2 views

Uploaded by parveshnain19

- Harvard - Local Fields
- Blocks Game English IEEEXtreme9
- Resolução Limites
- On Fuzzy Semi Alpha-separation Axioms
- Mathematics Syllabi B.sc.
- Book.pdf
- lectures-topology-salibra.pdf
- Fractals
- 031 Kirk
- Cal91 Sequences
- 3604264
- Principles and Techniques in Combinatorics - Chen Chuan-Chong, Koh Khee-Meng (WS, 1992)
- A Collection of Problems in Analysis
- Francis Bonahon – Low Dimensional Geometry
- Some Fixed Point and Common Fixed Point Theorems of Integral Expression on 2-Banach Spaces
- Calculus Limits Notes(2014)
- Abou-Faycal Trott Shamai
- Formal System Development
- 1 04 Top Compact
- root.pdf

You are on page 1of 65

continuous functions.

....(1)

G1{U

GG 2 U

:G ς }U G n

∈....

n

A collection of set ς satisfying (1) is called cover of the compact set K.

Complete metric space : A metric space (X,d) is called complete metric space

Let G ⊂ C, G is an open subset of C and H(G) the set of all analytic functioins

2

H (G ) ⊂ C (G , C )

We denotes the set of analytic function on G by H(G) rather than A(G) because

Thus A(G ) ≠ H (G )

∫ f = lim ∫ f = 0

T T

...(1)

→R = − | f n (w) − f (w) |

fr n k )}()→ ( z) ⊂

ffTnnf(((nkG

a {A

) f (k ) k!

z) −{f gf :( k, )G ≤ C; ∫γ | dw |

D 2π | w − z |k +1

γ G

k! ⎡ f n (w) f (w) ⎤

f n( k ) ( z) − f ( k ) ( z) = ∫ ⎢

2πi γ ⎣ (w − z) k +1

−

(w − z) k +1 ⎥⎦

dw ∀ z∈D

⇒ ...(2)

3

k! Mn

∴ f n( k ) ( z ) − f ( k ) ( z ) ≤ ∫

2π γ ( R − r )k +1

| dw |

k!M n k!M n

k +1 ∫

= | dw | = .2πR

2π ( R − r ) γ 2π ( R − r ) k +1

k!M n R

= for |z-a|<r ...(3)

2π ( R − r )k +1

⇒ f n( k ) → f (k )

uniformly on B (a ; r ).

0 < r < d ( K , ∂G ) then in K such that

n

K ⊂ U B(a j ; r )

j =1

K

∂G

Since f n( k ) → f ( k ) uniformly on each{δ|∃nfzB

(≥=:−

az|(1N a,≠a−|=;20{|

)inf

za

j r)

R|f=(R

a,...., za)}n|:| z − a |= R} > 0

number δ as

δ

| f ( z ) − f n ( z ) |< <| f ( z ) |

2

≤| f ( z ) | + | f n ( z ) |

4

Thus from above it follows that f and fn satisfies the condition of Rouche’s

theorem.

f is analytic or f ≡ ∞

a

f(a)

G

C∞

Now

....(1)

,(z(})ffza1|∈C

such

nn a<|fthat

)(,|≤ −

); f|ρn| (f)fz(n)⊂a−

≤2|r∞,....} f)|((a−≤)f |(f+af(|n);

( )zB za|)+

af()(M ))−|≤| 2fM

( a )) || ∀ z ∈B(a; r) and n ≥ n0

ρ

d ( f n (a); f (a)) < , ∀n ≥ n0

2

Also the set is compact in C (G , C ∞ )

⇒ it is equicontinuous

ρ

⇒ d ( f n ( z ), f ( z )) <

2

ρ

⇒ d ( f n ( z ); f n (a)) <

2

This gives that d ( f n ( z ), f ( a ) ) ≤ ρ for | z − a |≤ r and for n ≥ n0

Now

⇒ ...(2)

.....(3)

5

2 | fn (z) − f (z) |

d ( fn (z) , f (z))=

But

{[1 + | f n ( z ) |2 ][1 + | f ( z ) |2 ]}

1/ 2

∀ z ∈ B (a ; r ) and n ≥ n0

2 | f n ( z) − f ( z) |

≥

{(1 + 4M 2

)(1 + 4 M 2 )} 1/ 2

∀ z ∈ B (a ; r ) and n ≥ n0

Since d { f n ( z ), f ( z )} → 0 uniformly for z ∈ B (a; r ) this gives that

| f n ( z ) − f ( z ) |→ 0 uniformly for z ∈ B (a; r )

From (3)

f (a ) = ∞

1 1

( z) = if g ( z ) ≠ 0 or ∞;

g g ( z)

1

( z) = 0 if g ( z ) = ∞; and

g

1

( z) = ∞ if g ( z ) = 0

g

1

Then it follows that ∈ C (G, C∞ )

g

Also, since f n → f in C (G, C∞ ) then by the property of metric over non zero

⎛1 1 ⎞

⎟⎟ and d ( z,0) = d ⎛⎜ , ∞ ⎞⎟

1

d ( z1 , z 2 ) = d ⎜⎜ ,

⎝ z1 z 2 ⎠ ⎝z ⎠

1 1

It follows that f → f in C (G , C ∞ )

n

1

Now each f is meromorphic on G;

n

6

1 1

So, ∃ r > 0 and an integer n0 such that f and f are analytic on B(a; r) for

n

n ≥ n0

1 1

⇒ →

fn f uniformly on B(a; r).

1 1

From Hurwitz theorem, either ≡ 0 or has isolated zeros in B(a; r).

f f

1

∴ if f ≡/ ∞ then ≡/ 0 and f must be meromorphic in B(a; r)

f

Combining this with the result (4) that f is meromorphic in G if f is not identically

infinite.

1

If each fn is analytic then f has no zeros in B(a; r). Then [ corollary : {fn} ⊂

n

1 1

never vanishes] then either f ≡ 0 or f never vanishes.

1

But since f (a ) = ∞ we have that f has at least one zero; thus f ≡ ∞ in B(a;r)

Fz −f{|a∈|f<F(r,z ) |:| z − a |< r , f ∈ F} < ∞

∀

|sup

Thus, either f ≡ ∞ or f is analytic

| f ( z) |≤ M , for

Alternately

F is locally bounded if there is an r >0 such that

Montel’s Theorem

7

....(1)

that

f nk → f

⇒ sup{| f nR ( z ) − f ( z ) |: z ∈ K} → 0 as k → ∞

If | f ( z ) |≤ M for z ∈ K

n k ≤ sup{| f nk ( z ) − f ( z ) |: z ∈ K } + M

when nk → ∞

{ }

ff′∈

F

m

sup

H ≥G1))ffU

{|

((z

sup{| (G z∞

n) ({

nk to M which cannot be true (

right hand side converges

∈KK},≥ fn ∈ F} = ∞

) ||}::zz∈

∞≤M)

Hence the assumption taken at start is wrong. Therefore if is normal it is locally

bounded.

Corollary : is closed in C (G , C ∞ ) .

2 | f ′( z ) |

1+ | f ( z ) |2

....(1)

This can be rectify by taking limit of (1) as z approaches the pole. Now we show

that the limit of (1) when z tends to pole. Let ‘a’ be a pole of f of order ; then

8

Am A1

f ( z) = g ( z) + + .... +

( z − a) m

( z − a)

for z in some disk about a and g(z) analytic in that disk.

For z ≠ a

mAm A1

2 m +1

+ .... + − g ′( z )

2 | f ′( z ) | ( z − a) ( z − a) 2

=

∴ 1+ | f ( z ) | 2 Am A1

2

1+ + .... + + g ( z)

( z − a) m ( z − a)

2 | z − a | m −1 | mAm + ..... + A1 ( z − a ) m −1 − g ′( z )( z − a ) m +1 |

=

| z − a | 2 m + | Am + ..... + A1 ( z − a ) m −1 + g ( z )( z − a ) m | 2

Thus if m ≥ 2

2 | f ′( z ) |

lim =0

z → a 1+ | f ( z ) | 2

⎡ mAm A1 ⎤

f ′( z ) = g ′( z ) − ⎢ m +1

+ .... + ⎥

If m = 1 then ⎣ ( z − a) ( z − a) 2 ⎦

A1

2 − g ′( z )

2 | f ′( z ) | ( z − a) 2

lim = lim

z →a 1+ | f ( z ) | 2 z →a 2

A1

1+ + g ( z)

( z − a)

1

2 A1 − ( z − a) 2 g ′( z )

| z−a| 2

= lim

z →a 1

| z − a |2

[

| z − a | 2 + | A1 + g ( z )( z − a) | 2 ]

2 | A1 | 2

= 2

=

| A1 | | A1 |

2 | f ′( z ) |

which shows that for m ≥ 1 the limit of exits.

1+ | f ( z ) | 2

9

Let G be a simply connected region which is not the whole plane and let

f D

f(G)

G C

(b) f is one-one

(c) f (G ) = {z :| z |< 1}

|afc∈ =aG)1→

=C0

g (G ) = {z :| z |< 1} g : G → D

1−1

g :G → D

onto

1−1

−1

and fog : D → D and analytic.

onto

−1

1−1

Let f : G → D analytic and f (a ) = 0 ∃ a complex number c with | c |= 1

onto

z −α

such that f =cϕα , ϕα (z) = 1 − α z is Mobious transformation.

⇒ f ( z ) = cg ( z )

10

⇒ c =1

⇒ f=g

Hence f is unique.

For the existence of f, consider the family F of all analytic function f having

and a ∈ K n ∀ n

Also, as n becomes larger { f ( K n )} becomes larger and larger and tries to fill

0gf∞f′=

|F

Choosing f ∈ F with the largest possible (< = ) c: gf ′ (isa );one− one, f (a) = 0, f ′(a) > 0, f (G) ⊂ D}

′01(0aH)(G

(aaz{))f>|><∈

U Kf (nderivative

K=n G ) = D at a, we choose the function

n =1

which “starts out the fastest” at z =a.

Thus

Lemma : Let G be a region which is not the whole plane and such that every

(b) f is one-one

(c) f (G ) = D = {z :| z |< 1}

Since f (G ) ⊂ D then

11

proved that

....(1)

f → f ′(a ) of H (G) → C

F.

Since (empty set) therefore f ∈ F .

,F

w

F ′∉

then φ)fthe

−( za −

≥w

(G ′( a ) ∀g ∈

g)function

1 − w f ( z)

is analytic in G and never vanishes.

the square root of a analytic function, i.e.

f ( z) − w

[h( z )] 2 = ....(3)

1 − w f ( z)

ς −w

Tς = maps D onto D, h(G) ⊂ D.

1 − wς

Define g : G → C by

| h ′(a ) | h( z ) − h(a )

g ( z) = . ....(4)

h ′(a ) 1 − h(a ) h( z )

Then | g (G ) |≤ 1 ⇒ g(G) ⊂ D,

12

Also

g ′(a) = .

h′(a) [1− | h(a) | 2 ]2

| h′(a) |

=

1− | h(a) | 2

But

f (a) − w 0 − w

| h(a) |2 = = =| −w |=| w |

1 − wf (a) 1 − 0

f ′( z ) (1 − w f ( z )) − ( f ( z ) − w) ( − w f ′( z ))

2h( z )h′( z ) =

[1 − w f ( z )]2

f ′( a ) − w w f ′( a )

2 h ( a ) h ′( a ) =

1

2h(a )h ′(a ) = f ′(a )(1− | w | 2 ) egf h((azz ))) =≠=0f0( z )

f ′(a)(1− | w | 2 ) 1

∴ g ′(a) = .

2 | w| 1− | w |

⎛ (1+ | w |) ⎞ ⎡ 1+ | w | ⎤

= f ′(a)⎜ ⎟ ⎢Q > 1⎥

⎜ 2 | w| ⎟

⎝ ⎠ ⎣⎢ 2 | w | ⎥⎦

> f ′(a )

Theorem : Let f(z) be analytic in a simply connected region R and suppose that

f(z) has no zeros in R. Then there is a analytic function h(z) such that for

all z ∈ R .

Proof : Since in R

f ′( z )

then f ( z ) is also analytic in R and therefore for any two points a and z in R the

13

integral

....(1)

f (a) = r eiα and set

e β = elog|f (a)|+iα

= e log| f ( a )|

e i α = e log r

e iα = r e iα

Then e β = f (a) ...(2)

and if we consider

f ′(ς )

z

h( z ) = β + ∫ dς ....(3)

a

f (ς )

F (′(zz)z)=ff e(′(fzhς)(′(z)−)z )F ( z ) f ′( z ) = 0

hIF′=(z) =

e h(a ) β

= e = f (a)

∫ f (fς ()z)dς ...(4)

a

from (3)

Let F ( z) = e h( z )

f ′( z )

then F ′( z ) = e h′( z ) = F ( z ) f ( z )

h( z )

F ′( z ) f ′( z )

⇒ =

F (z) f ( z)

⇒

F ′( z ) f ( z ) − F ( z ) f ′( z )

⇒ =0

[ F ( z )]2

Q be non vanishing

14

d ⎛ f ( z) ⎞

⇒ ⎜ ⎟=0

dz ⎜⎝ F ( z ) ⎟⎠

f ( z)

⇒ = κ (a constant ) for all z ∈ R

F ( z)

Putting z =a, we obtain

∴ f ( z ) = F ( z ) = e h( z )

The analytic function h(z) defined as above is called logarithm of f(z) in R and

we write h( z ) = log f ( z ) .

logarithm of f(z).

∞

zn z 2 z )z+3

πi f (a) f (a)

log(1 + z) = ∑(−1) n−1 = z − κh(=

+ f (2a−m

)......

n=1 n 2 F 3 (a) = h(a) = f (a) = 1

e

with radius of convergence 1.

log(1 + z ) ⎛ z z2 ⎞

1− = 1 − ⎜⎜1 − + − ... ⎟⎟

z ⎝ 2 3 ⎠

z 1 2 ⎛1 1 ⎞

= − z + .... ≤ ⎜ | z | + | z | 2 +....⎟

2 3 ⎝2 3 ⎠

1

≤ (| z | + | z | 2 +.....)

2

1 |z|

≤ ....(1)

2 1− | z |

1

Further if | z |< then

2

log(1 + z ) 1

1− ≤

z 2

15

z − log(1 + z ) 1

⇒ ≤

z 2

|z|

⇒ | log(1 + z ) | − | z |≤

2

3

⇒ | log(1 + z ) |≤ |z|

2

1

Since log (1+z) is converges to 1, then for | z |< , we have

2

|z| 3

≤| log(1 + z) |≤ | z | ....(2)

2 2

Proposition :

∞ ∞

Re z n > 0 ∀n ≥ 1 . Then ∏ z n converges to a non-zero number iff. ∏ log z n

n =1 n =1

converges.

m = =p≥niθkn=0n z=− π

, nre

kzlim

m∞ k<θ<π

n→

= exp[log( z1 .z 2 .... z n )] = p n

Now suppose

, then

S n − S n −1 = log z n → 0

Hence ( k n − k n −1 ) → 0 as n → ∞

for

16

So S n → ln( z ) + 2 πiK

Corollary :

∑ ( z n − 1) converges absolutely.

Lemma :

Let X be a set and f1, f2, f3 ... be functions from X into C such that

Re f ( x) ≤ a ∀x ∈ X then exp f n ( x ) → exp f ( x ) uniformly for x in X.

{δnexp[

ge≥>nz }0n−0ffn1n((|x< −a

ε−neexp

x))− |<εεee−−aa | exp f ( x) |≤ ε

| f n ( x ) − f ( x ) |< δ ∀x ∈ X ||whenever

exp ≥f (nx0f)](−x)1|<

exp f n ( x)

⇒ − 1 < εe − a

exp f ( x)

Lemma :

function from X into C such that ∑ g n (x) converges absolutely and uniformly for x in

17

X.

∞

Then the product f ( x) = ∏ (1 + g n ( x)) converges absolutely and uniformly for

n =1

n, 1 ≤ n ≤ n 0

3

⇒ and | log(1+ gn (x)) |≤ | gn (x) |; ∀ n ≥ n0 and x ∈ X

2

∞

Thus h( x) = ∑ log(1 + g n ( x)) converges uniformly for x∈ X

n = n0 +1

Now

∴ is also continuous.

g (hxh()(x∈

exp

Re f ( x11) +=

log(

Re[ + [gg1 +1((xxg)]))(>x0)][1 + g ( x )]......[1 + g n ( x )]. exp h( x )

| gn n ( x) |<nn 1∀ x ∈ X 2

In particular, there is a constant a such that 2

Then

⎡ ∞ ⎤

exp h( x) = exp ⎢ ∑ log(1 + g n ( x))⎥

⎣ n = n0 +1 ⎦

∞

= ∏(1+ gn (x)), converges uniformly for x ∈ X and

n=n0 +1

for any x ∈ X .

Now if we take

then

∞

f (x) = ∏(1+ gn (x)),

n=1

18

E( z ; p)

for p = 0, 1, 2, 3,... defined as

E(z ; 0) or E0 (z) = 1 − z

⎛ z2 zp ⎞

E( z ; p) or E p ( z ) = (1 − z ) exp⎜⎜ z + + .... + ⎟, p ≥ 1

⎝ 2 p ⎟⎠

⎛ 2 p

⎞

; p ) or E p ⎛⎜ z ⎞⎟ = ⎛⎜1 − z ⎞⎟ exp⎜ z + 1 ⎛⎜ z ⎞⎟ + ...... 1 ⎛⎜ z ⎞⎟ ⎟, p ≥ 1

z

E(

a ⎝a⎠ ⎝ a⎠ ⎜a 2⎝a⎠ p ⎝ a ⎠ ⎟⎠

⎝

⎛z⎞

⇒ E p ⎜ ⎟ has a simple zero at z =a and no other zero.

⎝a⎠

Also if b is a point in C − G then

p

Ep⎜ ⎟ = ⎜1 − ⎟ exp ⎢ E (z+) ⎜ ⎟ + .... + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎝ z −b⎠ ⎝ z −b⎠ ⎣⎢ z −pb 2 ⎝ z − b ⎠ p ⎝ z − b ⎠ ⎦⎥

Lemma

∞

E p ( z) = 1 + ∑ ak z k ....(1)

k =1

∞

E ′p ( z ) = 1 + ∑ k a k z k −1

k =1

19

⎛ z2 zp ⎞ ⎛ z2 zp ⎞

E ′p ( z ) = −1 exp⎜⎜ z + + .... + ⎟ + (1 − z ) exp⎜ z +

⎟ ⎜ + .... + ⎟(1 + z + z 2 + .... + z p −1 )

⎝ 2 p ⎠ ⎝ 2 p ⎟⎠

⎛

= exp⎜⎜ z +

z2

+ .... +

zp ⎞

[

⎟ − 1 + (1 − z )(1 + z + z 2 + .....z p −1 )

p ⎟⎠

]

⎝ 2

On simplifying expressiion in the square bracket only z p remains and all other terms

∞ ⎛ z2 zp ⎞

∴ ∑ k k a z k −1

= − z p

exp ⎜

⎜ z + + ..... + ⎟

p ⎟⎠

k =1 ⎝ 2

a1 = a 2 = .... = a p = 0

⎛ z2 zp ⎞

exp⎜ z + + ..... + ⎟ are all positive

Also the coefficient of the expression of ⎜ p ⎟⎠

⎝ 2

2 p

, therefore

p ⎜ p ⎟⎠

⎝ 2

Thus | a k |= − a k for k ≥ p + 1

∞

⇒ E p (1) = 0 = 1 + ∑ an

k = p +1

∞ ∞

or ∑ | ak | = − ∑ ak =1

k = p +1 k = p +1

Hence for | z |≤ 1

∞

| E p ( z ) − 1 |= ∑ ak z k

k = p +1

∞

=| z | p +1 ∑ a k z k − p −1

k = p +1

∞

≤ | z | p+1 ∑ | ak |

k= p+1

=| z | p +1

20

Proposition

converges absolutely.

1

⇒ | z n |<

2

1 3 1

Since | z | ≤ | log(1 + z ) | ≤ | z | for | z |<

2 2 2

1

Therefore for | z n |< the series ∑ | log(1 + z n ) | is convergent.

2

Conversely if, ∑ | log(1 + z n ) | converges then

1

| z n |<

2

∴ ∑ | z n | is converges

∏ | z n | converges / ∏ z n converges

⇒

Example: Let Z n = −1 ∀ n ∏ zn

then | z n |= 1 ∀ n

⇒ ∏| z n | converges to 1.

n

However ∏ z k is ± 1 depending on whether n is even or odd,

k =1

point of accumulation, the most general entire function having zeros at those points

21

by

∞ ⎛ z

⎞

F ( z) = e h( z ) m

z ∏ E ⎜⎜ a

; k n ⎟⎟ ...(1)

n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

where h(z) is an arbitrary entire function, m ≥ 0 is the order of multiplicity of a0

=0, and the kn are non negative integers such that the series

k n +1

∞

z

∑

n =1 an

...(2)

with | a n |→ ∞

The sequence { k n } of non-negative integers can always be found such that the

n

z 1 z 1

≤ or ≤ ...(3)

an 2n an 2

as soon as | a n |≥ 2 | z | which for any given z holds for sufficiently large value of

n , say n>N

Since we are not interested in uniform convergence, only point wise convergence.

1

if | z |≤ < 1 then

p

p

log E( z; k ) ≤ | z |k +1 ...(4)

p −1

then for p =2

log E ( z ; k ) ≤ 2 | z | k +1

provided

22

1

| z |≤

2

We have y

k +1

⎛ z ⎞ z an

log E ⎜⎜ ; k ⎟⎟ ≤ 2

⎝ an ⎠ an

provided Z

x

O R 2R

z 1

≤

an 2

⇒ | a n |≥ 2 | z |

Let R be an arbitrary positive number and consider two circles with centres at

⎛ z | a |> 2 R

⎞

is absolutely and uniformly convergent for all∑

n

z, such ⎜ |z|;<k nR,⎟ and it follows that the

log Ethat ⎜a ⎟

|a n | > 2 R ⎝ n ⎠

product

⎛ z ⎞

∏ E ⎜⎜ ; kn ⎟⎟

|a n |> 2 R ⎝ an ⎠

⎛ z ⎞

∏ E ⎜⎜ ;kn ⎟⎟

|a n |≤ 2 R ⎝ an ⎠

contain a finite number of factors each of which is an analytic function, it follows that

⎛ z ⎞

f1 ( z ) = ∏ E ⎜⎜ ;kn ⎟⎟

|a n |≤ 2 R ⎝ an ⎠

is analytic in |z| < R and vanishes in the disc only at those points of the sequence a1, a2,

23

∞

A ⊂ C, ∑| f (z) | is uniformly convergent on every compact set K ⊂ A , then

n=1

k

We have

⎛ z ⎞

f2 (z) = ∏ E ⎜⎜ ; k n ⎟⎟

|a n | > 2 R ⎝ an ⎠

is analytic and different from zero in |z| < R.

∞

⎛ z ⎞

f ( z ) = f1 ( z ) f 2 ( z ) = ∏ E ⎜⎜ ; kn ⎟⎟

n =1 ⎝ an ⎠

is also analytic in |z| <R and vanishes in this region only at those points of the sequence

R was arbitrary chosen positive number, so that f(z) is analytic in the whole finite

∞ ∞

⎛ z⎞

place. ∏

sin π(1z += ef kg (( zz) )z.)∏ ⎜1 − ⎟e z / n ; n≠0

k =1 n = −∞⎝ n⎠

⇒ It is an entire function and has less zero precisely at the points a1 , a 2 ...., a n ...

∴ F ( z) = eh(z) z m f ( z)

is most general entire function with the prescribed zeros.

πz :

Factorization of sinπ

Then by Weierstrass factorization theorem the most general form of this entire

function be

∞

⎡⎛ z⎞ ⎛ z⎞ ⎤

= e g ( z ) z .∏ ⎢ ⎜ 1 − ⎟ e − z / n ⎜ 1 + ⎟ e z / n ⎥

n =1 ⎣ ⎝ n⎠ ⎝ n⎠ ⎦

24

∞

⎛ z2 ⎞

= e g ( z ) z ∏ ⎜⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟⎟ ...(1)

n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

⎡ ⎤

( )

∞

d

π cot πz =

dz ⎢

⎣

g ( z ) + log z + ∏

n =1

log( n 2 − z 2 ) − log n 2 ⎥

⎦

1 ∞ ⎛ 2z ⎞

= h′( z ) + +∏⎜ ⎟ z ≠ ±n ...(2)

z n =1 ⎝ z 2 − n 2 ⎠

But ...(3)

∞

⎛ z2 ⎞

sin π z = C 1 z ∏ ⎜⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟⎟

n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

sin πz C1 ∞ ⎛ z 2 ⎞

= ∏⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟ ; z≠0

πz π n=1 ⎝ n ⎠ ∞

1 ⎛ 2z ⎞

Taking z → 0 π cot πz = + ∏ ⎜ 2 ⎟

n =1 ⎝ z − n ⎠

2

z

C1 n

⎛ k2 ⎞

1= lim lim ∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟

π z → 0 n → ∞ k =1 ⎝ n ⎠

∞

⎛ z2 ⎞

Since ∏ ⎜⎜1 − n 2 ⎟⎟ is uniformly converges, therefore the order of limit can be

n =1 ⎝ ⎠

changed

C1 n

⎛ z2 ⎞

= lim lim ∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟

π n → ∞ z → 0 k =1 ⎝ k ⎠

C n C

∴ 1 = π nlim

1

∏ (1) = π1

→ ∞ K =1

⇒ C1 = π

∞

⎛ z2 ⎞

⇒ sin π z = π z ∏ ⎜⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟⎟

n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

25

Gamma function

According to Weierstrass (the weierstrass fact. th) the Γ function can be defined

as the reciprocal of a particular entire function with simple zeros at the points 0, -1, -

2,.. namely

∞

⎛ z⎞

F ( z ) = e γ z z ∏ ⎜1 + ⎟e − z / n

n =1 ⎝ n⎠

−1

1 e−γ z ∞ ⎛ z ⎞ z / n

⇒

F(z)

= Γ(z) = ∏⎜1+ ⎟ e

z n=1 ⎝ n ⎠

...(1)

Existence of γ

Now we show that there exists such γ.

Γ∞((1z) )=∞1e⎛−1 log C1−1⎞∞−1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ −1

eΓγ(1=)⎛⎜=∏ z⎞

∏ 1 +⎜11+⎟ n .⎟e∏z /e⎜n1 + n ⎟ e

1/ n 1/ n

n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

n =1 ⎝ ⎠

substituting z =1 in the infinite product n =1 ⎝ ⎠ , we get

∞ −1

⎛ 1⎞

∏ ⎜1 + n ⎟ e 1 / n = C a finite positive number ...(2)

n =1 ⎝ ⎠

1

= .C = 1

C

∴

...(3)

26

Lemma :

1 1 1

Let H n = 1 + + + ... then γ = nlim

→∞

( H n − log n)

2 3 n

Proof : Taking logarithm on both sides of

∞ −1

⎛ 1⎞

e γ = ∏ ⎜1 + ⎟ e 1 / k

k =1 ⎝ k⎠

We have

∞ ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ 1/ k ⎤

−1

γ = ∑ log ⎢⎜1 + ⎟ e ⎥

k =1 ⎢⎣⎝ k⎠ ⎥⎦

∞ ⎡⎛ k ⎞ 1 / k ⎤

= ∑ log ⎢⎜ ⎟e ⎥

k =1 ⎣⎝ k + 1 ⎠ ⎦

n

⎡ 1⎤

= lim ∑ ⎢log k − log(k + 1) + ⎥

k =1 ⎣ k⎦

n →∞

⎡ ⎤

⎢ n ⎥

= lim ⎢∑ {log k − log( kΓ (+z )1=)}lim + ∑ ⎥ n!.n

n

1 z

k =1

⎢ ⎧⎪ log1= 0 and all int ermediate ⎫⎪

⎨ terms will cancelled out except ⎬

⎥

⎢⎣ ⎪⎩ log (n +1) ⎪⎭ ⎥⎦

⎡ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎤

= lim ⎢− log(n + 1) + ⎜1 + + ... + ⎟⎥

n →∞

⎣ ⎝ 2 n ⎠⎦

⎡ ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎤

= lim ⎢log n − log(n + 1) + ⎜1 + + ... + ⎟ − log n ⎥

n→∞

⎣ ⎝ 2 n⎠ ⎦

⎡⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛ ( n + 1) ⎞⎤

= lim ⎢⎜1 + + ... + ⎟ − log n − log⎜ ⎟⎥

n →∞ ⎝ n⎠ ⎝ n ⎠⎦

⎣ 2

⎡⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ (n + 1) ⎞ ⎤

⇒ γ = lim ⎢⎜1 + + ... + ⎟ − log n − 0⎥ ⎢Q nlim log⎜ ⎟ = 0⎥

n→∞ ⎝ n⎠

⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ →∞ ⎝ n ⎠ ⎦

⇒ γ = lim ( H n − log n)

n→∞

27

−1

e −γ z n

⎛ z⎞

= lim ∏ ⎜1 + ⎟ e z / k

z n→∞ k =1 ⎝ k ⎠

e−γ z n

kez / k

= lim∏

z n→∞ k =1 ( z + k )

⎛ z z z⎞

e −γ z (1.2.3....n ). exp ⎜ z + + + .... + ⎟

= lim ⎝ 2 3 n⎠

n→∞ z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....( z + n )

⎧ ⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞⎫

e − z ( H n −log n ) .n!.exp⎨ z⎜1 + + + .... + ⎟⎬

= lim ⎩ ⎝ 2 3 n ⎠⎭

n →∞ z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....(z + n)

n!.e − zH n .e − z log n .e zH n

= lim

n →∞ z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....( z + n)

n!.n z

Γ ( z ) = lim e −γ z ∞ nz!.n−1z +1

n→∞ z )n=) lim ∏ ⎛⎜ 1 + ⎞⎟ e z / n

z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....(Γz( +

...(5)

n →z∞ ( z + 1)( z +n2).....( z + n + 1)

n =1 ⎝ ⎠

n! nz nz

= lim

n→∞ z( z +1)(z + 2).....(z + n) ( z + n +1)

n! n z z

= lim lim

n→∞ z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....(z + n) n→∞ z + 1

( + 1)

n

= Γ(z) . z

28

Reflection formula

⎡ ( n! ) 2 .n ⎤

= lim ⎢ ⎥

n → ∞ z (1 − z )( 2 − z ).....( n − z )( n + 1 − z )

2 2 2 2 2

⎣ ⎦

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥

⎢ 1 ⎥

= lim

n →∞ ⎢ ⎛ z 2

⎞ ⎛ z ⎛ n +1− z ⎞ ⎥

2

⎞

⎢ z (1 − z )⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟.....⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟⎜ ⎟⎥

2

⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ n ⎠⎝ n ⎠⎦

1

=

⎧ ⎛ z2 ⎞ ⎛ z 2 ⎞⎫

z lim ⎨(1 − z 2 )⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟.....⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟ ⎬.1

n→∞

⎩ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ n ⎠⎭

π

z)z=) = lim ⎡; z ≠ 0, ±n1,!.±n2,... ⎤ ⎡

1 z

1 ΓΓ e(1(−1−

((szz)=) ΓΓ s log n

−

n!.n

= ∞ n sin πz ⎢ ⎥. lim ⎢

n →∞ z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....( z + n) n →∞ (1 − z )( 2 − z

⎛ z2 ⎞ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣

z ∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟

k =1 ⎝ n ⎠

1

=

sin πz

z.

πz

π

=

sin πz

∞ an

∑ s ....(1)

n =1 n

29

∞

1

ς (s) = ∑ s , Re s = σ > 1

n=1 n

∞

Theorem : The series ∑ n

−s

converges absolutely and uniformly for σ ≥ 1 + ε

n =1

(ε > 0 arbitrary)

Proof : We have

1 1 1 1 1

= = = ≤

ns | nσ +it | | nσ | | nit | nσ n1+ε

∞ 1

and the series ∑ 1+ ε converges, by Weiestrass M-test

n =1 n

∞

t s −1

Γ( s ) ς ( s) = ∫ dt

0

et − 1

t s −1 ∞

Proof : The integral ∫ t dt converges at both the lower and upper limits

0 e −1

whenever Re s > 1

Since

t

lim =1

t →0 + e −1

t

so that by the definition of limit there is a δ > 0 such that for 0 < t ≤ δ the

inequality

t 1

−1 < ε =

e −1

t

2

t 1

⇒ −1<

e −1 t

2

30

t 3

⇒ < holds.

e −1 2

t

δ δ

∫

t σ −2

e −1

t

3

t dt ≤ ∫ t σ − 2 dt =

2 δ1

3 1

2 σ −1

δ σ −1 − δ 1σ −1 ( )

δ1

δ

t σ −2 σ −1

⇒ ∫e t dt → 3 δ as δ1 → 0

δ1

t

−1 2 σ −1

tm

lim =0

t → +∞ e t − 1

tm 1

So that there is a b1, such that for t ≥ b1 the ineuqality t < is satisfied

e −1 2

∞

t m sσ − m −−1nu s −11 b σ − m −1

( )

b

1 1

1 1 ∫ e t) −=1nt ∫ e dtu≤ 2du∫ t

Γ ( s dt =

σ −

b σ − m − b1σ − m

→ b1σ −m as b → ∞ b1 0 b1 2 m

2 m−σ

∞

−t s −1

Now in Γ( s) = ∫ e t dt

0

⎛ ⎞

⎜ N

N ∞⎟

1

Γ( s )∑ s = ∫ ∑ e

⎜ − nu ⎟ s −1

u du

and n =1 n ⎜ = ⎟

⎜ 123 ⎟

0 n 1

⎝ ( sum of G . P ) ⎠

∞ ⎛ −u

e (1 − e − Nu ) ⎞ s −1

= ∫ ⎜⎜ ⎟u du

0⎝ (1 − e −u ⎟⎠

∞ ∞

u s −1 u s −1 e − Nu

= ∫

0

eu − 1

du − ∫

0

eu − 1

du

31

Now it is required to prove that

∞

u s −1e − Nu

∫0 eu − 1 du → 0 as N → ∞

∞ s−1 −Nu δ ∞

u e us−1e−Nu us−1e−Nu

∫0 eu −1 du= ∫0 eu −1 du+ ∫δ eu −1 du; δ >0

∞ δ ∞

u s −1e − Nu u σ −1 u σ −1

∫0 e u − 1 ∫0 e u − 1 ∫δ e u − 1 du

− Nδ

⇒ du < du + e

For a given ε >0, we choose δ sufficiently small so as to make the first integral

ε

on right hand side less than .

2

Fixing that δ we can now take N large enough so as to make the second term on

∴ for N → ∞

∞

u s −1

Γ( s ) ς ( s ) = ∫ du valid for Re s >1

0

eu − 1

Note:B(E) denotes a closed algebraU

|rb∃ of−

ab,∈=V0C(K, dK1(D)

|<− <

aC<r that

) contains every rational

a, Kε

function with a pole in E 2

Lemma

If a ∈C − k then ( z − a) −1 ∈ B( E )

Proof : Case I : ∞ ∉ E

V = {a ∈ C : ( z − a)−1 ∈ B( E)}

so E ⊂V ⊂U

⇒ V is open

32

But

−1

⎡ b−a⎤

= ( Z − 1) −1 ⎢1 − ⎥ ...(3)

⎣ Z − a⎦

From (2)

−1

⎡ b−a⎤ ⎛b−a⎞

∞ n

⎢1 − z − a ⎥ = ∑⎜ ⎟ ...(4)

⎣ ⎦ n =0 ⎝ z − a ⎠

By the Weirestrass M-Test series on right hand side of (4) converges uniformly

on K.

⎛b−a⎞

n k

If Qn ( z ) = ∑ ⎜ ⎟ then

k =0 ⎝ z − a ⎠

( z − a ) −1 Qn ( z ) ∈ B ( E )

Since a ∈ V and B(E) is an algebra (3) shows that B(E) is closed and uniformly

V)−1 ∈ B((zE−

⎡ ) a ) − (b − a ) ⎤

−1

( z − b ) −1 = ⎢ ⎥ ( z − a)

−1

⎣ z−a ⎦

⇒ b ∈V

b = lim a n

n→ ∞

0 = d ( b , K ) or b∈ K

If H is a component of U = C − K then H I K ≠ φ

So H IV ≠ φ

33

∴ H ⊂V

Case 2 :

1

d ( a 0 , ∞) ≤ d ( ∞, K )

2

and | a0 |> 2 max{| z |: z ∈ K } ...(5)

1

Now | z / a0 |≤ ; ∀z∈K [from (5)]

2

Therefore

1 1 1 ∞

=

z − a 0 − a 0 (1 − z / a 0 )

=− ∑

a0 n =0

( z / a0 ) n

U∞

E 0n∞∈

C

Q ⊂∈

=−E

V(BKE(E−){∞}) U {a 0 }

Converges uniformly on K.

Then

n

1

Qn ( z ) = −

a0

∑ (z / a

k =0

0 ) k is a polynomial

and ( z − a0 ) −1 = u − lim Qn on K.

Thus ( z − a0 ) −1 ∈ B ( E )

⇒ B(E0 ) ⊂ B(E )

⇒ ( z − a) −1 ∈ B( E ) for each a ∈ C − K

Definition : Function element is a pair (f,G) where G is a region and f is an

analytic function on G.

Definition : Germ of f at a : [ f ]a .

34

neighbourhood of a.

Let γ :[0,1] → C be a path and suppose that for each t in [0,1] there is a function

(a) γ (t ) ∈ D

⇒ γ ( s ) ∈ Dt and [ f s ]γ ( s ) = [ f t ]γ ( s ) (i.e. germ of fs and ft at γ(s) are equal)

( z))≡let

Lemma : Let γ :[0,1] → C be a pathRfand

(t =∞g ({(z )f ∀ z

t , Dt ) : 0 ≤ t ≤ 1} be an analytic

continuation along γ. For 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 let R(t) be the radius of convergence of the power

continuous.

function.

Since

f s ( z ) = f t ( z ) ∀ z ∈ Ds

⇒ R ( s ) = ∞ ∀ s ∈ [0,1]

i.e. R (s ) ≡ ∞

35

let

⇒ γ ( s ) ∈ Dt I B ( τ; R (t ))

and [ f s ] γ ( s ) = [ f t ] γ ( s )

∞

f s ( z ) = ∑ σ n ( z − σ) n about z = σ

n =0

then the radius of convergence R(s) must be at least as big as the distance from

z((τ−

RsR

|B (ss;)τt)R≥

−|−

<= t δR

(dR ∞

R(σ

)) t)t,))≤{D

(t(U | |z≤γ:|(|tzγ) −

(−t )τγ−|(=sγ)R(|s()t )})

| ≥ R (t ) − | τ − σ |

σ to the circle f t ( z ) = ∑1 τ n ( zs − τ) n

n =0

i.e.

⇒ R (t ) − R ( s ) ≤| γ (t ) − γ ( s ) |

Hence for

⇒ R must be continuous at t.

ε>0 then there is a rational function R(Z) whose only poles lie in E and such that

| f ( z ) − R ( z ) |< ε ∀z∈K

36

Proof : By the fact that if K be a compact subset of the region G, then there are

straight line segments γ 1 , γ 2 ,.....γ n in G – Ksuch that for every function f in H(G).

n

1 f ( w)

f ( z) = ∑ ∫ dw ∀z ∈ K

K =1 2πi γ k w − z

Also If γ be a rectifiable curve and let K be compact set such that K I {γ} = φ .

If f is continuous function on {γ} and ε>0 then there is a rational function R(z) having

Let (f, D) be a function element and let G be a region which contains D: then (f,

D) admits unrestricted analytic continuation in G if for any path γ in G with initial point

{γ}along γ.

in D there is an analytic continuation of (f, D)

f ( w)

∫ w − z dw − R( z ) ; ∀z ∈ K

γ

γ 0 (0) = γ 1 (0) = 0 and γ 0 (0) = γ 1 (0) = b then γ 0 and γ 1 are FEP homotopic if there is

a continuous map

Γ : I 2 → G such that

Γ ( s ,0 ) = γ 0 ( s )

Γ ( s,1) = γ 1 ( s )

Γ(0, t ) = a

Γ(1, t ) = b

for 0 ≤ s, t ≤ 1

I 2 = [0,1] × [0,1]

37

[ f 1 ]b = [ g1 ]b

Γ :[0,1] × [0,1] → G such that

Γ(0, u) = a; Γ(1, u) = b

b] b==

Let γ u (t ) = Γ(t , u ) for a fix u, 0 ≤ u ≤[h1f1,1,0]from [ h[a

1h, 10to

,1]b] b.

p ....(1)

along γ u

[ f 1 ]b = [ g1 ]b

[ g1 ]b = [ h1,1 ]b and

...(2)

To show this

38

Since

then

[h1,u ]b = [ K1 ]b ....(5)

,u tδ δv1,]0)b]∈b=δU⇒

(v0hu∈

|u

[u

, this implies U is open. If{( −

:∈U

G

1K

,|1−<U

[U0]v,→

b,Eu =[]t Rδ[+1≠

h)} h,and [is u0 ]∈bchoosen

h1,as U; above, then

∃a such that

[h1,u ]b = [h1,v ]b ; and

since

⇒

⇒ U is closed

then

1 2π iθ

u (a) = ∫ u (a + re )dθ

2π 0

Proof : Let D be a disk such that

39

B (a; r ) ⊂ D ⊂ G, and

1 f (z)

f (a) = ∫

2π i γ z − a

dz

| z − a |= r

z = a + re iθ

dz = ir iθ

1 2 π f (a + re iθ )

=

2π 0

∫ re iθ dθ

1 2π iθ

= ∫ f (a + re )dθ

2π 0

1 2π iθ

f (a) = ∫ f (a + re )dθ

2π 0

2π

1 iθ

Then Re f ( a) = 2π ∫ Re f (a + re )dθ

0 A = {Z ∈ G :u ( z ) = u (a)}

1 2π

⇒ u (a) = ∫ u ( a + re iθ )dθ

2π 0

B (a; r ) ⊂ G

1 2π

u (a) = ∫ u ( a + re iθ )dθ

2π 0

40

If | z 0 − b |= ρ and b = z0 + ρe iθ 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π

Hence by MVP

1 2π

u ( z0 + ρe iφ ) dφ < u ( z0 )

2π ∫0

u ( z0 ) =

which is a contradiction.

by connectedness of G, A = G.

A u (aiφ) =<u+u((re

zz00i)θ)∀

0 + ρe ⎛) 1 ⎞∀z φ ∈ I 1 − r 2

Pr (θ ) = Re⎜⎜ iθ ⎟

⎟=

Study of harmonic function on a disk, open unit⎝ disk 1 − re{z − 2r cos θ + r 2

:⎠ |z| 1<1}

∞

Pr (θ) = ∑ r |n| e inθ

n = −∞

Theorem :

1 + reiθ 1 + z

⇒ iθ

= = (1 + z )(1 − z ) −1

1 − re 1− z

= (1 + z )(1 + z + z 2 + ....)

∞

= 1 + 2∑ z n

n =1

41

∞

= 1 + 2 ∑ r n e inθ

n =1

⎛ 1 + re iθ ⎞ ∞

⇒ Re⎜⎜

−

⎟

iθ ⎟

= 1 + 2 ∑ r n cos nθ

⎝ 1 re ⎠ n =1

∞

(e inθ + e − inθ )

= 1 + 2∑ r n

n =1 2

∞

= ∑ r |n| e inθ

n = −∞

= Pr (θ) ....(1)

Also

= =

1 − re iθ | 1 − re iθ | 2 | 1 − re iθ | 2

(1 − r 2 ) + r (i 2 sin θ)

=

| 1 − re iθ | 2

⎛ 1 + re iθ ⎞ 1− r2

⇒ Re⎜⎜ iθ

⎟=

⎟ 1 − 2r cos θ + r 2 ....(2)

⎝ 1 − re ⎠

[Q| 1 − reiθ |2 = 1 − 2r cos θ + r 2 ]

Prop. 2.3

1 π

(a) ∫ Pr (θ)dθ = 1

2π − π

(b) Pr (θ) > 0 ∀θ, Pr ( −θ) = Pr (θ) and Pr is periodic in θ with period 2π.

(a) u ( z ) = f ( z ) ∀ z ∈ ∂D

(b) u is harmonic in D.

1 π

u (re iθ ) = ∫ Pr (θ − t ) f (e )dt

it

for 0 ≤ r < 1, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π

2π − π

42

Proof : Define u : D → R as

1 π

u (re iθ ) = ∫ Pr (θ − t ) f (e )dt

it

for 0 ≤ r < 1 ...(1)

2π − π

1 π ⎡1 + rei ( θ−t ) ⎤

u (re iθ ) =

2π −∫π ⎣1 − re i ( θ−t ) ⎦

it

Re ⎢ ⎥ f (e )dt

1442443

by definition of Pr ( θ )

⎧⎪ 1 π it ⎡1 + re

i ( θ −t )

⎤ ⎫⎪

= Re⎨ ∫

⎪⎩ 2π − π

f ( e ) ⎢ i ( θ −t ) ⎥ ⎬

dt

⎣1 − re ⎦ ⎪⎭

⎧⎪ 1 π ⎡ e it + re iθ ⎤ ⎫⎪

= Re⎨ ∫

⎪⎩ 2π − π

f (e it ) ⎢ it iθ ⎥ ⎬

dt ...(3)

⎣ e e∂ε−Dαre0 ∃ a⎪ ρ, 0 < ρ < 1

i>

⎦ ⎭

Let us define g : D → C by

1 π it ⎡ e + z ⎤

it

2π −∫π

g ( z) = f ( e ) ⎢ it ⎥ dt ...(4)

⎣e − z ⎦

Re g = u ...(5)

∴ ∇ 2u = 0 ⇒ u is harmonic.

(ii) Continuity of u on D–

ρ < r < 1 and e iθ in A

43

ε

| f (e iθ ) − f (1) |< if | θ |< δ ...(7)

3

Let {

M = max | f (e iθ ) | :| θ |≤ π }

Then from the result on Poisson kernel Pr (θ) < Pr (δ) if 0 < δ <| θ |≤ π

...(8)

δ

for ρ < r < 1 and | θ |≥

2

iθ ⎧ δ⎫

Let A be the arc ⎨e :| θ |< ⎬ then if

⎩ 2⎭

e iθ ∈ A and ρ < r < 1

1 π

u (re iθ ) − f (1) = ∫ Pr (θ − t ) f (e )dt − f (1)

it

2π − π

ε

Pr (θ) <

3M

1 1

= ∫ Pr (θ − t )[ f (e it ) − f (1)]dt + ∫ Pr (θ − t )[ f (e ) − f (1)]dt

it

2π |t |< δ 2π |t |≥ δ

δ δ

if | t |≥ δ and | θ |≤ then | t − θ |≥

2 2

1 1

| u (re iθ ) − f (1) |≤ ∫ 2π |t |∫≥δ

Pr (θ − t ) | f (e it ) − f (1) | dt + Pr (θ − t ) | f (e it ) − f (1) | dt

2π |t |< δ

ε ε

≤ + 2M . [from (7) and (8)]

3 3M

⇒ | u (re iθ ) − f (1) |< ε

| u ( re iθ ) − f (e iα ) |< ε ...(9)

44

⇒ u-v=0

⇒ u is unique.

Harnack inequality

and all θ

R−r R+r

u (a) ≤ u ( a + re iθ ) ≤ u (a)

R+r R−r

harmonic function.

un → u in C (G, R)

⇒ u is harmonic

(b) Assuming u1 ≥ 0

⇒ Either u (z ) = ∞ or u (z ) ∈ R and u n ( z ) → u ( z ), ∀ z ∈ G

Define

A = {z ∈ G : u ( z ) = ∞} ....(1)

45

B = {z ∈ G : u ( z ) < ∞} ...(2)

Then A U B = G and A I B = φ

R− | z − a | R+ | z − a |

u n (a) ≤ u n ( z ) ≤ u n (a) ; ∀ z ∈ B (a; R) and ∀ n ≥ 1.

R+ | z − a | R− | z − a |

...(3)

If a ∈ A then

⇒ B ( a; R ) ⊂ A

⇒ A is open.

(a(a); <

that

)∞⊂∞B

uB(z )R→

Bn(a; R) ⊂ G

for | z − a |< R

⇒ u n (z ) < ∞ ∀ z ∈ B ( a; R )

⇒ B is open

Suppose A = G; that is u ≡ ∞

( R − ρ)

M= > 0 and

R+P

(3) gives that

Mu n ( a ) ≤ u n ( z ) for | z − a |≤ ρ

46

Now suppose B= G

i.e. u( z) < ∞ ∀ z ∈G

If ρ < R then there is a constant N, which depends only on a and ρ such that

for | z − a |≤ ρ and ∀ n

So if

≤ C[u n ( a ) − u m ( a )]

Since u n ( z ) → u ( z )

⇒ ϕ

0m:(≤aG

B≤

Mu

u is the required harmonic function. nu;(nr→

n a())z⊂)≤R

−

Gu u,n (mz()z≤) ≤NNu

u n n( a( a) ) − Mu m ( a )

Definition :

such that

2π

1

ϕ (a) ≤ ∫

2π 0

ϕ (a + reiθ )dθ

Definition:

such that

2π

1

ϕ (a) ≥ ∫

2π 0

ϕ (a + reiθ )dθ

47

Definition :

that

Dirichlet Problem : It consists in determining all regions G such that for any

ψ̂

w

lim :∈

(∈r G

)∂∞=G

a∂∂ψ

G

sup →

−I

r (ϕ

G0{B(R

zw ) f−(aa|)= r} ∀a ∈ ∂ ∞ G

)(za:=); |1r≤w

z→a z → aw

(c) for

If we define ψ̂ r by letting

ψ̂ r = ψ r on G(a; r)

ψˆ r ( z ) = 1 for

then is superharmonic.

zero.

Theorem : Let G be a region and let a ∈ ∂ ∞ G such that there is a barrier for G

at a.

lim u ( z ) = f ( a )

z→a

48

| w − a |< 2δ ;

Let ψ = ψδ

Let ψˆ : G → R defined by

for z ∈ G − B (a; δ ) ...(1)

Then is superharmonic.

then

− Mψˆ − ε is subharmonic.

ψ

ϕ

∀

ψ

∂ψ̂ (ϕG

−ˆ∞M

If w ∈ ∂ ∞ G − B (a; δ ) then from (1) and ∈

ψ ε )≤ u ( z ) ; ∀ z ∈ G

)ˆ=≥(Ρz1(0)f−, G

z(2)

z→w

Because

z→w

If particular if w ∈ ∂ ∞ G I B ( a; δ ) then

lim sup[− Mψˆ ( z ) − ε ] ≤ −ε < f ( w) by the choice of δ.

z →w

Hence

...(6)

Similarly

liminf[Mψˆ ( z) + ε ] ≥ limsup(ϕ( z)) and w in .

z →w z →w

49

we have

∀ϕ in and z ∈ G

Hence

....(7)

lim u ( z ) = 0 = f (a )

Z →a

Harmonic function

∂ 2u ∂ 2u Ρ(=(zf)ψ

+ = 0. or ∇ 2u = 0 ϕvψ̂

ulim ,ˆm≤G

Isup zϕ

(fM))ψ= z ) +ψ

≤ˆ (lim ε(;ψ

inf z)

∂x 2 ∂y 2 z→

→wa zz→

→wa

Harmonic conjugate

1 p k +1

Theorem : If | z |≤ p < 1 then | log E ( z; k ) |≤ p − 1 | z | .

Proof : Let k > 0

⎛ z2 zk ⎞

log E ( z ; k ) = Log (1 − z ) + ⎜⎜ z + + ..... + ⎟⎟

⎝ 2 k ⎠

z2 zk 1 k +!

Log (1 − z ) = − z − − − z ....

2 k k +1

for | z |< 1

1 k +1 1 1

∴ log E ( z; k ) = − z − z k + 2 − ..... for | z |≤ p < 1

k +1 k+2

50

⎛ 1 1 ⎞

∴ | Log E ( z; k ) |≤| log E ( z; k ) |≤ | z |k +1 ⎜ + | z | +...⎟

⎝ k +1 k + 2 ⎠

≤| z | k +1 (1+ | z | + | z | 2 +.....) [Q k > 0]

⎛ 1 1 ⎞

≤ | z | k +1 ⎜⎜1 + + 2 + ... ⎟⎟

⎝ p p ⎠

p

= | z | k +1

p −1

for k =0

⎛ |z| ⎞

| log E ( z;0) |=| log(1 − z ) |≤| z | ⎜1 + + ...⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠

⎛ 1 1 ⎞

≤ | z | ⎜⎜ 1 + + 2 + ... ⎟⎟

⎝ p p ⎠

p

| log E ( z;0) |= |z|

p −1

for p =2

2

| Log E ( z; k ) |≤ | z |k +1 = 2 | z |k +1

2 −1

1

provided | z |≤

2

Example : construct an entire function with simple zeros at the point

0, 1, 2 p , 3 p , ... , n p , ... ( p > 1)

Solution : We may take kn = 0 for every n. The series

∞ ∞

z 1

∑ n p

=| z | ∑ p

n =1 n =1 n

51

1

m=1 (simple zero at z=0), kn = 0, an =

np

∞

⎛ z ⎞

⇒ F ( z ) = e h ( z ) z ∏ ⎜1 − p ⎟

n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

....(1)

k n +1

∞

z

provided ∑

n =1 an

converges for ∀z where a n , n ≥ 1 are zeros.

k n +1

∞∞

⎛ ⎛z z ⎞ ⎞

∞

r F ( zπ)z==e he( z ) z mz∏

sin h( z) 1

∏ E⎜⎜E ⎜⎜ ; k;n k⎟⎟ n ⎟⎟

since ∑

n = −∞ an

< ∞; n ≠ 0, ∀ r > 0 n =n1 =1 ⎝ a ⎝n a n ⎠ ⎠

2

∞

z ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎞

then ∑

n = −∞ an

=| z |2 ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + .... ⎟

⎝1 1 2 2 ⎠

n≠0

∞

1

= 2 | z |2 ∑ n2 that conveyes for each z

n =1

∞

⎛ z ⎞

sinπz = e h( z )

z∏E⎜ ; 1⎟

n=1 ⎝ ± n ⎠

⎡⎛ z ⎞⎛ z ⎞ ⎛ z ⎞ ⎛ z ⎞⎤

∞

sinπz = e h( z )

z∏ ⎢⎜1+ ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ exp⎜ ⎟ exp⎜ − ⎟⎥

n=1 ⎣⎝ n ⎠⎝ n ⎠ ⎝ n ⎠ ⎝ n ⎠⎦

52

∞

⎛ z2 ⎞

sin πz = e h( z )

z∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟

n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

Example : Construct an entire function with simple zero at the point 0, -1, -2,

...., -n.

k n +1

∞

z

∑

n =1 an

be convergent if kn =1

k n +1

∞ ∞ ∞

z 1 1

i.e. ∑

n =1 an

=| z | ∑

2

n =1 | −n |

2

=| z |2 ∑n

n =1

2

∞ ⎛

z ⎞ −n

z

F ( z ) = e h ( z ) z ∏ ⎜⎜1 − ⎟e

n =1 ⎝ (− n) ⎟⎠

∞ z

⎛ z⎞ −

= e h ( z ) z ∏ ⎜1 + ⎟e n

n =1 ⎝ n⎠

∞

1

The smallest non negative integer k for which the series ∑|a k +1 converges

n =1 n |

∞ ⎛ z ⎞

is said to be rank of the infinite product. ∏ E ⎜⎜ a ; k n ⎟⎟

n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

infinite product

∞ ⎛ z ⎞

∏ E⎜⎜ a ; k ⎟⎟ is called canonical product.

n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

53

If F ( z) = eh( z ) .z m P( z) ...(1)

where P(z) is canonical product of rank k and A a non-empty set of non negative

converges.

Then the number ρ = glb A is called the exponent of convegence of the zeros of

is given by

1 log rn

= lim

ρc n→∞ log n

1

Example : If (i) | a |= n 2 log (ii) | an |=| a |n , | a |> 1 then find ρc.

n n

F ( z ) 1= z 2 e z

∑ α

Definition : Genus and Exponential ndegree

=1 | a n | of an entire function :

called the genus of the entire function and q is said to be the exponential degree of F.

If P(z) is not of finite rank k, or if h(z) is not a polynomial, then F is said be of infinite

genus.

2

F ( z) = e z z 2 P( z)

h( z ) = z 2 is a polynomial of degree 2.

P( z ) = 1

∴ kn = k = 0

54

A

max | F ( z ) |= M (r ) < e r

| z| = r

for all sufficiently large value of r = |z|, then F(z) is caled an entire function of

finite order.

Alternatively

A

| F ( z ) |= 0 (e r )

K >0

A

or | F ( z ) |< K e r ;

A

A

∀

If there is not a positive constant A such that

A

| F ( z ) |< e r ∀ r large enough

If F(z) is an entire function of finite order ρ and there exists a constant B >0 such

that

r large enough

ρ

σ = inf{B : M (r ) < eBr , r > R}

is called the type of F.

55

ρ

If there is no B such that M (r ) < e Br , then F is called of infinite type (or

maximum type).

if either the function is of order ρ =1 and type , or the function is of order less

then 1.

ρ+ε

M (r ) < e r ∀r large enough ...(2)

ρ−ε

M (r ) < e r ≤ σ log ρ ..(3)

log

M

ρ ) <M

=( rlim

r(

elog rlog

) M (r )

<ρ+ε (r =| z |)

→∞ r

rlog log r

Then (2) implies

log log M (r ) < (ρ + ε) log r

and (3) implies

log log M (r )

>ρ−ε ...(5)

log r

log log M (r )

∴ ρ−ε< <ρ+ε

log r

log log M (r )

⇒ ρ = lim

r →∞ log r

56

logM (r)

σ = lim

r →∞ rp

Proof : Since the entire function f(z) of finite order ρ is of type σ

Therefore

ρ

M ( r ) < e σr ...(1)

ρ

M (r ) < e (σ+ ε ) r ∀ r large enough ...(2)

ρ

and M (r ) > e ( σ −ε ) r ...(3)

log M (r )

<σ+ε ...(4)

rp

and (3) implies

log M (r )

>σ−ε ....(5)

rp

| z |≤ R

log M (r )

⇒ σ−ε< <σ+ε

rp

log M (r )

⇒ σ = lim

r →∞ rp

Theorem : Jensen Formula

1 2π n

R

∫

2π 0

log | f (Re iθ

) | d θ = log | f ( 0 ) | + ∑ log

| ak |

k =1

a1 a 2 ...a n f ( z )

g ( z) = ...(1)

(a1 − z )(a 2 − z )...(a n − z ) f (0)

57

is dfined at the point a1 , a 2 ,..., a n then it becomes analytic in | z |< R ′ and does

not vanish analytic in this disc. Then there exists a function h(z) analytic in R'such that

h( z )

Then can be made analytic in | z |< R ′

z

If we consider C : z = Re iθ , 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π then by the Cauchy-Gousrat theorem

2π

1 h( z ) 1 h(Re iθ )

∫ ∫0 Re iθ Rie dθ = 0

iθ

dz =

2πi C + z 2πi

2π

1

∫ h(Re

iθ

= )dθ = 0 ...(3)

2π 0

But Re h( z ) = log | g ( z ) |

1 2π a1 .a 2 ......a n f (Re iθ )

∫ (a − Re iθ )...(a − Re iθ ) f (0) dθ = 0

log

2π 2 π 2π 0

1 1 1

1 n 2π n

⇒ 2π ∫0

log | f (Re iθ

) | dθ −

2π ∫0

log | f ( 0 ) | d θ + ∑ log | a k | dθ

2π k =1 ∫0

1 n 2π

− ∑ log | a k − Re iθ | dθ = 0

2π k =1 ∫0

1 2π 1 n

⇒

2π ∫0

log | f (Re iθ

) | d θ − log | f ( 0 ) | + ∑ log | a k | ×2π

2π k =1

1 n 2π 1

+ ∑ ∫

2π k =1 0

log

| a k − Re iθ |

dθ = 0

1 2π 1 n

⇒ 2π ∫0

log | f (Re iθ

) | d θ − log | f ( 0 ) | + ∑ log | a k | ×2π

2π k =1

58

⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟

n 2π

1 ⎜ 1 ⎟

+ ∑ ∫ log⎜ ⎟dθ = 0

2π k =1 0 a e−iθ

⎜ | Re | k

iθ

−1 ⎟⎟

⎜ R

⎝ ⎠

1 2π 1 n

⇒

2π ∫0

log | f (Re iθ

) | d θ − log | f ( 0 ) | + ∑ log | a k | ×2π

2π k =1

1 n ⎡ ⎤

2π

ak e−iθ

+ ∑ ⎢

2π k =1 ∫0 ⎣

− log | R | − log1 −

R

⎥dθ = 0

⎦

1 2π 1 n

⇒

2π ∫0

log | f (Re iθ

) | d θ − log | f ( 0 ) | + ∑ log | a k | ×2π

2π k =1

2π

1 n 1 n ak e−iθ

+ ∑ 2π (− log R) − ∑ ∫ log1 − dθ = 0

2π k =1 2π k =1 0 R

1 2π 1 n

⇒ ∫

2π 0

log | f (Re iθ ) | dθ − log | f (0) | + ∑ log | a k | ×2π

2π k =1

n 2π

1 a k e − iθ

+ (− n) log R −

2π

∑ ∫

k =1 0

log 1 −

R

dθ = 0

14 4244 3

( = 0 when |a k / R|≤1)

2π n n

1

∫ log | f (Re ) | dθ = log | f (0) | −∑ log | ak | + ∑ log R

iθ

⇒ 2π 0 k =1 k =1

n ⎛ R ⎞

= log | f (0) | + ∑ log⎜⎜ ⎟

k =1 ⎝ | ak | ⎟⎠

Corollary : If n(r) denotes the number of zeros of the entire function F(z) in the

R

n(t )

∫ t

dt ≤ log M ( R ) − log | F (0) |

0

Proof : Let a1 , a 2 ,...., a n are zeros of F(z) in |z| <R such that | a1 |<| a 2 |< .... <| a n |

Then

n ⎛ R ⎞ n

∑ log⎜⎜ | a ⎟⎟ = n log R − ∑ log | a k |

k =1 ⎝ k |⎠ k =1

59

n −1

= n log R + ∑ k[log | a k +1 | − log | a k |] − n log | a n |

k =1

n −1 |a k +1 |

1

=∑ ∫ k dt + n(log R − log | a n |)

k =1 |a k | t

n −1 |a k +1 | R

k 1

=∑ ∫ dt + n ∫ dt ....(1)

k =1 |a k | t | an | t

n(t ) = 0 for 0 ≤ t ≤| a1 |

We have (from 1)

( n − 1)

n |a | |a | |a | |a |

R

R 2

1 3

2 4

3 n

1

∑ log = ∫ dt + ∫ dt + ∫ dt + ... + ∫

| a k | |a1 | t

dt + n ∫ dt

k =1 |a 2 | t |a 3 | t |a n −1 | t | an | t

R

n(t )

=∫ dt

0 t

M

R

n (t ) 1 2π iθ

∫ t dt =

2 π ∫ log | F (Re )dθ − log | F (0) |

0 0

2r 2r 2r

n (t ) n(t ) dt

∴ ∫ t dt ≥ ∫ t dt ≥ n ( r ) ∫ t = n(r ) log 2

0 r r

1 2 r n (t )

log 2 ∫0 t

⇒ n(r ) ≤ dt ....(1)

60

2r

n(t )

∫ dt < r ρ + 2ε / 3 − log | F (0) |< r ρ+ ε ...(3)

0 t

1 ρ +ε

n( r ) < r ...(4)

log 2

⇒ n(r) = o(r ρ +ε ) as r → ∞

Now we show that

1 ρ+ ε

n = n(rn ) < rn ....(5)

log 2 0∞c<≤ε1ρ< δ

ρ

∑ r ρ+ε

for all r large enough n =1 n

from (5)

1 1 1

<

rnρ + ε n log 2

( ρ +δ ) /( ρ + ε )

1 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞

and <A A = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

rnρ +ε n( ρ +δ ) /( ρ +ε ) ⎝ log 2 ⎠

(ρ + δ ) ∞

1

(ρ + ε )

> 1 , the series ∑n ρ δ

n=1

( + ) /( ρ +ε ) converges

∞

Hence ∑ rn−(ρ+ε)

n =1

61

1

P(z), a dix of radius r p is described where rn = | a n | and = order P(z). Then in

n

the region R complementary to the union of all those discs, the inequality

∞ 1

Proof : It is obivious that the sum 2 n∑=1 r p infinite as ( p > ρ = ρ c ) the union of

n

−p −p

the intervals U [ rn − rn , rn + rn ] on the real axis each of length 2rn− p does not cover

n

There are infinitely many circles with center at the origin and radii arbitrarily large

which lie in R.

⎛ z ⎞ ⎛ z ⎞

| P ( z ) |= ∏ E ⎜⎜ a ; k ⎟⎟ ∏ E ⎜⎜ a ; k ⎟⎟ ....(1)

rn ≤ 2 r ⎝ n ⎠ rn > 2 r ⎝p >n ρ ⎠ ρ +ε

| P( z ) |> e − r (ε > 0)

⎛ z ⎞ ⎛ z ⎞

⇒ log | P ( z ) | = ∑ log E ⎜⎜ a ; k ⎟⎟ + ∑ log E ⎜⎜ a ; k ⎟⎟

rn ≤ 2 r ⎝ n ⎠ rn > 2 r ⎝ n ⎠

k

z z ⎛ z ⎞ 1 ⎛ z ⎞

≥ ∑ log 1 − −∑ + .... + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ . − ∑ log E ⎜⎜ ; k ⎟⎟ ....(2)

rn ≤ 2 r an rn ≤ 2 r an ⎝ an ⎠ k rn > 2 r ⎝ an ⎠

⎛ z ⎞ ⎧⎪ 1 ⎛ a ⎞ ⎫⎪

2 k k −1 k −1

k

z 1⎛ z ⎞ 1⎛ z ⎞ 1 ⎛ an ⎞

+ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + ..... + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≤ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎨ + ⎜ ⎟ + .... + ⎜ n ⎟ ⎬

an 2 ⎝ an ⎠ k ⎝ an ⎠ ⎝ an ⎠ ⎪⎩ k k − 1 ⎝ z ⎠ ⎝ z ⎠ ⎪⎭

⎧⎪ 1 k −1

⎫⎪

k

⎛ r ⎞ an

≤ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎨ + .... + ⎬

⎝ rn ⎠ ⎪⎩ k z ⎪

1 4 42 4 4 3⎭

( A1 which does not depend on r )

k

⎛r ⎞

= A1 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ....(3)

⎝ rn ⎠

62

k k

z 1⎛ z ⎞ ⎛ r ⎞

∴ ∑ + ....... + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≤ A1 ∑ ⎜⎜

k ⎝ an ⎠

⎟⎟

rn ≤ 2 r an rn ≤ 2 r ⎝ rn ⎠

2 ρ + ε / 2− k .r ρ + ε / 2+ k

= A1 ∑ ρ+ ε / 2−k .r ρ+ε / 2 (r ) k

rn ≤ 2 r 2 n

2 ρ + ε / 2− k .r ρ+ ε / 2

= A1 ∑ ρ+ε / 2−k

.(rn ) k

rn ≤ 2 r ( 2r )

1

= A1 2 ρ + ε / 2 − k .r ρ + ε / 2 ∑ (rn ) ρ+ε / 2−k

.(rn ) k

rn ≤ 2 r

⎛ 1 ⎞

= r ρ + ε / 2 ⎜⎜ A1 2 ρ + ε / 2 − k ∑ ρ + ε / 2 ⎟⎟

⎝144 42n4 4 43⎠

=1 rn

= A2 r ρ + ε / 2 ....(4)

If k =0 the sum in (4) does not appear in (2). For z outside every circle | z − an |= rn− p

with rn ≤ 2r .

We have

z | a − z | rn− p

1− = n = = rn− p −1 ≥ (2r ) − p −1

an | an | rn

Hence for all circles |z| =r in the region R, with r sufficiently large,

ρ+ε

log | P ( z ) |> − r ρ + ε ⇒ | P ( z ) |> e − r

63

is the multiplicity of z =0 and P(z) is a canonical product of rank .

...(1)

When h(z) is an entire function and P(z) a product which may or may not be

canonical.

ρ+ ε

Also since | P ( z ) |> e − r

replacing ε by we have

|≤

FεPρ

((zz))=|>eeh(−zr) z m P( z)

ρ+ ε / 2

2 large radius.

ρ+ε / 2

Aslo | F (z) |< er is satisfied for all values of r sufficiently large, since F is

ρ+ ε / 2

| F (z) | er

e Re h ( z )

=| e h( z )

|= m < ρ+ ε / 2

| z P( z ) | e − r

ρ+ε / 2 ρ+ε

= e 2r < er on circles of arbitrarily large radius.

Re h( z ) < r ρ + ε

∞

⎛ z2 ⎞

Example : Show sin πz = πz ∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟ by Hadaward Factorization Theorem.

n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

sinπ z ∞ π 2n z n

Solution : Let F ( z) = = ∑ (−1)n ....(1)

π z n =0 (2n + 1)!

64

π2 z

=1− + .....

3!

∞

when F ( z ) = ∑ c n z then by the formula

n

n =0

1 log(1 / | c n |)

= lim ...(2)

ρ n→∞ n log n

1 1

= 2 i.e. ρ = ...(3)

ρ 2

Since zeros of F(z) are z =1, 4, ..., n2, ... we have

sin π z ∞

⎛ z ⎞

F ( z) = = e h ( z ) ∏ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ ...(4)

π z n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

⇒ h( z ) = C (constant)

∞ 1

⎛ z⎞ h( z ) ≤

∴ F (z) = e ∏⎜1− 2 ⎟

C

2

n=1 ⎝ n ⎠

Since F (0) = 1

⇒ C =0

sin π z ∞

⎛ z ⎞

∴ = F ( z ) = ∏ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟

π z n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

Replacing z by z2

sin πz ∞ ⎛ z2 ⎞

= ∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟

πz n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

65

- Harvard - Local FieldsUploaded bybobbybobard
- Blocks Game English IEEEXtreme9Uploaded byAlejandro Lopez
- Resolução LimitesUploaded byDemmys Sousa
- On Fuzzy Semi Alpha-separation AxiomsUploaded byDr.Hakeem Ahmed Othman
- Mathematics Syllabi B.sc.Uploaded byAyush Kesharwani
- Book.pdfUploaded byjaganmohan1982
- lectures-topology-salibra.pdfUploaded bybeni
- FractalsUploaded byvyeslav
- 031 KirkUploaded byprateek
- Cal91 SequencesUploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- 3604264Uploaded byAldenilo Vieira
- Principles and Techniques in Combinatorics - Chen Chuan-Chong, Koh Khee-Meng (WS, 1992)Uploaded byRoberto Garcia Sanchez
- A Collection of Problems in AnalysisUploaded byMihalis Nikolaou
- Francis Bonahon – Low Dimensional GeometryUploaded byalex647
- Some Fixed Point and Common Fixed Point Theorems of Integral Expression on 2-Banach SpacesUploaded byIJSRP ORG
- Calculus Limits Notes(2014)Uploaded byDavrice Richards
- Abou-Faycal Trott ShamaiUploaded byNguyễn Minh Dinh
- Formal System DevelopmentUploaded byAzmil Ft
- 1 04 Top CompactUploaded byleandro1281
- root.pdfUploaded byAshoka Vanjare
- A Compact and Comprehensive IIT Foundation Math X 10 S K Gupta Anubhuti Gangal S Chand IIT Foundation Series ( PDFDrive.com ).pdfUploaded byvikram singh
- FunctionsUploaded byabhishekv0697
- Sequences and Series FunctionsUploaded byLata Sharma
- Eustasio Del Barrio, Paul Deheuvels, Sara Van de Geer Lectures on Empirical Processes Theory and Statistical Applications 2007Uploaded byFina Sh
- HWwk32011_635732773672496711Uploaded byNK
- Chapter 1 Limit and ContinuityUploaded byMOHD SHAHRIL BIN SAMAT -
- 40 sequencesUploaded byapi-299265916
- Final Exam Review Spring 2011Uploaded byKirby Hu
- Pentagonal NumbersUploaded byknuthfan
- Seven Smarandache-Coman sequences of primesUploaded byMia Amalia

- Advanced Discrete Mathematics-finalUploaded byParvesh Nain
- Dgca Module 03 Aug 17 Handwritten 1Uploaded byAshish Rana
- Sokolnikoff Theory of ElasticityUploaded byAdam Taylor
- Dgca Module 3 Part 04Uploaded byUttam
- MATHS+TIER+II.pdfUploaded byparveshnain19
- Mathematics Theory of ElasticityUploaded byparveshnain19
- Soft Computing.pdfUploaded byparveshnain19
- MSC III SEM - Copy.docxUploaded byparveshnain19
- ECEF - CopyUploaded byparveshnain19
- TB04_soft-computing-ebook.pdfUploaded byManoj Balaji
- emfbookUploaded byZEUJ
- Pawan St PptUploaded byparveshnain19
- math.pdfUploaded byparveshnain19
- math.pdfUploaded byparveshnain19
- matheod of applied mathematicsUploaded byparveshnain19
- mal-525.pdfUploaded byparveshnain19
- mal-525.pdfUploaded byparveshnain19
- ordinary differential equation-IIUploaded byparveshnain19
- ordinary differential equation-IIUploaded byparveshnain19

- Victor Guillemin-Multilinear Algebra and Differential Forms for Beginners (Fall 2010 MIT Notes)Uploaded bydeolaya1318
- AutoCAD_3D_2007Uploaded byadnan
- B-Splines PrimerUploaded bymrepupix5610
- VIII_7_NP_069_2014Uploaded byFabian Luca
- Unit II Projection of Points and Straight Lines Planes Important SumsUploaded byrajesh
- derivatives and integrals of vector functionsUploaded byJoel
- Green's TheoremUploaded byJuan M
- class1.pdfUploaded byalin444444
- The definition of a planar algebraUploaded bydcsi3
- Structural AnalysisUploaded byCourtney Ward
- MEG373.CHP05.ForceAnlysis.docUploaded byconfederateyankee
- Physics CPP-FIITJEEUploaded bysanits591
- rovenski[1]Uploaded byLeo Kuts
- Basic of KinematicsUploaded bysathya_jb
- ENGN.2070-208_Assignment_2_Solution.pdfUploaded byFabián OG
- 01a Kinematika Grafik - Visualisasi GerakUploaded byNbe Nurbaeti
- Mohr CircleUploaded byJade Louise Patolilic
- P. W. Fowler- Huckel spectra of Mobius pi systemsUploaded byGravvol
- AC_note.pdfUploaded byAnonymous JeDEdFdmx
- Topology General & Algebraic (2009) - (Malestrom).pdfUploaded byratchagar a
- 8Uploaded byapi-288922072
- Kom Graf 04 Transform as iUploaded byAnnysa Firdaus
- Mark Scheme Jan 2005Uploaded byOE94
- Viscous Set3Uploaded bymohammadtari
- Nilpotent - SemidirectUploaded byMike DeGraff
- Simulation Theory ManualUploaded byBùi Văn Hợp
- Topic 2 Worksheet D Exam Style Questions on Coordinate Geometry.pdfUploaded byNickRazzouk
- Apparent Weight Ch5Uploaded byAnton van der Watt
- Henri Lefebre's the Production of SpaceUploaded byKinkin Aprilia Kirana
- Ch 10 RotationUploaded byChandra Sekhar