Hawaii From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the U.S. state of Hawaii.

For its "Big Island", see Hawaii (island). For other uses, see Hawaii (disambiguation). Coordinates: 21°18'41?N 157°47'47?W For geographic details see Geography and environment or Hawaiian Islands.State o f Hawaii Moku?aina o Hawai?i Flag Seal Nickname(s): The Aloha State Motto(s): Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ?Aina i ka Pono ( The Life of the Land is Perpetuated in Righteousness ) Anthem: Hawai?i Pono?i ( Hawaii s Own True Sons ) Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Demonym Hawaiian (see notes)[1] Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area Ranked 43rd in the US - Total 10,931 sq mi (28,311 km2) - Width n/a miles (n/a km) - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km) - % water 41.2 - Latitude 18°?55' N to 28°?27' N - Longitude 154°?48' W to 178°?22' W Population Ranked 42nd in the US - Total 1,288,198 (2008 est.)[2] 1,211,537 (2000) - Density 188.6/sq mi (72.83/km2) Ranked 13th in the US - Median income $63,746 (5th) Elevation - Highest point Mauna Kea[3] 13,796 ft (4,205 m) - Mean 3,035 ft (925 m) - Lowest point Pacific Ocean[3] 0 ft (0 m) Before statehood Territory of Hawaii Admission to Union August 21, 1959 (50th) Governor Linda Lingle (R) Lieutenant Governor James Aiona (R) Legislature State Legislature - Upper house Senate - Lower house House of Representatives U.S. Senators Daniel Inouye (D) Daniel Akaka (D) U.S. House delegation 1: Charles Djou(R) 2: Mazie Hirono (D) (list) Time zone Hawaii-Aleutian time zone: UTC-10 (no daylight saving time) Abbreviations HI US-HI Website http://www.hawaii.gov [show]

Hawaii State Symbols The Hawaiian Islands and the state of Hawaii are located in the North Pacific Oc ean. Hawaii (i /h?'wa?.i?/ or /h?'wa??i?/ in English; Hawaiian: Moku?aina o Hawai?i) is the newest of the 50 U.S. states (August 21, 1959), and is the only U.S. stat e made up entirely of islands. It occupies most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of Australia. Hawaii s natural beauty, warm tropical climate, inviti ng waters and waves, and active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tour ists, surfers, biologists, and volcanologists alike. Due to its mid-Pacific loca tion, Hawaii has many North American and Asian influences along with its own vib rant native culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents along with ma ny visitors and U.S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island o f O?ahu. The state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian Island chain, which co mprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles (2,400 km). At the southeast ern end of the archipelago, the eight "main islands" are (from the northwest to southeast) Ni?ihau, Kaua?i, O?ahu, Moloka?i, Lana?i, Kaho?olawe, Maui, and Hawai ?i. The last is by far the largest and is often called "The Big Island" to avoid confusion with the state as a whole. The archipelago is physiographically and e thnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. In standard American English, Hawaii is generally pronounced /h?'wa?.i?/. In the Hawaiian language, it is generally pronounced [h?'w?i?i] or [h?'v?i?i]. U.S. President Barack Obama was born and spent much of his youth in Hawaii; he i s the first president to hail from the state.[4][5]Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 Geography and environment 2.1 Topography 2.2 Geology 2.3 Flora and fauna 2.4 Protected areas 2.5 Climate 3 History 3.1 Pre-European contact Ancient Hawai?i (800 1778) 3.2 James Cook European arrival and the Kingdom of Hawaii (1778 1893) 3.2.1 House of Kamehameha 3.2.2 1887 Constitution 3.3 Overthrow of 1893 the Republic of Hawaii (1894 1898) 3.4 Annexation the Territory of Hawaii (1898 1959) 3.5 Political Changes of 1954 the State of Hawaii (1959 present) 4 Cities and towns 5 Demographics 5.1 Population 5.2 Race and ethnicity 5.3 Ancestry groups 5.4 Languages 5.4.1 English 5.4.2 Minority languages 5.4.3 Hawaiian 5.4.4 Hawaiian Pidgin 5.4.5 Spelling of state name 5.5 Religion 6 Economy 7 Culture

8 Health 9 Education 9.1 Public schools 9.2 Other schools 9.3 Colleges and universities 10 Law and government 10.1 Federal government 10.2 National politics 11 Transportation 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links Etymology The Hawaiian language word Hawai?i derives from Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland";[6] Hawai?i cognates are found in other Pol ynesian languages, including Maori (Hawaiki), Rarotongan (?Avaiki), and Samoan ( Savai?i). (See also Hawaiki). According to Pukui and Elbert,[7] "Elsewhere in Polynesia, Hawai?i or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning."[8] Geography and environment Main article: Hawaiian Islands The main Hawaiian Islands are:Island Nickname Location Area Area rank Highest point Elevation Population (as of 2000) Density Hawai?i[9] The Big Island 19°34'N 155°30'W 4,028.0 sq mi (10,432.5 km2) 1st Mauna Kea 13,796 ft (4,205 m) 148,677 37/sq mi (14/km²) Maui[10] The Valley Isle 20°48'N 156°20'W 727.2 sq mi (1,883.4 km2) 2nd Haleakala 10,023 ft (3,055 m) 117,644 162/sq mi (62/km²) Kaho?olawe[11] The Target Isle 20°33'N 156°36'W 44.6 sq mi (115.5 km2) 8th Pu?u Moaulanui 1,483 ft (452 m) 0 0 Lana?i[12] The Pineapple Isle 20°50'N 156°56'W 140.5 sq mi (363.9 km2) 6th Lana?ihale 3,366 ft (1,026 m) 3,193 23/sq. mi. (9/km²) Moloka?i[13] The Friendly Isle 21°08'N 157°02'W 260.0 sq mi (673.4 km2) 5th Kamakou 4,961 ft (1,512 m) 7,404 28/sq mi (11/km²) O?ahu[14] The Gathering Place 21°28'N 157°59'W 596.7 sq mi (1,545.4 km2 ) 3rd Mount Ka?ala 4,003 ft (1,220 m) 876,151 1,468/sq mi (567 /km²) Kaua?i[15] The Garden Isle 22°05'N 159°30'W 552.3 sq mi (1,430.5 km2) 4th Kawaikini 5,243 ft (1,598 m) 58,303 106/sq mi (41/km²) Ni?ihau[16] The Forbidden Isle 21°54'N 160°10'W 69.5 sq mi (180.0 km2) 7th Mount Pani?au 1,250 ft (381 m) 160 2/sq mi (1/km²) Topography Pahoehoe and ?A?a lava flows side by side at the Big Island of Hawai?i in Septem ber, 2007 Map of Hawaii Na Pali coast, Kaua?i A true-color satellite view of Hawaii shows that most of the vegetation on the i slands grow on the north-east sides which face the wind. The silver glow around the calmer south-west of the islands is the result of the shelter provided from

the islands.[17] An archipelago situated some 2,000 mi (3,200 km) southwest of the North American mainland,[18] Hawaii is the southernmost state of the United States and the sec ond westernmost state after Alaska. Only Hawaii and Alaska do not share a border with another U.S. state. Hawaii is the only state of the United States that: is not geographically located in North America grows coffee is completely surrounded by water is entirely an archipelago has a royal palace does not have a straight line in its state boundary Hawaii s tallest mountain, Mauna Kea, stands at 13,796 ft (4,205 m)[19] but is tal ler than Mount Everest if followed to the base of the mountain, which, lying at the floor of the Pacific Ocean, rises about 33,500 ft (10,200 m).[20] The eight main islands, Hawai?i, Maui, O?ahu, Kaho?olawe, Lana?i, Moloka?i, Kaua ?i and Ni?ihau are accompanied by many others. Ka?ala is a small island near Ni? ihau that is often overlooked. The Northwest Hawaiian Islands are a series of ni ne small, older masses northwest of Kaua?i that extend from Nihoa to Kure that a re remnants of once much larger volcanic mountains. There are also more than 100 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, that are either volcanic, marine sedi mentary or erosional in origin, totaling 130 or so across the archipelago.[21] Geology All the Hawaiian islands were formed from volcanic activity initiated at an unde rsea magma source called a hotspot. As the tectonic plate beneath much of the Pa cific Ocean moves to the northwest, the hot spot remains stationary, slowly crea ting new volcanoes. Due to the hotspot s location, the only active volcanoes are l ocated around the southern half of the Big Island. The newest volcano, Lo?ihi Se amount, is located south of the Big Island s coast. The last volcanic eruption outside the Big Island occurred at Haleakala on Maui before the late 18th century, though it could have been hundreds of years earlie r.[22] In 1790, Kilauea exploded with the deadliest eruption (of the modern era) known to have occurred in what is now the United States.[23] As many as 5,405 w arriors and their families marching on Kilauea were killed by that eruption.[24] Volcanic activity and subsequent erosion have created impressive geological feat ures. The Big Island has the second highest point among the world s islands.[citat ion needed] Slope instability of the volcanoes has generated damaging earthquakes with relat ed tsunamis, particularly in 1868 and 1975.[25] Flora and fauna Because the islands are so far from other land habitats, life before human activ ity is said to have arrived by the 3 W s : wind (carried through the air), waves (bro ught by ocean currents), and wings (birds, insects, and whatever they brought wi th them). This isolation, and the wide range of environments (extreme altitude, tropical climate) produced a vast array of endemic flora and fauna (see Endemism in the Hawaiian Islands). Hawaii has more endangered species and has lost a hig her percentage of its endemic species than any other U.S. state.[26] Ni?ihau (70 sq. mi.)

Kaua?i (552.3 sq. mi.) O?ahu (598 sq. mi.) Maui (727.3 sq. mi.) Moloka?i (260 sq. mi.) Lana?i (140.5 sq. mi.) Kaho?olawe (44.6 sq. mi.) Hawaii (4,028.2 sq. mi.) Protected areas The USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor Several areas in Hawaii are under the protection of the National Park Service.[2 7] Hawaii has two national parks: Haleakala National Park near Kula, on Maui, in cludes Haleakala, the dormant volcano that formed east Maui; and Hawaii Volcanoe s National Park in the southeast region of the island of Hawai?i, which includes the active volcano Kilauea and its various rift zones. There are three national historical parks: Kalaupapa National Historical Park in Kalaupapa, Moloka?i, the site of a former Hansen s disease colony; Kaloko-Honokoh au National Historical Park in Kailua-Kona on the island of Hawai?i; and Pu?uhon ua o Honaunau National Historical Park, an ancient place of refuge. Other areas under the control of the National Park Service include Ala Kahakai National Hist oric Trail on the Big Island and the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor on O?a hu. The Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument was proclaimed by President Georg e W. Bush on June 15, 2006. The monument covers roughly 140,000 square miles (36 0,000 km2) of reefs, atolls and shallow and deep sea out to 50 miles (80 km) off shore in the Pacific Ocean, larger than all of America s National Parks combined.[ 28] Climate See also: List of Hawaii tornadoes Sunset in Kona. The colors of the sunset are partly due to vog. Hawaii s climate is typical for the tropics, although temperatures and humidity te nd to be a bit less extreme due to near-constant trade winds from the east. Summ er highs are usually in the upper 80s °F, (around 31°C) during the day and mid 70s, (around 24 °C) at night. Winter day temperatures are usually in the low to mid 80s , (around 28 °C) and (at low elevation) seldom dipping below the mid 60s (18 °C) at night. Snow, not usually associated with tropics, falls at 4,205 metres (13,796 ft) on Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa on the Big Island in some winter months. Snow rar ely falls on Haleakala. Mount Wai?ale?ale, on Kaua?i, has the second highest ave rage annual rainfall on Earth, about 460 inches (11.7 m). Most of Hawaii has onl y two seasons: the dry season from May to October, and the wet season from Octob er to April.[29] Local climates vary considerably on each island, grossly divisible into windward (Ko?olau) and leeward (Kona) areas based upon location relative to the higher m ountains. Windward sides face cloud cover, so resorts concentrate on sunny leewa rd coasts. Monthly normal low and high temperatures for various Hawaiian cities[30]City

Jan. Feb. Nov. Dec. Hilo 64°F / 4°C 68°F / 0°C 67°F / 79°F / 26.1°C 82°F / 27.8°C 81°F / 27.2°C Honolulu 70°F / 21.1°C 73°F / 22.8°C 80°F / 26.7°C 87°F / 30.6°C 84°F / 28.9°C Kahului 63°F / 4°C 69°F / 6°C 68°F / 80°F / 26.7°C 86°F / 30.0°C 84°F / 28.9°C Lihu?e 65°F / 1°C 73°F / 8°C 71°F / 78°F / 25.6°C 83°F / 28.3°C 81°F / 27.2°C

Mar. 17.8°C 20.0°C 19.4°C 79°F / 82°F / 80°F / 66°F / 72°F / 71°F / 81°F / 88°F / 82°F / 17.2°C 20.6°C 20.0°C 81°F / 87°F / 82°F / 18.3°C 22.8°C 21.7°C 78°F / 84°F / 79°F /

Apr. 64°F / 69°F / 65°F / 26.1°C 27.8°C 26.7°C 18.9°C 22.2°C 21.7°C 27.2°C 31.1°C 27.8°C 63°F / 71°F / 65°F / 27.2°C 30.6°C 27.8°C 66°F / 74°F / 68°F / 26.6°C 28.9°C 26.1°C

May 17.8°C 20.6°C 18.3°C 79°F / 83°F / 65°F 74°F 68°F 82°F 89°F / / / / /





Oct. 67°F / 19. 68°F / 20.

65°F / 18.3°C 69°F / 20.6°C 26.1°C 28.3°C 18.3°C 23.3°C 20.0°C 27.8°C 31.7°C

66°F / 18.9°C 69°F / 20.6°C

79°F / 26.1°C 83°F / 28.3°C 67°F / 19.4°C 75°F / 23.9°C 83°F / 28.3°C 89°F / 31.7°C

81°F / 27.2°C 83°F / 28.3°C 68°F / 20.0°C 74°F / 23.3°C 85°F / 29.4°C 87°F / 30.6°C 67°F / 19. 69°F / 20.

17.2°C 21.7°C 18.3°C 82°F / 88°F / 18.9°C 23.3°C 20.0°C 78°F / 85°F /

65°F / 18.3°C 71°F / 21.7°C 27.8°C 31.1°C

66°F / 18.9°C 70°F / 21.1°C

82°F / 27.8°C 88°F / 31.1°C

84°F / 28.9°C 87°F / 30.6°C 70°F / 21. 73°F / 22.

67°F / 19.4°C 74°F / 23.3°C 26.6°C 29.4°C

69°F / 20.6°C 74°F / 23.3°C

79°F / 26.1°C 85°F / 29.4°C

81°F / 27.2°C 84°F / 28.9°C

See also: Environment of Hawaii History Main article: History of Hawaii History of Hawaii Ancient times Monarchy Provisional Government Republic Territory State Hawaii is one of four states that were independent prior to becoming part of the United States, along with the Vermont Republic (1791), the Republic of Texas (1 845), and the California Republic (1846), and one of two (Texas was the other) w ith formal diplomatic recognition internationally.[31] The Kingdom of Hawaii was sovereign from 1810 until 1893 when the monarchy was overthrown by resident Ame rican (and some European) businessmen. It was an independent republic from 1894 until 1898, when it was annexed by the United States as a territory, becoming a state in 1959.[32] Hawaii was the target of a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Imperial Japan on December 7, 1941. The attack on Pearl Harbor and other military and naval instal lations on O?ahu, carried out by aircraft and by midget submarines brought the U nited States into World War II. Ancient Hawai?i (800 1778) Pre-European contact Main article: Ancient Hawaii The earliest habitation supported by archaeological evidence dates to as early a s 300 BCE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas, followed by a sec ond wave of migration from Raiatea and Bora Bora in the 11th century. The first recorded European contact with the islands was in 1778 by British explorer James Cook.

Polynesians from the Marquesas and possibly the Society Islands may have first p opulated the Hawaiian Islands between 300 and 500 CE. There is a great deal of d ebate regarding these dates.[33] Some archaeologists and historians believe that an early settlement from the Mar quesas and a later wave of immigrants from Tahiti, circa 1000 introduced a new l ine of high chiefs, the Kapu system, the practice of human sacrifice and the bui lding of heiaus. This later immigration is detailed in folk tales about Pa?ao. O ther authors argue that there is no archaeological or linguistic evidence for a later influx of Tahitian settlers, and that Pa?ao must be regarded as a myth. Kalani?opu?u, King of Hawaii bringing presents to Captain Cook. Illustrated by J ohn Webber, artist aboard Cook's ship. Regardless of the question of Pa?ao, historians agree that the history of the is lands was marked by a slow but steady growth in population and the size of the c hiefdoms, which grew to encompass whole islands. Local chiefs, called ali?i, rul ed their settlements and launched wars to extend their sway and defend their com munities from predatory rivals. James Cook European arrival and the Kingdom of Hawaii (1778 1893) The 1778 arrival of British explorer James Cook was Hawaii s first documented cont act with European explorers. Cook named the islands the "Sandwich Islands" in ho nor of his sponsor John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. He published the islands' location and reported the native name as Owyhee. This spelling lives on in Owyh ee County, Idaho, after three Hawaiian members of a trapping party killed in tha t area. Cook visited the islands twice. During his second visit in 1779, he attempted to abduct the King of the Big Island of Hawaii, Kalani?opu?u, and hold him as rans om for the return of a ship's boat that was taken by a minor chief and his men, a tactic that had worked for Cook in Tahiti and other islands.[34] Kalani?opu?u and his supporters fought back and Cook and four Marines were killed as Cook's p arty retreated to the beach and launched their boats. After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, th e Hawaiian islands received many European visitors: explorers, traders, and even tually whalers who found the islands a convenient harbor and source of supplies. Early British influence can be seen in the design of the flag of Hawaii which h as the British Union Flag in the corner. These visitors introduced diseases to the once-isolated islands and the Hawaiian population plunged precipitously[35] because native Hawaiians had no resistance to influenza, smallpox, and measles, among others. During the 1850s, measles ki lled a fifth of Hawaii's people.[36] Historical records indicated that the earliest immigration of the Chinese came f rom Guangdong province: a few sailors in 1778 with Captain Cook's journey, more in 1788 with Kaina, and some in 1789 with an American trader who settled in Hawa ii in the late 18th century. House of Kamehameha During the 1780s and 1790s, chiefs were often fighting for power. After a series of battles that ended in 1795 and forced cession of the island of Kaua?i in 181 0, all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler who became known a s King Kamehameha the Great. He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty t hat ruled the kingdom until 1872. After Kamehameha II inherited the throne in 1819, missionaries to Hawaii convert

ed many Hawaiians to Christianity. Their influence ended many ancient practices, and Kamehameha III was the first Christian king. Missionary leaders included Pr otestant Hiram Bingham I and Joseph F. Smith of The Church of Jesus Christ of La tter-day Saints. Father Damien, a Roman Catholic priest, was canonized for his w ork in the isolated leper colony of Kalaupapa on the island of Moloka?i. Other m issionaries and their descendants, such as Henry Perrine Baldwin, became active in commercial and political affairs, leading to future conflicts. The death of the bachelor King Kamehameha V who did not name an heir resulted in the popular election of Lunalilo over Kalakaua. Lunalilo died the next year, also w ithout naming an heir. Perhaps "the People's King" (Lunalilo) wanted the people to choose his successor as they had chosen him. In 1874 the election was contest ed within the legislature between Kalakaua and Emma. This led to riots and the l anding of U.S. and British troops, and governance passed to the House of Kalakau a. 1887 Constitution In 1887, Kalakaua was forced to sign the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Haw aii, which stripped the king of much of his authority. There was a property qual ification for voting, which disenfranchised many poorer Hawaiians and favored th e wealthier white community. Resident whites were allowed to vote, but resident Asians were excluded. Because the 1887 Constitution was signed under threat of v iolence, it is known as the "Bayonet Constitution". King Kalakaua, reduced to a figurehead, reigned until his death in 1891. His sister, Lili?uokalani, succeede d him on the throne. Ship's landing force at the time of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, Janu ary 1893. In 1893, Queen Lili?uokalani announced plans for a new constitution. On January 14, 1893, a group of mostly Euro-American business leaders and residents formed a Committee of Safety to overthrow the Kingdom and seek annexation by the United States. United States Government Minister John L. Stevens, responding to a requ est from the Committee of Safety, summoned a company of U.S. Marines. As one his torian noted, the presence of these troops effectively made it impossible for th e monarchy to protect itself.[37] Overthrow of 1893 the Republic of Hawaii (1894 1898) In January 1893, Queen Lili?uokalani was overthrown and replaced by a Provisiona l Government composed of members of the Committee of Safety. Controversy filled the following years as the queen tried to re-establish her throne. The administr ation of President Grover Cleveland commissioned the Blount Report, which conclu ded that the removal of Lili?uokalani was illegal. The U.S. government first dem anded that Queen Lili?uokalani be reinstated, but the Provisional Government ref used. Congress followed with another investigation, and submitted the Morgan Rep ort on February 26, 1894, which found all parties (including Minister Stevens) w ith the exception of the queen "not guilty" from any responsibility for the over throw.[38] The accuracy and impartiality of both the Blount and Morgan reports h as been questioned by partisans on both sides of the debate over the events of 1 893.[37][39][40][41] In 1993, a joint Apology Resolution regarding the overthrow was passed by Congre ss and signed by President Clinton, apologizing for the overthrow of the Hawaiia n Kingdom.[41] It is the first time in American history that the United States g overnment has apologized for overthrowing the government of a sovereign nation. ?Iolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii. The Provisional Government of Hawaii ended on July 4, 1894, replaced by the Repu

blic of Hawaii. The first Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii in 1885 as contract laborers for the sugar cane and pineapple plantations. Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii be gan when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes in 1899. The devastation caused a world wide shortage in sugar and a huge demand for the product from Hawaii. Hawaiian sugar plantation owners began to recruit the joble ss, but experienced, laborers in Puerto Rico. Two distinct waves of Korean immig ration to Hawaii have occurred in the last century. The first arrived in between 1903 and 1924; the second wave began in 1965. Annexation the Territory of Hawaii (1898 1959) After William McKinley won the presidential election in 1896, Hawaii's annexatio n to the U.S. was again discussed. The previous president, Grover Cleveland, was a friend of Queen Lili?uokalani. McKinley was open to persuasion by U.S. expans ionists and by annexationists from Hawaii. He met with three annexationists from Hawaii: Lorrin Thurston, Francis March Hatch and William Ansel Kinney. After ne gotiations, in June 1897, Secretary of State John Sherman agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii.[42] The treaty was never ratified by the U.S. Senate. Instead, the Newlands Resoluti on by both houses of Congress annexed the Republic to the United States and it b ecame the Territory of Hawaii. Despite some opposition in the islands, the Newla nds Resolution was passed by the House June 15, 1898, by a vote of 209 to 91, an d by the Senate on July 6, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21. In 1900, Hawaii was granted self-governance and retained ?Iolani Palace as the t erritorial capitol building. Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for sixty years. Plantation owners and key capitalists, who maintained control through financial institutions, or "factors," known as the " Big Five", found territorial status convenient, enabling them to continue import ing cheap foreign labor; such immigration was prohibited in various states. Political Changes of 1954 the State of Hawaii (1959 present) All representative districts voted at least 93% in favor of Admission acts. Ball ot (inset) and referendum results for the Admission Act of 1959 Main article: Democratic Revolution of 1954 (Hawaii) In the 1950s the power of the plantation owners was finally broken by descendant s of immigrant laborers. Because they were born in a U.S. territory, they were l egal U.S. citizens. The Hawaii Republican Party, strongly supported by plantatio n owners, was voted out of office. The Democratic Party of Hawaii dominated poli tics for 40 years. Expecting to gain full voting rights, Hawaii's residents acti vely campaigned for statehood. In March 1959, Congress passed the Hawaii Admission Act and U.S. President Dwigh t D. Eisenhower signed it into law. (The act excluded Palmyra Atoll, part of the Kingdom and Territory of Hawaii, from the new state.) On June 27 of that year, a referendum asked residents of Hawaii to vote on the statehood bill. Hawaii vot ed 17 to 1 to accept. The choices were to accept the Act or to remain a territor y, without the option of independence.[43][44][45] The United Nations Special Co mmittee on Decolonization later removed Hawaii from the United Nations list of N on-Self-Governing Territories. After statehood, Hawaii quickly modernized via construction and rapidly growing tourism economy. Later, state programs promoted Hawaiian culture. The Hawaii Sta te Constitutional Convention of 1978 incorporated programs such as the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to promote indigenous language and culture. Cities and towns

Honolulu is the largest city and capital of Hawaii. The movement of the Hawaiian royal family from the Big Island to Maui, and subse quently to O?ahu, explains why population centers exist where they do today. Kam ehameha III chose the largest city, Honolulu, as his capital because of its natu ral harbor, the present-day Honolulu Harbor. Now the state capital, Honolulu is located along the southeast coast of O?ahu. T he previous capital was Lahaina, Maui and before that Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. Some major towns are Hilo, Kane?ohe, Kailua, Pearl City, Waipahu, Kahului, Kailua-Kon a, Kihei, and Lihu?e. See also: List of sister cities in Hawaii Demographics PopulationHistorical populations Census Pop. %± 1900 154,001 1910 191,874 24.6% 1920 255,881 33.4% 1930 368,300 43.9% 1940 422,770 14.8% 1950 499,794 18.2% 1960 632,772 26.6% 1970 769,913 21.7% 1980 964,691 25.3% 1990 1,108,229 14.9% 2000 1,211,537 9.3% Est. 2008[2] 1,288,198 6.3% Population density of the Hawaiian islands. As of 2005, Hawaii has an estimated population of 1,275,194, an increase of 13,0 70, or 1.0%, from the prior year and an increase of 63,657, or 5.3%, since 2000. This includes a natural increase of 48,111 people (that is 96,028 births minus 47,917 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 16,956 people into the st ate. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 30 ,068 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,112 peop le. The center of population of Hawaii is located between the two islands of O?a hu and Moloka?i.[46] Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1.3 million due to large military and t ourist populations. O?ahu, nicknamed "The Gathering Place", is the most populous island (and has the highest population density), with a resident population of just under one million in 597 square miles (1,546 km2), about 1,650 people per s quare mile (for comparison, New Jersey, which has 8,717,925 people in 7,417 squa re miles (19,210 km2) is the most-densely populated state with 1,134 people per square mile.)[47] Hawaii's 1,275,194 people, spread over 6,423 square miles (16, 640 km2) (including many unpopulated islands) results in an average population d ensity of 188.6 persons per square mile,[48] which makes Hawaii less densely pop ulated than Ohio and Illinois.[49] The average projected lifespan of those born in Hawaii in 2000 was 79.8 years (7 7.1 years if male, 82.5 if female), longer than any other state.[50] U.S. military personnel make up approximately 1.3% of the population in the isla nds. Race and ethnicity Further information: Europeans in Oceania

According to the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bur eau, White Americans made up 27.1% of Hawaii's population; 24.8% were non-Hispan ic whites. Blacks or African Americans made up 2.4% (2.3% non-Hispanic). America n Indians made up 0.2% ( 0.1% non-Hispanic). Asian Americans made up 38.5% (37.6 % non-Hispanic). Pacific Islander Americans made up 9.0% (8.6% non-Hispanic). In dividuals from some other race made up 1.4% (0.1% non-Hispanic). Multiracial Ame ricans made up 21.4% (17.8% non-Hispanic). Hispanics and Latinos (of any race) m ade up 8.7%.[51] Hawaii has the highest percentage of Asian Americans, mainly 175,000 Filipino Am ericans and 161,000 Japanese Americans. In addition, there are roughly 53,000 Ch inese Americans and 40,000 Korean Americans. Indigenous Hawaiians number 70,000 (or 5.5%). Over 110,000 Hispanic and Latino Americans make Hawaii their home. Me xicans number 37,000; Puerto Ricans number 35,000. Also, Hawaii has the highest percentage of Multiracial Americans; mixed-race individuals form roughly 21% of Hawaii's population.. Eurasian Americans are a prominent mixed-race group; there are roughly 61,000 Eurasian Americans in Hawaii.[51] The five largest European ancestries in Hawaii are German (7.4%), Irish (5.2%), English (4.6%), Portuguese (4.3%), and Italian (2.7%). Approximately 82.2% of Hawaii's residents were born in the United States. Roughl y 75.0% of the foreign-born residents hail from Asia.[51] Hawaii is a majority-minority state. Non-Hispanic whites do not form a majority. Hawaii was the second majority-minority state. Both Hawaii and New Mexico have been majority-minority since the early 20th century. See also: Africans in Hawaii Ancestry groups Population of Hawaii[51]Ancestry Percentage Main article: Filipino 13.6% See Filipino American Japanese 12.6% See Japanese American Polynesian 9.0% See Native Hawaiians German 7.4% See German American Irish 5.2% See Irish American English 4.6% See English American Portuguese 4.3% See Portuguese American Chinese 4.1% See Chinese American Korean 3.1% See Korean American Mexican 2.9% See Mexican American Puerto Rican 2.8% See Puerto Rican Italian 2.7% See Italian American African 2.4% See African American French 1.7% See French American Scottish 1.2% See Scottish American The largest ancestry groups in Hawaii as of 2008 are in the table at right. The third group of foreigners to arrive upon Hawaii's shores, after those from Polyn esia and Europe, was from Han China. Chinese workers on Western trading ships se ttled in Hawaii starting in 1789. In 1820 the first American missionaries came t o preach Christianity and teach the Hawaiians Western ways. They were instrument al in convincing the Hawaiian Chiefs to end human sacrifice. A large proportion of Hawaii's population is now of Asian ancestry (especially C hinese, Japanese and Filipino.) Many are descendants of those immigrants brought to work on the sugar plantations in the 1850s and after. The first 153 Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii on June 19, 1868. They were not "legally" approved by the Japanese government because the contract was between a broker and the To kugawa shogunate, by then replaced by the Meiji Restoration. The first Japanese

government-approved immigrants arrived on February 9, 1885 after Kalakaua's peti tion to Emperor Meiji when Kalakaua visited Japan in 1881. Almost 13,000 Portuguese had come by 1899. They too worked on the sugar plantati ons. By October 17, 1901, 5,000 Puerto Ricans had made new homes on the four isl ands. Languages The State of Hawaii has two official languages recognized in its 1978 constituti on: English and Hawaiian. Article XV, Section 4, specifies that "Hawaiian shall be required for public acts and transactions only as provided by law" [italic ad ded]. Hawaii Creole English (locally referred to as 'Pidgin') is the native dial ect of many born-and-raised residents and is a second dialect for many other res idents. English As of the 2000 Census, 73.44% of Hawaii residents age 5 and older speak only Eng lish at home.[52] According to the 2008 American Community Survey, 74.6% of Hawaii's residents ove r the age of five speak only English at home.[51] Minority languages In addition, 2.6% of the state's residents speak Spanish; 1.6% speak other IndoEuropean languages; 21.0% speak an Asian language; and 0.2% speak a different la nguage at home.[51] After English, other popular languages are Tagalog (most are bilingual in Filipi no), Japanese, and Ilokano. Significant European immigrants and descendants also speak their native languages; the most numerous are Spanish, German, Portuguese and French. Tagalog speakers make up 5.37% (which includes non-native speakers of Filipino l anguage, the national co-official Tagalog-based language), followed by Japanese at 4.96%, Ilokano at 4.05%, Chinese at 1.92%, Hawaiian at 1.68%, Spanish at 1.66 %, Korean at 1.61%, and Samoan at 1.01%.[52] Hawaiian Main article: Hawaiian language The Hawaiian language has about 2000 native speakers, less than 0.1% of the tota l population.[53] According to the United States Census, there were 27,160 total speakers of the language in Hawaii in 2005.[54] Hawaiian is a member of the Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family. It beg an to develop around 1000 A.D., when Marquesans or Tahitians colonized Hawaii. T hose Polynesians remained in the islands, thereby becoming the Hawaiian people. Their language developed into the Hawaiian language. Before the arrival of Capta in James Cook, the Hawaiian language had no written form. That form was develope d mainly by American Protestant missionaries during 1820 1826. They assigned lette rs from the Latin alphabet that corresponded to the Hawaiian sounds. Interest in Hawaiian increased significantly in the late 20th century. With the help of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, specially designated immersion schools w ere established where all subjects would be taught in Hawaiian. Also, the Univer sity of Hawaii developed a Hawaiian language graduate studies program. Municipal codes were altered to favor Hawaiian place and street names for new civic devel opments. Hawaiian distinguishes between long and short vowels. In modern practice, vowel length is indicated with a macron (kahako). Also, Hawaiian uses the glottal stop

as a consonant (?okina). It is written as a symbol similar to the apostrophe or opening single quote. Hawaiian-language newspapers published from 1834 1948 and traditional native speak ers of Hawaiian generally omit the marks in their own writing. The ?okina and ka hako are intended to help non-native speakers. Hawaiian Pidgin Some locals speak Hawaii Creole English (HCE), often called "pidgin". The lexico n of HCE derives mainly from English but also has words from Hawaiian, Chinese, Japanese, Ilocano and Tagalog and Portuguese. During the 19th century, the incre ase in immigration (mainly from China, Japan, Portugal and especially from the Azo res archipelago and Spain), caused a variant of English to develop. By the early 2 0th century pidgin speakers had children who acquired the pidgin as their first language. HCE speakers use some Hawaiian words without those words being conside red archaic. Most place names are retained from Hawaiian, as are some names for plants or animals. For example, tuna fish are often called ahi. International Market Place, Honolulu, 1958. HCE speakers have modified the meanings of certain English words. For example, " aunty" and "uncle" refer to any adult who is a friend, or to show respect for an elder. Simplified grammar is used. For example, instead of "It is hot today, is n't it?", an HCE speaker would say simply "stay hot, eh?" When a word does not c ome to mind quickly, the term "da kine" refers to any word you can't think of. T hrough the surfing boom in Hawaii, HCE has influenced surfer slang. Some HCE exp ressions, such as brah and da kine, have found their way to other places. Spelling of state name A somewhat divisive political issue arose when the constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language: the exact spelling of the state's name. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii to be the official state name. Official government publications,[citation needed] as well as department and office titl es,[citation needed] use the traditional Hawaiian spelling, with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, some private entities, including a l ocal newspaper, do use such symbols. The title of the state constitution is "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii" . In Article XV, Section 1 uses "The State of Hawaii", Section 2 "the island of Oahu", Section 3 "The Hawaiian flag", and Section 5 specifies the state motto as "Ua mau ke ea o ka aina i ka pono". Since these documents predate the modern us e of the ?okina and the kahako in Hawaiian orthography, the diacritics were not used. The nuances in the Hawaiian language debate are often not obvious or well-apprec iated among English speakers outside Hawaii.[citation needed] The issue has ofte n been a source of friction in situations where correct naming conventions are m andated,[citation needed] as people[who?] frequently disagree over which spellin g is correct or incorrect, and where it is correctly or incorrectly applied. Religion Church in Hawaii, 1958 According to data provided by religious establishments, religion in Hawaii in 20 00 was distributed as follows:[55][56][57] Christianity: 351,000 (28.9%) Buddhism: 110,000 (9%) Judaism: 10,000 (0.8%) Other: 100,000 (10%)*

Unaffiliated: 650,000 (51.1%)** The largest denominations by number of adherents were the Catholic Church with 2 40,813 in 2000[58] and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 68,1 28 in 2009.[59] "Other" are religions other than Christianity, Buddhism, or Judaism; this group includes Bahá'í Faith, Confucianism, Daoism, the Hawaiian religion, Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Shintoism, Zoroastrianism, and other religions. "Unaffiliated" refers to people who do not belong to a congregation; this group includes agnostics, atheists, humanists, and the irreligious. A 2009 Gallup poll found religion was distributed as follows, excluding those of other non-Judeo-Christian religions and those who had "no opinion":[60] Christianity: 60.6% (37.8% Protestant/Other Christian, 22.8% Roman Catholic) Mormonism: 3.3% Judaism: 0.7% Irreligious, Agnostic, Atheist: 21.0% A special case is Ho?oponopono, an ancient Hawaiian practice of reconciliation a nd forgiveness, combined with prayer. It is both philosophy and way of life. Tra ditionally ho?oponopono is practiced by healing priests or kahuna lapa?au among family members of a person who is physically ill. Economy See also: Hawaii locations by per capita income The history of Hawaii can be traced through a succession of dominant industries: sandalwood,[61] whaling,[62] sugarcane (see Sugar plantations in Hawaii), pinea pple, military, tourism, and education. Since statehood in 1959, tourism has bee n the largest industry, contributing 24.3% of the Gross State Product (GSP) in 1 997, despite efforts to diversify. The gross output for the state in 2003 was US $47 billion; per capita income for Hawaii residents was US$30,441. Shipping dock in Hawaii Hawaiian exports include food and apparel. These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, however, due to the considerable shipping distance to via ble markets, such as the West Coast of the United States. Food exports include c offee (see coffee production in Hawaii), macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, a nd sugarcane. Agricultural sales for 2002, according to the Hawaii Agricultural Statistics Service, were US$370.9 million from diversified agriculture, US$100.6 million from pineapple, and US$64.3 million from sugarcane. Hawaii has a relatively high state tax burden. In 2003, Hawaii residents had the highest state tax per capita at US$2,838. This is partly because education, hea lth care and social services are all provided directly by the state, as opposed to local government in all other states. Millions of tourists contribute to the tax take by paying the general excise tax and hotel room tax; thus not all taxes come directly from residents. Business l eaders, however, consider the state's tax burden too high, contributing to both higher prices and the perception of an unfriendly business climate.[63] See the list of businesses in Hawaii for more on commerce. Hawaii was one of the few states to control gasoline prices through a Gas Cap La w. Since oil company profits in Hawaii compared to the mainland U.S. were under scrutiny, the law tied local gasoline prices to those of the mainland. It took e ffect in September 2005 amid price fluctuations caused by Hurricane Katrina, but was suspended in April 2006.

As of January 2010, the state's unemployment rate was 6.9%.[64] Culture Main article: Culture of Hawaii Part of Pearl Harbor, with Aloha Stadium, the USS Arizona, USS Bowfin (submarine ), museums, Admiral Clarey Bridge, and naval yards visible. The aboriginal culture of Hawaii is Polynesian. Hawaii represents the northernmo st extension of the vast Polynesian triangle of the south and central Pacific Oc ean. While traditional Hawaiian culture remains only as vestiges in modern Hawai ian society, there are reenactments of the ceremonies and traditions throughout the islands. Some of these cultural influences are strong enough to affect the U nited States at large, including the popularity (in greatly modified form) of lu aus and hula. Customs and etiquette in Hawaii Folklore in Hawaii Hawaiian mythology List of Hawaiian state parks Literature in Hawaii Music of Hawaii Polynesian Cultural Center Polynesian mythology Tourism in Hawaii Hawaii is home to numerous cultural events. The annual Merrie Monarch Festival i s an international Hula competition.[65] The state is also home to the Hawaii In ternational Film Festival, the premier film festival for pacific rim cinema.[66] Honolulu is also home to the state's long running GLBT film festival, the Rainb ow Film Festival.[67][68] Health Main article: Hawaii Prepaid Health Care Act Hawaii's health care system insures 92% (2009) of residents. Under the state's p lan, businesses are required to provide insurance to employees who work more tha n twenty hours per week. Heavy regulation of insurance companies helps keep the cost to employers down. Due in part to heavy emphasis on preventive care, Hawaii ans require hospital treatment less frequently than the rest of the United State s, while total health care expenses (measured as a percentage of state GDP) are substantially lower. Given these achievements, proponents of universal health ca re elsewhere in the U.S. sometimes use Hawaii as a model for proposed federal an d state health care plans. Critics, however, claim that Hawaii's success is due at least in part to its mild climate and to its isolated status and an economy b ased on tourism: businesses unhappy with paying the plan's premiums find it diff icult to relocate elsewhere.[69] Education Public schools Main article: Hawai'i Department of Education Hawaii has the U.S.' only school system that is unified statewide. Policy decisi ons are made by the fourteen-member state Board of Education. The Board sets pol icy and hires the superintendent of schools, who oversees the state Department o f Education. The Department of Education is divided into seven districts, four o n O?ahu and one for each of the three other counties. The main rationale for centralization is to combat inequalities between highly p opulated O?ahu and the more rural Neighbor Islands, and between lower-income and more affluent areas. In most of the United States, schools are funded from loca l property taxes. Republican Governor Linda Lingle proposed replacing the statew ide board with seven elected district boards. The Democratic-controlled state le

gislature rejected her proposal, favoring expansion of decision-making power to the schools and giving them discretion over budgeting. Educators struggle with children of non-native-English-speaking immigrants, whos e cultures are different from those of the mainland (where most course materials and testing standards originate). Public elementary, middle, and high school test scores in Hawaii are below natio nal averages on tests mandated under the No Child Left Behind Act. Some of the g ap has been attributed to the Hawaii Board of Education's requirement that all e ligible students take these tests and report all student test scores. Other stat es, for example, Texas and Michigan do not. Results reported in August, 2005, in dicate that of 282 schools across the state, 185 (2/3) failed to reach federal m inimum performance standards in math and reading.[70] On the other hand, the ACT college placement tests show that in 2005, seniors sc ored slightly above the national average (21.9 compared with 20.9).[71] In the w idely accepted SAT examinations, Hawaii's college-bound seniors tend to score be low the national average in all categories except mathematics. Other schools Hawaii educates more students in independent institutions of secondary education than any other state in the United States. It has four of the largest independe nt schools: ?Iolani School, Kamehameha Schools, Mid-Pacific Institute, and Punah ou School. The second Buddhist high school in the United States, and first Buddh ist high school in Hawaii, Pacific Buddhist Academy, was founded in 2003. The fi rst native controlled public charter school was the Kanu O Ka Aina New Century C harter School. Independent and charter schools can select their students, while the regular pub lic schools must take all students in their district. The Kamehameha Schools are the only schools in the United States that openly grant admission to students b ased on ancestry, and the wealthiest schools in the United States, if not the wo rld, having over nine billion US dollars in estate assets. In 2005, Kamehameha e nrolled 5,398 students, 8.4% of the Native Hawaiian children in the state.[72] See also: List of elementary schools in Hawaii, List of middle schools in Hawaii , and List of high schools in Hawaii Colleges and universities Graduates of secondary schools in Hawaii often enter directly into the work forc e. Some attend colleges and universities on the mainland or other countries, and the rest attend an institution of higher learning in Hawaii. The largest is the University of Hawaii System. It consists of: the research uni versity at Manoa; two comprehensive campuses Hilo and West O?ahu; and seven Comm unity Colleges. Private universities include Brigham Young University Hawaii, Cham inade University of Honolulu, Hawaii Pacific University, or University of the Na tions. The Saint Stephen Diocesan Center is a seminary of the Roman Catholic Dio cese of Honolulu. See also: List of colleges and universities in Hawaii Law and government See also: United States presidential election in Hawaii, 2004, Politics of Hawai i, and Political party strength in Hawaii The Hawaii State Capitol building, as seen from the rim of Punchbowl Crater. The state government of Hawaii is modeled after the federal government with adap tations originating from the kingdom era of Hawaiian history. As codified in the Constitution of Hawaii, there are three branches of government: executive, legi slative and judicial.

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Hawaii assisted by the Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii, both elected on the same ticket. The governor, in residence at the grounds of Washington Place, is the only public official elected for the state government in a statewide race; all others are appointed by the governor. The lieutenant governor acts as the Secretary of State. The governor and lieute nant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the State Capitol. The legislative branch consists of the Hawaii State Legislature twenty-five member s of the Hawaii Senate led by the President of the Senate and fifty-one members of the Hawaii House of Representatives led by the Speaker of the House. They als o govern from the State Capitol. The judicial branch is led by the highest state court, the Hawaii State Supreme Court, which uses Ali?iolani Hale as its chambe rs. Lower courts are organized as the Hawaii State Judiciary. Unique to Hawaii is the lack of municipal governments. All local governments are administered at the county level. The only incorporated area in the state is a consolidated city county: Honolulu County, which governs the entire island of Oahu . County executives are the Mayor of Hawaii, Mayor of Honolulu, Mayor of Kaua?i and Mayor of Maui, all elected in nonpartisan races. Federal government Hawaii is represented in the United States Congress by four people: Charles Djou (Republican) represents the 1st District in the House. The 1st Dist rict covers south-eastern Oahu, including central Honolulu. Mazie Hirono (Democrat) represents the 2nd District in the House. The 2nd Distri ct covers the rest of the state, which is mainly rural. Daniel Inouye is the senior United States Senator, having served since January 3 , 1963. In June 2010 Senator Inouye became the longest-serving current Senator a nd thus received the title President pro tempore of the United States Senate. Daniel Akaka is the junior United States Senator, having served since May 16, 19 90. Senators Inouye and Akaka were both born in 1924, making them the oldest current Senate duo. All federal officers in Hawaii administer their duties from the Prince Kuhio Fed eral Building near the Aloha Tower and Honolulu Harbor, including the Federal Bu reau of Investigation, Internal Revenue Service and the United States Secret Ser vice. The building is the site of the federal courts and the offices of the Unit ed States Attorney for the District of Hawaii, principal police officer of the D epartment of Justice in the United States District Court for the District of Haw aii. National politics Presidential elections resultsYear Republican Democratic 2008 26.58% 120,446 71.85% 325,588 2004 45.26% 194,191 54.01% 231,708 2000 37.46% 137,845 55.79% 205,286 1996 31.64% 113,943 56.93% 205,012 1992 36.70% 136,822 48.09% 179,310 1988 44.75% 158,625 54.27% 192,364 1984 55.10% 185,050 43.82% 147,154 1980 42.90% 130,112 44.80% 135,879 1976 48.06% 140,003 50.59% 147,375 1972 62.48% 168,865 37.52% 101,409 1968 38.70% 91,425 59.83% 141,324 1964 21.24% 44,022 78.76% 163,249 1960 49.97% 92,295 50.03% 92,410

Hawaii supported Democrats in 10 of the last 12 presidential elections. The exce ptions were 1972 and 1984. In 2004, John Kerry won the state's 4 electoral votes by a margin of 9 percentage points with 54% of the vote. Every county supported the Democratic candidate. In 1964, favorite son candidate, Senator Hiram Fong o f Hawaii sought the Republican presidential nomination while Patsy Mink ran in t he Oregon primary in 1972. Honolulu native Barack Obama, serving as United States Senator from Illinois, wa s elected President of the United States on November 4, 2008. Obama had won the Hawaiian Democratic Caucus on February 19, 2008 with 76% of the vote. He was the third Hawaii-born candidate to seek the nomination of a major party and the fir st presidential nominee from Hawaii. Transportation See also: Hawaii Department of Transportation A system of state highways encircles each main island. Only O?ahu has federal hi ghways, and is the only area outside the contiguous 48 states to have signed Int erstate highways. Travel can be slow due to narrow winding roads, and congested in cities. Each major island has a public bus system. Commercial airlines provide most mainland and inter-island travel. Hawaiian Airl ines, Mokulele Airlines, and go! use jets between the larger airports in Honolul u, Lihu?e, Kahului, Kona, and Hilo, while Island Air and Pacific Wings serve sma ller airports. These airlines also provide air freight service between the islan ds. Norwegian Cruise Lines provides passenger cruise service between the islands. Th e Hawaii Superferry planned to operate between O?ahu and other major islands. Le gal issues over environmental impact statements and protests temporarily delayed it. Service to Maui started in December 2007, but shut down in March 2009.[73] See also Geography portal United States portal Hawaii portal Main articles: Outline of Hawaii and Index of Hawaii-related articles References ^ Local usage generally reserves Hawaiian as an ethnonym referring to Native Haw aiians. Hawaii resident or islander is the preferred form to refer to state resi dents. The Associated Press Stylebook, 42nd ed. (2007), also prescribes this usa ge (p. 112). ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Region s, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2009-02-06. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. Ap ril 29, 2005. Retrieved November 3, 2006. ^ Rudin, Ken (2009-12-23). "NPR's ''Political Junkie'', 23 December 2009, access ed 30 December 2009". Npr.org. Retrieved 2010-05-15. ^ Heard on Tell Me More (2008-10-29). "Asian Writer Ponders First Asian Presiden t Too". Npr.org. Retrieved 2010-05-15. ^ Pollex a reconstruction of the Proto-Polynesian lexicon, Biggs and Clark, 1994. The asterisk preceding the word signifies that it is a reconstructed word form. ^ Pukui and Elbert 1986, p. 62. ^ See also: Pukui, Elbert, and Mookini 1974. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Island of Hawai?i ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Maui Island ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kaho?olawe Island ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Lana?i Island ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Moloka?i Island ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: O?ahu Island

^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kaua?i Island ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Ni?ihau Island ^ http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=3510 ^ "What constitutes the United States, what are the official definitions?". Unit ed States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2007-07-03. ^ Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. ^ Unke, Beata (2001). "Height of the Tallest Mountain on Earth". The Physics Fac tbook. ^ Rubin, Ken. "General Information about Hawaiian Shield Volcanoes". Retrieved D ecember 2009. ^ "Youngest lava flows on East Maui probably older than A.D. 1790". United State s Geological Survey. September 9, 1999. Retrieved 1999-10-04. ^ Living on Active Volcanoes The Island of Hawaii, U.S. Geological Survey Fact She et 074-97. ^ Human Footprints in Relation to the 1790 Eruption of Kilauea, Swanson, D. A.; Rausch, J., American Geophysical Union. ^ Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (2009-11-12). "Tsunami Safety & Preparedness in Hawai`i". Retrieved 2009-11-12. ^ Howard Youth. "Hawaii's Forest Birds Sing the Blues". Retrieved October 31, 20 08. ^ "Hawaii". National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-07-15. ^ Joshua Reichert and Theodore Roosevelt IV. "Treasure Islands". Retrieved June 15, 2006. ^ Climate of Hawaii. ^ Hawaii Weather Hawaii Weather Forecast Hawaii Climate. ^ US CODE: Title 20,7512. Findings. ^ Hawaii State Government. ^ The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge University Press. 1989. p p. 77 79. ISBN 0521273161. ^ Kuykendall, "The Hawaiian Kingdom Volume I: Foundation and Transformation", p1 8 "Cook's plan was to get the king on board the Resolution and keep him there un til the stolen boat was returned a plan that had been effective under similar ci rcumstances in the south Pacific". ^ Hawaii (state, United States). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. ^ Migration and Disease. Digital History. ^ a b Russ, William Adam (1992). The Hawaiian Revolution (1893 94). Associated Uni versity Presses. p. 350. ISBN 0945636431. ^ Kuykendall, R.S. (1967) The Hawaiian Kingdom, 1874 1893. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 648. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (2006). Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change From Haw aii to Iraq. Times Books. ISBN 0805078614. ^ "Limbaugh repeated false claim that U.S. was "strictly neutral" in overthrow o f Hawaiian queen". Media Matters. ^ a b Hawaii Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand by Bruce Fein. ^ "1897 Hawaii Annexation Treaty". The Morgan Report. Retrieved August 14, 2010. ^ Human Rights differs from Equal Rights. ^ Support For The Hawaiian Sovereignty Elections Council. ^ Hawaii Reporter: Hawaii Reporter. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State 2000". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2008-12-04. ^ New Jersey Quickfacts. ^ Hawaii Quickfacts. ^ Top 12 states in population density. ^ Average life expectancy at birth by state. ^ a b c d e f American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "Hawaii ACS Demo graphic and Housing Estimates: 2008". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2010-05-1 5. ^ a b Language Map Data Center. ^ Lyovin, Anatole V. (1997). An Introduction to the Languages of the World, p. 2 58. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 0-19-508116-1.

^ U.S. Census (2005). U.S. Census Press Releases[dead link]. Public Information Offce. ^ State of Hawaii Data Book 2000, Section 1 Population, Table 1.47. ^ Glenmary Research Center. ^ Honolulu Advertiser. ^ "Glenmary Research Center" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-15. ^ "LDS Newsroom Statistical Information". Newsroom.lds.org. Retrieved 2010-05-15 . ^ Gallup Poll Daily tracking. ^ Hawaii sandalwood trade. ^ Whaling in Hawaii. ^ Honolulu Star-Bulletin Hawaii News. ^ Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment Statistics ^ "Merrie Monarch Festival 2005 The Honolulu Advertiser Hawaii's Newspaper". The Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved 2010-05-15. ^ [1][dead link] ^ USA. "19th Annual Honolulu Rainbow Film Festival at Doris Duke Theatre :: Hono lulu Hawaii Nightlife Event Guide". Hnlnow.com. Retrieved 2010-05-15. ^ "Honolulu Star-Bulletin Features". Archives.starbulletin.com. 2001-05-29. Retr ieved 2010-05-15. ^ ""Hawaii Health Care Is Called a Model for U.S."". New York Times. 1993-05-19. ^ POSTED: 5:58 pm HST August 18, 2005 (2005-08-18). "Two-Thirds Of Hawaii School Education News Story KITV Honolulu". Thehawaiichannel s Do Not Meet Requirements .com. Retrieved 2010-05-15. ^ Honolulu Advertiser, August 17, 2005, p. B1 ^ Ishibasha, Koren (November 2005). "Official Enrollment". Retrieved December 20 09. ^ "Aloha, Superferry Alakai leaves Hawaii to find job". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. March 29, 2009. Further reading The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV. Bushnell, O. A. 1993. The Gifts of Civilization: Germs and Genocide in Hawaii. I SBN 0824814576. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press Kinzer, Stephen 2007, Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq. ISBN 0805082409. Times Books Lyovin, Anatole V. (1997). An Introduction to the Languages of the World. New Yo rk: Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 0-19-508116-1. Pukui, Mary Kawena; Samuel H. Elbert (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ ersity of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-0703-0. Schamel, Wynell and Charles E. Schamel. "The 1897 Petition Against the Annexatio n of Hawaii." Social Education 63, 7 (November/December 1999): 402 408. Stokes, John F.G. 1932. "Spaniard and the Sweet Potato in Hawaii and Hawaiian-Am erican Contacts." American Anthropologist, New Series, v, 34, n, 4, pp. 594 600. External links Wikinews has related Hawaii news: July 25: Brush fire starts in Hawaii's Makua Valley February 27: Pacific Rim braces for tsunami following major Chilean earthquake February 27: 8.8 magnitude earthquake hits Chile; tsunami warnings issued throug hout Pacific rim December 12: Hawaiian Representative Neil Abercrombie resigns Find more about Hawaii on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Textbooks from Wikibooks Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Images and media from Commons News stories from Wikinews Learning resources from Wikiversity Official state website Hawaii at the Open Directory Project

Hawaii's Official Tourism Site Hawaii travel guide from Wikitravel Hawaii State Fact Sheet from the U.S. Department of Agriculture USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Hawaii Energy Data & Statistics for Hawaii Satellite image of Hawaiian Islands at NASA's Earth Observatory Documents relating to Hawaiian Statehood, Dwight D. Eisenhower President Library Happily a State, Forever an Island by The New York Times OpenStreetMap has geographic data related to Hawaii Russia Japan Pacific Ocean Alaska Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean California PRC Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean Mexico Hawaii Pacific Ocean Australia [show] Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean

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