428 V

-849.023 𝝁V (minimum)

0V

Figure 2.5
Compare the results of Parts 2(c) and 2(d)?

e. Calculate the DC level of the half-wave rectifier signal of step 2(d). Assume the

positive pulse of the waveform is equal to one-half the period of the input waveform

## VDC (calculated) = 2.544 V

f. Measure the DC level of vo using the DC scale of the DMM and find the percent

difference between the measured value and the calculated value of part 2(e) using

## the following equation:

% Difference= |
VDC (calculated)- VDC (measured)
| ×100%
VDC (calculated)

## VDC (measured) = 2.405 V

%Difference = 5.464 %

g. Switch the AC-GND-DC coupling switch to the AC position. What is the effect

on the output signal vo? Does it appear that the area under the curve above the

zero axis equals the area under the curve below the zero axis? Discuss the effect

of the AC position on waveforms that have an average value over one full cycle.
h. Reverse the diode of Figure 2.3 and sketch the output waveform obtained using

the oscilloscope on Fog 2.6. Be sure the coupling switch is in DC position and the

vo= 0V line is preset using the GND position. Include the maximum and minimum

voltage levels on the plot as determined using the chosen vertical sensitivity.

768.466 𝝁V (maximum)

0V

-3.430 V

Figure 2.6

i. Calculate and measure the DC level of the resulting waveform of Fig. 2.6 Insert

the proper sign for the polarity of VDC as defined be Fig. 2.3. Assume the positive

pulse of the waveform is equal to one-half the period of the input waveform when

## Part 3. Half-Wave Rectification (continued)

a. Construct the network of Fig. 2.7. Record the measured value of the resistor R.
Figure 2.7

b. Using the threshold voltage of Part 1, determine the theoretical output voltage

Vo for Figure 2.7 and sketch the waveform of Figure 2.8 for one full cycle using

the same sensitivities employed in Part 2(b). Indicate the minimum and

## maximum values on the output waveform.

4V

-1.023 V

Figure 2.8

c. Using the oscilloscope with the coupling switch in the DC position obtain the

voltage Vo and sketch the waveform on Fig. 2.9. Before viewing V o, be sure to set
the Vo = 0 V line using the GND position of the coupling switch. Use the same

## sensitivities as in Part 3(b).

3.994 V

0V

-557.477 mV (minimum)

Figure 2.9

## Compare results of Part 3(b) and 3(c).

d. What is the most noticeable difference between the waveform of Fig. 2.9 and

## that obtained in Part 2(h)? Why does it occur?

e. Calculate the DC level of the waveform of Fig. 2.9 using the following

equation:

## Total Area 2Vm -VT π VT

VDC = ≈ =0.318Vm -
2π 2π 2

## VDC (calculated) = 3.0545 V

f. Measure the output DC voltage with the DC scale of the DMM and calculate the

## percent difference using the same appearing in Part 2(f).

Vo (measured) = 2.971 V
% difference = 2.423 %

## Part 4. Half- Wave Rectification (continued)

a. Construct the network of Figure 2.10. Record the measured value of each resistor.

R1(measured)= 39.874 MΩ

R2(measured)= 39.898 MΩ

Figure 2.10

b. Using the measured resistor values and VT from Part 1. Forecast the appearance

## of the output waveform Vo and sketch the result on Figure 2.11.

Use the same sensitivities employed in Part 2(b) and insert the maximum and

## minimum values of the waveform.

c. Using the oscilloscope with the coupling switch in the DC position obtain the

waveform for Vo and record on Fig. 2.12. Again, be sure to preset the Vo = 0 V

line using the GND position of the coupling switch before viewing the waveform.

Using the chosen sensitivities, determine the maximum and minimum values and

## place on the sketch of Fig. 2.12.

549.575 mV
0V

-1.999 V

Figure 2.12

Compare the waveform of Figs. 2.11 and 2.12 in terms of appearance and magnitude.

d. Reverse the direction of the diode and record the resulting waveform on the Fig.

## 2.13 as obtained using the oscilloscope.

1.997 V

0V
-549.574 mV

Figure 2.13

Compare the results of Figs. 2.12 and 2.13. What are the major differences and why?

## Part 5. Full- Wave Rectification (Bridge Configuration)

a. Construct the full- wave bridge rectifier of Fig. 2.14. Be sure that the diodes are

inserted correctly and that the grounding is as shown. If unsure, ask your instructor

## to check your setup. Record the measured value of the resistor R.

Rmeasured= 644.287 MΩ

Figure 2.14
In addition, measure the rms voltage at the transformer secondary using the DMM set to

AC. Record that rms value below. Does it differ from the rated 12.6 V?

## Vrms (measured) = 12.595 V

b. Calculate the peak value of the secondary voltage using the measured value (Vpeak

= 1.414 Vrms).

## Vpeak (calculated) = 17.80933 V

c. Using the VT of Part 1 for each diode, sketch the expected output waveform Vo on

Fig. 2.15. Choose a vertical and horizontal sensitivity based on the amplitude of

## your choice for each below.

20 V 17.7 V

10 V 16.5V

0V
0.2 ms 0.4 ms 0.6 ms 0.8 ms 1 ms
-10 V

-20 V -17.7 V

Figure 2.15

## Horizontal sensitivity = 0.2 ms/cm

d. Using the oscilloscope with the coupling switch in DC position obtain the waveform

for vo and record on Fig. 2.16. Use the same sensitivities employed in Part 5(c)

and be sure to preset the vo = 0V line using the GND position of the coupling switch.
Label the maximum and minimum values of the waveform using the chosen

vertical sensitivity.

16.583 V (maximum)

32.457 mV (minimum)

e.

Figure 2.16

## VDC (calculated) = 11.3267 V

g. Measure the DC level of the output waveform using the DMM and calculate the

## VDC (measured) = 10.199 V

% Difference = 9.9561 %
h. Replace diodes D3 and D4 by 2.2 kΩ resistors and forecast the appearance of the

output voltage vo including the effects of VT for each diode. Sketch the waveform

on Fig 2.17 and label the magnitude of the maximum and minimum values. Record

20 V 17.7 V

10 V
10.3 V
0V
1 ms 2 ms
-10 V

-20 V -17.7 V

Figure 2.17

## Horizontal sensitivity = 0.4 ms/cm

i. Using the oscilloscope, obtain the waveform for vo and reproduce on Fig. 2.18

indicating the maximum and minimum values. Use the same sensitivities as

## determined in Part 5(g).

10.239 V (maximum)

38.926 mV (minimum)

Figure 2.17

## VDC (calculated) = 6.52854 V

k. Measure the DC level of the output voltage using the DMM and calculate the

percent difference.

## VDC (measured) = 6.443 V

% Difference = 1.3102%

l. What was the major effect of replacing the two diodes with resistors?
Part 6. Full-Wave Center-Tapped Configuration

a. Construct the network of Fig. 2.19. Record the measured the value of the resistor

R.

Rmeasured= 511.649 MΩ

Figure 2.19

Measure the two secondary voltages of the transformer with the DMM set on AC.

## Vrms (measured) = 6.297 V

Using an average of the two rms readings, calculate the peak value of the overall

secondary voltage.

## Vpeak (calculated) = 8.903958 V

Using the VT of Part 1 for each diode, sketch the expected output waveform v o of

fig 2.20. Choose a vertical and horizontal sensitivity based on the amplitude of the
secondary voltage. Consult your oscilloscope to obtain a list of possible settings.

20 V 17.5 V

10 V 10.2 V

0V
1 ms 2 ms

-10 V

-20 V
-17.5 V

Figure 2.20

## Horizontal sensitivity = 1 ms/in

b. Using the oscilloscope with the coupling switch in the DC position obtain the

waveform for Vo and record on Fig. 2.21. Use the same sensitivities employed in

Part 5(b) and be sure to preset the VD = 0V line using the GND position of the

coupling switch. Label the maximum and minimum values of the waveform using

## the chosen vertical sensitivity.

8.298 V (maximum)

409.897 mV (minimum)

Figure 2.21

## Compare the waveforms of Figs. 2.20 and 2.21.

c. Determine and compare the calculated and measured values of the DC level

CONCLUSION:

## Half-wave and full-wave rectification systems establish a DC level from a

sinusoidal input signal that has zero average (DC) level. That is, for half-wave systems,

31.8% of the peak voltage is the equivalent DC level. Whereas in full-wave systems, this

amount is further multiplied by 2 so that 63.6% of the peak voltage of the system is the

equivalent DC level.
It is also notable that the peak inverse voltage (PIV) voltage parameter must be

considered carefully because this gives us a hint of the possible values for the peak

## voltage value of the applied sinusoidal signal.

In this experiment, the theories stated above are proven with the aid of a Multisim

Software. The given circuit diagrams are plotted as virtual circuits inside the application

and the required parameters are measured. The results are then analyzed to see if the

## found values adhere to the working principle behind this experiment.

Having correct assumptions and measured values, we therefore conclude that the

## theory of operation in this experiment is valid. Of course, discrepancies in values which

are measured and those which are calculated are bound to arise. Nevertheless, they are

nearly the same and thus we choose to treat the discrepancies in values as negligible or