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Revise for Cambridge Primary Checkpoint

Science Teacher’s Guide

Answers to photocopiable pages

Some answer sections also have notes that may help you 2 The table could have the following structure:
with your work.
Seed Number

Page 7: Plants and the direction of light
1 The plants will grow towards the light. (Reason: the
plants need light to make food.)
2 Cut a hole in the top of one box and in the side of the other.
3 Pour water from the jug into the measuring cylinder to
measure out the same amount of water.
4 To measure the lengths of the shoots. Page 11: Water movement in a celery stick
5 In a position where there is plenty of light during the day. 1 The stick is broad at the lower end and narrower at the
6 Look at them every day. top with leaves. There are lines in the stick that have
7 A table like this could be produced in the space on the tougher strands in them.
photocopiable page, in which the learners record the 2 The water will move through the strands.
date and the lengths and comment on the shape of the 3 They look like they might be tiny pipes.
shoots. 4 beaker; bottle of blue ink; jug of water
5 The stick is examined for signs of blue features and
Seeds Date
should have none. Some ink is poured into the jug of
Hole 2 cm water to dilute it and be less harmful to the plant. The
at top straight inky water is poured into the beaker. The lower end of
the stick (without leaves) is dipped into the water. The
Hole 3 cm
stick is allowed to rest against the side of the beaker. After
at side slight
a day the stick is examined again to find blue features.
6 The strands in the stick have become blue. This is due to
Alternatively, on a separate sheet of paper the learners them having taken up the inky water. This matches the
could construct this table. prediction and so the prediction is correct.
Date Hole at Hole at Hole at Hole at Page 13: The parts of a flower
top seeds top side seeds side 1 a Select two contrasting flower structures, such as a
Shoot seeds Shoot seeds simple open flower like the buttercup and an enclosed
length (cm) Shape of length (cm) Shape of
tubular flower like the pea.
shoots shoots
bM  ake sure each label line reaches the part the label
refers to.
2 See 1a.
3 The comparison could feature the colour and markings
on the petals, the shape and size of the petals, the open
and tube-shaped arrangement of the petals, the size and
number of the stamens, the size and shape of the ovary,
the size and shape of the stigma.
Page 15: Germination experiments
1 a Set up two pots of seeds. Have the same number of
8 The seeds with light at the top grow straight but may seeds in the same amount of compost in the pots.
be shorter than those with light at the side. The shoots Place the pots in the same conditions of light and
with light at the side bend towards the light. temperature but water only one pot. When the
compost of the watered pot feels dry add some more
Page 9: Examining a seed mixture water. Look at the surface of the compost in both pots
1 The drawings should be as follows: every day and record what is seen.
Lentil: a brown / green / red disc b T  he seeds that receive water will germinate and the
Chickpea: a plain yellow sphere plants will start to grow.
Sunflower seed: black and white striped; shield- c Water is needed by all living things for them to live
shaped and grow.
Peas: a green sphere 2 Set up two pots of seeds. Have the same number of seeds
Bean: a white oval shape in the same amount of compost in the pots. Give the
Pine nut seed: a white shield shape with a brown same amount of water to both pots and place each one
patch at the tip. in a light-tight box. Place one box in a warm place such

Revise for Cambridge Primary Checkpoint Science Teacher’s Guide: Answers to photocopiable pages
as a sunny windowsill and the other in a cool place such 2 The learners may need help in placing the compass level
as a cupboard in the shade. Check the surface of each on a surface so that it does not tip to one side. This gives
pot for signs of plant life every two days. the best reading.
Note: The compost in the warmth may lose more 3 The answers will depend on what the learners find.
water by evaporation than the compost in the cold. If 4 The answers might be:
this happens, point it out to the learners and add some a The most animals were found on the west-facing side.
more water to the compost in the warm pot so that This receives the most sun in the afternoon so it is
it feels as moist as the compost in the cold pot. The lightest and warmest.
degree of moisture in the compost, which could affect b The snails were found on the north side where it is
germination, is important here, rather than the amount dark and damp; the insects and spiders were found on
of water given at the beginning. the south side where it is light and dry.
3 Set up two pots of seeds. Have the same number of seeds
in the same amount of compost in the pots. Give the Page 21: How much do stick insects eat?
same amount of water to both pots and place each one A bunch of food plants is divided into two smaller equally
in a light-tight box. Place both boxes in a warm place sized bunches. Each bunch is weighed and the data
such as a sunny windowsill. Check the surface of each recorded.
pot for signs of plant life every two days. Each bunch is then placed in a jar of water that is sealed
Note: The problem of drying out may occur as in with cotton wool to stop stick insects falling in.
experiment 2 and should be addressed as suggested. One bunch is placed in a container with the stick insects.
Some learners may point out that the plant in the box One bunch is left outside. This bunch is to check on any
is enclosed and that this is affecting evaporation. They change in weight that is not due to the insects feeding.
may suggest that to make it fairer the plant in the light After a few days the bunch in the stick insect container is
should be enclosed in a transparent box, but you should removed and any stick insects on it are placed back in the
point out that this will act as a mini greenhouse and container.
raise the temperature of the seeds, making the test Both bunches are then reweighed in turn and the data
unfair. collected. The loss in weight is calculated by subtracting
the second weight from the first with each bunch.
Page 17: The effect of light on plant growth The data could be recorded in a table, for example:
1 a They would die.
bP  lants need light energy to make food, and if they Bunch in Bunch outside
cannot make food they die. stick insect stick insect
2 The heights of the plants in the pots are recorded. The container container
two pots are given the same amount of water. One pot First weight (g) 100 100
is placed in the box. The box and the second pot are
Second weight (g) 50 100
placed in a sunny windowsill.
3 The heights of the plants are measured every three days Loss of weight (g) 50 0
and the data is recorded.
4 A table like this could be constructed in the space on Page 23: Litter survey data
the photocopiable page: 1 a The shops selling food.
Plants Date bF  ood wrappers and drinks cans are dropped on the
ground outside the shops.
In Height 2 People drop used tickets and food wrappers outside the
light (cm) cinema. People take the electrical goods home in their
In Height packaging and do not drop it outside the shops.
dark (cm) 3 D People take their clothes home in carrier bags and
shoes in boxes.
Note: One plant may be selected for measuring each 4 People drop a few used tickets outside the station for
time, or the same five could be measured and an average the C grade. People throw litter over the bridge where
worked out. they think it will not be seen for the B grade. The litter
5 a If dead then the prediction is supported, but if they may be used tickets from the station or food people
are long and spindly but alive the prediction is not have finished on their way from the town centre. A few
supported. people throw food wrappers from the train for the grade
Note: In the case of the plants still being alive but not C at the trackside.
looking healthy, the conclusion can be drawn that 5 The takeaway café. It has plenty of litter bins for people
they have not been left long enough to die. If this is to put their litter in.
the case, a further prediction may be made about how
long they will survive without light and a further Page 25: Can you save the tree pups?
investigation can be made. 1 The tree pups on the small hill could die as they cannot
b The plants died due to a lack of food. mix with enough animals. The tree pups on the large
Note: The plants in the dark may have grown hill may also suffer as they cannot mix with those
long and spindly before they died and this can be on the small hill. Widening the road would prevent
interpreted as they used up all their stored energy overhanging trees touching and this would stop any
trying to grow towards the light. This may feature in chance of the two tree pup populations mixing.
the learners’ explanations. 2 The road could be widened if a wide bridge was also
built across it between the hills. The bridge should be
Page 19: Investigating a habitat covered in soil in which trees can grow and form a link
1 The answer might take the form of: The side nearest the between the two forests. The bridge would have to be
school – it is the sunniest, the most sheltered (has least strong enough to take the weight of two or three lines of
wind blowing on it) and the warmest. well-grown trees.

Revise for Cambridge Primary Checkpoint Science Teacher’s Guide: Answers to photocopiable pages
Page 27: How fast can you grab it? 4 They could repeat the exercise four more times and
compare the results. Some learners may also suggest
1 Right-handed people will catch the ruler faster with
taking an average of the five sets of results for each child.
their right hand than their left hand. Left-handed
people will catch the ruler faster with their left hand
than their right hand.
2 You may catch it quicker as you learn the technique.
3 The table could look as follows: Page 39: Materials survey
Try Distance dropped (cm) 1 The items in the table should be set out as these
examples show:
Material Dull / Rough / Hard / Opaque / Rigid /
2 shiny smooth soft transparent flexible
3 Metal S Sm H O Ri
4 Glass S Sm H T Ri
5 Cloth D R S O F
4 It may be found that right-handed people catch more Sponge D R S O F
quickly with their right hand and left-handed people
2 In the example above, the answer would be metal and glass.
with their left hand.
3 In the example above, the answer would be cloth and
Page 29: Strength of model bones sponge.
1 Thick bones. Page 41: Slime investigation
2 The same length of ‘bone’ is placed between the 1–5 The learners follow the instructions.
supports. The weights are hung from the same central 6 This will depend on the mixture.
position. The same amount of dip in the bone is used to 7 It will slide off more quickly.
detect weakness. 8 It should slide off more quickly.
3 The table could look as follows: 9 It will slide off more slowly than before.
Bone Thin bone Thicker Thickest 10 It should take more time to slide off the spoon.
Bending bone bone 11 The learner may choose either the oil or salt to
weight (g) Bending Bending investigate and report as follows:
weight (g) weight (g) I will add more oil and predict that the new slime will
slide off more quickly.
1 The mixture with extra oil slides off more quickly.
2 Or:
3 I will add more salt and predict that the new slime will
slide off more slowly.
4 The thickest bone needs the greatest weight to bend it. The mixture with extra salt slides off more slowly.
5 The model bones are made from rolled-up newspapers
or straws of the same width but different lengths, such Page 43: Wool, cotton and heat
as 3 cm, 6 cm and 9 cm. Three model bones are made of 1 Wrap one layer of cotton around one beaker and one
each length. Each model bone is placed in turn between layer of wool around the other beaker. Hold the material
the supports, the weight container is placed midway in place with sticky tape.
between the supports and weights are added to the 2 Take a jug of hot water and pour the same amount of
container until the bone bends a certain amount (to be water into each beaker.
decided by the learner). 3 The table may start as follows:
Page 31: Nutrients in food Time Water Water
(minutes) temperature in temperature in
1 Rice, spaghetti and lentils.
cotton beaker (°C) wool beaker (°C)
2 Potato.
3 Orange. 0 45 45
4 a Yes.
1 42 44
b They both contain large amounts of fat, which
contains a large amount of energy. If the person does 2 39 41
not exercise and use up the energy, the fat will be
3 36 39
stored in the body and increase its weight.
4 32 37
Page 33: Investigating exercise and heart beat 4 Time should be on the x axis and temperature on the y
1 The pulse rate increases after exercise and then returns axis of the line graph. Look for accuracy in plotting the
to its original rate. points and joining them with lines.
2 The pulse is made by the heart, which beats faster Note: Further information about graphs can be found
to provide more food and oxygen to the exercising on pages 56 and 57 of the Revise for Cambridge Primary
muscles. When the muscles rest they require less, so the Checkpoint Science Study Guide.
heart beats more slowly again. 5 Wool is a better insulator than cotton.
3 a Arjun.
b It only rises slightly after exercise then falls well below Page 45: Investigating rocks
the original rate and rises slightly but is still below the 1 Rub the two rocks together.
original rate. 2 Rub the two rocks together a certain number of times
c The most probable cause is due to the pulse not being and examine the amount of rock debris on the card
taken correctly. Some learners may suggest heart below. Keep the same pressure or pushing force on the
disease, which should be checked by a doctor. rocks as you rub them.
Revise for Cambridge Primary Checkpoint Science Teacher’s Guide: Answers to photocopiable pages
3 Granite, obsidian and basalt are the harder rocks; Note: Further information about graphs can be found
limestone and sandstone are softer; and chalk is softest on pages 56 and 57 of the Revise for Cambridge Primary
of all. Checkpoint Science Study Guide.
Note: The Mohs hardness scale is for minerals. Rocks 4 The temperature stays at 0°C until all the ice has melted,
are collections of minerals so the hardness can vary then the water rises to room temperature.
a little due to their composition. Also, limestone,
sandstone and chalk are sedimentary rocks, which Page 51: The solar still
means they have particles cemented together, so the 1 There should be two diagrams, each with the following
strength of the cement between the particles also affects features:
the amount the rock crumbles when rubbed. The order A cup inside a bowl with water less than a fifth of the
may depend on the specimens used but will follow the way up the side of the outside of the cup (so that it does
grouping featured above. not start to float); the water level should be the same
4 Measure out the same small volume of water (a few cm3) in both diagrams; the bowl has a cling-film cover with
and pour it from the same height onto the rock surface, a pebble in its centre, making it dip a little towards the
then time how long it takes for it to sink in. cup below.
5 One diagram should have the water in the bowl labelled
Rocks that are Rocks that absorb ‘hot water’, and the other ‘cold water’.
waterproof water 2 Left it for ten minutes and observed the lower surface
granite sandstone of the cling film for water droplets that have condensed
obsidian limestone from water evaporating in the bowl.
3 A greater amount of evaporation occurs when the water
basalt chalk is hot.

Page 47: Making currants rise in water Page 53: Investigating dissolving
1 Bubbles can occur in a liquid as gas-filled spheres that 1 a Set up two beakers with the same volume of water
rise in the liquid. They can also occur as water-skinned in them. Put a sugar cube in each one, start the stop
spheres in the air. clock and stir the water in one beaker either for a
2 If you could attach a lot of bubbles to the currants they certain amount of time, then compare the amount of
would carry the currant upwards as they rise. sugar left undissolved in both beakers; or stir until
3 the sugar lump has dissolved and compare with the
Add four level Add four amount left in the unstirred beaker.
teaspoons of teaspoons b Stirring increases the speed at which sugar dissolves.
Add four
bicarbonate of of vinegar 2 a The learners could either take water from the fridge
soda to a beaker to the and pour a certain volume into a beaker, place a sugar
of water. water. lump in it, stir at a rate of so many per half minute
4 A large number of bubbles appeared. Some tacked to the until it dissolves, record the time then repeat this
currants and made them rise to the surface. Here the process with cold-tap water and then hot-tap water;
bubbles escaped into the air and the currants fell back or set up the three beakers with the same volume of
in the water. water but one sample from the fridge, one from the
5 Yes. cold tap and from the hot tap, place a sugar lump in
6 The bubbles did stick to the currants and made them rise. each, start the stop clock and after one, two and three
minutes observe the amounts of sugar left (or stop the
Page 49: The melting of ice clock when the first lump has dissolved and compare
1 Ice cubes stay at the same temperature while they melt, the amount of sugar left in the other beakers).
then the water warms up. b The higher the temperature, the faster the sugar
2 Note: The table below is only to be used as a guide dissolves.
to the trend observed. Melting times will depend on
Page 55: Separating a mixture
factors such as the amount of ice in the beaker and the
thickness of the glass or plastic in the beaker wall. 1 The mixture contains small yellow and brown grains,
small white or colourless cubic crystals and hard shiny
Time Air Beaker Conditions wire shaped into paperclips.
(minutes) temperature temperature in beaker 2 Move a magnet over the surface of the mixture to
(°C) (°C) remove the paperclips. Pour the mixture into a beaker,
0 20 0 ice add water and use a stirrer to stir it up. Place filter paper
3 20 0 ice in the filter funnel and put it in the top of the flask.
Pour in the water mixture and let the water drop into
6 20 0 ice the flask. Take out the filter paper and let its contents
ice and a (the sand) dry. Pour the water into the shallow dish and
9 20 1
little water leave it in a warm place for the water to evaporate.
a little ice and 3 Filter funnel, filter paper, flask, magnet, stirrer, beaker
12 20 3 and shallow dish.
more water
4 The paperclips can be placed on the table, the dry sand
15 20 8 water in the filter paper and the salt crystals in the dish from
18 20 14 water which the water has evaporated.
21 20 18 water Page 57: Irreversible changes
24 20 20 water 1 Note: Make sure there are not any holes in the clay
3 Time should be on the x axis and temperature on the through which liquid plaster of Paris can leak.
y axis of the line graph. Look for accuracy in plotting 2 Note: Confirm with the learners that the mixture is a
the points and joining them with lines. liquid when it enters the mould.

Revise for Cambridge Primary Checkpoint Science Teacher’s Guide: Answers to photocopiable pages
3 a The substance is now a hard solid. Page 67: Which gives the best grip?
b A new substance has formed.
1 Drawings should show the plank raised at one end on
Note: You may say that adding water to the solid
the blocks and the ruler vertically placed next to the
does not make a liquid again, and demonstrate this to
raised end with the zero near the table surface.
the learners. Say that broken bones are set in plaster
2 Place the item of footwear on the horizontal plank,
of Paris casings and if they turned back to liquid on
place a block under one end and look for signs of the
exposure to water the healing of the bones would be
footwear slipping. Repeat with more blocks until the
put at risk.
item of footwear slips. Measure the height of the raised
4 Make four groups of five nails. Wrap each group in a
end of the plank.
paper towel. Add water to two paper towels to make
3 The table may look as follows:
them damp. Put one damp and one dry paper towel in a
fridge, and put one dry and one damp paper towel in a Footwear Measurement Measurement Measurement
warm place. 1 2 3
5 The nails in the dry towels will not have rusted. The (cm) (cm) (cm)
nails in the damp towel in the fridge may show a few shoe
signs of rusting. The nails in the damp towel in the
warm place will show the greatest signs of rusting. trainer
Physics boot

Page 63: Make a canoe and explain how it floats 4 Attach the forcemeter to the front of each item of
footwear and pull it horizontally to reveal the force at
1 The learners should draw:
which the footwear moves.
A clay cylinder on its side with arrows across the
top showing a push one way and a pull in the other Page 69: ‘Floating’ paperclips
1 The diagram should be similar to that on page 68 of the
Arrows pointing down along the top showing the
Revise for Cambridge Primary Checkpoint Science Teacher’s
pushes needed to make it hollow.
Arrows showing pinching and pushing with finger and
2 An arrow by the side of paperclip pointing vertically
thumb on the hollowed-out sides to make them thinner.
down should be drawn and labelled ‘force of gravity’.
Arrow pointing upwards to show the sides being
An arrow pointing by the paperclip pointing vertically
stretched and thinned upwards.
upwards should be labelled ‘magnetic force’.
2 Note: The learners should take care that the canoe
balances in the water and does not topple to one side Page 71: Observations, calculations and
and let in water.
3 The learners should draw an arrow pointing downwards thoughts
from the canoe showing the direction of the pull of Note: The statements on the photocopiable page are in
gravity, and an arrow pointing in the opposite direction order. They should be copied, cut out and mixed up before
showing the push of water on the canoe. (The term being given to the learners, who should then arrange them
‘upthrust’ is not needed for the Cambridge Primary into the original order.
Checkpoint test but you might find it useful if you wish.)
Page 73: A mirror and light beams
Page 65: Stored and movement energy 1 The learners set up the mirror.
1 When the elastic band is stretched it stores energy. 2 75°
When it is released the stored energy is converted into 3 75°
movement energy. Measuring the stretch and distance 4 & 5 The angles of incidence recorded in the table will
moved by the cotton wool ball shows the relationship depend on the learners’ selection, but the angle of
between them. reflection of each one will be the same value, for
2 A scale about 12 cm long divided into centimetre units example if the angle of incidence is 30° then the
should be shown from a line between the nails back angle of reflection will be 30°.
across the block of wood.
3 A ruler. Page 75: Investigating shadow lengths
4 The table may look as follows: 1 Note: The zero of the metre rule should be at the lower
Distance stretched Distance travelled from end next to the table.
from nails (cm) catapult by ball (cm) 2 The learners follow the instructions.
3 The table may look as follows:
Torch height (cm) Shadow length (cm)
5 Repeat each distance stretched at least once. 2
6 This will depend on the learners, but may look 3
something like this:
Distance stretched Distance travelled from
from nails (cm) catapult by ball (cm) 5
6 12 Note: The learners could also measure the shadow
6 11 length in millimeters, such as 22 mm, or as 2.2 cm.
4 The heights will depend on what the learners select, and
6 13 will determine the lengths of the shadows.

Revise for Cambridge Primary Checkpoint Science Teacher’s Guide: Answers to photocopiable pages
5 Note: Further information about graphs can be found 3 The pitch is higher still.
on pages 56 and 57 of the Revise for Cambridge Primary 4 The shorter the length of the column of air, the higher
Checkpoint Science Study Guide. the pitch.
6 As the height of the torch determines the shadow 5 The short ones will make the high-pitched notes and
length, the higher the torch the shorter the shadow. the long ones will make the low-pitched notes.
6 The learners follow the instructions.
Page 77: Investigating sound on the move 7 The shortest straw makes the highest note and the
1–3 The learners follow the instructions. longest makes the lowest note.
4 The weakest or quietest sound was heard through the
air-filled balloon, the sound was stronger or louder Page 83: Investigating circuits
through the water-filled balloon and strongest or 1 a The learners follow the instructions.
loudest through the wooden block. b
5 The angle of reflection of a sound wave will be the same
as its angle of incidence.
6 A card is placed upright and the tubes are placed along
lines that make the same angle of incidence and
reflection. The sound source is placed at the end of
one tube away from the card.
7 I set up the items as shown in the diagram and listened
at the end of the second tube without the sound source.
I could hear the sound. When I moved this second tube
so that it made a greater or smaller angle of reflection I
could not hear the sound as loudly, showing that when
sound waves strike a surface their angle of reflection is c The lamp will shine more brightly.
the same as their angle of incidence. d The second cell provides extra power to push the
Page 79: Sound insulation and materials electrons and the current becomes stronger.
eT  he lamp becomes brighter when the second cell is
1 This will depend on the loudness of the sound source, the
added to the circuit.
thickness of the box and the hearing ability of the learner.
2 a The learners follow the instructions.
2 A material should be wrapped around the sound source
once or a certain number of times. It should be placed in
the box and the listener moves away until the sound can
no longer be heard. The distance between the listener
and the box is measured. This procedure is repeated with
other materials in turn.
Note: Alternatively you might like the learners to begin
by making one wrapping of the thickest material and
then letting them wrap subsequent thinner materials to
the same thickness as the first.
3 The table may look as follows:
Material Distance of sound extinction (cm) c All the lamps will glow dimmer.
d The extra lamp brings an extra length of wire into the
circuit, which increases the resistance to the flow of
the current.
Note: The dimming of the lamps is not due to
sharing out the power in the circuit, as some
learners may think. Wires offer resistance to the
flow of the current. This resistance increases with
4 This will depend on the materials available. increasing the length of the wire in the circuit,
5 This will depend on the material from which the sports so adding an extra lamp with its extra wire into
shirt is made. the circuit increases the resistance of the circuit,
6 This will depend on the learner. decreases the current and lowers the brightness of
all the lamps.
Page 81: Wind instruments e The lamps become dimmer.
1 The pitch is low. 3 The lamps become dimmer still as there is less power to
2 The pitch is higher than before. drive the current and it decreases even more.