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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A scientific drainage system to catch the storm water is a long term need of the

society, particularly in cities. Urbanization along with its impermeable structures is one

of the major causes of flooding in urban areas. The rainfall intensity and characteristics

of catchment area are the major factors for designing urban storm water drainage

facilities. These facilitates have a paramount advantage to safely dispose the generated

floods to receiving system (Pitta et. al. 2015). Many factors contribute to the increasing

risk of flooding in urban areas. For one, in many regions climate change seems to be

causing more intense downpours than what have occurred in the past. This is a problem

because the storm-water systems built just a generation ago were not designed to

handle the amounts of rain we are seeing now — and expecting in the future (Drescher

et. al. 2017)

The traditional storm water management response relied on conveyance. Water

was conveyed by a pipe or channel from a collection area (e.g. house and street) to a

discharge point (e.g. the nearest ocean, creek, river or lake). The conveyance system

sought to remove the most water (high quantity) from a site in the shortest time

possible (high velocity). Large, impervious paved areas and big pipes are typical of

conveyance (Woodcock et. al 2013). Many factors must be addressed when designing
storm water drainage systems. Engineers need to calculate the level of runoff that

accumulates upstream, along with the flow rate into streets. Calculations of water flow

help engineers determine the type of street gutters required for open channel flow,

along with inlet types required to collect runoff and debris. The type of inlet depends on

the type of road and can be comprised of a grate inlets, curb-opening inlets, combined

inlets, or grate inlets in sags (Locke et. al. 1999)

Storm water drainage design is an integral component of both site and overall

storm water management design. Good drainage design must strive to maintain

compatibility and minimize interference with existing drainage patterns; control flooding

of property, structures and roadways for design flood events; and minimize potential

environmental impacts on storm water runoff (Holm et. al. 2014). A good and efficient

storm water drainage system is beneficial is more ways than one. It not only saves a lot

of life and property on the day of the floods but also prevents epidemics caused due to

the long standing stagnant water which becomes a breeding ground for mosquitoes

and insects. A community can lose a lot of money due to floods, a better and more

efficient storm water drainage system can save time, lives money and property from

flood in the present and in the future (Khabete et. al. 2009).