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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 What is Regenerative Braking System?

A regenerative brake is an energy recovery mechanism which slows a vehicle or object by


converting its kinetic energy into a form which can be either used immediately or stored until
needed. This contrasts with conventional braking systems, where the excess kinetic energy is
converted to unwanted and wasted heat by friction in the brakes. In addition to improving the
overall efficiency of the vehicle, regeneration can greatly extend the life of the braking
system as its parts do not wear as quickly.

A brake is a tool that enables in deceleration of a moving object; they use friction to convert
kinetic energy into heat. Conventional braking systems use this mechanism. Once the brake
pads rub against the wheels of the car, excessive heat energy is produced. The heat generated
is lost into the air nearly accounting for about 30% of the car’s generated power.

Regenerative braking recaptures the kinetic energy of a vehicle instead of dissipating it with
the brake pads. This can lead to an extension of 10 to 25% of a vehicle's range in urban
driving where the brakes are frequently used. The lowest energy consumption is obtained
when the loss during the energy recapture is minimized. This means that the mechanical
brakes should not be used. This work focuses on defining all the efficient regenerative
braking strategies for the recreational 3-wheel rear-wheel drive hybrid vehicle presented on
figure 1. A specific regenerative braking command, distinct from the regular brake command,
is used to apply a regenerative torque to the electrical motor and is transmitted to the rear
wheel (Tregen). During the deceleration some of the rear-wheel weight is transferred to the
front wheels and reduces the rear wheel adherence. The rear wheel locks if Tregen is chosen
too high. The vehicle is then unstable and the regenerative performance is reduced. This
means that the choice of strategy is really a concern for rear-wheel regenerative braking. The
main regenerative braking strategies described in the literature maximize the extracted power,
maximize the incoming battery power or maximize the electrical efficiency. These strategies
have been elaborated without taking into account road friction coefficient and the impact of
the mechanical loss on energy regeneration.

A new regenerative braking strategy design methodology, based on a global efficiency map
(where the mechanical and slip loss are included), has then been developed. Another
originality of this work is to extend the design methodology to de ne the set of acceptable

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regenerative strategies. The regenerative braking torque boundaries, for a dry asphalt road,
are obtained with a given performance criterion. Within the acceptable torque range the
amount of recaptured energy is almost optimal and it gives the driver the opportunity to
change the dynamic of the vehicle.

Concept of this regenerative brake is better understood from bicycle fitted with Dynamo. If
our bicycle has a dynamo (a small electricity generator) on it for powering the lights, we'll
know it's harder to peddle when the dynamo is engaged than when it's switched off. That's
because some of our peddling energy is being “stolen" by the dynamo and turned into
electrical energy in the lights. If we’re going along at speed and we suddenly stop peddling
and turn on the dynamo, it’ll bring us to a stop more quickly than we would normally, for the
same reason: it’s stealing our kinetic energy. Now imagine a bicycle with a dynamo that's 100
times bigger and more powerful.

In theory, it could bring our bike to a halt relatively quickly by converting our kinetic energy
into electricity which we could store in battery and use again later. And that's the basic idea
behind regenerative brakes. Electric trains, cars, and other electric vehicles are powered by
electric motors connected to batteries. When we're driving along, energy flows from the
batteries to the motors, turning the wheels and providing us with the kinetic energy we need
to move. When we stop and hit the brakes, the whole process goes into reverse:

As the basic law of Physics says ‘energy can neither be created nor be destroyed it
can only be converted from one form to another’. During huge amount of energy is lost
to atmosphere as heat. It will be good if we could store this energy somehow which is
otherwise getting wasted out and reuse it next time we started to accelerate.
Regenerative braking refers to a system in which the kinetic energy of the vehicle is
stored temporarily, as an accumulative energy, during deceleration, and is reused as
kinetic energy during acceleration or running. Regenerative braking is a small, yet
very important, step toward our eventual independence from fossil fuels.

These kinds of brakes allow batteries to be used for longer periods of time without
the need to be plugged into an external charger. These types of brakes also extend
the driving range of fully electric vehicles. Regenerative braking is a way to extend
range of the electric vehicles. In many hybrid vehicles cases, this system is also
applied hybrid vehicles to improve fuel economy. A normal car is only about 20%

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efficient, meaning some 80% of the energy it expends is wasted as heat created by
friction.

When a conventional vehicle applies its brakes, kinetic energy is converted to heat as friction
between the brake pads and wheels. This heat is carries away in the air stream and the energy
is effectively wasted .The total amount of energy lost in this way depends on how often, how
hard and for how long the brakes are applied. Regenerative braking refers to a process in
which a portion of the kinetic energy of the vehicle is stored by a short term storage system.
Energy normally dissipated in the brakes is directed by a power transmission system to the
energy store during deceleration.

That energy is held until required again by the vehicle, whereby it is converted back into
kinetic energy and used to accelerate the vehicle. The magnitude of the portion available for
energy storage varies according to the type of storage, drive train efficiency, and drive cycle
and inertia weight. A City Centre driving involves many more braking events representing a
much higher energy loss with greater potential savings. With buses, taxis, delivery vans and
so on there is even more potential for economy.

Since regenerative braking results in an increase in energy output for a given energy input to
a vehicle, the efficiency is improved. The amount of work done by the engine of the vehicle
is reduced, in turn reducing the amount of prime energy required to propel the vehicle. In
order for a regenerative braking system to be cost effective the prime energy saved over a
specified lifetime must offset the initial cost, size and weight penalties of the system. The
energy storage unit must be compact, durable and capable of handling high power levels
efficiently, and any auxiliary energy transfer or energy conversion equipment must be
efficient, compact and of reasonable cost.

The possibility of recovering vehicle kinetic energy is one inherent advantage of electric and
hybrid electric vehicles. When a vehicle drives in heavy traffic more than half of the total
energy is dissipated in the brakes. Therefore, recovering braking energy is an effective
approach for improving the driving range of EV (Electric Vehicle) and the energy efficiency
of HEV (Hybrid Electric vehicle). Developments in Hybrid Electric and pure Electric
Vehicles are intended to improve the operational efficiency of road vehicles. Regenerative
braking, which has long been established in rail vehicles, is integral to efficiency

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improvement, with up to 30% of overall traction energy demand satisfied by energy saved
during deceleration.

Regenerative braking allows electric vehicles to use the motor as a generator when the brakes
are applied, to pump vehicle energy from the brakes into an energy storage device.
Regenerative braking is an effective approach to extend the driving range of EV and can save
from 8% to as much as 25% of the total energy used by the vehicle, depending on the driving
cycle and how it was driven. Generally, the regenerative braking torque cannot be made large
enough to provide all the required braking torque of the vehicle. In addition, the regenerative
braking system may not be used under many conditions, such as with a high state of charge
State of Charge (SOC) or a high temperature of the battery. In these cases, the conventional
hydraulic braking system works to cover the required total braking torque.

Thus, cooperation between the hydraulic braking system and the regenerative braking system
is a main part of the design of the EV braking control strategy and is known as torque
blending. In the present work the principle, design and working of regenerative braking
systems is proposed and a typical regenerative braking pattern is investigated for evaluating
the availability of braking energy recovery. The results indicates that in a vehicle with active
regenerative braking control, a significant amount of braking energy can be recovered, and
the brake system does not need much changing from the brake systems of conventional
passenger cars.

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1.2 Conventional Braking System

Fig1.1: Types of brakes

A brake is a device for slowing or stopping the motion of a machine or vehicle, or


alternatively a device to restrain it from starting to move again. The kinetic energy lost by the
moving part is usually translated to heat by friction. Alternatively, in regenerative braking,
much of the energy is recovered and stored in a flywheel, capacitor or turned into alternating
current by an alternator, then rectified and stored in a battery for later use. First regenerative
brake was adopted in 1930’s at the sections having continuous slope. Regenerative braking is
used on hybrid gas/electric automobiles to recoup some of the energy lost during stopping.
This energy is saved in a storage battery and used later to power the motor whenever the car
is in electric mode. Understanding how regenerative braking works may require a brief look
at the system it replaces. Conventional braking systems use friction to counteract the forward
momentum of a moving car. As the brake pads rub against the wheels (or a disc connected to
the axle), excessive heat energy is also created. This heat energy dissipates into the air,
wasting up to 30% of the car's generated power. Over time, this cycle of friction and wasted
heat energy reduces the car's fuel efficiency. More energy from the engine is required to
replace the energy lost by braking.

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1.3 Need of Regenerative Braking System

Braking always results in huge loss of energy, kinetic energy increases with the square of the
velocity (E = m∙v 2 relationship). This means that if the speed of a vehicle doubles, it has four
times as much energy. The brakes must therefore dissipate four times as much energy to stop
it and consequently the braking distance is four times as long. Today, we are living in such a
stage where everybody is thinking “how to save the energy?” which leads to better
environment. As in today’s world, where there are energy crises and there sources are
depleting at a higher rate, there is a need of specific technology that recovers the energy,
which gets usually wasted.

So, in case of automobiles one of these useful technologies is the regenerative braking
system. Generally in automobiles whenever the brakes are applied the vehicle comes to a halt
and the kinetic energy gets wasted due to friction in the form of kinetic energy. Using
regenerative braking system in automobiles enables us to recover the kinetic energy of the
vehicle to some extent that is lost during the braking process. In this paper the author
discusses two methods of utilizing, the kinetic energy that is usually wasted by converting it
into either electrical energy or into mechanical energy. Regenerative braking system can
convert the kinetic energy into electrical energy with help of electric motor and it can also
convert the kinetic energy into mechanical energy, which is supplied to the vehicle whenever
it is needed, with the help of a flywheel. In the years following the energy crisis numerous
researchers have studied the feasibility and practicality of implementing hybrid power trains
incorporating regenerative braking which have the potential to improve the fuel economy of
vehicles operating under urban driving conditions . The price increase of petroleum based
fuel in the past few years has also given rise to various research and development efforts for
energy conservation. However reduced fuel consumption and therefore operating cost and
reduced gaseous emissions including primarily carbon dioxide (hence global warming) are
the major driving forces behind commercial considerations of such systems.

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1.3.1 Regenerative braking strategy:

The platform of this ICE vehicle is front engine, front drive (FF) using manual transmission.
Its braking system is cross link circuit or X layout with four wheel disk brakes and anti-lock
brake system (ABS). The modification from engine into electric vehicle is achieved by
installing motor-generator (MG) instead of engine and changing the manual transmission into
fixed transmission since electric motor does not need complex-ratio transmission so as engine
to maintain optimal operation on the fuel economy region. Thus, this vehicle platform is still
the FF, front motor, front drive. Because regenerative torque needs medium to send this brake
torque into driven wheel, the vehicle platform is factor defining that only driven wheel, front
wheel in this case, can contribute regenerative braking power. Therefore, front wheels are
cooperated by regenerative and friction brake force while rear wheels have only friction
brake operation.

1.3.2 Regenerative Braking Algorithm:

To manage brake force during using regenerative brake, the first thing must be achieved is to
calculate magnitude of regenerative brake torque at the front wheel. This torque depends on
the motor-generator torque characteristic at given RPM, gear ratio, and differential gear ratio.
The Regenerative brake torque at front wheel can be represented as

In order to easily measure and compare brake force, is converted to be equivalent


regenerative brake pressure since all sensors used to measure brake force at each point are
pressure sensors and in algorithm, brake force is compared by using pressure Is equal to
hydraulic pressure at front caliper that should be reduced while regenerative and friction
brake collaborate.

The strategy to control regenerative system of modified braking system with emulated ABS
signal. The brake assist (BA) is a mode automatically increasing hydraulic brake pressure
when the pedal is suddenly pressed. If BA operates meaning that this braking is in panic
situation, the brake pressure should not be reduced by all.

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1.4 History

The idea of a brake that could take the kinetic energy it absorbs and turn it into potential
energy for later use has been around since the late 1800s. Some of the early attempts of this
technology were to install spring type RBS on front wheel drive bicycles or horse-drawn
cabs.

The Baku-Tbilisi-Batumi railway started applying RBS in the early 1930s. This is one
example of early using of this technology in railway system.

In the 1950s, Swiss company Oerlikon developed the gyrobus, which utilized flywheel as its
energy storage method. The effects of gyroscopic motion on the bus soon resulted in it being
discontinued.

In 1967,the American Motor Car Company (AMC) created an electrical energy regeneration
brake for their concept electric car, the AMC Amitron. Toyota was the first car manufacturer
to commercialize RBS technology in their Prius series hybrid cars.

During the late 2000s, an electronic control unit used by BMW that engages the alternator
during braking.

Since then, RBSs have evolved to be used in almost all electric and hybrid cars, as well as
some gas-powered vehicles.

1.5 Problem statement:

 To design vehicle braking strategies based on regenerative braking boundaries of


electric machine to improve efficiency and energy storage.
 Also fabricate the model of the same which would be able to give the same result as
required of desired concept.

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1.6 Objectives

 To Design and develop the Regenerative Breaking System.


 To fabricate the model of Regenerative Breaking System.
 To Test the model with its ability.
 To improve hybrid-electric vehicle operating efficiency.
 To reduce energy consumption of a test vehicle along different driving schedules
while using different braking strategies.
 The project work subject is one, in which actually we are leaning the theoretical
concepts in practical way. Also the practical experience is one of the aims of this
subject.
 For a developing industry these operating performed and the parts or components
produced should have its minimum possible production cost, then only the industry
runs profitably. There are a number of units having used in industries for various
purposes.

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1.7 Methodology

A through literature research was conducted in the areas of Regenerative Braking Systems
(RBS) and its related aspects. The Flywheel or the mechanical RBS was chosen for further
development and its various configurations were explored. Parallel-drive (parallel to the
engine) acting on the front wheels consisting of flywheel and a continuously variable
transmission (CVT) was finalized as the design choice. Based on the available race track
data, the potential and the requirements of the race car were drawn i.e., the available braking
energy, the energy needed for acceleration boost and required power was calculated. The data
was used in the design and selection of individual components of the Flywheel RBS.

Literature review

System design

3-D modeling of set-up


using CATIA

Validation of model
using ANSYS software.

Assembling of actual
model

Testing and trial to derive


performance characteristic of
equipment under various
speed.

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2. Literature Review

1.Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus

Junzhi Zhang*, Xin Lu*, Junliang Xue*, and Bos Li*

Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric
buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes
the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series
regenerative braking system and two of which are parallel regenerative braking systems. The
existing friction based Adjustable Braking System (ABS) on the bus is integrated with each
of the new braking systems in order to ensure bus safety and stability. The design of the RBS
is facilitated by Simulink [1] which is used to build an interactive, multi-domain simulator
that is allows parametric variation of vehicle speed, State of Charge (SOC) for the batteries,
and the maximum current to be allowed to the batteries from the RBS. The required braking
forces as a function of wheel speed are modeled using dSpace[2]. A Hardwire-in-the-Loop
(HIL) experimental setup is used for component testing, followed by road testing using the
Chinese Urban Bus Driving Cycle. Results indicate that all three braking systems provide
some energy recovery, with the serial RBS providing the best combination of energy
recovery with acceptable drivability, safety and stability. Overall results confirm that
regenerative braking systems can recover significant braking energy while operating in a safe
and predictable manner.

Electric vehicles have been attracting unprecedented attention in light of the volatile market
prices and prospect of diminishing supplies of fuel. Advances in battery technology and
significant improvements in electrical motor efficiency have made electric vehicles an
attractive alternative, especially for short distance commuting. This paper describes the
application of Brushless DC (BLDC) motor technology in an electric vehicle with special
emphasis on regenerative braking. BLDC motors are being encountered more frequently in
electric vehicles due to their high efficiency and robustness; however a BLDC motor requires
a rather complex control to cope with the reversal of energy flow during the transition from
motoring regime to regenerative braking. In an electric vehicle, regenerative breaking helps
to conserve energy by charging the battery, thus extending the driving range of the vehicle.
There is a number of different ways to implement regenerative braking in a BLDC motor.

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This paper describes the Independent Switching scheme for regenerative braking [1] as
applied to a developmental electric vehicle at the University of South Australia.

Electric vehicles and regenerative braking In recent times, electric vehicles (EVs) have
received much attention as an alternative to traditional vehicles powered by internal
combustion engines running on non-renewable fossil fuels. This unprecedented. Focus is
mainly attributable to environmental and economic concerns linked to the consumption of
fossil-based oil as fuel in internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles. With recent
advances in battery technology and motor efficiency, EVs have become a promising solution
for commuting over greater distances. Plug-in EVs utilize a battery system which can be
recharged from standard power outlets. Since performance characteristics of electric vehicles
have become comparable to, if not better than those of traditional Internal Combustion
Engine (ICE) vehicles, EVs present a realistic alternative. Regenerative braking can be used
in an EV as a way of recouping energy during braking, which is not possible to do in
conventional ICE vehicles. Regenerative braking is the process of feeding energy from the
drive motor back into the battery during the braking process, when the vehicle’s inertia forces
the motor into generator mode. In this mode, the battery is seen as a load by the machine,
thus providing a braking force on the vehicle. It has been shown that an EV, which uses
regenerative braking can have an increased driving range of up to 15% compared with an EV,
which only uses mechanical braking .

A rare case when regenerative braking cannot occur is when the battery is already
fully charged . In such a case, braking needs to be effected by dissipating the energy in a
resistive load. Mechanical braking is still required in EVs for a number of reasons. At low
speeds regenerative braking is not effective and may fail to stop the vehicle in the required
time, especially in an emergency. A mechanical braking system is also important in the event
of an electrical failure. For example, if the battery or the system controlling the regenerative
braking failed, then mechanical braking becomes critical. It is common in electric vehicles to
combine both mechanical braking and regenerative braking functions into a single foot pedal:
the first part of the foot pedal controls regenerative braking and the final part controls
mechanical braking. This is a seamless transition from regenerative braking to mechanical
braking, akin to the practice of ‘putting the brakes on’ in a conventional ICE vehicle. 2.
BLDC motor Principally, a brushless DC (BLDC) motor is an inside-out permanent magnet
DC motor, in which the conventional multi-segment commutator, which acts as a mechanical
rectifier, is replaced with an electronic circuit to do the com- mutation. Consequently, a

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BLDC motor requires less maintenance and is quite robust. A BLDC motor has a higher
efficiency than a conventional DC motor with brushes. However, a BLDC motor requires
relatively complex electronics for control.

2.Design and Development of Mechanical Regenerative Braking System for Road


Vehicles ;SHAMSHAD ALI, M. HAMEEDULLAH

An innovative mechanical regenerative braking system for road vehicles, developed by the
authors and patented, has been described. This system has been installed on an experimental
solar electric vehicle and the energy saving during on road experiments has been studied and
test results presented in this article. It has been concluded that by using this system about
70% of the energy, that might have gone waste while applying brakes, can be saved and the
driving range can be increased.
This system comprising: A motor driving the shaft of the rear axle of the vehicle through a
clutch and transmission system.
An energy storage system / fly wheel is connected between said motor and the clutch on the
main shaft.
A clutch and the Regenerative Braking System / compound chain drive is connected to say
energy storage system and said rear Axle, the motor delivers the energy to the rear axle
through transmission system. Before the vehicle starts, the Regenerative Braking System is
disconnected from energy storage system and is kept disconnected during the running of the
vehicle until braking is not required. If vehicle is running on the road, it has kinetic energy. If
one wants to stop or slow down the vehicle, the connection of energy storage system with a
rear axle through power transmission system is cut off and connection through Regenerative
Braking System with energy storage system is established through clutch. The kinetic energy
of the vehicle is transferred from spinning rear wheel’s axle through Regenerative Braking
System to the energy storage system and this stored energy is reutilized in starting or
accelerating the vehicle.

3.On a Flywheel-Based Regenerative Braking System for Regenerative Energy


Recovery Tai-Ran Hsu,Proceedings of Green Energy and Systems Conference 2013,
November 25, Long Beach, CA, USA.

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This paper presents a unique flywheel-based regenerative energy recovery, storage and
release system developed at the author’s laboratory. It can recover and store regenerative
energy produced by braking a motion generator with intermittent rotary velocity such as the
rotor of a wind turbo generator subject to intermittent intake wind and the axels of electric
and hybrid gas-electric vehicles during frequent coasting and braking. Releasing of the stored
regenerative energy in the flywheel is converted to electricity by the attached alternator. A
proof-of-concept prototype called the SJSU-RBS was designed, built and tested by author’s
students with able assistance of a technical staff in his school.
The present research involves the design, construction and testing of a flywheel-based
regenerative braking system (RBS), the SJSU-RBS. This particular RBS can store the kinetic
energy produced by intermittent energy sources otherwise would be lost because the
recovered regenerative energy by these sources is often too small to be saved. This unique
regenerative braking system (RBS) allows the recovered regenerative energy to be converted
into electric energy by an integrated flywheel/alternator unit.
Major components in the SJSU-RBS is presented in Figure 1, in which the “rotary motion
generator” may be the spinning axel of an electric vehicle during coasting and braking, or an
electric motor driven by the power generated by solar photovoltaic cells with fluctuating solar
energy intensity, or a wind turbine rotor rotating at variable speeds by intermittent intake
wind.

Fig 2.1 Schematic Diagram of Major Components in the SJSU-RBS

The inertia clutch in the system engages the flywheel/alternator unit to the input shaft at a
constant or accelerated rotary speed of the motion generator. The same clutch disengages the
same unit from the input shaft of the motion generator at a reduced speed or after complete

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stop turning of this shaft. The disengaged flywheel/alternator unit, though spins at reduced
speed, can continue to produce electricity. A “speed boosting” device such as an epicyclic
gear train with a combination of “sun,” “satellite” and “rim” gears is introduced in the RBS to
boost the spinning speed of the flywheel for maximum storage of the kinetic energy. A
unique electric charging system has been developed and it is attached to the SJSU-RBS for
“electric energy storage, distribution, and management system”.
A new regenerative braking system, the SJSU-RBS was developed with the design,
construction and testing of a proof-of-concept prototype. It involves a fast spinning
flywheel/alternator unit with a uniquely designed progressive braking system and an
epicyclic gear train. This new SJSU-RBS can be readily adapted to power plants driven by
renewable energies from intermittent sources such as solar, wind and braking of electric and
hybrid gas-electric vehicles during coasting and braking. The SJSU-RBS was proof-tested for
its feasibility and practicality for the intended applications.
Despite the success in the preliminary bench-top testing of the prototype of the SJSU-RBS as
presented in the paper, a few key technical issues remain unsolved. Issues such as the optimal
design of flywheel for maximum net recovery and storage of regenerative energies;
quantification of aerodynamic and electromechanical resistance to the free spinning of the
flywheel, and the effective and optimal control of the motion of the flywheel and the driving
shafts, etc. will have significant effects on the performance of the SJSU-RBS or similar
regenerative braking system for maximal recovery of regenerative energies in reality.
Further research on the detailed design and integration of the SJSU-RBS to wind power
generating plants and EVs and HEVs for performance enhancements is desirable. The
success of such integration will result in great economical returns to the renewable power
generation industry. Efficient power generations by renewable energy sources by RBS will
make significant contributions to the sustainable development of global economy and well-
being of all humankind.

4.Energy-Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Vehicles Using Three-Phase


Brushless Direct-Current Motors
Bo Long , Shin Teak Lim , Ji Hyoung Ryu and Kil To Chong ,*

Regenerative braking provides an effective way of extending the driving range of battery
powered electric vehicles (EVs). This paper analyzes the equivalent power circuit and
operation principles of an EV using regenerative braking control technology. During the

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braking period, the switching sequence of the power converter is controlled to inverse the
output torque of the three-phase brushless direct-current (DC) motor, so that the braking
energy can be returned to the battery. Compared with the presented methods, this technology
can achieve several goals: energy recovery, electric braking, ultra-quiet braking and
extending the driving range. Merits and drawbacks of different braking control strategy are
further elaborated. State-space model of the EVs under energy-regenerative braking operation
is established, considering that parameter variations are unavoidable due to temperature
change, measured error, un-modeled dynamics, external disturbance and time-varying system
parameters, a sliding mode robust controller (SMRC) is designed and implemented. Phase
current and DC-link voltage are selected as the state variables, respectively. The
corresponding control law is also provided. The proposed control scheme is compared with a
conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller. A laboratory EV for experiment is setup to
verify the proposed scheme. Experimental results show that the drive range of EVs can be
improved about 17% using the proposed controller with energy-regeneration control.

5.Hydraulic Regenerative Braking System; Amitesh Kumar


International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 4, April-
2012.

Hydraulic regenerative braking system is an important branch of hybrid technology, which


has the advantage of high power density and the ability to accept the high rates/high
frequencies of charging and discharging, therefore hydraulic regenerative braking technology
is well suited for off-road vehicles and heavy-duty trucks. Relatively lower energy density
and complicated coordinating operation between two power sources require a special energy
control strategy to maximize the fuel saving potential. This paper presents a new
configuration of parallel hydraulic regenerative vehicle (PHRBV) to improve the braking
energy regenerated potential and engine work efficiency. Based on the analysis of optimal
energy distribution for the proposed PHRBV over a representative urban driving cycle, a
fuzzy torque control strategy based on the vehicle load changes is developed to real-time
control the energy distribution for the proposed PHRBV. Simulation results demonstrate that
the proposed PHRBV with torque control strategy takes advantage of the high power density
and efficiency characteristics of the hydraulic regenerative braking system minimizes the
disadvantages of low energy density and effectively improves the fuel economy of PHRBV.

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Fig2.2: hydraulic regenerative braking system

 Design Functionality:

The design is transparent so that the control of this system functions as intuitively as possible.
It was designed to be controlled by gas and brake pedals so that any new user will be familiar
with its control. The design of the hydraulic system was created so it in no way hinders the
performance or integrity of the vehicle. Not only will the system be predictable in use, it will
be reliable and consistent.

 Regenerative Braking:

Hydraulic Regenerative braking is a large advantage to a hybrid system, especially when the
vehicle is subject to frequent stops. Normally, in a conventional vehicle, all of the kinetic
energy is lost to heat, an irreversible process. A hybrid however captures some of this energy
through regenerative braking to be reused the next time the vehicle accelerates. Through
simulations, it was estimated that 70% of the kinetic energy of the vehicle would be recycled
through a regenerative braking event with the hydraulic regenerative braking system.

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Hydraulic hybrid technology has the advantage of high power density and the ability to
accept the high rates/high frequencies of charging and discharging, therefore it is well suited
for off-road vehicles and heavy-duty trucks. But the lower energy density requires a special
energy control strategy for PHRBV. In this study, a new type of configuration for PHRBV is
presented. A fuzzy-based torque control strategy is built using the optimization results
according to the torque distribution among the engine, hydraulic pump/motor and hydraulic
pump, and the vehicle load changes is introduced to the fuzzy torque control strategy for
realizing the fuel economy fullest. The simulation results show that the new configuration of
PHRBV effectively improved the braking regenerative potential. The fuzzy torque control
strategy reasonably distributed the propulsion energy between the power sources, improved
the fuel economy and adaptability of different working conditions, and minimized the
disadvantage of accumulator’s lower energy density, which provided a practical feasible
method for improving fuel economy of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle.

6. Braking Energy Regeneration using hydraulic systems


Sérgio Valente, Hélder Ferreira

With the increase of petrol cost, due to decrease of natural resources, and the necessity of
“environmental friendly” solutions, for example, to accomplish the governmental gold’s with
protocol of Kyoto, we have assisted in the last decade, to the raise of new technologies that
use another kind of source to make cars move. In this way, it is natural that investigators
development investigations for alternative systems and also companies, with focus in
automotive industry, put in the market revolutionary solutions for cars that help saving
money with the fuel and are less aggressive for the environment. This paper is about one of
those technologies, the Braking Energy Regeneration using hydraulic systems or as we can
say the Hydraulic Hybrid system. It describes the state of art of this mechanism, how
Hydraulic Hybrid work, the benefits, the costs, the possible configurations and gives a
prevision of the future of this new technology.
His given also one example of a real implementation, the UPS delivering trucks, and his
referenced also an investigation work.

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 Regenerative braking:

Conventional braking systems use friction to counteract the forward momentum of a moving
car. As the brake pads rub against the wheels (or a disc connected to the axle), excessive heat
energy is also created. This heat energy dissipates into the air, wasting up to 30% of the car's
generated power. Over time, this cycle of friction and wasted heat energy reduces the car's
fuel efficiency. More energy from the engine is required to replace the energy lost by
braking. On a hybrid that has regenerative brakes, you can reclaim some of this energy that
would normally be lost due to braking using the vehicle's inertia. During braking the kinetic
energy is transferred to a hydraulic accumulator (blue) and immediately used when
accelerating again (light blue).

In spite of the major benefits of the Hydraulic Hybrid systems, we won't see them in our cars
soon, at least with series Hydraulic Hybrid. No major automaker has plans to build hydraulic
hybrid passenger cars. The reason for that is the electrical system in a car. Modern cars have
a number of electrical systems to power things like the radio or air conditioner. Those
systems are powered by a conventional car's battery which gets charged by the car's gasoline
engine.

If the engine shuts off and the electronics stay on, the battery gets drained. In gas/electric
hybrids, the extra batteries can keep the electrical components running while the engine is
shut off at a stop. Hydraulic hybrids, however, lack the extra batteries needed to power
electrical systems when the engine turns off. While that's not a big deal for parallel hydraulic
hybrids, since their engines don't shut off when the vehicle stops, it is a big deal for series
hydraulic hybrids. While they offer the best fuel efficiency, they can't power a radio or air
conditioner when the vehicle stops. And to introduce an maximum fuel economy the vehicle
applications have to do a lots of stop and go’s, the graphic shown next demonstrate the best
applications for the regeneration system.

7.Regenerative Braking System in Automobiles;Siddharth K. Patil

As in today’s world, where there are energy crises and the resources are depleting at a higher
rate, there is a need of specific technology that recovers the energy, which gets usually

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wasted. So, in case of automobiles one of these useful technology is the regenerative braking
system. Generally in automobiles whenever the brakes are applied the vehicle comes to a halt
and the kinetic energy gets wasted due to friction in the form of kinetic energy. Using
regenerative braking system in automobiles enables us to recover the kinetic energy of the
vehicle to some extent that is lost during the braking process. In this paper the author
discusses two methods of utilising the kinetic energy that is usually wasted by converting it
into either electrical energy or into mechanical energy. Regenerative braking system can
convert the kinetic energy into electrical energy with help of electric motor. And it can also
convert the kinetic energy into mechanical energy, which is supplied to the vehicle whenever
it is needed, with the help of a flywheel.

A. Introduction to Conventional Braking System:

Braking in a moving vehicle means the application of the brakes to slow or stop its
movement, usually by depressing a pedal. The braking distance is the distance between the
time the brakes are applied and the time the vehicle comes to a complete stop. When brakes
are applied to a vehicle using conventional braking system, kinetic energy is converted into
heat due to the friction between the wheels and brake pads. This heat is carried away in the
airstream and the energy is wasted. The total amount of energy lost in this process depends
on how often, how hard and for how long the brakes are applied.

B. Introduction to Regenerative Braking System:

Regenerative braking is one of the emerging technologies which can prove very beneficent.
The use of regenerative braking in a vehicle not only results in the recovery of the energy but
it also increases the efficiency of vehicle(in case of hybrid vehicles) and
saves energy, which is stored in the auxiliary battery.
In cities, driving involves many braking events resulting in much higher energy losses with
greater potential savings. With buses, taxis, delivery vans and so on there is even more
potential for economy. Since regenerative braking results in an increase in energy output for a
given energy input to a vehicle, the efficiency is improved. The amount of work done by the
engine of the vehicle is reduced, in turn reducing the amount of energy required to drive the
vehicle.

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Fig 2.3: Simple Representation of Regenerative Braking System

This technology of regenerative braking controls the speed of the vehicle by converting a
portion of the vehicle’s kinetic energy into another useful form of energy. The energy so
produced could then be stored as electrical energy in the automobile battery, or as mechanical
energy in flywheels, which can be used again by the vehicle. Regenerative braking refers to a
process in which a portion of the kinetic energy of the vehicle is stored by a short term
storage system. Energy normally dissipated in the brakes is directed by a power transmission
system to the auxiliary battery during deceleration [1]. The energy that is stored by the
vehicle, is converted back into kinetic energy and used whenever the vehicle is to be
accelerated. The magnitude of the portion available for energy storage varies according to the
type of storage, drive train efficiency, drive cycle and inertia weight [1]. The effect of
regenerative brakes is less at lower speeds as compared to that at higher speeds of vehicle. So
the friction brakes are needed in a situation of regenerative brake failure, to stop the vehicle
completely.

II. Working of Regenerative Braking using Electric Motor:

The working of the regenerative braking system depends upon the working principle of an
electric motor, which is the important component of the system. Generally the electric motor,
is actuated when electric current is passed through it. But, when some external force is used
to actuate the motor (that is during the braking process) then it behaves as a generator and
generates electricity. That is, whenever a motor is run in one direction the electric energy gets
converted into mechanical energy, which is used to accelerate the vehicle and whenever the

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motor is run in opposite direction it functions as a generator, which converts mechanical


energy into electrical energy. This makes it possible to employ the rotational force of the
driving axle to turn the electric motors, thus regenerating electric energy for storage in the
battery and simultaneously slowing the car with the regenerative resistance of the electric
motors. This electricity is then used for recharging the battery.

 Flywheel Energy Storage:

The energy (mechanical) stored in the flywheel is directly given to the vehicle so as to boost
its acceleration instantaneously, whenever needed. Generally, the method of transmission of
energy directly to the vehicle is more efficient rather than storing it in the battery, as it does
not consists of the conversion of energies. As, during the recharging of battery, mechanical
energy is converted into electrical energy and during discharging electrical energy is
converted into mechanical energy. So, due to these conversions transmission loses occur and
the efficiency reduces. As, in the other case, there are no transmission loses since mechanical
energy stored in the flywheel is directly transferred to the vehicle in its original form.
Because of the instant energy supply and high efficiency these type of system is used in F-1
cars.

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3. WORKING PRINCIPLE

3.1 Practical regenerative braking:

Regenerative braking is not by itself sufficient as the sole means of safely bringing a vehicle
to a standstill, or slowing it as required; it must be used in conjunction with friction-based
braking.

 The regenerative braking effect drops off at lower speeds, and cannot bring a vehicle
to a complete halt reasonably quickly.
 A regenerative brake does not impossible a stationary vehicle; physical locking is
required, for example to prevent vehicles from rolling down hills.
 Many road vehicles with regenerative braking do not have drive motors on all wheels
(as in a two-wheel drive car); regenerative braking is normally only applicable to
wheels with motors. For safety, the ability to brake all wheels is required.
 The regenerative braking effect available is limited, and insufficient in many cases,
particularly in emergency situations.
 The friction brake is a necessary back-up in the event of failure of the regenerative
brake.

The driving system of the vehicle is responsible for most of the braking process. As soon as
the driver steps onto the brake pedal of the vehicle (either hybrid or electrical), the brakes put
the vehicle’s motor in the reverse mode enabling it to run backwards causing the wheels to
slow down. While in the reverse mode, the motor operates as an electric generator feeding
this electricity into the vehicle’s batteries.
Most of the hybrid and electric vehicles in the market employ this technique to extend the life
span of the battery pack. It is highly beneficial to use regenerative mechanism as it reduces
pollution and also increases the engine life.

Regenerative and friction braking must both be used, creating the need to control them to
produce the required total braking. The GM EV-1 was the first commercial car to do this. In
1997 and 1998 engineers Abraham Farag and Loren Majersik were issued two patents for this
brake-by-wire technology.
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Early applications commonly suffered from a serious safety hazard: in many early electric
vehicles with regenerative braking, the same controller positions were used to apply power
and to apply the regenerative brake, with the functions being swapped by a separate manual
switch. This led to a number of serious accidents when drivers accidentally accelerated when
intending to brake, such as the runaway train accident in Wädenswil, Switzerland in 1948,
which killed twenty-one people.

3.2 The Motor as a generator

Vehicles driven by electric motors use the motor as a generator when using regenerative
braking, it is operated as a generator during braking and its output is supplied to an electrical
load; the transfer of energy to the load provides the braking effect. Regenerative braking is
used on hybrid gas/electric automobiles to recoup some of the energy lost during stopping.
This energy is saved in a storage battery and used later to power the motor whenever the car
is in electric mode

• Regenerative braking is used in vehicles that make use of electric motors, primarily
fully electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.

• It's run in one direction, it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

• When the motor is run in the opposite direction, a properly designed motor becomes
an electric generator, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.

This electrical energy can then be fed into a charging system for the car's batteries

3.3 Regenerative Braking with Flyweels

In this system, the translational energy of the vehicle is transferred into rotational energy in
the flywheel, which stores the energy until it is needed to accelerate the vehicle.

The benefit of using flywheel technology is that more of the forward inertial energy of the car
can be engaged even during relatively short intervals of braking and acceleration. In the case
of the batteries, they are not able to accept charge at these rapid intervals, and thus more
energy is lost to friction.

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Fig 3.1: Regenerative Braking Schematic - Drive Mode

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Fig 3.2: Regenerative Braking Schematic – Braking Mode

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4. COMPONENTS AND DETAILS

4.1 Shaft

A shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to
connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of
distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.
As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the
difference between the input torque and the load. They must therefore be strong enough to
bear the stress, while avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase
their inertia
An automobile may use a longitudinal shaft to deliver power from an engine/transmission to
the other end of the vehicle before it goes to the wheels. A pair of short drive shafts is
commonly used to send power from a central differential, transmission, or transaxle to the
wheels.

Fig.4.1 Shaft in rear axle

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4.2 Motor

Fig.4.2 DC Motor

It is heart of system as our application is mobile. We have to choose D.C. power source.
Hence selected a D.C. motor user of D.C. Series motor is best suitable for this application. As
it has characteristic of high forage of low speed as uses of D.C. motor is not general we were
not able to acquire D.C. Service motor in our town & it proves expensive to purchase it from
any other city hence we decided to select available D.C. motor in our department & further
design is made according to its specification.

Most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motor's magnetic
field and winding currents to generate force. In certain applications, such as in regenerative
braking with traction motors in the transportation industry, electric motors can also be used in
reverse as generators to convert mechanical energy into electric power.

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4.2.1 Construction of DC Motor

Fig.4.2.1 Working of DC Motor

The actual DC motor is not a loss-less transducer, having resistance at the rotor windings and
the commutation mechanism. Furthermore, windings may exhibit some inductance, which
stores energy. the schematic of the electric circuit, including the windings resistance R and
inductance L In the equivalent circuit of the motor, the relationship between the terminal
voltage VM ,the impendence L ,the resistance R ,the induced voltage constant k ,the
revolution speed N , the current i ,and the time t ,is expressed by the following
equation(Ronald K et al.,1999). (/) V L di dt R i k N M = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ (1) Ri kN ⋅ + ⋅ (2) And it is
known that the current i is proportional to the motor torque TM . As can be understood from
Eq.(2),the motor can be controlled based on the so-called motor current control method which
is shown in Fig.4. In the motor current control method, the target motor current TI ,which is
proportional to the motor assist torque TM ,is determined from the signal output T from the
torque sensor, and control is performed so that there is no difference between this target
current value TI and the value detected through feedback from the current sensor MI .

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4.3 Wheel

Fig.4.3 Wheel

A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing. The wheel is
one of the main components of the wheel and axle which is one of the six simple machines.
Wheels, in conjunction with axles, allow heavy objects to be moved easily facilitating
movement or transportation while supporting a load, or performing labor in machines.
Wheels are also used for other purposes, such as a ship's wheel, steering wheel, potter's wheel
and flywheel.

4.4 Brake

Fig.4.4 Brake

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A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving
system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent its
motion, most often accomplished by means of friction. Brakes are generally applied to
rotating axles or wheels, but may also take other forms such as the surface of a moving
fluid (flaps deployed into water or air). Some vehicles use a combination of braking
mechanisms, such as drag racing cars with both wheel brakes and a parachute, or
airplanes with both wheel brakes and drag flaps raised into the air during landing.

4.5 Sprocket

Fig.4.5 Sprocket

Sprockets are used in bicycles, motorcycles, cars, track vehicles, and other machinery either
to transmit rotary motion between two shafts where gears are unsuitable or to impart linear
motion to a track, tape etc. Perhaps the most common form of sprocket may be found in the
bicycle, in which the pedal shaft carries a large sprocket-wheel, which drives a chain, which,
in turn, drives a small sprocket on the axle of the rear wheel. Early automobiles were also
largely driven by sprocket and chain mechanism, a practice largely copied from bicycles.

Sprockets are of various designs, a maximum of efficiency being claimed for each by its
originator. Sprockets typically do not have a flange. Some sprockets used with timing
belts have flanges to keep the timing belt centered. Sprockets and chains are also used for

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power transmission from one shaft to another where slippage is not admissible, sprocket
chains being used instead of belts or ropes and sprocket-wheels instead of pulleys. They can
be run at high speed and some forms of chain are so constructed as to be noiseless even at
high speed.

4.6 Flywheel

Fig.4.6.1 Flywheel
A flywheel is a mechanical device specifically designed to efficiently store rotational energy.
Flywheels resist changes in rotational speed by their moment of inertia. The amount of energy
stored in a flywheel is proportional to the square of its rotational speed. The way to change a
flywheel's stored energy is by increasing or decreasing its rotational speed applying
a torque aligned with its axis of symmetry.

Common uses of a flywheel include:

 Smoothing the power output of an energy source. For example, flywheels are used
in reciprocating engines because the active torque from the individual pistons is
intermittent.
 Energy storage systems Flywheel energy storage
 Delivering energy at rates beyond the ability of an energy source. This is achieved by
collecting energy in a flywheel over time and then releasing it quickly, at rates that
exceed the abilities of the energy source.
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Fig.4.6.2 Flywheel with RBS


In this system, the translational energy of the vehicle is transferred into rotational energy in
the flywheel, which stores the energy until it is needed to accelerate the vehicle.

The benefit of using flywheel technology is that more of the forward inertial energy of the car
can be engaged even during relatively short intervals of braking and acceleration. In the case
of the batteries, they are not able to accept charge at these rapid intervals, and thus more
energy is lost to friction.

4.7 Bearing

Fig.4.7 Bearing

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A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion,
and reduces friction between moving parts. The design of the bearing may, for example,
provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis;
or, it may prevents a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the
moving parts. Most bearings facilitate the desired motion by minimizing friction. Bearings
are classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the
directions of the loads (forces) applied to the parts.

Rotary bearings hold rotating components such as shafts or axles within mechanical systems,
and transfer axial and radial loads from the source of the load to the structure supporting it.
The simplest form of bearing, the plain bearing, consists of a shaft rotating in a
hole. Lubrication is often used to reduce friction. In the ball bearing and roller bearing, to
prevent sliding friction, rolling elements such as rollers or balls with a circular cross-section
are located between the races or journals of the bearing assembly. A wide variety of bearing
designs exists to allow the demands of the application to be correctly met for maximum
efficiency, reliability, durability and performance.

A bearing being a machine element that allows one part to bear (i.e., to support) another. The
simplest bearings are bearing surfaces, cut or formed into a part, with varying degrees of
control over the form, size, roughness and location of the surface. Other bearings are separate
devices installed into a machine or machine part. The most sophisticated bearings for the
most demanding applications are very precise devices; their manufacture requires some of the
highest standards of current technology.

Today ball and roller bearings are used in many applications which include a rotating
component. Examples include ultra-high speed bearings in dental drills, aerospace bearings in
the Mars Rover, gearbox and wheel bearings on automobiles, flexure bearings in optical
alignment systems, bicycle wheel hubs, and air bearings used in Coordinate-measuring
machines.

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4.8 Gears

Fig.4.8 Gears

A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut like teeth, or cogs, which mesh with
another toothed part to transmit torque. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and
direction of a power source. Gears almost always produce a change in torque, creating
a mechanical advantage, through their gear ratio, and thus may be considered a simple
machine. The teeth on the two meshing gears all have the same shape. Two or more meshing
gears, working in a sequence, are called a gear train or a transmission A gear can mesh with a
linear toothed part, called a rack, producing translation instead of rotation.

The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a crossed, belt pulley system. An
advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slippage.

When two gears mesh, if one gear is bigger than the other, a mechanical advantage is
produced, with the rotational speeds, and the torques, of the two gears differing in proportion
to their diameters.

In transmissions with multiple gear ratios—such as bicycles, motorcycles, and cars—the term
"gear" as in "first gear" refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The term
describes similar devices, even when the gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when
the device does not actually contain gears, as in a continuously variable transmission.

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5. CALCULATIONS

5.1 Shaft

𝐌 𝛔𝐛
= …………………….(1)
𝐈 𝐲

Bending moment=force*perpendicular distance

Bending moment=5*9.81*400

=19620Nmm

For diameter 15mm,

πd^4
I=
64

𝜋∗15^4
I= 64

=2483.78

Therefore,

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19620 σb
=
2483.78 7.5

σb=7.899*7.5=59.24Nmm

59<105Nmm

therefore, design is safe.

Power:

Output motor is 300rpm.

force∗displacement
 Power= time

1.5∗9.81∗10∗0.05
Power=
1

power=7.35

2πNT
 Power= 60

7.35∗60
T=
60∗300

=0.23Nm

T=2.34kg-cm

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5.2 Flywheel Calculation


1. Coefficient of fluctuation calculation: The difference between the maximum and
minimum speeds during a cycle is called the maximum fluctuation of speed. The ratio
of the maximum fluctuation of speed to the mean speed is called coefficient of
fluctuation of speed.

coefficient of fluctuation of speed:

 Input required=>maximum and minimum speed

maximum fluctuation
 Ratio= minimumflucuation => Coefficient of fluctuation speed

Wmax+Wmin
 Mean speed= ….1
2
2(Wmax−Wmin.)
 Therefore,Cs= (Wmax+Wmin) ….2

2. Mass moment of inertia:

 Input required=>kinetic energy

 Equation for kinetic energy of K.E.

 Ke=0.5*I*(Wmax2-Wmin2) ….3

 Therefore, Ke=(0.5*I(wmax+Wmin)*( wmax-Wmin)) …...4


From Equation 3 & 4

𝐊𝐞
 I=𝐂𝐬∗𝐖𝐦𝐞𝐚𝐧^𝟐 …..5

 The moment of inertia depends on how mass is distributed around the axis of relation
and will vary depending on the chosen axis.
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 By the law of conversation of momentum the more the mass moment of inertia more
energy will absorb.

1.COEFFICIENT OF FLUCTUATION OF SPEED:


N1 = Maximum speed in r.p.m. during the cycle,

N2 = Minimum speed in r.p.m. during the cycle, and

𝐍𝟏+𝐍𝟐
N = Mean speed in r.p.m= 𝟐

𝐍𝟏−𝐍𝟐
Cs= 𝑵

𝟐(𝐍𝟏−𝐍𝟐)
= (𝐍𝟏+𝐍𝟐)

Let,
N1=maximum speed in rpm.
N2=minimum speed in rpm.

2(500−200)
Cs= (500+200)

2(300)
Cs= (700)

600
Cs=700

Cs=0.85 …..smaller the Cs value then larger the flywheel.

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2. mass moment of inertia:

 We required kinetic energy:

𝟏
 K.E.= 𝟐mv2

 We consider weight of flywheel is 4kg and radius of flywheel is 150mm.

 Therefore, velocity=rω

ω=angular velocity

2πN
ω= 60

2π500
ω= 60

ω=52.35 rad/sec

therefore,

velocity=150*52.35

V=7853.98 mm/s

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Therefore,

1
K.E=2*4*(7853.98)2

K.E.=15707.96 Nm

We know that from equation no.5


𝐊𝐞
I=𝐂𝐬∗𝐖𝐦𝐞𝐚𝐧^𝟐

15707.96
I=0.85∗(2πN/60)^2

15707.96
I=0.85∗(2π500/60)^2

I=6.74 kgm2

Hence, the flywheel sizing/design calculation show that the required mass moment of inertia
for this application should be
=6.74 kgm2

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5.3 BEARING SELECTION

Bearings:

Bearing are required to mount the shaft to the frame stand. The use of bearings is to provide
the end supports to the shafts as well as to provide a relative movable support. So that the
pulley can rotate about its axis.
We use here roller contact bearing of ball type. The shaft diameter is 15 mm so requires
bearing has to be 15 mm inside diameter.
According to bearing designation, 6002 will be appropriate for this assembly. As it have 15
mm inside diameter to mount the pulley shaft. Here we have two pulleys giving us two shafts
which has four ends, so quantity of bearings required is 4.

Radial ball bearing: 6202

Dimensions of bearing:
Inside diameter= 15mm, outside diameter =35 mm, wide= 12 mm.

Radial Ball Bearing information:

Radial ball bearings consist of an inner and outer ring with a cage containing a complement
of precision balls. The standard Conrad-type bearing has a deep-groove construction capable
of handling radial and axial loads from either direction in versatile designs that permit
relatively high-speed operation.
Design Attributes
 Designed for better life in contaminated environment
 Special coatings provide for additional corrosion resistance.
 Special seal designs help keep lubrication in and contamination out.
 Snap ring grooves are available to simplify mounting.
 Various seal and shield configurations, which help protect internal bearing
components and retain lubricants, are available to suit a wide array of applications.

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Table 5.3.1– Radial bearings chart with designation number

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5.4 Frame calculation:

500mm

500mm

Dimensions of L section bar 25mm*25mm


𝐌 𝛔𝐛
= 𝐲 …………………….(1)
𝐈
Bending moment (M) =force *perpendicular distance

=30*800*9.81

Bending moment (M) =235440Nmm

(b(h^3))
I= 12

(25(25^3))
= 12

=32552.08mm4
25
Y= 2

=12.5

Therefore above value use in equation no(1).

235440 σb
=
32552.08 12.5

Therefore,σb=90.40Nmm

90.40<105

Hence design is safe.

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Design of gear ratio

N1=Speed of gear 1(out)

N2=Speed of gear 2(in)


D1=diameter of gear 1

D2=diameter of gear 2

T1=no of teeth on gear 1

T2=no of teeth on gear 2


Available data

1.speed ratio=N1/N2=D2/D1

N1/N2=D2/D1
1.42=85/60

Assume distance between two shafts =150mm

=½(D1+D2)

=½(85+60)
Centre distance=72.5 mm

T1=pi*D1/Pc=pi*60/5==37.7=38

T2=pi*D2/Pc=pi*85/5==53.407=54

N1/N2=1.42

N1=30*1.42=42.6 rpm

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6 ANSYS SIMULATIONS OF OUTPUT SHAFT:

6.1 Maximum Bending Stress:

6.2 Total Deformation:

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6.3 Torsional Moment:

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7. PROPOSED MODEL

Fig.7.1:Regenerative braking system 3D catia design

Fig.7.2:Regenerative braking system 2D Design

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8. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Manufacturing processes are shaft, Frame, Rotavator, hopper and plough. Manufacturing
processes are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The
manufacturing process begins with the creation of the materials from which the design is
made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the
required part. Manufacturing processes can include treating (such as heat treating or coating),
machining, or reshaping the material. The manufacturing process also includes tests and
checks for quality assurance during or after the manufacturing, and planning the production
process prior to manufacturing.

Fig.8. Manufacturing Processes

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8.1 METAL CUTTING:

Metal cutting or machining is the process of by removing unwanted material from a block of
metal in the form of chips.

Fig.8.1.1 Process of metal cutting

Cutting processes work by causing fracture of the material that is processed. Usually, the
portion that is fractured away is in small sized pieces, called chips. Common cutting
processes include sawing, shaping (or planning), broaching, drilling, grinding, turning and
milling. Although the actual machines, tools and processes for cutting look very different
from each other, the basic mechanism for causing the fracture can be understood by just a
simple model called for orthogonal cutting.

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Fig.8.1.2 Lathe Machine

In all machining processes, the work piece is a shape that can entirely cover the final part
shape. The objective is to cut away the excess material and obtain the final part. This cutting
usually requires to be completed in several steps – in each step, the part is held in a fixture,
and the exposed portion can be accessed by the tool to machine in that portion. Common
fixtures include vise, clamps, 3-jaw or 4-jaw chucks, etc. Each position of holding the part is
called a setup. One or more cutting operation may be performed, using one or more cutting
tools, in each setup. To switch from one setup to the next, we must release the part from the
previous fixture, change the fixture on the machine, clamp the part in the new position on the
new fixture, set the coordinates of the machine tool with respect to the new location of the
part, and finally start the machining operations for this setup.

Therefore, setup changes are time-consuming and expensive, and so we should try to do the
entire cutting process in a minimum number of setups; the task of determining the sequence
of the individual operations, grouping them into (a minimum number of) setups, and
determination of the fixture used for each setup, is called process planning.

These notes will be organized in three sections:

(i) Introduction to the processes,

(ii) The orthogonal cutting model and tool life optimization and

(iii) Process planning and machining planning for milling.


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8.2 SAWING:

Cold saws are saws that make use of a circular saw blade to cut through various types of
metal, including sheet metal. The name of the saw has to do with the action that takes place
during the cutting process, which manages to keep both the metal and the blade from
becoming too hot. A cold saw is powered with electricity and is usually a stationary type
of saw machine rather than a portable type of saw.

Fig.8.2 Sawing cutting machine

The circular saw blades used with a cold saw are often constructed of high speed steel. Steel
blades of this type are resistant to wear even under daily usage. The end result is that it is
possible to complete a number of cutting projects before there is a need to replace the blade.
High speed steel blades are especially useful when the saws are used for cutting through
thicker sections of metal.

Along with the high speed steel blades, a cold saw may also be equipped with a blade that is
tipped with tungsten carbide. This type of blade construction also helps to resist wear and
tear. One major difference is that tungsten tipped blades can be re-sharpened from time to

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time, extending the life of the blade. This type of blade is a good fit for use with sheet metal
and other metallic components that are relatively thin in design.

8.3 WELDING:

Welding is a process for joining similar metals. Welding joins metals by melting and fusing 1,
the base metals being joined and 2, the filler metal applied. Welding employs pinpointed,
localized heat input. Most welding involves ferrous-based metals such as steel and stainless
steel. Weld joints are usually stronger than or as strong as the base metals being joined.

Fig.8.3 Welding

Welding is used for making permanent joints. It is used in the manufacture of automobile
bodies, aircraft frames, railway wagons, machine frames, structural works, tanks, furniture,
boilers, general repair work and ship building.

8.3.1 OPERATION:

Several welding processes are based on heating with an electric arc, only a few are considered
here, starting with the oldest, simple arc welding, also known as shielded metal arc welding
(SMAW) or stick welding.

In this process an electrical machine (which may be DC or AC, but nowadays is usually AC)
supplies current to an electrode holder which carries an electrode which is normally coated

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with a mixture of chemicals or flux. An earth cable connects the work piece to the welding
machine to provide a return path for the current. The weld is initiated by tapping ('striking')
the tip of the electrode against the work piece which initiates an electric arc. The high
temperature generated (about 6000oC) almost instantly produces a molten pool and the end of
the electrode continuously melts into this pool and forms the joint.

Fig.8.3.1 Welding

The operator needs to control the gap between the electrode tip and the work piece while
moving the electrode along the joint.

Fig.8.3.2 Welding process

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In the shielded metal arc welding process (SMAW) the 'stick' electrode is covered with an
extruded coating of flux. The heat of the arc melts the flux which generates a gaseous shield
to keep air away from the molten pool and also flux ingredients react with unwanted
impurities such as surface oxides, creating a slag which floats to the surface of the weld pool.
This forms a crust which protects the weld while it is cooling. When the weld is cold the slag
is chipped off.

The SMAW process cannot be used on steel thinner than about 3mm and being a
discontinuous process it is only suitable for manual operation. It is very widely used in
jobbing shops and for onsite steel construction work. A wide range of electrode materials and
coatings are available enabling the process to be applied to most steels, heat resisting alloys
and many types of cast iron.

8.4 DRILLNG:

Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole of circular cross-
section in solid materials. The drill bit is a rotary cutting tool, often multipoint. The bit
is pressed against the workpiece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands
of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge against the workpiece, cutting
off chips (swarf) from the hole as it is drilled.

Fig.8.4 Drilling Process


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8.4.1 OPERATION:

The geometry of the common twist drill tool (called drill bit) is complex; it has straight
cutting teeth at the bottom – these teeth do most of the metal cutting, and it has curved cutting
teeth along its cylindrical surface. The grooves created by the helical teeth are called flutes,
and are useful in pushing the chips out from the hole as it is being machined. Clearly, the
velocity of the tip of the drill is zero, and so this region of the tool cannot do much cutting.
Therefore it is common to machine a small hole in the material, called a center-hole, before
utilizing the drill. Center-holes are made by special drills called center-drills; they also
provide a good way for the drill bit to get aligned with the location of the center of the hole.
There are hundreds of different types of drill shapes and sizes; here, we will only restrict
ourselves to some general facts about drills.

Fig.8.4.1 Drill Bit

Common drill bit materials include hardened steel (High Speed Steel, Titanium Nitride coated
steel); for cutting harder materials, drills with hard inserts, e.g. carbide or CBN inserts, are
used.

In general, drills for cutting softer materials have smaller point angle, while those for cutting
hard and brittle materials have larger point angle.

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If the Length/Diameter ratio of the hole to be machined is large, then we need a special
guiding support for the drill, which itself has to be very long; such operations are called gun-
drilling. This process is used for holes with diameter of few mm or more, and L/D ratio up to
300. These are used for making barrels of guns.

Fig8.4.2. Drilling machine

Drilling is not useful for very small diameter holes (e.g. < 0.5 mm), since the tool may break
and get stuck in the work piece; - Usually, the size of the hole made by a drill is slightly
larger than the measured diameter of the drill – this is mainly because of vibration of the tool
spindle as it rotates, possible misalignment of the drill with the spindle axis, and some other
factors.

For tight dimension control on hole diameter, we first drill a hole that is slightly smaller than
required size (e.g. 0.25 mm smaller), and then use a special type of drill called a reamer.
Reaming has very low material removal rate, low depth of cut, but gives good dimension
accuracy.

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8.5 GRINDING:

Grinding, an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel as the cutting tool, is
capable of making precision cuts and producing very fine finishes. The grinding head can be
controlled to travel across a fixed workspace or work piece can be moved while the grind
head remains in a fixed position.

A precision grinding machine consists of a power-driven grinding wheel spinning at the


required speed (which is determined by the wheel’s diameter and manufacturer’s rating) and a
bed with a fixture to guide and hold the work piece.

Fig.8.5 Grinding Process

The way the abrasive grains, bonding material, and the air gaps are structured, determines the
parameters of the grinding wheel, which are

 Abrasive material.

 Grain size.

 Bonding material.

 Wheel grade and

 Wheel structure.

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8.6 INSPECTION:

Critical appraisal involving examination, measurement, testing , gauging, and comparison of


materials or items. An inspection determines if the material or item is in proper quantity and
condition, and if it conforms to the applicable or specified requirements. Inspection is
generally divided into three categories: (1) Receiving inspection, (2) In-process inspection,
and (3) Final inspection. In quality control (which is guided by the principle that "Quality
cannot be inspected into a product") the role of inspection is to verify and validate the
variance data; it does not involve separating the good from the bad.

Fig.8.6 Inspection process

8.7 ASSEMBLY:

An assembly line is a manufacturing process (most of the time called a progressive assembly)
in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves
from work station to work station where the parts are added in sequence until the final
assembly is produced. By mechanically moving the parts to the assembly work and moving
the semi-finished assembly from work station to work station, a finished product can be
assembled much faster and with much less labor than by having workers carry parts to a
stationary piece for assembly.

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8.8 Process Sheet

SR. PROCESS OPERATION MACHINE ELAPSED TIME COST


NO. /METHOD (RS.)

1. Base frame Cutting mild steel Chop saw 20 minutes 350


cutting L angle channel of machine
3mm thickness and
50 mm web*50
mm flange into
521 mm length

2. Base frame Cutting mild steel Chop saw 20 minutes 350


L angle channel of machine
Cutting
3mm thickness and
50 mm web*50
mm flange into
506 mm length

3. Welding Welding base Electrode 45 minutes 600


frame channel to
Welding
form a table

4. Cutting Cutting circular Chop saw 20 minutes 150


shaft of 15 machine
diameter to form
shaft

5. Press fitting Press fitting the Hammering 10 minutes 50


connecting bush to
sprocket

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6. Press fitting Press fitting the Hammering 10 minutes 50


drive motor shaft
to main shaft

7. Welding Welding sprocket Electrode 20 minutes 150


onto the shaft
Welding

7. Drilling Drilling circular Radial drilling 15 minutes 50


holes to mount machine
output motor

8. Fitting Fitting bearing Welding and 30 minutes 50


blocks at both ends fasteners
of shaft

9. Welding Welding flywheel Electrode 20 minutes 150


to motor shaft
Welding

10. Fitting Fitting wheel onto Electrode 20 minutes 150


the shaft
Welding

Table 8.8 Process sheet

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9. COMPARISIONS

9.1 Advantages of regenerative braking over conventional braking

9.1.1 Energy Conservation:

The flywheel absorbs energy when braking via a clutch system slowing the car down and
speeding up the wheel. To accelerate, another clutch system connects the flywheel to the
drive train, speeding up the car and slowing down the flywheel. Energy is therefore conserved
rather than wasted as heat and light which is what normally happens in the contemporary
shoe/disc system.

9.1.2 Wear Reduction:

An electric drive train also allows for regenerative breaking which increases Efficiency and
reduces wear on the vehicle brakes.

In regenerative braking, when the motor is not receiving power from the battery pack, it
resists the turning of the wheels, capturing some of the energy of motion as if it were a
generator and returning that energy to the battery pack. In mechanical brakes; lessening wear
and extending brake life is not possible. This reduces the use of use the brake.

9.1.3 Fuel Consumption:

The fuel consumption of the conventional vehicles and regenerative braking system vehicles
was evaluated over a course of various fixed urban driving schedules. Representing the
significant cost saying to its owner, it has been proved the regenerative braking is very fuel-
efficient. The Delhi Metro saved around 90,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) from being
released into the atmosphere by regenerating 112,500 megawatt hours of electricity through
the use of regenerative braking systems between 2004 and 2007. It is expected that the Delhi
Metro will save over 100,000 tons of CO2 from being emitted per year once its phase II is
complete through the use of regenerative braking. The energy efficiency of a conventional car
is only about 20 percent, with the remaining 80 percent of its energy being converted to heat
through friction. The miraculous thing about regenerative braking is that it may be able to
capture as much as half of that wasted energy and put it back to work. This could reduce fuel

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consumption by 10 to 25 percent. Hydraulic regenerative braking systems could provide even


more impressive gains, potentially reducing fuel use by 25 to 45 percent.

9.1.4 Braking is not total loss:

Conventional brakes apply friction to convert a vehicle’s kinetic energy into heat. In energy
terms, therefore, braking is a total loss: once heat is generated, it is very difficult to reuse. The
regenerative braking system, however, slows a vehicle down in a different way.

9.2 Comparison of Dynamic brakes and Regenerative brakes

Dynamic brakes ("rheostatic brakes" in the UK), unlike regenerative brakes, dissipate the
electric energy as heat by passing the current through large banks of variable resistors.
Vehicles that use dynamic brakes include forklifts, Diesel-electric locomotives, and
streetcars. This heat can be used to warm the vehicle interior, or dissipated externally by large
radiator-like cowls to house the resistor banks.

The main disadvantage of regenerative brakes when compared with dynamic brakes is the
need to closely match the generated current with the supply characteristics and increased
maintenance cost of the lines. With DC supplies, this requires that the voltage be closely
controlled. Only with the development of power electronics has this been possible with AC
supplies, where the supply frequency must also be matched (this mainly applies to
locomotives where an AC supply is rectified for DC motors).

A small number of mountain railways have used 3-phase power supplies and 3- phase
induction motors. This results in a near constant speed for all trains as the motors rotate with
the supply frequency both when motoring and braking.

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9.3 Why Regenerative Brakes are assisted with the Frictional Brake??

Traditional friction-based braking is used in conjunction with mechanical regenerative


braking for the following reasons:

1. The regenerative braking effect drops off at lower speeds; therefore the friction brake is
still required in order to bring the vehicle to a complete halt. Physical locking of the rotor is
also required to prevent vehicles from rolling down hills.

2. The friction brake is a necessary back-up in the event of failure of the regenerative brake.

3. Most road vehicles with regenerative braking only have power on some wheels (as in a
two-wheel drive car) and regenerative braking power only applies to such wheels, so in order
to provide controlled braking under difficult conditions (such as in wet roads) friction based
braking is necessary on the other wheels.

4. The amount of electrical energy capable of dissipation is limited by either the capacity of
the supply system to absorb this energy or on the state of charge of the battery or capacitors.
No regenerative braking effect can occur if another electrical component on the same supply
system is not currently drawing power and if the battery or capacitors are already charged.
For this reason, it is normal to also incorporate dynamic braking to absorb the excess energy.

5. Under emergency braking it is desirable that the braking force exerted be the maximum
allowed by the friction between the wheels and the surface without slipping, over the entire
speed range from the vehicle's maximum speed down to zero. The maximum force available
for acceleration is typically much less than this except in the case of extreme high-
performance vehicles. Therefore, the power required to be dissipated by the braking system
under emergency braking conditions may be many times the maximum power which is
delivered under acceleration. Traction motors sized to handle the drive power may not be able
to cope with the extra load and the battery may not be able to accept charge at a sufficiently
high rate. Friction braking is required to absorb the surplus energy in order to allow an
acceptable emergency braking performance.

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10. ADVANTAGES

 Increase of overall energy efficiency of a vehicle.


 Improved Performance
o Emission Reduction.
o Reduction in Engine Wear.
o Cuts down on pollution related to electricity generation.
o Increases the lifespan of friction braking systems.
o Smaller Accessories.
o Less use of traditional mechanical brakes leads to less wear over time

11. DISADVANTAGES
Traditional friction-based braking is still used with electrical regenerative braking for the
following reasons:
 The regenerative braking effect rapidly reduces at lower speed; therefore the
friction brake is still required in order to bring the vehicle to a complete halt.
 The friction brake is a necessary back-up in the event of failure of the
regenerative brake.
 The amount of electrical energy capable of dissipation is limited by either the
capacity of the supply system to absorb this energy or on the state of charge of
the battery or capacitors.
 No regenerative braking effect can occur if another electrical component on
the same supply system is not currently drawing power or if the battery or
capacitors are already charged. For this reason, it becomes essential to
incorporate dynamic braking also for absorbing the excess energy

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12. APPLICATIONS
 In four wheeler vehicles for recovering Kinetic energy of vehicle lost during braking
process.

 One theoretical application of regenerative braking would be in a manufacturing plant that


moves material from one workstation to another on a conveyer system that stops at each
point.

 Regenerative braking is used in some elevator and crane hoist motors.

 Regenerative Braking Systems are also used in electric railway vehicle (London Under
round & Virgin Trains).

13. RESULTS

SYSTEM SPEED VOLT AMMETER POWER


(r.p.m) (v) (ma) P=V*I (w)
Conventional 50 4.6 11.28 0.05188
braking System

Regenerative 50 7.1 19.26 0.1352


Braking system

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14. CONCLUSION
This technology has already helped bring us cars like the Tesla Roadster, which runs entirely
on battery power. Sure, these cars may use fossil fuels at the recharging stage -- that is, if the
source of the electricity comes from a fossil fuel such as coal -- but when they're out there on
the road, they can operate with no use of fossil fuels at all, and that's a big step forward.
When you think about the energy losses incurred by battery-electric hybrid systems, it seems
plausible to reason that efficient flywheel hybrids would soon become the norm. But of
course it’s not quite so black and white, and further analysis shows that a combination of
battery-electric and flywheel energy storage is probably the ideal solution for hybrid vehicles.

Theoretical investigations of a regenerative braking system show about 15% saving in fuel
consumption .The lower operating and environment costs of a vehicle with regenerative
braking system should make it more attractive than a conventional one. The traditional cost of
the system could be recovered in the few years only. The exhaust emission of vehicle using
the regenerative braking concept would be much less than equivalent conventional vehicles as
less fuel are used for consumption .These systems are particularly suitable in developing
countries such as India where buses are the preferred means of transportation within the
cities.

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15. REFERENCES
1) Kim, D. and Kim, H. (2006). Vehicle stability control with regenerative braking and
electronic brake force distribution for a four-wheels drive hybrid electric vehicle, Proc.
IMechE Part D: J. Automobile Engineering, vol.220(6), June 2006, pp. 683-693.
2) Cholula, S., Claudio, A. and Ruiz, J. (2005). Intelligent Control of the Regenerative
Braking in an Induction Motor Drive, paper presented in the 2nd International
Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICEEE) and XI Conference on
Electrical Engineering (CIE).
3) Triger, L., Paterson, J. and Drozdz, P. (1993). Hybrid Vehicle Engine Size
Optimization, August 1993, SAE Paper #931793
4) LaPlante, J., Anderson, C.J. and Auld, J. (1995). Development of a Hybrid Electric
Vehicle for the US Marine Corps, August 1995, SAE Paper #951905.
5) Feng, W., Hu, Z., Xiao-jian, M., Lin, Y. and Bin, Y. (2007) Regenerative Braking
algorithm for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Continuously Variable
Transmission, Vehicular Electronics and Safety, 2007 ICVES. Beijing IEEE, 2007.
6) Gao, Y., Chen, L. and Ehsani, M. (1999) Investigation of the Effectiveness of
Regenerative Braking for EV and HEV, August 1999, SAE Paper 1999-01-2910.
7) Yeo, H., Kim, D., Hwang, S. and Kim, H. (2004). Regenerative Braking Algorithm for
a HEV with CVT Ratio Control during Deceleration, 04CVT-41, paper presented by
Dynamic System Design & Control Lab. Sungkyunkwan University, Korea.
8) Savitski, D., Ivanov, V., Shyrokau, B., De Smet, J. et al., "Experimental Study on
Continuous ABS Operation in Pure Regenerative Mode for Full Electric Vehicle," SAE
Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 8(1):364-369, 2015.
9) "International Journal of Automotive Technology" December 2008, Volume 9, Issue 6,
pp 749-757.

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