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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur

FKA UTM Skudai

PILINGS

(Deep footings)

Piles
 Cerucuk
 Required when
 strong soil is located > 3m under ground
 deep excavation is difficult
 weak soil
 high water level
 footings are not economical

Types of Piles
Driven

Cast in- Partly pre-cast


situ

Pre-cast

Wood and Steel and


Concrete
Concrete Concrete

Concrete Steel Wood

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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

Types of Piles
Bored

Drilled Hammered

Water jet

Concrete

Load Transfer

End
Friction Bearing
Pile Pile
Soft
clay or
Hard Weak
clay sand

Stronger
soil or
rock
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Driven Piles

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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

Cast in-situ
 Quick and versatile
 for most ground conditions
 Normally pre-stressed
 Use tube & shoe.
 Drive tube to the required depth.
 Place reinforcement.
 Fill with high slump concrete.
 Withdraw tube.

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Cast In-situ (cont.)


 Piling machines are
 track mounted
 equipped with high performance hydraulic hammers
 Hydraulic hammer rigs
 have an electronic instrumentation system
 display depth, driving resistance and set.
 Data downloaded from the rigs into laptops.
 Help to reduce or eliminate static load tests.

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Driving the Cast In-situ


tube using an Reinforcement
external driving cage is placed,
hammer and the tube
filled with
concrete Completed
pile ready for
trimming

Driving If required the pile can


The concrete is compacted be formed with an
continued until as the tube is withdrawn by
the required integral enlarged head
vibrating the top of the tube during installation
depth is with the external driving
reached hammer or vibrator
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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

Pre-cast Piles
 Concrete (square, hexagon or round)
 Solid& hollow (example: 230x230mm and
270x270mm square sections.)
 20m long each (no limitation on total depth)
 Steel protection at both top and bottom
ends
 A bitumastic slip coating can be applied to
reduce skin friction.

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Types of Hammer
 Drop hammers
 Cable, pulley, frame and driver
 Diesel or electrical
 Gravity (1000 to 5000 lb)
 Slow (4 to 8 strokes/min)

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Types of Hammer (cont)


 Single-action hammers
 Steam and compressed air
 Gravity
(10,000 to 800,000 lb)
 Moderate (36 to 60 strokes/min)

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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

Types of Hammer (cont)


 Double-action hammers
 Steam and compressed air
 Forced light weight (200 to 5,000 lb)
 Fast (300 strokes/min)

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Precast Piles

Driven Precast Piles 21

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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

Precast piles cutted to be joined with pile cap


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Formwork and reinforcement for pile cap construction


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Sheet piles

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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

Enclosing/Surrounding Technique

 blocking underground water from getting


into the work area.

 sheet pile wall

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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

Bored Piles

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Locate Pile (surveyor)

Check boring
Install Casing

Bore in Soil

Install Platform (off-shore)

Pilot Hole Core

Cement grout/ jet grout Encounter cavity?


Yes
No

Check core Drill rock Cut and bend re-bar

Insert re-bar cage

Fill in concrete

Integrity testing
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Check boring
 To determine the casing length for the pile
 To avoid wall from collapse
 i.e. 4 checks boring per piers, more for larger
piers
 Equipments
 Drilling machine
 Water pump
 Working platform (4m x 4m)

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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

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Install Casing
 Drive casing until
 50cm above limestone
 Sit on the limestone
 Into the limestone
 Sit on hard strata
 Use water jet (100-150 bar) & vibro
hammer

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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

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Pilot Hole
 Do soil boring first
 Must not overlap with the result from
check boring
 To determine the actual soil strata below
the check boring
 One core per pile

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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

Cavity
 For empty cavity use cement grout grade
30 mix and the pilot hole casing to fill in
grout
 If filled with clay, use jet grouting to push
out the clay

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Filling the concrete


 Use Tremie pipe
 Concrete must not mixed with water inside
the casing (use polystyrene beads)
 Base grouting (24 hrs) after concreting
 Grout (cmt&wtr) are pumped into the GI pipe
@ 30kg/m2 for 3 min to smooth the surface
and fill any void

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Tests
 Inclination, integrity and load tests
 Inclination is done prior to reinforcement
 Install
inclinometer casing into the pile casing
 Lower sensor down to the toe
 Read during upward movement (done twice)

 Integrity
uses sonic transmitter to test
homogeneousity of concrete

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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur
FKA UTM Skudai

Static Load Test Methods


Static load tests were performed during the test phase of each contract to
verify the design assumptions and load-carrying capacity of the piles.
Telltale rods installed at various depths within the piles were used to
evaluate the load transfer behavior of the piles with regard to the
surrounding soil and bearing stratum.
Static loads were applied and maintained using a hydraulic jack and were
measured with a load cell. Reaction to the jack load is provided by a steel
frame that is attached to an array of steel H-piles located at least 3 m away
from the test pile. Pile head deflections were measured relative to a fixed
reference beam using dial gauges. Telltale measurements were made in
reference to the pile head or the reference beam using dial gauges. Pile
head and telltale deflection data were recorded for each loading increment.

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Dynamic Load Test


The dynamic resistance is formulated using a viscous damping model that is a
function of a damping parameter and the velocity. First, the forces and
accelerations acting on the actual pile during initial impact are recorded with a
strain gauge and accelerometer mounted at the pile head. The measured
acceleration is used as input to the pile model along with reasonable estimates
of soil resistance, quake, and damping parameters. The force-time signal at the
pile head is calculated using the model and is compared to the measured force-
time signal. The soil-resistance distribution, quake, and damping parameters
are subsequently modified until agreement is reached between the measured
and calculated signals. Once an acceptable match is achieved, the solution
yields an estimate of ultimate static capacity, the distribution of soil resistance
along the pile, and the quake and damping parameters.

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