You are on page 1of 65

1

Space of Analytic Functions

The space of continuous functions C(G, Ω)

Definition : If G is an open set in C and (Ω, d) is a complete metric space the

set of all continuous functions from G to Ω, designated by C(G, Ω) is called space of

continuous functions.

Compact set of a metric space

Definition : A subset K of a metric space X is compact if for every collection

ς = {G : G is open; G ⊂ X } of open sets in X,


....(1)

i.e. there is a finite number of sets G1 , G2 ,..., Gn in ς such that

Cover of a compact set ς{Kx ⊂}U


G1{U
GG 2 U
:G ς }U G n
∈....
n
A collection of set ς satisfying (1) is called cover of the compact set K.

If each member of is an open set then is called open cover of K.

e.g. empty set and all finite sets are compact.

Cauchy sequence : A sequence is called a Cauchy sequence if

for every ε>0 there is an integer N such that d ( xn , xm ) < ε, ∀ n, m ≥ N

Complete metric space : A metric space (X,d) is called complete metric space

if each Cauchy sequence has a limit in X.

Let G ⊂ C, G is an open subset of C and H(G) the set of all analytic functioins

defined on G, i.e. H(G) = {f : f is analytic function on G} then H(G) be a subset of

space of continuous functons from G to C.


2

H (G ) ⊂ C (G , C )

We denotes the set of analytic function on G by H(G) rather than A(G) because

g continuous function that are analytic in G}

Thus A(G ) ≠ H (G )

Theorem: If be a sequence in H(G) and f ∈ C (G , C) such that

then f is analytic and f n( k ) → f ( k ) ∀ integer k ≥ 1

Proof : To prove that f is analytic, we use Morera’s theorem. If T be a triangle

contained inside a disk D ⊂ G, then T is compact, and the sequence { f n } converges

to f uniformly over T. Hence by Morera’s theorem

∫ f = lim ∫ f = 0
T T
...(1)

since each f n is analytic.

→R = − | f n (w) − f (w) |
fr n k )}()→ ( z) ⊂
ffTnnf(((nkG
a {A
) f (k ) k!
z) −{f gf :( k, )G ≤ C; ∫γ | dw |
D 2π | w − z |k +1
γ G

Thus f must be analytic in every disk D ⊂ G .

Now we show that

Let D = B (a; r ) ⊂ G; then there is a number R > r such that B (a, R) ⊂ G.

If we take a circle γ ≡| z − a |= R then by Cauchy’s Integral formula

k! ⎡ f n (w) f (w) ⎤
f n( k ) ( z) − f ( k ) ( z) = ∫ ⎢
2πi γ ⎣ (w − z) k +1

(w − z) k +1 ⎥⎦
dw ∀ z∈D

⇒ ...(2)

Since f n → f and f n are continuous in C then ∃ M n > 0 where

M n = sup{| f n ( w) − f ( w) |: | w − a |= R} such that


3

| f n ( w) − f ( w) |≤ M n , then from the equation (2)

k! Mn
∴ f n( k ) ( z ) − f ( k ) ( z ) ≤ ∫
2π γ ( R − r )k +1
| dw |

k!M n k!M n
k +1 ∫
= | dw | = .2πR
2π ( R − r ) γ 2π ( R − r ) k +1

k!M n R
= for |z-a|<r ...(3)
2π ( R − r )k +1

Since f n → f , and limMn = 0 then (3) gives

⇒ f n( k ) → f (k )
uniformly on B (a ; r ).

Now if K is an arbitrary compact subset of G and distance of each element of K

from any of the boundary point of G is greater than r, i.e.


0 < r < d ( K , ∂G ) then in K such that
n
K ⊂ U B(a j ; r )
j =1
K

∂G
Since f n( k ) → f ( k ) uniformly on each{δ|∃nfzB
(≥=:−
az|(1N a,≠a−|=;20{|
)inf
za
j r)
R|f=(R
a,...., za)}n|:| z − a |= R} > 0

⇒ f n(k ) converges uniformly to f(k) on K

Theorem : Hurwitz’s Theorem

Let G be a region and suppose the sequence {fn} converges to f in H(G). If

f ≡/ 0, B (a; R) ⊂ G and f ( z ) ≠ 0 for | z − a |= R then there is an integer N such that

for n ≥ N , f and fn have the same number of zeros in B(a;R).

Proof : Since for | z − a |= R , therefore we can define a positive

number δ as

But fn converges uniformly to f on . Therefore integer N such

that if and then


δ
| f ( z ) − f n ( z ) |< <| f ( z ) |
2
≤| f ( z ) | + | f n ( z ) |
4

Thus from above it follows that f and fn satisfies the condition of Rouche’s

theorem.

Thus f and fn have the same number of zeros in B(a;R).

Theorem: Let be a sequence in M(G) and suppose f n → f in

C (G , C ∞ ) then either f is meromorphic or f ≡ ∞ . If each f n is analytic then either

f is analytic or f ≡ ∞

Proof : Suppose there is a point ‘a’ in G with f (a ) ≠ ∞ and let | f (a ) |= M

a
f(a)
G
C∞

Now

therefore we can find a number ρ > 0 such that


....(1)

But f n → f so there is an integer n{|Bf0zff∞n(a(−


,(z(})ffza1|∈C
such
nn a<|fthat
)(,|≤ −
); f|ρn| (f)fz(n)⊂a−
≤2|r∞,....} f)|((a−≤)f |(f+af(|n);
( )zB za|)+
af()(M ))−|≤| 2fM
( a )) || ∀ z ∈B(a; r) and n ≥ n0
ρ
d ( f n (a); f (a)) < , ∀n ≥ n0
2
Also the set is compact in C (G , C ∞ )

⇒ it is equicontinuous

i.e. ∃ an r > 0 such that


ρ
⇒ d ( f n ( z ), f ( z )) <
2
ρ
⇒ d ( f n ( z ); f n (a)) <
2
This gives that d ( f n ( z ), f ( a ) ) ≤ ρ for | z − a |≤ r and for n ≥ n0

Now

⇒ ...(2)

In view of the ρ chosen in (1); the expression (2) can be written as

.....(3)
5

2 | fn (z) − f (z) |
d ( fn (z) , f (z))=
But
{[1 + | f n ( z ) |2 ][1 + | f ( z ) |2 ]}
1/ 2

∀ z ∈ B (a ; r ) and n ≥ n0
2 | f n ( z) − f ( z) |

{(1 + 4M 2
)(1 + 4 M 2 )} 1/ 2

∀ z ∈ B (a ; r ) and n ≥ n0
Since d { f n ( z ), f ( z )} → 0 uniformly for z ∈ B (a; r ) this gives that
| f n ( z ) − f ( z ) |→ 0 uniformly for z ∈ B (a; r )

From (3)

{fn} is bounded on B(a; r)

⇒ fn has no poles and must analytic near z =a, ∀ n ≥ n0 .

⇒ f is analytic in a disc about a. .....(4)

Now suppose there is a point ‘a’ in G with . Then, if g ∈ C (G, C∞ ) ;

define 1/g as follows:


f (a ) = ∞
1 1
( z) = if g ( z ) ≠ 0 or ∞;
g g ( z)

1
( z) = 0 if g ( z ) = ∞; and
g

1
( z) = ∞ if g ( z ) = 0
g

1
Then it follows that ∈ C (G, C∞ )
g

Also, since f n → f in C (G, C∞ ) then by the property of metric over non zero

complex number z1 and z2 , i.e.


⎛1 1 ⎞
⎟⎟ and d ( z,0) = d ⎛⎜ , ∞ ⎞⎟
1
d ( z1 , z 2 ) = d ⎜⎜ ,
⎝ z1 z 2 ⎠ ⎝z ⎠
1 1
It follows that f → f in C (G , C ∞ )
n

1
Now each f is meromorphic on G;
n
6

1 1
So, ∃ r > 0 and an integer n0 such that f and f are analytic on B(a; r) for
n

n ≥ n0

1 1
⇒ →
fn f uniformly on B(a; r).

1 1
From Hurwitz theorem, either ≡ 0 or has isolated zeros in B(a; r).
f f

1
∴ if f ≡/ ∞ then ≡/ 0 and f must be meromorphic in B(a; r)
f

Combining this with the result (4) that f is meromorphic in G if f is not identically

infinite.
1
If each fn is analytic then f has no zeros in B(a; r). Then [ corollary : {fn} ⊂
n

H(G) converges to f in H(G) and each fn never vanishes on G then either f ≡ 0 or


1 1
never vanishes] then either f ≡ 0 or f never vanishes.
1
But since f (a ) = ∞ we have that f has at least one zero; thus f ≡ ∞ in B(a;r)
Fz −f{|a∈|f<F(r,z ) |:| z − a |< r , f ∈ F} < ∞

|sup
Thus, either f ≡ ∞ or f is analytic

Locally bounded set of analytic functions

Definition : A set F ⊂ H (G ) is locally bounded if ∀ a ∈ G, there are

constants M and r >0, such that

| f ( z) |≤ M , for

Alternately
F is locally bounded if there is an r >0 such that

Montel’s Theorem

A family F in H(G) is normal iff is locally bounded

Proof : To prove that is normal i.e. each sequence in has a subsequence


7

which converges to a function f in H(G).

Necessary : Suppose is normal but fails to be locally bounded.

then there is a compact set K ⊂ G such that

....(1)

[contradiction of locally bounded set]

i.e. there exists a sequence { f n } in F such that

Since F is normal therefore a function and a subsequence such

that
f nk → f

⇒ sup{| f nR ( z ) − f ( z ) |: z ∈ K} → 0 as k → ∞

If | f ( z ) |≤ M for z ∈ K

n k ≤ sup{| f nk ( z ) − f ( z ) |: z ∈ K } + M

when nk → ∞
{ }
ff′∈
F
m
sup
H ≥G1))ffU
{|
((z
sup{| (G z∞
n) ({
nk to M which cannot be true (
right hand side converges
∈KK},≥ fn ∈ F} = ∞
) ||}::zz∈
∞≤M)
Hence the assumption taken at start is wrong. Therefore if is normal it is locally

bounded.

Corollary : is closed in C (G , C ∞ ) .

For this we prove the normality of M(G).

For this let us introduce the quality


2 | f ′( z ) |
1+ | f ( z ) |2
....(1)

for each meromorphic function.

However if z is a pole of f then has no meaning because derivative

increases the order of the pole. Therefore (1) is meaningless.

This can be rectify by taking limit of (1) as z approaches the pole. Now we show

that the limit of (1) when z tends to pole. Let ‘a’ be a pole of f of order ; then
8

f(z) can be expressed as


Am A1
f ( z) = g ( z) + + .... +
( z − a) m
( z − a)
for z in some disk about a and g(z) analytic in that disk.

For z ≠ a

mAm A1
2 m +1
+ .... + − g ′( z )
2 | f ′( z ) | ( z − a) ( z − a) 2
=
∴ 1+ | f ( z ) | 2 Am A1
2

1+ + .... + + g ( z)
( z − a) m ( z − a)

2 | z − a | m −1 | mAm + ..... + A1 ( z − a ) m −1 − g ′( z )( z − a ) m +1 |
=
| z − a | 2 m + | Am + ..... + A1 ( z − a ) m −1 + g ( z )( z − a ) m | 2

Thus if m ≥ 2
2 | f ′( z ) |
lim =0
z → a 1+ | f ( z ) | 2
⎡ mAm A1 ⎤
f ′( z ) = g ′( z ) − ⎢ m +1
+ .... + ⎥
If m = 1 then ⎣ ( z − a) ( z − a) 2 ⎦

A1
2 − g ′( z )
2 | f ′( z ) | ( z − a) 2
lim = lim
z →a 1+ | f ( z ) | 2 z →a 2
A1
1+ + g ( z)
( z − a)

1
2 A1 − ( z − a) 2 g ′( z )
| z−a| 2
= lim
z →a 1
| z − a |2
[
| z − a | 2 + | A1 + g ( z )( z − a) | 2 ]
2 | A1 | 2
= 2
=
| A1 | | A1 |

2 | f ′( z ) |
which shows that for m ≥ 1 the limit of exits.
1+ | f ( z ) | 2
9

Theorem : Riemann Mapping Theorem


Let G be a simply connected region which is not the whole plane and let

Then there is a unique analytic function having the properties.

f D

f(G)
G C

(a) f(a) = 0 and

(b) f is one-one

(c) f (G ) = {z :| z |< 1}

Proof : First we prove uniqueness of f, let g be a function having the same

properties like f, i.e.

g(a) =0 and g'(a) >0,

g is one-one and ′:(|G


|afc∈ =aG)1→
=C0

g (G ) = {z :| z |< 1} g : G → D

and D = {z :| z |< 1} then


1−1
g :G → D
onto
1−1
−1
and fog : D → D and analytic.
onto

Also fog (0) = f ( g −1 (0)) = f (a ) = 0


−1

Then by the theorem-


1−1
Let f : G → D analytic and f (a ) = 0 ∃ a complex number c with | c |= 1
onto

z −α
such that f =cϕα , ϕα (z) = 1 − α z is Mobious transformation.

Implies that ∃ a constant c; and fog−1(z) = cz ∀z


⇒ f ( z ) = cg ( z )
10

Since and cg ′(a) > 0

⇒ c =1

⇒ f=g

Hence f is unique.

For the existence of f, consider the family F of all analytic function f having

properties (a) and (b) and satisfying for z in G.

The idea is to choose a member of F having property (c).

Suppose {Kn} is a sequence of compact subsets of G such that


and a ∈ K n ∀ n

Then { f ( K n )} is sequence of compact subsets of D = {z :| z |< 1} .

Also, as n becomes larger { f ( K n )} becomes larger and larger and tries to fill

out the disk.


0gf∞f′=
|F
Choosing f ∈ F with the largest possible (< = ) c: gf ′ (isa );one− one, f (a) = 0, f ′(a) > 0, f (G) ⊂ D}
′01(0aH)(G
(aaz{))f>|><∈
U Kf (nderivative
K=n G ) = D at a, we choose the function
n =1
which “starts out the fastest” at z =a.

Thus

Lemma : Let G be a region which is not the whole plane and such that every

non vanishing function on G has an analytic square root. If a ∈ G

then there is an analytic function f on G such that :

(a) f(a) = 0 and


(b) f is one-one

(c) f (G ) = D = {z :| z |< 1}

Proof : Let we define F as

Since f (G ) ⊂ D then
11

sup{| f ( z ) | : z ∈G} ≤ 1 for f ∈ F

By Montel theorem F is normal if it is non-empty. Thus first of all it is to be

proved that

....(1)

and F− = F ∪ {0} ...(2)

Suppose (1) and (2) hold and consider the function

f → f ′(a ) of H (G) → C

This is a continuous function and since F − is compact there is a f in with

F.
Since (empty set) therefore f ∈ F .

f(G) = D is remains to shows now.

Suppose w ∈ D such that ff ≠


,F
w
F ′∉
then φ)fthe
−( za −
≥w
(G ′( a ) ∀g ∈
g)function
1 − w f ( z)
is analytic in G and never vanishes.

then by the hypothesis there is an analytic function h : G → C which is equal to


the square root of a analytic function, i.e.
f ( z) − w
[h( z )] 2 = ....(3)
1 − w f ( z)

Since the Mobious transformation


ς −w
Tς = maps D onto D, h(G) ⊂ D.
1 − wς

Define g : G → C by
| h ′(a ) | h( z ) − h(a )
g ( z) = . ....(4)
h ′(a ) 1 − h(a ) h( z )

Then | g (G ) |≤ 1 ⇒ g(G) ⊂ D,
12

which is obvious from (4)

and g is one-one, as f and hence h both are one-one.

Also

| h′(a) | h′(a)[1− | h(a) |2 ]


g ′(a) = .
h′(a) [1− | h(a) | 2 ]2
| h′(a) |
=
1− | h(a) | 2
But
f (a) − w 0 − w
| h(a) |2 = = =| −w |=| w |
1 − wf (a) 1 − 0

and derivative of (3) gives


f ′( z ) (1 − w f ( z )) − ( f ( z ) − w) ( − w f ′( z ))
2h( z )h′( z ) =
[1 − w f ( z )]2
f ′( a ) − w w f ′( a )
2 h ( a ) h ′( a ) =
1
2h(a )h ′(a ) = f ′(a )(1− | w | 2 ) egf h((azz ))) =≠=0f0( z )

f ′(a)(1− | w | 2 ) 1
∴ g ′(a) = .
2 | w| 1− | w |

⎛ (1+ | w |) ⎞ ⎡ 1+ | w | ⎤
= f ′(a)⎜ ⎟ ⎢Q > 1⎥
⎜ 2 | w| ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎣⎢ 2 | w | ⎥⎦

> f ′(a )

This contradict that g is in F and the choice of f. Thus f(G) = D.

Theorem : Let f(z) be analytic in a simply connected region R and suppose that

f(z) has no zeros in R. Then there is a analytic function h(z) such that for

all z ∈ R .

Proof : Since in R
f ′( z )
then f ( z ) is also analytic in R and therefore for any two points a and z in R the
13

integral

....(1)

defines an analytic function of z in R

Let α be an argument of f(a) then f(a) can be expressed as


f (a) = r eiα and set

β = log | f (a) | +iα

e β = elog|f (a)|+iα
= e log| f ( a )|
e i α = e log r
e iα = r e iα
Then e β = f (a) ...(2)

and if we consider

f ′(ς )
z
h( z ) = β + ∫ dς ....(3)
a
f (ς )

We get h(a ) = β , then from (2) we have


F (′(zz)z)=ff e(′(fzhς)(′(z)−)z )F ( z ) f ′( z ) = 0
hIF′=(z) =
e h(a ) β
= e = f (a)
∫ f (fς ()z)dς ...(4)
a

⇒ h(z) is analytic in R for all z ∈ R

from (3)

Let F ( z) = e h( z )
f ′( z )
then F ′( z ) = e h′( z ) = F ( z ) f ( z )
h( z )

F ′( z ) f ′( z )
⇒ =
F (z) f ( z)

F ′( z ) f ( z ) − F ( z ) f ′( z )
⇒ =0
[ F ( z )]2

Q be non vanishing
14

d ⎛ f ( z) ⎞
⇒ ⎜ ⎟=0
dz ⎜⎝ F ( z ) ⎟⎠

f ( z)
⇒ = κ (a constant ) for all z ∈ R
F ( z)
Putting z =a, we obtain

∴ f ( z ) = F ( z ) = e h( z )

The analytic function h(z) defined as above is called logarithm of f(z) in R and

we write h( z ) = log f ( z ) .

Clearly, if h(z) is a logarithm of f(z), then (m an integer) is also

logarithm of f(z).

Convergence of logarithm series :



zn z 2 z )z+3
πi f (a) f (a)
log(1 + z) = ∑(−1) n−1 = z − κh(=
+ f (2a−m
)......
n=1 n 2 F 3 (a) = h(a) = f (a) = 1
e
with radius of convergence 1.

If |z| < 1 then

log(1 + z ) ⎛ z z2 ⎞
1− = 1 − ⎜⎜1 − + − ... ⎟⎟
z ⎝ 2 3 ⎠

z 1 2 ⎛1 1 ⎞
= − z + .... ≤ ⎜ | z | + | z | 2 +....⎟
2 3 ⎝2 3 ⎠
1
≤ (| z | + | z | 2 +.....)
2
1 |z|
≤ ....(1)
2 1− | z |
1
Further if | z |< then
2
log(1 + z ) 1
1− ≤
z 2
15

z − log(1 + z ) 1
⇒ ≤
z 2
|z|
⇒ | log(1 + z ) | − | z |≤
2
3
⇒ | log(1 + z ) |≤ |z|
2
1
Since log (1+z) is converges to 1, then for | z |< , we have
2
|z| 3
≤| log(1 + z) |≤ | z | ....(2)
2 2

Proposition :
∞ ∞
Re z n > 0 ∀n ≥ 1 . Then ∏ z n converges to a non-zero number iff. ∏ log z n
n =1 n =1

converges.

Proof : Let pn = ( z1 ⋅ z 2 ⋅ z3 ⋅ .... ⋅ z n )


m = =p≥niθkn=0n z=− π
, nre
kzlim
m∞ k<θ<π
n→

and ln( p n ) = log | p n | +iθ n , θ − π < θn < θ + π

If S n = log z1 + log z 2 + ..... + log z n

then exp( S n ) = exp[log z1 + log z 2 + ..... + log z n ]

= exp[log( z1 .z 2 .... z n )] = p n

∴ S n = ln( p n ) + 2πik n for some integer kn.

Now suppose

, then

S n − S n −1 = log z n → 0

Also ln( p n ) − ln( p n −1 ) → 0

Hence ( k n − k n −1 ) → 0 as n → ∞

Since kn is an integer, there exists integers n0 and k such that

for
16

So S n → ln( z ) + 2 πiK

Corollary :

If Re z n > 0 then the product. ∏ z n converges absolutely iff the series

∑ ( z n − 1) converges absolutely.

Lemma :

Let X be a set and f1, f2, f3 ... be functions from X into C such that

f n ( x) → f ( x) uniformly for x in X. If there is a constant ‘a’ such that


Re f ( x) ≤ a ∀x ∈ X then exp f n ( x ) → exp f ( x ) uniformly for x in X.

Proof : For given ε > 0 choose such that

whenever | z |< δ ....(1)

Now choose n0 such that


{δnexp[
ge≥>nz }0n−0ffn1n((|x< −a
ε−neexp
x))− |<εεee−−aa | exp f ( x) |≤ ε
| f n ( x ) − f ( x ) |< δ ∀x ∈ X ||whenever
exp ≥f (nx0f)](−x)1|<

Thus, from (1)

exp f n ( x)
⇒ − 1 < εe − a
exp f ( x)

⇒ | exp f n ( x ) − exp f ( x) |< εe − a | exp f ( x) |

It follow that for any x ∈ X and

⇒ exp f n ( x ) → exp f ( x ) uniformly for x ∈ X .

Lemma :

Let (X, d) be a compact metric space and let be a sequence of continuous

function from X into C such that ∑ g n (x) converges absolutely and uniformly for x in
17

X.

Then the product f ( x) = ∏ (1 + g n ( x)) converges absolutely and uniformly for
n =1

x in X. Also there is an integer n0 such that f ( x) = 0 iff g n ( x) = −1 for some

n, 1 ≤ n ≤ n 0

Proof : Since ∑ g n (x) converges uniformly for x ∈ X therefor their exists an

integer n0 such that and n ≥ n 0

3
⇒ and | log(1+ gn (x)) |≤ | gn (x) |; ∀ n ≥ n0 and x ∈ X
2

Thus h( x) = ∑ log(1 + g n ( x)) converges uniformly for x∈ X
n = n0 +1

Now

∴ is also continuous.

Hence h(x) is continuous.

Q X is compact ⇒ h(x) must be bounded. x))<C≠a(0X∀, Cx)∈ X


g (hxh()(x∈
exp
Re f ( x11) +=
log(
Re[ + [gg1 +1((xxg)]))(>x0)][1 + g ( x )]......[1 + g n ( x )]. exp h( x )
| gn n ( x) |<nn 1∀ x ∈ X 2
In particular, there is a constant a such that 2

Then

⎡ ∞ ⎤
exp h( x) = exp ⎢ ∑ log(1 + g n ( x))⎥
⎣ n = n0 +1 ⎦

= ∏(1+ gn (x)), converges uniformly for x ∈ X and
n=n0 +1

for any x ∈ X .

Now if we take

then

f (x) = ∏(1+ gn (x)),
n=1
18

converges uniformly for x ∈ X .

Definition : An Elementary factor is one of the following function or

E( z ; p)
for p = 0, 1, 2, 3,... defined as

E(z ; 0) or E0 (z) = 1 − z

⎛ z2 zp ⎞
E( z ; p) or E p ( z ) = (1 − z ) exp⎜⎜ z + + .... + ⎟, p ≥ 1
⎝ 2 p ⎟⎠

⎛ 2 p

; p ) or E p ⎛⎜ z ⎞⎟ = ⎛⎜1 − z ⎞⎟ exp⎜ z + 1 ⎛⎜ z ⎞⎟ + ...... 1 ⎛⎜ z ⎞⎟ ⎟, p ≥ 1
z
E(
a ⎝a⎠ ⎝ a⎠ ⎜a 2⎝a⎠ p ⎝ a ⎠ ⎟⎠

⎛z⎞
⇒ E p ⎜ ⎟ has a simple zero at z =a and no other zero.
⎝a⎠
Also if b is a point in C − G then

⎛a−b⎞ ⎛ a −b⎞ ⎡ a − b 1 ⎛ a − b ⎞2 1 ⎛a−b⎞ ⎤


p
Ep⎜ ⎟ = ⎜1 − ⎟ exp ⎢ E (z+) ⎜ ⎟ + .... + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
⎝ z −b⎠ ⎝ z −b⎠ ⎣⎢ z −pb 2 ⎝ z − b ⎠ p ⎝ z − b ⎠ ⎦⎥

has a simple zero at z =a, and is analytic in G.

Lemma

If | z |≤ 1 and p ≥ 0 then | 1 − E p ( z ) |≤| z | p +1

Proof : We restrict for p ≥ 1 .

For a fixed p let the power series expansion of E p (z ) about z =0 is



E p ( z) = 1 + ∑ ak z k ....(1)
k =1

differentiating (1), we have



E ′p ( z ) = 1 + ∑ k a k z k −1
k =1

From the definition of Ep (z)


19

⎛ z2 zp ⎞ ⎛ z2 zp ⎞
E ′p ( z ) = −1 exp⎜⎜ z + + .... + ⎟ + (1 − z ) exp⎜ z +
⎟ ⎜ + .... + ⎟(1 + z + z 2 + .... + z p −1 )
⎝ 2 p ⎠ ⎝ 2 p ⎟⎠


= exp⎜⎜ z +
z2
+ .... +
zp ⎞
[
⎟ − 1 + (1 − z )(1 + z + z 2 + .....z p −1 )
p ⎟⎠
]
⎝ 2

On simplifying expressiion in the square bracket only z p remains and all other terms

will cancelled out.

∞ ⎛ z2 zp ⎞
∴ ∑ k k a z k −1
= − z p
exp ⎜
⎜ z + + ..... + ⎟
p ⎟⎠
k =1 ⎝ 2

On comparing coefficients of like power of z, we find that


a1 = a 2 = .... = a p = 0

⎛ z2 zp ⎞
exp⎜ z + + ..... + ⎟ are all positive
Also the coefficient of the expression of ⎜ p ⎟⎠
⎝ 2

a k ≤ 0 for k ≥ p + 1E′ = −z p exp⎛⎜ z + z + .... + z ⎞⎟


2 p
, therefore
p ⎜ p ⎟⎠
⎝ 2
Thus | a k |= − a k for k ≥ p + 1

⇒ E p (1) = 0 = 1 + ∑ an
k = p +1

∞ ∞
or ∑ | ak | = − ∑ ak =1
k = p +1 k = p +1

Hence for | z |≤ 1

| E p ( z ) − 1 |= ∑ ak z k
k = p +1


=| z | p +1 ∑ a k z k − p −1
k = p +1


≤ | z | p+1 ∑ | ak |
k= p+1

=| z | p +1
20

Proposition

Let Re z n > −1 then the series ∑ log(1 + z n ) converges absolutely iff ∑ z n

converges absolutely.

Proof : If ∑ | z n | converges then z n → 0


1
⇒ | z n |<
2
1 3 1
Since | z | ≤ | log(1 + z ) | ≤ | z | for | z |<
2 2 2
1
Therefore for | z n |< the series ∑ | log(1 + z n ) | is convergent.
2
Conversely if, ∑ | log(1 + z n ) | converges then
1
| z n |<
2
∴ ∑ | z n | is converges

Absolute convergence of an infinite product.

∏ | z n | converges / ∏ z n converges

Example: Let Z n = −1 ∀ n ∏ zn
then | z n |= 1 ∀ n

⇒ ∏| z n | converges to 1.
n
However ∏ z k is ± 1 depending on whether n is even or odd,
k =1

⇒ does not converges.

Definition : If Re z n > 0 , ∀n then the infinite product ∏ z n is said to converges

absolutely if the series ∑ log z n converges absolutely.

Theorem : Weirestrass factorization theorem

Given an infinite sequence of complex numbers a 0 = 0, a1 , a 2 ,...., a n with no finite

point of accumulation, the most general entire function having zeros at those points

only (a zero an n ≥1 of multiplicity α being repeated α times in the sequence) is given


21

by
∞ ⎛ z

F ( z) = e h( z ) m
z ∏ E ⎜⎜ a
; k n ⎟⎟ ...(1)
n =1 ⎝ n ⎠
where h(z) is an arbitrary entire function, m ≥ 0 is the order of multiplicity of a0

=0, and the kn are non negative integers such that the series
k n +1

z

n =1 an
...(2)

Converges for each finite value of z.

Proof : Arranging the given zeros in increasing order of modulus, so that

0 <| a1 |≤| a 2 |≤| a 3 |≤ ....

with | a n |→ ∞

The sequence { k n } of non-negative integers can always be found such that the

series (2) is convergent for each z.

We may take k n +1 = n , since


n
z 1 z 1
≤ or ≤ ...(3)
an 2n an 2

as soon as | a n |≥ 2 | z | which for any given z holds for sufficiently large value of

n , say n>N

⇒ N depends on |z| ⇒ pointwise convergence.

Since we are not interested in uniform convergence, only point wise convergence.

From the already proved result that


1
if | z |≤ < 1 then
p
p
log E( z; k ) ≤ | z |k +1 ...(4)
p −1

then for p =2
log E ( z ; k ) ≤ 2 | z | k +1

provided
22

1
| z |≤
2
We have y
k +1
⎛ z ⎞ z an
log E ⎜⎜ ; k ⎟⎟ ≤ 2
⎝ an ⎠ an
provided Z
x
O R 2R
z 1

an 2

⇒ | a n |≥ 2 | z |

Let R be an arbitrary positive number and consider two circles with centres at

the origin and radii R and 2R.

If we take |z| < R and n large enough so that , we have | a n |> 2 | z |

Hence the series

⎛ z | a |> 2 R

is absolutely and uniformly convergent for all∑
n
z, such ⎜ |z|;<k nR,⎟ and it follows that the
log Ethat ⎜a ⎟
|a n | > 2 R ⎝ n ⎠
product

⎛ z ⎞
∏ E ⎜⎜ ; kn ⎟⎟
|a n |> 2 R ⎝ an ⎠

is also absolutely and uniformly convergent for |z| < R.

Since the product

⎛ z ⎞
∏ E ⎜⎜ ;kn ⎟⎟
|a n |≤ 2 R ⎝ an ⎠
contain a finite number of factors each of which is an analytic function, it follows that
⎛ z ⎞
f1 ( z ) = ∏ E ⎜⎜ ;kn ⎟⎟
|a n |≤ 2 R ⎝ an ⎠

is analytic in |z| < R and vanishes in the disc only at those points of the sequence a1, a2,

... which lie in |z| < R.

Then from the theorem : If f k ( z ); k = 1,2,... are analytic in open set


23


A ⊂ C, ∑| f (z) | is uniformly convergent on every compact set K ⊂ A , then
n=1
k

converges absolutely in A to F(z) which is analytic in A.

We have

⎛ z ⎞
f2 (z) = ∏ E ⎜⎜ ; k n ⎟⎟
|a n | > 2 R ⎝ an ⎠
is analytic and different from zero in |z| < R.

Hence the product



⎛ z ⎞
f ( z ) = f1 ( z ) f 2 ( z ) = ∏ E ⎜⎜ ; kn ⎟⎟
n =1 ⎝ an ⎠
is also analytic in |z| <R and vanishes in this region only at those points of the sequence

a1 , a 2 .... which lie in there.

R was arbitrary chosen positive number, so that f(z) is analytic in the whole finite
∞ ∞
⎛ z⎞
place. ∏
sin π(1z += ef kg (( zz) )z.)∏ ⎜1 − ⎟e z / n ; n≠0
k =1 n = −∞⎝ n⎠
⇒ It is an entire function and has less zero precisely at the points a1 , a 2 ...., a n ...

∴ F ( z) = eh(z) z m f ( z)
is most general entire function with the prescribed zeros.

πz :
Factorization of sinπ

sin πz is an entire function with simple zeros at 0, ± 1, ± 2,...

Then by Weierstrass factorization theorem the most general form of this entire

function be


⎡⎛ z⎞ ⎛ z⎞ ⎤
= e g ( z ) z .∏ ⎢ ⎜ 1 − ⎟ e − z / n ⎜ 1 + ⎟ e z / n ⎥
n =1 ⎣ ⎝ n⎠ ⎝ n⎠ ⎦
24


⎛ z2 ⎞
= e g ( z ) z ∏ ⎜⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟⎟ ...(1)
n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

Taking logarithmic differentiation of (1)

⎡ ⎤
( )

d
π cot πz =
dz ⎢

g ( z ) + log z + ∏
n =1
log( n 2 − z 2 ) − log n 2 ⎥

1 ∞ ⎛ 2z ⎞
= h′( z ) + +∏⎜ ⎟ z ≠ ±n ...(2)
z n =1 ⎝ z 2 − n 2 ⎠

But ...(3)

Hence h′( z ) = 0 and it follows that h(z) = C (a constant)

Let e C = C1 then (1) gives



⎛ z2 ⎞
sin π z = C 1 z ∏ ⎜⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟⎟
n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

sin πz C1 ∞ ⎛ z 2 ⎞
= ∏⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟ ; z≠0
πz π n=1 ⎝ n ⎠ ∞
1 ⎛ 2z ⎞
Taking z → 0 π cot πz = + ∏ ⎜ 2 ⎟
n =1 ⎝ z − n ⎠
2
z
C1 n
⎛ k2 ⎞
1= lim lim ∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟
π z → 0 n → ∞ k =1 ⎝ n ⎠

⎛ z2 ⎞
Since ∏ ⎜⎜1 − n 2 ⎟⎟ is uniformly converges, therefore the order of limit can be
n =1 ⎝ ⎠

changed

C1 n
⎛ z2 ⎞
= lim lim ∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟
π n → ∞ z → 0 k =1 ⎝ k ⎠
C n C
∴ 1 = π nlim
1
∏ (1) = π1
→ ∞ K =1

⇒ C1 = π

⎛ z2 ⎞
⇒ sin π z = π z ∏ ⎜⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟⎟
n =1 ⎝ n ⎠
25

Gamma function

According to Weierstrass (the weierstrass fact. th) the Γ function can be defined

as the reciprocal of a particular entire function with simple zeros at the points 0, -1, -

2,.. namely

⎛ z⎞
F ( z ) = e γ z z ∏ ⎜1 + ⎟e − z / n
n =1 ⎝ n⎠
−1
1 e−γ z ∞ ⎛ z ⎞ z / n

F(z)
= Γ(z) = ∏⎜1+ ⎟ e
z n=1 ⎝ n ⎠
...(1)

where the constant γ (Euler or Mascheroni constant) is chosen so that Γ(1) = 1

From (1) we see that is a meromorphic function on C with simple poles at

z =0, -1, -2,...

Existence of γ
Now we show that there exists such γ.
Γ∞((1z) )=∞1e⎛−1 log C1−1⎞∞−1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ −1
eΓγ(1=)⎛⎜=∏ z⎞
∏ 1 +⎜11+⎟ n .⎟e∏z /e⎜n1 + n ⎟ e
1/ n 1/ n

n =1 ⎝ n ⎠
n =1 ⎝ ⎠
substituting z =1 in the infinite product n =1 ⎝ ⎠ , we get

∞ −1
⎛ 1⎞
∏ ⎜1 + n ⎟ e 1 / n = C a finite positive number ...(2)
n =1 ⎝ ⎠

Let γ = log C then on substituting z =1 in (1), we get

1
= .C = 1
C

From (2), we see that the constant γ satisfies the equation

...(3)

Hence the existance of γ is acertained.


26

Lemma :
1 1 1
Let H n = 1 + + + ... then γ = nlim
→∞
( H n − log n)
2 3 n
Proof : Taking logarithm on both sides of
∞ −1
⎛ 1⎞
e γ = ∏ ⎜1 + ⎟ e 1 / k
k =1 ⎝ k⎠
We have
∞ ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ 1/ k ⎤
−1
γ = ∑ log ⎢⎜1 + ⎟ e ⎥
k =1 ⎢⎣⎝ k⎠ ⎥⎦

∞ ⎡⎛ k ⎞ 1 / k ⎤
= ∑ log ⎢⎜ ⎟e ⎥
k =1 ⎣⎝ k + 1 ⎠ ⎦
n
⎡ 1⎤
= lim ∑ ⎢log k − log(k + 1) + ⎥
k =1 ⎣ k⎦
n →∞

⎡ ⎤
⎢ n ⎥
= lim ⎢∑ {log k − log( kΓ (+z )1=)}lim + ∑ ⎥ n!.n
n
1 z

n→∞ ⎢ 144 42444 3n → ∞ kz=(1z k+ 1⎥)( z + 2).....( z + n)


k =1
⎢ ⎧⎪ log1= 0 and all int ermediate ⎫⎪
⎨ terms will cancelled out except ⎬

⎢⎣ ⎪⎩ log (n +1) ⎪⎭ ⎥⎦

⎡ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎤
= lim ⎢− log(n + 1) + ⎜1 + + ... + ⎟⎥
n →∞
⎣ ⎝ 2 n ⎠⎦

⎡ ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎤
= lim ⎢log n − log(n + 1) + ⎜1 + + ... + ⎟ − log n ⎥
n→∞
⎣ ⎝ 2 n⎠ ⎦

⎡⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛ ( n + 1) ⎞⎤
= lim ⎢⎜1 + + ... + ⎟ − log n − log⎜ ⎟⎥
n →∞ ⎝ n⎠ ⎝ n ⎠⎦
⎣ 2

⎡⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ (n + 1) ⎞ ⎤
⇒ γ = lim ⎢⎜1 + + ... + ⎟ − log n − 0⎥ ⎢Q nlim log⎜ ⎟ = 0⎥
n→∞ ⎝ n⎠
⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ →∞ ⎝ n ⎠ ⎦

⇒ γ = lim ( H n − log n)
n→∞

Euler’s formula for Γ ( z ) or Gauss formula

From the definition of Γ ( z )


27

−1
e −γ z n
⎛ z⎞
= lim ∏ ⎜1 + ⎟ e z / k
z n→∞ k =1 ⎝ k ⎠

e−γ z n
kez / k
= lim∏
z n→∞ k =1 ( z + k )

⎛ z z z⎞
e −γ z (1.2.3....n ). exp ⎜ z + + + .... + ⎟
= lim ⎝ 2 3 n⎠
n→∞ z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....( z + n )

⎧ ⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞⎫
e − z ( H n −log n ) .n!.exp⎨ z⎜1 + + + .... + ⎟⎬
= lim ⎩ ⎝ 2 3 n ⎠⎭
n →∞ z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....(z + n)

n!.e − zH n .e − z log n .e zH n
= lim
n →∞ z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....( z + n)

n!.n z
Γ ( z ) = lim e −γ z ∞ nz!.n−1z +1
n→∞ z )n=) lim ∏ ⎛⎜ 1 + ⎞⎟ e z / n
z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....(Γz( +
...(5)
n →z∞ ( z + 1)( z +n2).....( z + n + 1)
n =1 ⎝ ⎠

Functional equation Γ(z +1) = z Γ(z)

Replacing z by (z+1) in the equation (5)

n! nz nz
= lim
n→∞ z( z +1)(z + 2).....(z + n) ( z + n +1)

n! n z z
= lim lim
n→∞ z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....(z + n) n→∞ z + 1
( + 1)
n

= Γ(z) . z
28

Reflection formula

Proof : Using Euler’s formula

⎡ ( n! ) 2 .n ⎤
= lim ⎢ ⎥
n → ∞ z (1 − z )( 2 − z ).....( n − z )( n + 1 − z )
2 2 2 2 2
⎣ ⎦

⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 1 ⎥
= lim
n →∞ ⎢ ⎛ z 2
⎞ ⎛ z ⎛ n +1− z ⎞ ⎥
2

⎢ z (1 − z )⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟.....⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟⎜ ⎟⎥
2

⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ n ⎠⎝ n ⎠⎦

1
=
⎧ ⎛ z2 ⎞ ⎛ z 2 ⎞⎫
z lim ⎨(1 − z 2 )⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟.....⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟ ⎬.1
n→∞
⎩ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ n ⎠⎭
π
z)z=) = lim ⎡; z ≠ 0, ±n1,!.±n2,... ⎤ ⎡
1 z
1 ΓΓ e(1(−1−
((szz)=) ΓΓ s log n

n!.n
= ∞ n sin πz ⎢ ⎥. lim ⎢
n →∞ z ( z + 1)( z + 2).....( z + n) n →∞ (1 − z )( 2 − z
⎛ z2 ⎞ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣
z ∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟
k =1 ⎝ n ⎠

1
=
sin πz
z.
πz
π
=
sin πz

Ordinary Dirichlet Series

Definition : The series of the form


∞ an
∑ s ....(1)
n =1 n

called ordinary Dirichlet series, where the an are given constants, s = σ + it is a

complex variable and .


29

Zeta function of Riemann

If a n = 1, ∀n then the series (1) becomes



1
ς (s) = ∑ s , Re s = σ > 1
n=1 n

represents Zeta function of Riemann.



Theorem : The series ∑ n
−s
converges absolutely and uniformly for σ ≥ 1 + ε
n =1

(ε > 0 arbitrary)

Proof : We have

1 1 1 1 1
= = = ≤
ns | nσ +it | | nσ | | nit | nσ n1+ε
∞ 1
and the series ∑ 1+ ε converges, by Weiestrass M-test
n =1 n

Theorem : For Re s > 1



t s −1
Γ( s ) ς ( s) = ∫ dt
0
et − 1

t s −1 ∞

Proof : The integral ∫ t dt converges at both the lower and upper limits
0 e −1

whenever Re s > 1

Since
t
lim =1
t →0 + e −1
t

so that by the definition of limit there is a δ > 0 such that for 0 < t ≤ δ the

inequality
t 1
−1 < ε =
e −1
t
2

t 1
⇒ −1<
e −1 t
2
30

t 3
⇒ < holds.
e −1 2
t

Hence for 0 < δ1 < δ and σ = Re s > 1


δ δ


t σ −2
e −1
t
3
t dt ≤ ∫ t σ − 2 dt =
2 δ1
3 1
2 σ −1
δ σ −1 − δ 1σ −1 ( )
δ1

δ
t σ −2 σ −1
⇒ ∫e t dt → 3 δ as δ1 → 0
δ1
t
−1 2 σ −1

on the other hand, we have

tm
lim =0
t → +∞ e t − 1

tm 1
So that there is a b1, such that for t ≥ b1 the ineuqality t < is satisfied
e −1 2

Hence for 0 < b1 < b and choosing m > σ we get


t m sσ − m −−1nu s −11 b σ − m −1
( )
b
1 1
1 1 ∫ e t) −=1nt ∫ e dtu≤ 2du∫ t
Γ ( s dt =
σ −
b σ − m − b1σ − m
→ b1σ −m as b → ∞ b1 0 b1 2 m
2 m−σ

−t s −1
Now in Γ( s) = ∫ e t dt
0

which is valid for σ > 0 , we make the substitution t =nu to obtain

⎛ ⎞
⎜ N
N ∞⎟
1
Γ( s )∑ s = ∫ ∑ e
⎜ − nu ⎟ s −1
u du
and n =1 n ⎜ = ⎟
⎜ 123 ⎟
0 n 1

⎝ ( sum of G . P ) ⎠
∞ ⎛ −u
e (1 − e − Nu ) ⎞ s −1
= ∫ ⎜⎜ ⎟u du
0⎝ (1 − e −u ⎟⎠
∞ ∞
u s −1 u s −1 e − Nu
= ∫
0
eu − 1
du − ∫
0
eu − 1
du
31
Now it is required to prove that

u s −1e − Nu
∫0 eu − 1 du → 0 as N → ∞

∞ s−1 −Nu δ ∞
u e us−1e−Nu us−1e−Nu
∫0 eu −1 du= ∫0 eu −1 du+ ∫δ eu −1 du; δ >0

∞ δ ∞
u s −1e − Nu u σ −1 u σ −1
∫0 e u − 1 ∫0 e u − 1 ∫δ e u − 1 du
− Nδ
⇒ du < du + e

For a given ε >0, we choose δ sufficiently small so as to make the first integral
ε
on right hand side less than .
2
Fixing that δ we can now take N large enough so as to make the second term on

the right less than

∴ for N → ∞

u s −1
Γ( s ) ς ( s ) = ∫ du valid for Re s >1
0
eu − 1
Note:B(E) denotes a closed algebraU
|rb∃ of−
ab,∈=V0C(K, dK1(D)
|<− <
aC<r that
) contains every rational
a, Kε
function with a pole in E 2

Lemma

If a ∈C − k then ( z − a) −1 ∈ B( E )

Proof : Case I : ∞ ∉ E

Let and let

V = {a ∈ C : ( z − a)−1 ∈ B( E)}
so E ⊂V ⊂U

If and then ...(1)

⇒ V is open

⇒ a number such that

| b − a |< r | z −a | ; ∀ z ∈K. ...(2)


32

But

−1
⎡ b−a⎤
= ( Z − 1) −1 ⎢1 − ⎥ ...(3)
⎣ Z − a⎦

From (2)

| b−a| | z−a| −1<r <1; ∀z∈K. which implies that


−1
⎡ b−a⎤ ⎛b−a⎞
∞ n

⎢1 − z − a ⎥ = ∑⎜ ⎟ ...(4)
⎣ ⎦ n =0 ⎝ z − a ⎠

By the Weirestrass M-Test series on right hand side of (4) converges uniformly

on K.

⎛b−a⎞
n k

If Qn ( z ) = ∑ ⎜ ⎟ then
k =0 ⎝ z − a ⎠

( z − a ) −1 Qn ( z ) ∈ B ( E )

Since a ∈ V and B(E) is an algebra (3) shows that B(E) is closed and uniformly

convergence of (4) implies that {b(az∈n−}∂b


V)−1 ∈ B((zE−
⎡ ) a ) − (b − a ) ⎤
−1

( z − b ) −1 = ⎢ ⎥ ( z − a)
−1

⎣ z−a ⎦

⇒ b ∈V

Then (1) implies that V is open

If then let be a sequence in V with


b = lim a n
n→ ∞

Since b ∈/V then from (1) it follows that

| b − a n |≥ d ( a n , K ) then for n → ∞ ; an → b ; we get

0 = d ( b , K ) or b∈ K

Thus ∂ V I U = φ ( null set )

If H is a component of U = C − K then H I K ≠ φ

So H IV ≠ φ
33

∴ H ⊂V

But H was arbitrary so or V = U

Case 2 :

Let d = the metric on

Let a0 is in the unbounded components of U = C − K such that


1
d ( a 0 , ∞) ≤ d ( ∞, K )
2
and | a0 |> 2 max{| z |: z ∈ K } ...(5)

Let so E0 meets each components of

If a∈C− K then case-I gives that ( z − a ) −1 ∈ B ( E0 )


1
Now | z / a0 |≤ ; ∀z∈K [from (5)]
2
Therefore
1 1 1 ∞
=
z − a 0 − a 0 (1 − z / a 0 )
=− ∑
a0 n =0
( z / a0 ) n
U∞
E 0n∞∈
C
Q ⊂∈
=−E
V(BKE(E−){∞}) U {a 0 }
Converges uniformly on K.

Then
n
1
Qn ( z ) = −
a0
∑ (z / a
k =0
0 ) k is a polynomial

and ( z − a0 ) −1 = u − lim Qn on K.

Since Qn has its only pole at ∞ ,

Thus ( z − a0 ) −1 ∈ B ( E )

⇒ B(E0 ) ⊂ B(E )

⇒ ( z − a) −1 ∈ B( E ) for each a ∈ C − K
Definition : Function element is a pair (f,G) where G is a region and f is an

analytic function on G.

Definition : Germ of f at a : [ f ]a .

For a given function element (f, G) the germ of f at a, denoted by [ f ]a , is the


34

collection of all function elements (g, D) such that a ∈ D and in a

neighbourhood of a.

⇒ [ f ]a = collection of function elements and it is not a function element itself.

Note: The equivalence of two germs of f i.e. [ f ]a = [ f ]b is meaning less until a = b.

Definition : Analytic continuation along a path.

Let γ :[0,1] → C be a path and suppose that for each t in [0,1] there is a function

element ( f t , Dt ) such that

(a) γ (t ) ∈ D

(b) for each t in [0,1] there is a δ > 0 such that | s − t |< δ


⇒ γ ( s ) ∈ Dt and [ f s ]γ ( s ) = [ f t ]γ ( s ) (i.e. germ of fs and ft at γ(s) are equal)

Then (f, D) is the analytic continuous of ( f 0 , D0 ) along the path γ; or ( f1 , D1 ) is

obtained from ( f 0 , D0 ) by analytic continuation along γ.

Power series method of analytic continuation


( z))≡let
Lemma : Let γ :[0,1] → C be a pathRfand
(t =∞g ({(z )f ∀ z
t , Dt ) : 0 ≤ t ≤ 1} be an analytic

continuation along γ. For 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 let R(t) be the radius of convergence of the power

series expansion of ft about z = γ (t ). Then either or R :[0,1] → (0, ∞) is

continuous.

Proof : If R(t ) = ∞ for some value of t then it is possible to extend ft to an entire

function.

Since

f s ( z ) = f t ( z ) ∀ z ∈ Ds

⇒ R ( s ) = ∞ ∀ s ∈ [0,1]

i.e. R (s ) ≡ ∞

Suppose that R(t ) < ∞ ∀t

For a particular t ∈ [0,1] let τ = γ (t )


35

let

be the power series expansion of ft about τ.

Let δ1 > 0 be such that | s − t |< δ1

⇒ γ ( s ) ∈ Dt I B ( τ; R (t ))

and [ f s ] γ ( s ) = [ f t ] γ ( s )

Now let σ = γ (s ) for a fix s;

Now ft can be extended to an analytic function on B(τ; R(t )) .

Since fs agrees with ft on a neighbourhood of σ (by definition germs), fs can be

extended so that it is also analytic on .

If fs has a power series expansion



f s ( z ) = ∑ σ n ( z − σ) n about z = σ
n =0

then the radius of convergence R(s) must be at least as big as the distance from
z((τ−
RsR
|B (ss;)τt)R≥
−|−
<= t δR
(dR ∞
R(σ
)) t)t,))≤{D
(t(U | |z≤γ:|(|tzγ) −
(−t )τγ−|(=sγ)R(|s()t )})
| ≥ R (t ) − | τ − σ |
σ to the circle f t ( z ) = ∑1 τ n ( zs − τ) n
n =0

i.e.

⇒ R (t ) − R ( s ) ≤| γ (t ) − γ ( s ) |

Similarly it can be shown that

Hence for

Since γ :[0,1] → C is continuous.

⇒ R must be continuous at t.

Rung’s Theorem : Let K be a compact subset of C and let E be a subset of C ∞ − K

that meets each component of C ∞ − K . If f is analytic in an open set containing K and

ε>0 then there is a rational function R(Z) whose only poles lie in E and such that

| f ( z ) − R ( z ) |< ε ∀z∈K
36

Proof : By the fact that if K be a compact subset of the region G, then there are

straight line segments γ 1 , γ 2 ,.....γ n in G – Ksuch that for every function f in H(G).
n
1 f ( w)
f ( z) = ∑ ∫ dw ∀z ∈ K
K =1 2πi γ k w − z

The line segments form a finite number of closed polygons.

Also If γ be a rectifiable curve and let K be compact set such that K I {γ} = φ .

If f is continuous function on {γ} and ε>0 then there is a rational function R(z) having

all its poles on and such that

Definition : Unrestricted analytic continuation :

Let (f, D) be a function element and let G be a region which contains D: then (f,

D) admits unrestricted analytic continuation in G if for any path γ in G with initial point

{γ}along γ.
in D there is an analytic continuation of (f, D)
f ( w)
∫ w − z dw − R( z ) ; ∀z ∈ K
γ

Fixed-End-Point (FEP) homotopic

Definition : If γ 0 , γ 1 :[0,1] → G are two rectifiable course in G such that

γ 0 (0) = γ 1 (0) = 0 and γ 0 (0) = γ 1 (0) = b then γ 0 and γ 1 are FEP homotopic if there is

a continuous map

Γ : I 2 → G such that

Γ ( s ,0 ) = γ 0 ( s )

Γ ( s,1) = γ 1 ( s )

Γ(0, t ) = a

Γ(1, t ) = b

for 0 ≤ s, t ≤ 1

I 2 = [0,1] × [0,1]
37

Theorem : Monodromy : Let (f, D) be a function element and let G be a

region containing D such that (f, D) having unrestricted continuation in G. Let

a ∈ D , b ∈ G and let γ 0 and γ 1 be paths in G from a to b; let {( f t , Dt ) : 0 ≤ t ≤ 1} and

{( g t , Dt ) : 0 ≤ t ≤ 1} be analytic continuation of ( f, D) along γ 0 and γ 1 respectively. If

γ 0 and γ 1 are fixed-end-point homotrpic in G then

[ f 1 ]b = [ g1 ]b

Proof : Since γ 0 and γ 1 are FEP homotopic in G

⇒ there is a continuous function


Γ :[0,1] × [0,1] → G such that

Γ(t ,0) = γ 0 (t ) Γ(t ,1) = γ 1 (t )

Γ(0, u) = a; Γ(1, u) = b

for all t and u in [0, 1]


b] b==
Let γ u (t ) = Γ(t , u ) for a fix u, 0 ≤ u ≤[h1f1,1,0]from [ h[a
1h, 10to
,1]b] b.
p ....(1)

By hypothesis there is an analytic continuation {(ht ,u , Dt ,u ) :0 ≤ t ≤ 1} of (f, D)

along γ u

By the result that if γ :[0.1] → C be a path from a to b and {( f t , Dt ) : 0 ≤ t ≤ 1}

and {( g t , Bt ) : 0 ≤ t ≤ 1} be analytic continuations along γ such that [ f 0 ] a = [ g 0 ] a . Then

[ f 1 ]b = [ g1 ]b

Then it follows that


[ g1 ]b = [ h1,1 ]b and

Now it is sufficient to show that

...(2)

To show this

Let U = {u ∈ [0,1]:[ h1,u ]b = [h1, 0 ]b } ...(3)

and we show that U is non-empty open and closed subset of [0,1].


38

Since

Now it is remains to show that U is both open and closed.

Let us consider for

u ∈ [0,1] ∃ a δ > 0 such that if | u − v |≤ δ

then [ h1,u ]b = [ h1,v ]b ....(4)

For a fixed there is an ε > 0 such that if σ is any path from a to b

with | γ u (t ) −σ (t ) |< ε , ∀ t and if to any continuation of (f,D) along σ,

then
[h1,u ]b = [ K1 ]b ....(5)

Now Γ is a uniformly continuous function, so there is δ >0

such that if then

| γ u (t ) − γ v (t ) |= | Γ (t , u ) − Γ(t , v ) | < ε ∀ t . ....(6)

Suppose u ∈ U and let δ > 0 be the number given in (4). By definition of U,


,u tδ δv1,]0)b]∈b=δU⇒
(v0hu∈
|u
[u
, this implies U is open. If{( −
:∈U
G
1K
,|1−<U
[U0]v,→
b,Eu =[]t Rδ[+1≠
h)} h,and [is u0 ]∈bchoosen
h1,as U; above, then

∃a such that

But form (4)


[h1,u ]b = [h1,v ]b ; and

since


⇒ U is closed

Mean Value Theorem: Let be a harmonic function and let B ( a; r ) be

a closed disk contained in G. If γ is the circle centred at a and of radius r i.e. γ :| z − a |= r

then
1 2π iθ
u (a) = ∫ u (a + re )dθ
2π 0
Proof : Let D be a disk such that
39

B (a; r ) ⊂ D ⊂ G, and

Let f be analytic on D such that u = Ref

Then by Cauchy integral formula


1 f (z)
f (a) = ∫
2π i γ z − a
dz

| z − a |= r
z = a + re iθ
dz = ir iθ
1 2 π f (a + re iθ )
=
2π 0
∫ re iθ dθ

1 2π iθ
= ∫ f (a + re )dθ
2π 0

1 2π iθ
f (a) = ∫ f (a + re )dθ
2π 0

1 iθ
Then Re f ( a) = 2π ∫ Re f (a + re )dθ
0 A = {Z ∈ G :u ( z ) = u (a)}

1 2π
⇒ u (a) = ∫ u ( a + re iθ )dθ
2π 0

Mean Value Property (MVP)

Definition : A continuous function u : G → R has the MVP if whenever


B (a; r ) ⊂ G
1 2π
u (a) = ∫ u ( a + re iθ )dθ
2π 0

Maximum Principle : Let G be a region and let u is a continuous real valued

function on G with the MVP. If there is a point a in G such that u (a ) ≥ u ( z ) ∀z ∈ G,

then u is constant function.

Proof : Let the set A be defined by

Since u is continuous, the set A is closed in G.


40

If let r be chosen such that B ( Z 0 ; r ) ⊂ G .

Suppose b ∈ B ( z 0 ; r ) such that u (b) ≠ u (a ) ; then .

∴ By continuity in the neighbouhood of b

If | z 0 − b |= ρ and b = z0 + ρe iθ 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π

then there is a proper interval I of [0, 2π] such that θ ∈ I and

Hence by MVP

1 2π
u ( z0 + ρe iφ ) dφ < u ( z0 )
2π ∫0
u ( z0 ) =

which is a contradiction.

So B( z0 ; r ) ⊂ A and A is also open.

by connectedness of G, A = G.

Harmonic function on a disk : uuz 0((bzz∈) <


A u (aiφ) =<u+u((re
zz00i)θ)∀
0 + ρe ⎛) 1 ⎞∀z φ ∈ I 1 − r 2
Pr (θ ) = Re⎜⎜ iθ ⎟
⎟=
Study of harmonic function on a disk, open unit⎝ disk 1 − re{z − 2r cos θ + r 2
:⎠ |z| 1<1}

Definition : Poisson Kernel : The function



Pr (θ) = ∑ r |n| e inθ
n = −∞

for 0 ≤ r < 1 and − ∞ < θ < ∞ is called the Poisson kernel.

Theorem :

Let z = re iθ , 0 ≤ r < 1 then

1 + reiθ 1 + z
⇒ iθ
= = (1 + z )(1 − z ) −1
1 − re 1− z
= (1 + z )(1 + z + z 2 + ....)

= 1 + 2∑ z n
n =1
41

= 1 + 2 ∑ r n e inθ
n =1

⎛ 1 + re iθ ⎞ ∞
⇒ Re⎜⎜


iθ ⎟
= 1 + 2 ∑ r n cos nθ
⎝ 1 re ⎠ n =1


(e inθ + e − inθ )
= 1 + 2∑ r n
n =1 2

= ∑ r |n| e inθ
n = −∞

= Pr (θ) ....(1)

Also

1 + re iθ (1 + re iθ )(1 − re −iθ ) 1 + re iθ − re −iθ − r 2


= =
1 − re iθ | 1 − re iθ | 2 | 1 − re iθ | 2

(1 − r 2 ) + r (i 2 sin θ)
=
| 1 − re iθ | 2

⎛ 1 + re iθ ⎞ 1− r2
⇒ Re⎜⎜ iθ
⎟=
⎟ 1 − 2r cos θ + r 2 ....(2)
⎝ 1 − re ⎠
[Q| 1 − reiθ |2 = 1 − 2r cos θ + r 2 ]

Combining (1) and (2), we get the result.

Prop. 2.3
1 π
(a) ∫ Pr (θ)dθ = 1
2π − π
(b) Pr (θ) > 0 ∀θ, Pr ( −θ) = Pr (θ) and Pr is periodic in θ with period 2π.

Theorem : Let D = {z :| z |< 1} and suppose that f : ∂D → R is a continuous

function. Then there is a continuous function u : D − → R such that

(a) u ( z ) = f ( z ) ∀ z ∈ ∂D

(b) u is harmonic in D.

Moreover u is unique and is defined by the formula


1 π
u (re iθ ) = ∫ Pr (θ − t ) f (e )dt
it
for 0 ≤ r < 1, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π
2π − π
42

Proof : Define u : D → R as
1 π
u (re iθ ) = ∫ Pr (θ − t ) f (e )dt
it
for 0 ≤ r < 1 ...(1)
2π − π

and let u (e iθ ) = f (e iθ ) ...(2)

Then u satisfies part (a).

Now we have to show that u is continuous on D and harmonic in D.

(i) Proving u is harmonic in D.

If 0 ≤ r < 1 then from (1)

1 π ⎡1 + rei ( θ−t ) ⎤
u (re iθ ) =
2π −∫π ⎣1 − re i ( θ−t ) ⎦
it
Re ⎢ ⎥ f (e )dt
1442443
by definition of Pr ( θ )

⎧⎪ 1 π it ⎡1 + re
i ( θ −t )
⎤ ⎫⎪
= Re⎨ ∫
⎪⎩ 2π − π
f ( e ) ⎢ i ( θ −t ) ⎥ ⎬
dt
⎣1 − re ⎦ ⎪⎭

⎧⎪ 1 π ⎡ e it + re iθ ⎤ ⎫⎪
= Re⎨ ∫
⎪⎩ 2π − π
f (e it ) ⎢ it iθ ⎥ ⎬
dt ...(3)
⎣ e e∂ε−Dαre0 ∃ a⎪ ρ, 0 < ρ < 1
i>
⎦ ⎭
Let us define g : D → C by

1 π it ⎡ e + z ⎤
it

2π −∫π
g ( z) = f ( e ) ⎢ it ⎥ dt ...(4)
⎣e − z ⎦

Then g is analytic and

Re g = u ...(5)

∴ ∇ 2u = 0 ⇒ u is harmonic.

(ii) Continuity of u on D–

Since u is harmonic on D therefore it remains to prove that u is continuous at

each point of the boundary of D.

If α ∈ [− π, π] and and an arc A of about such that for


ρ < r < 1 and e iθ in A

| u (re iθ − f (e iα ) |< ε ....(6)


43

for particular α =0 we show that (6) holds.

Since f is continuous at z = 1 ∃ a δ > 0 such that


ε
| f (e iθ ) − f (1) |< if | θ |< δ ...(7)
3
Let {
M = max | f (e iθ ) | :| θ |≤ π }
Then from the result on Poisson kernel Pr (θ) < Pr (δ) if 0 < δ <| θ |≤ π

There exists a ρ, 0 < ρ < 1 such that

...(8)

δ
for ρ < r < 1 and | θ |≥
2

iθ ⎧ δ⎫
Let A be the arc ⎨e :| θ |< ⎬ then if
⎩ 2⎭
e iθ ∈ A and ρ < r < 1
1 π
u (re iθ ) − f (1) = ∫ Pr (θ − t ) f (e )dt − f (1)
it
2π − π
ε
Pr (θ) <
3M
1 1
= ∫ Pr (θ − t )[ f (e it ) − f (1)]dt + ∫ Pr (θ − t )[ f (e ) − f (1)]dt
it
2π |t |< δ 2π |t |≥ δ

δ δ
if | t |≥ δ and | θ |≤ then | t − θ |≥
2 2
1 1
| u (re iθ ) − f (1) |≤ ∫ 2π |t |∫≥δ
Pr (θ − t ) | f (e it ) − f (1) | dt + Pr (θ − t ) | f (e it ) − f (1) | dt
2π |t |< δ

ε ε
≤ + 2M . [from (7) and (8)]
3 3M
⇒ | u (re iθ ) − f (1) |< ε

Hence for general value of α.

| u ( re iθ ) − f (e iα ) |< ε ...(9)

Show that u is continuous on D–.

(iii) For u is unique


44

Suppose v ∈ D − which is harmonic on D and v(e iθ ) = f (e iθ ) ∀ θ .

then (u-v) is harmonic is D and (u − v)( z ) = 0. ∀z ∈ ∂D

⇒ u-v=0

⇒ u is unique.

Harnack inequality

If u : B (a; R) → R is continuous, harmonic in B(a; R) and u ≥ 0 then for 0 ≤ r < R

and all θ
R−r R+r
u (a) ≤ u ( a + re iθ ) ≤ u (a)
R+r R−r

Harnack’s theorem : Let G be a region with

(a) The metric space Har(G) is complete.

(b) If {u n } is a sequence in Har(G) such that u1 ≤ u 2 ≤ .... then either

u n (z ) → ∞ uniformly on compact subset of G or {u n } converges in Har(G) to a

harmonic function.

Proof : (a) Har(G) is complete

Let {u n } be a sequence in Har(G) such that

un → u in C (G, R)

Then u has the MVP

⇒ u is harmonic

[by the theorem if u : G → R which has MVP then u is harmonic.]

(b) Assuming u1 ≥ 0

Let u ( z ) = sup{( u n ( z ) : n ≥ 1}; ∀ z ∈G

⇒ Either u (z ) = ∞ or u (z ) ∈ R and u n ( z ) → u ( z ), ∀ z ∈ G

Define
A = {z ∈ G : u ( z ) = ∞} ....(1)
45

B = {z ∈ G : u ( z ) < ∞} ...(2)

Then A U B = G and A I B = φ

Now we show that both A and B are open

If a ∈ G, and R be chosen such that

Then by Harnack’s inequality


R− | z − a | R+ | z − a |
u n (a) ≤ u n ( z ) ≤ u n (a) ; ∀ z ∈ B (a; R) and ∀ n ≥ 1.
R+ | z − a | R− | z − a |

...(3)

If a ∈ A then

so that from (3)

u n ( z ) → ∞ , ∀ z ∈ B ( a; R ) [left half of (3)]

⇒ B ( a; R ) ⊂ A

⇒ A is open.

Similarly : If a ∈ B then right half of (3) gives


(a(a); <
that
)∞⊂∞B
uB(z )R→
Bn(a; R) ⊂ G
for | z − a |< R

⇒ u n (z ) < ∞ ∀ z ∈ B ( a; R )

⇒ B is open

Since G is connected, either A =G or B =G

Suppose A = G; that is u ≡ ∞

If and 0 < ρ < R then


( R − ρ)
M= > 0 and
R+P
(3) gives that

Mu n ( a ) ≤ u n ( z ) for | z − a |≤ ρ

⇒ u n (z ) → ∞ uniformly for z ∈ B (a; ρ)

⇒ ∀a ∈ G ∃ a ρ > 0 such that u n (z ) → ∞ uniformly for | z − a |≤ ρ


46

⇒ u n (z ) → ∞ uniformly for z in any compact set.

Now suppose B= G

i.e. u( z) < ∞ ∀ z ∈G

If ρ < R then there is a constant N, which depends only on a and ρ such that

for | z − a |≤ ρ and ∀ n

So if

≤ C[u n ( a ) − u m ( a )]

for some constant C.

⇒ {u n ( z )} is a uniformly Cauchy sequence on B (a; ρ)

⇒ {u n } is a Cauchy sequence in Har(G) and must converge to a harmonic

function [by part (a)]

Since u n ( z ) → u ( z )

⇒ ϕ
0m:(≤aG
B≤
Mu
u is the required harmonic function. nu;(nr→
n a())z⊂)≤R

Gu u,n (mz()z≤) ≤NNu
u n n( a( a) ) − Mu m ( a )

Definition :

Subrarmonic function- If ϕ be a continuous function and if

such that

1
ϕ (a) ≤ ∫
2π 0
ϕ (a + reiθ )dθ

Definition:

Superharmonic- If ϕ be a continuous function and if

such that

1
ϕ (a) ≥ ∫
2π 0
ϕ (a + reiθ )dθ
47

Definition :

If G is a region and f be a continuous function f : ∂ ∞ G → R then the Parron

family denoted by Ρ ( f , G ) consists of all subharmonic function ϕ : G → R such

that

Dirichlet Problem : It consists in determining all regions G such that for any

continuous function there is a continuous function u :G − → R such that

u ( z ) = f ( z ) for and u is harmonic in G.

Definition : Barrier for G at a

Let G be a region and . A barrier for G at a is a family {ψ r : r > 0} of

functions such that

(a) ψ r is defined and superharmonic on G(a; r) with 0 ≤ ψ r ( z ) ≤ 1;

(b) lim ψ r ( z ) = 0 azzf ∈


ψ̂
w
lim :∈
(∈r G
)∂∞=G
a∂∂ψ
G
sup →
−I
r (ϕ
G0{B(R
zw ) f−(aa|)= r} ∀a ∈ ∂ ∞ G
)(za:=); |1r≤w
z→a z → aw

(c) for

If we define ψ̂ r by letting

ψ̂ r = ψ r on G(a; r)

ψˆ r ( z ) = 1 for
then is superharmonic.

⇒ ψ̂ r approaches the function which is one everywhere but at z=a, ψ̂ r is

zero.

Theorem : Let G be a region and let a ∈ ∂ ∞ G such that there is a barrier for G
at a.

If f : ∂ ∞G → R is continuous and u is the Perron function associated with f then


lim u ( z ) = f ( a )
z→a

Proof : Let {ψ r : r > 0} be a barrier for G at a. Assuming a ≠ ∞ and


48

(otherwise consider the function f- f(a)}

Let ε > 0 and choose δ > 0 such that

| f ( w) |< ε whenever w ∈ ∂ ∞ G and

| w − a |< 2δ ;

Let ψ = ψδ

Let ψˆ : G → R defined by

ψˆ ( z ) =ψ ( z ) for z ∈ G (a; δ ) and


for z ∈ G − B (a; δ ) ...(1)

Then is superharmonic.

If | f (w) |≤ M for all w in ∂ ∞ G ...(2)

then

− Mψˆ − ε is subharmonic.

Consider − Mψˆ − ε in Ρ ( f , G ) ....(3)


ψ
ϕ

ψ
∂ψ̂ (ϕG
−ˆ∞M
If w ∈ ∂ ∞ G − B (a; δ ) then from (1) and ∈
ψ ε )≤ u ( z ) ; ∀ z ∈ G
)ˆ=≥(Ρz1(0)f−, G
z(2)

lim sup[ − Mψˆ ( z ) − ε ] = − M − ε < f ( w) ...(4)


z→w

Because

⇒ lim sup[− Mψˆ ( z ) − ε ] ≤ −ε ∀ w ∈ ∂ ∞ G ....(5)


z→w

If particular if w ∈ ∂ ∞ G I B ( a; δ ) then
lim sup[− Mψˆ ( z ) − ε ] ≤ −ε < f ( w) by the choice of δ.
z →w

⇒ the consideration (3) is valid.

Hence

...(6)

Similarly
liminf[Mψˆ ( z) + ε ] ≥ limsup(ϕ( z)) and w in .
z →w z →w

By the Maximum principle for subharmonic and superharmonic


49

we have

∀ϕ in and z ∈ G

Hence

....(7)

(6) and (7)

⇒ − Mψˆ ( z ) − ε ≤ u ( z ) ≤ Mψˆ ( z ) + ε ∀z ∈ G ....(8)

But ( is Parron function)

Since ε is arbitrary (8) implies


lim u ( z ) = 0 = f (a )
Z →a

Harmonic function

Definition : Let G be an open set and G⊂C, u : G →R is harmonic if u has

continuous partial derivatives and satisfying the Laplace equation, i.e.


∂ 2u ∂ 2u Ρ(=(zf)ψ
+ = 0. or ∇ 2u = 0 ϕvψ̂
ulim ,ˆm≤G
Isup zϕ
(fM))ψ= z ) +ψ
≤ˆ (lim ε(;ψ
inf z)
∂x 2 ∂y 2 z→
→wa zz→
→wa

Harmonic conjugate

Definition : Let f be an analytic funcion defined as f :G → C then u = Re f

and are called harmonic conjugates.


1 p k +1
Theorem : If | z |≤ p < 1 then | log E ( z; k ) |≤ p − 1 | z | .
Proof : Let k > 0
⎛ z2 zk ⎞
log E ( z ; k ) = Log (1 − z ) + ⎜⎜ z + + ..... + ⎟⎟
⎝ 2 k ⎠

z2 zk 1 k +!
Log (1 − z ) = − z − − − z ....
2 k k +1
for | z |< 1
1 k +1 1 1
∴ log E ( z; k ) = − z − z k + 2 − ..... for | z |≤ p < 1
k +1 k+2
50

⎛ 1 1 ⎞
∴ | Log E ( z; k ) |≤| log E ( z; k ) |≤ | z |k +1 ⎜ + | z | +...⎟
⎝ k +1 k + 2 ⎠
≤| z | k +1 (1+ | z | + | z | 2 +.....) [Q k > 0]

⎛ 1 1 ⎞
≤ | z | k +1 ⎜⎜1 + + 2 + ... ⎟⎟
⎝ p p ⎠
p
= | z | k +1
p −1
for k =0
⎛ |z| ⎞
| log E ( z;0) |=| log(1 − z ) |≤| z | ⎜1 + + ...⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠

⎛ 1 1 ⎞
≤ | z | ⎜⎜ 1 + + 2 + ... ⎟⎟
⎝ p p ⎠
p
| log E ( z;0) |= |z|
p −1

for p =2
2
| Log E ( z; k ) |≤ | z |k +1 = 2 | z |k +1
2 −1
1
provided | z |≤
2
Example : construct an entire function with simple zeros at the point
0, 1, 2 p , 3 p , ... , n p , ... ( p > 1)
Solution : We may take kn = 0 for every n. The series
∞ ∞
z 1
∑ n p
=| z | ∑ p
n =1 n =1 n

converges for ∀z when p >1

∴ by Weierstrass factorization Theorem


51

1
m=1 (simple zero at z=0), kn = 0, an =
np

⎛ z ⎞
⇒ F ( z ) = e h ( z ) z ∏ ⎜1 − p ⎟
n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

Example : Express sin πz as an infinite product.

Solution : since sin πz is an entire function with simple zeros at 0,±1,±2,±3,....

Then by Weierstrass factorization Theorem

....(1)

k n +1

z
provided ∑
n =1 an
converges for ∀z where a n , n ≥ 1 are zeros.

k n +1
∞∞
⎛ ⎛z z ⎞ ⎞

r F ( zπ)z==e he( z ) z mz∏
sin h( z) 1
∏ E⎜⎜E ⎜⎜ ; k;n k⎟⎟ n ⎟⎟
since ∑
n = −∞ an
< ∞; n ≠ 0, ∀ r > 0 n =n1 =1 ⎝ a ⎝n a n ⎠ ⎠

Then it is sufficient to choose k n = 1, ∀ n,


2

z ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎞
then ∑
n = −∞ an
=| z |2 ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + .... ⎟
⎝1 1 2 2 ⎠
n≠0


1
= 2 | z |2 ∑ n2 that conveyes for each z
n =1

∴ in (1) we may put a n = ± n, k n = 1 to get



⎛ z ⎞
sinπz = e h( z )
z∏E⎜ ; 1⎟
n=1 ⎝ ± n ⎠

⎡⎛ z ⎞⎛ z ⎞ ⎛ z ⎞ ⎛ z ⎞⎤

sinπz = e h( z )
z∏ ⎢⎜1+ ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ exp⎜ ⎟ exp⎜ − ⎟⎥
n=1 ⎣⎝ n ⎠⎝ n ⎠ ⎝ n ⎠ ⎝ n ⎠⎦
52


⎛ z2 ⎞
sin πz = e h( z )
z∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟
n =1 ⎝ n ⎠
Example : Construct an entire function with simple zero at the point 0, -1, -2,

...., -n.

Solution : Given that an = -n then the series


k n +1

z

n =1 an
be convergent if kn =1

k n +1
∞ ∞ ∞
z 1 1
i.e. ∑
n =1 an
=| z | ∑
2

n =1 | −n |
2
=| z |2 ∑n
n =1
2

Then Weierstrass factorization Theorem gives


∞ ⎛
z ⎞ −n
z
F ( z ) = e h ( z ) z ∏ ⎜⎜1 − ⎟e
n =1 ⎝ (− n) ⎟⎠

∞ z
⎛ z⎞ −
= e h ( z ) z ∏ ⎜1 + ⎟e n
n =1 ⎝ n⎠

Definition : Rank of infinite product



1
The smallest non negative integer k for which the series ∑|a k +1 converges
n =1 n |

∞ ⎛ z ⎞
is said to be rank of the infinite product. ∏ E ⎜⎜ a ; k n ⎟⎟
n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

Definition Canonical (or regular) product :

If k denotes the rank of infinite product and if we take k n = k ∀ n , then the

infinite product
∞ ⎛ z ⎞
∏ E⎜⎜ a ; k ⎟⎟ is called canonical product.
n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

If no such integer k exists, the infinite product is said to be of infinite rank.

Definition : Exponent of convegence of zeros of an entire function


53

If F ( z) = eh( z ) .z m P( z) ...(1)

where P(z) is canonical product of rank k and A a non-empty set of non negative

real members α such that

converges.

Then the number ρ = glb A is called the exponent of convegence of the zeros of

the entire function given by (1)

Theorem : Theorem for the computation of the exponent of convegence.

Let | an |= rn (0 < r1 ≤ r2 ≤ ... ≤ rn ≤ ....; rn → ∞ ) then the exponent of convergence

is given by
1 log rn
= lim
ρc n→∞ log n
1
Example : If (i) | a |= n 2 log (ii) | an |=| a |n , | a |> 1 then find ρc.
n n

Ans. (i) 2 (ii) 0 ∞ 2


F ( z ) 1= z 2 e z
∑ α
Definition : Genus and Exponential ndegree
=1 | a n | of an entire function :

If F ( z ) = e h ( z ) z m P( z ) is an entire function with canonical product P(z) of rank k

and h(z) is a polynomial of degre q ≥ 0 then non-negative integer p = max(k , q) is

called the genus of the entire function and q is said to be the exponential degree of F.

If P(z) is not of finite rank k, or if h(z) is not a polynomial, then F is said be of infinite

genus.

Example : Find genus of the entire function


2
F ( z) = e z z 2 P( z)

h( z ) = z 2 is a polynomial of degree 2.

P( z ) = 1

∴ kn = k = 0

∴ max(k , q ) = max(0,2) = 2 is the genus of F(z).


54

Definition : Order of an entire function

If F(z) be an entire function and A is a positive constant such that


A
max | F ( z ) |= M (r ) < e r
| z| = r

for all sufficiently large value of r = |z|, then F(z) is caled an entire function of

finite order.

Alternatively

F(z) is of finite orer if ∃ A > 0 such that


A
| F ( z ) |= 0 (e r )

K >0
A
or | F ( z ) |< K e r ;

Definition : Order ρ of an entire function of finite order :

Let S = { A :| F ( z ) |< e r , r > r0 } then the order ρ of an entire function F of finite


A

order is defined by ρ = inf{ A :| f ( z ) |< e r }M (r ) < e Br ρ


A

If there is not a positive constant A such that
A
| F ( z ) |< e r ∀ r large enough

F(z) is said be of infinite order, ρ = ∞ .

Definition : Type of entire function:

If F(z) is an entire function of finite order ρ and there exists a constant B >0 such

that

r large enough

then F(z) is said to be of finite type and


ρ
σ = inf{B : M (r ) < eBr , r > R}
is called the type of F.

If σ > 0 , F is said to be of normal type.

If σ = 0, F is called minimum type.


55
ρ
If there is no B such that M (r ) < e Br , then F is called of infinite type (or

maximum type).

exponential type σ : An entire function F is said to be of expontial type σ(σ < ∞)

if either the function is of order ρ =1 and type , or the function is of order less

then 1.

Theorem : The order ρ of an entire function is given by the formula

Proof : Suppose ρ < ∞ then

∀r large enough ...(1)

then for given ε >0 we have


ρ+ε
M (r ) < e r ∀r large enough ...(2)

Also, there are some z with arbitrary modulus for which


ρ−ε
M (r ) < e r ≤ σ log ρ ..(3)
log
M
ρ ) <M
=( rlim
r(
elog rlog
) M (r )
<ρ+ε (r =| z |)
→∞ r
rlog log r
Then (2) implies
log log M (r ) < (ρ + ε) log r

i.e. ∀r < Re ...(4)


and (3) implies
log log M (r )
>ρ−ε ...(5)
log r

log log M (r )
∴ ρ−ε< <ρ+ε
log r

log log M (r )
⇒ ρ = lim
r →∞ log r

Theorem : The type σ of an entire function of finite order ρ is given by


56

logM (r)
σ = lim
r →∞ rp
Proof : Since the entire function f(z) of finite order ρ is of type σ

Therefore
ρ
M ( r ) < e σr ...(1)

then for given ε > 0, we have


ρ
M (r ) < e (σ+ ε ) r ∀ r large enough ...(2)
ρ
and M (r ) > e ( σ −ε ) r ...(3)

for infinity many values of r

Then (2) implies


log M (r )
<σ+ε ...(4)
rp
and (3) implies
log M (r )
>σ−ε ....(5)
rp
| z |≤ R
log M (r )
⇒ σ−ε< <σ+ε
rp
log M (r )
⇒ σ = lim
r →∞ rp
Theorem : Jensen Formula

If f(z) is analytic in the disc | z |≤ R and if a k ≠ 0 (1 ≤ k ≤ n) are the zero of f(z)

in those zeros being repeated according to their multiplicities, then

1 2π n
R

2π 0
log | f (Re iθ
) | d θ = log | f ( 0 ) | + ∑ log
| ak |
k =1

Proof : Since f(z) is analytic in | z |≤ R, ∃ an open disc | z |< R ′ = R + δ (δ > 0) ,

where f(z) is analytic and has no other zero than the ak

Then if the function


a1 a 2 ...a n f ( z )
g ( z) = ...(1)
(a1 − z )(a 2 − z )...(a n − z ) f (0)
57

is dfined at the point a1 , a 2 ,..., a n then it becomes analytic in | z |< R ′ and does

not vanish analytic in this disc. Then there exists a function h(z) analytic in R'such that

e h ( z ) = g ( z ) an analytic branch h(z) of log g(z) in the disc R'.

From (1) g(0) =1, we may coose h(0) =0 [from (2)]


h( z )
Then can be made analytic in | z |< R ′
z
If we consider C : z = Re iθ , 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π then by the Cauchy-Gousrat theorem

1 h( z ) 1 h(Re iθ )
∫ ∫0 Re iθ Rie dθ = 0

dz =
2πi C + z 2πi


1
∫ h(Re

= )dθ = 0 ...(3)
2π 0

But Re h( z ) = log | g ( z ) |

Taking real part of (3)

1 2π a1 .a 2 ......a n f (Re iθ )
∫ (a − Re iθ )...(a − Re iθ ) f (0) dθ = 0
log
2π 2 π 2π 0
1 1 1
1 n 2π n
⇒ 2π ∫0
log | f (Re iθ
) | dθ −
2π ∫0
log | f ( 0 ) | d θ + ∑ log | a k | dθ
2π k =1 ∫0

1 n 2π
− ∑ log | a k − Re iθ | dθ = 0
2π k =1 ∫0

1 2π 1 n

2π ∫0
log | f (Re iθ
) | d θ − log | f ( 0 ) | + ∑ log | a k | ×2π
2π k =1

1 n 2π 1
+ ∑ ∫
2π k =1 0
log
| a k − Re iθ |
dθ = 0

1 2π 1 n
⇒ 2π ∫0
log | f (Re iθ
) | d θ − log | f ( 0 ) | + ∑ log | a k | ×2π
2π k =1
58

⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
n 2π
1 ⎜ 1 ⎟
+ ∑ ∫ log⎜ ⎟dθ = 0
2π k =1 0 a e−iθ
⎜ | Re | k

−1 ⎟⎟
⎜ R
⎝ ⎠

1 2π 1 n

2π ∫0
log | f (Re iθ
) | d θ − log | f ( 0 ) | + ∑ log | a k | ×2π
2π k =1

1 n ⎡ ⎤

ak e−iθ
+ ∑ ⎢
2π k =1 ∫0 ⎣
− log | R | − log1 −
R
⎥dθ = 0

1 2π 1 n

2π ∫0
log | f (Re iθ
) | d θ − log | f ( 0 ) | + ∑ log | a k | ×2π
2π k =1

1 n 1 n ak e−iθ
+ ∑ 2π (− log R) − ∑ ∫ log1 − dθ = 0
2π k =1 2π k =1 0 R

1 2π 1 n
⇒ ∫
2π 0
log | f (Re iθ ) | dθ − log | f (0) | + ∑ log | a k | ×2π
2π k =1

n 2π
1 a k e − iθ
+ (− n) log R −

∑ ∫
k =1 0
log 1 −
R
dθ = 0
14 4244 3
( = 0 when |a k / R|≤1)

2π n n
1
∫ log | f (Re ) | dθ = log | f (0) | −∑ log | ak | + ∑ log R

⇒ 2π 0 k =1 k =1
n ⎛ R ⎞
= log | f (0) | + ∑ log⎜⎜ ⎟
k =1 ⎝ | ak | ⎟⎠
Corollary : If n(r) denotes the number of zeros of the entire function F(z) in the

disc | z |≤ r , and F (0) ≠ 0, then


R
n(t )
∫ t
dt ≤ log M ( R ) − log | F (0) |
0

Proof : Let a1 , a 2 ,...., a n are zeros of F(z) in |z| <R such that | a1 |<| a 2 |< .... <| a n |

Then
n ⎛ R ⎞ n
∑ log⎜⎜ | a ⎟⎟ = n log R − ∑ log | a k |
k =1 ⎝ k |⎠ k =1
59

n −1
= n log R + ∑ k[log | a k +1 | − log | a k |] − n log | a n |
k =1

n −1 |a k +1 |
1
=∑ ∫ k dt + n(log R − log | a n |)
k =1 |a k | t

n −1 |a k +1 | R
k 1
=∑ ∫ dt + n ∫ dt ....(1)
k =1 |a k | t | an | t

n(t ) = 0 for 0 ≤ t ≤| a1 |

n(t ) = k for | a k |≤ t <| a k +1 |, k = 1,2,...., ( n − 1)

n(t ) = n when | an |≤ t < R

We have (from 1)

( n − 1)
n |a | |a | |a | |a |
R
R 2
1 3
2 4
3 n
1
∑ log = ∫ dt + ∫ dt + ∫ dt + ... + ∫
| a k | |a1 | t
dt + n ∫ dt
k =1 |a 2 | t |a 3 | t |a n −1 | t | an | t

R
n(t )
=∫ dt
0 t

Then by Jesens formula ρ c (2r ) < exp{(2r ) ρ+ε / 3 }


M
R
n (t ) 1 2π iθ
∫ t dt =
2 π ∫ log | F (Re )dθ − log | F (0) |
0 0

≤ log M ( R) − log F (0)

Theorem : (Hadamard ) The exponent of convergence of the zeros of an entire

function of finite order is no greater then ρ. i.e. ρ c ≤ ρ

Proof : {a n }∞ sequence of zeros of F(z), | a k |≤| a k +1 | and real fucntion n(t) is

monotonic increasing with t


2r 2r 2r
n (t ) n(t ) dt
∴ ∫ t dt ≥ ∫ t dt ≥ n ( r ) ∫ t = n(r ) log 2
0 r r

1 2 r n (t )
log 2 ∫0 t
⇒ n(r ) ≤ dt ....(1)

For given ∈> 0 we have . For r large enough


60

or log M (2r ) < (2r ) ρ + ε / 3 < r ρ + 2 ε / 3 ...(2)

Replacing R by 2r in last result of the corollary and using (2)


2r
n(t )
∫ dt < r ρ + 2ε / 3 − log | F (0) |< r ρ+ ε ...(3)
0 t

(1) and (3)


1 ρ +ε
n( r ) < r ...(4)
log 2

⇒ n(r) = o(r ρ +ε ) as r → ∞
Now we show that

converges whatever be δ > 0

Let ε be such that and r = rn


1 ρ+ ε
n = n(rn ) < rn ....(5)
log 2 0∞c<≤ε1ρ< δ
ρ
∑ r ρ+ε
for all r large enough n =1 n

from (5)
1 1 1
<
rnρ + ε n log 2
( ρ +δ ) /( ρ + ε )
1 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞
and <A A = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
rnρ +ε n( ρ +δ ) /( ρ +ε ) ⎝ log 2 ⎠
(ρ + δ ) ∞
1
(ρ + ε )
> 1 , the series ∑n ρ δ
n=1
( + ) /( ρ +ε ) converges


Hence ∑ rn−(ρ+ε)
n =1

⇒ Exponent of convergence ρ c of zeros is ρ + δ

Theorem : Suppose that about each zero a n , | a n |> 1, of a cononical product


61

1
P(z), a dix of radius r p is described where rn = | a n | and = order P(z). Then in
n

the region R complementary to the union of all those discs, the inequality

holds an infinitely many circles of radii arbitrarily large.


∞ 1
Proof : It is obivious that the sum 2 n∑=1 r p infinite as ( p > ρ = ρ c ) the union of
n

−p −p
the intervals U [ rn − rn , rn + rn ] on the real axis each of length 2rn− p does not cover
n

the entire positive real axis.

There are infinitely many circles with center at the origin and radii arbitrarily large

which lie in R.

k = rank of P(z), then

⎛ z ⎞ ⎛ z ⎞
| P ( z ) |= ∏ E ⎜⎜ a ; k ⎟⎟ ∏ E ⎜⎜ a ; k ⎟⎟ ....(1)
rn ≤ 2 r ⎝ n ⎠ rn > 2 r ⎝p >n ρ ⎠ ρ +ε
| P( z ) |> e − r (ε > 0)
⎛ z ⎞ ⎛ z ⎞
⇒ log | P ( z ) | = ∑ log E ⎜⎜ a ; k ⎟⎟ + ∑ log E ⎜⎜ a ; k ⎟⎟
rn ≤ 2 r ⎝ n ⎠ rn > 2 r ⎝ n ⎠
k
z z ⎛ z ⎞ 1 ⎛ z ⎞
≥ ∑ log 1 − −∑ + .... + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ . − ∑ log E ⎜⎜ ; k ⎟⎟ ....(2)
rn ≤ 2 r an rn ≤ 2 r an ⎝ an ⎠ k rn > 2 r ⎝ an ⎠

[on using triangle inequally | z1 + z 2 |≥| z1 | − | z 2 | ]

For |z| =r and rn ≤ 2r , we obtain

⎛ z ⎞ ⎧⎪ 1 ⎛ a ⎞ ⎫⎪
2 k k −1 k −1
k
z 1⎛ z ⎞ 1⎛ z ⎞ 1 ⎛ an ⎞
+ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + ..... + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≤ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎨ + ⎜ ⎟ + .... + ⎜ n ⎟ ⎬
an 2 ⎝ an ⎠ k ⎝ an ⎠ ⎝ an ⎠ ⎪⎩ k k − 1 ⎝ z ⎠ ⎝ z ⎠ ⎪⎭

⎧⎪ 1 k −1
⎫⎪
k
⎛ r ⎞ an
≤ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎨ + .... + ⎬
⎝ rn ⎠ ⎪⎩ k z ⎪
1 4 42 4 4 3⎭
( A1 which does not depend on r )

k
⎛r ⎞
= A1 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ....(3)
⎝ rn ⎠
62

k k
z 1⎛ z ⎞ ⎛ r ⎞
∴ ∑ + ....... + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≤ A1 ∑ ⎜⎜
k ⎝ an ⎠
⎟⎟
rn ≤ 2 r an rn ≤ 2 r ⎝ rn ⎠

2 ρ + ε / 2− k .r ρ + ε / 2+ k
= A1 ∑ ρ+ ε / 2−k .r ρ+ε / 2 (r ) k
rn ≤ 2 r 2 n

2 ρ + ε / 2− k .r ρ+ ε / 2
= A1 ∑ ρ+ε / 2−k
.(rn ) k
rn ≤ 2 r ( 2r )

1
= A1 2 ρ + ε / 2 − k .r ρ + ε / 2 ∑ (rn ) ρ+ε / 2−k
.(rn ) k
rn ≤ 2 r

⎛ 1 ⎞
= r ρ + ε / 2 ⎜⎜ A1 2 ρ + ε / 2 − k ∑ ρ + ε / 2 ⎟⎟
⎝144 42n4 4 43⎠
=1 rn

( A2 which does not depend on r )

= A2 r ρ + ε / 2 ....(4)

If k =0 the sum in (4) does not appear in (2). For z outside every circle | z − an |= rn− p

with rn ≤ 2r .

We have

z | a − z | rn− p
1− = n = = rn− p −1 ≥ (2r ) − p −1
an | an | rn
Hence for all circles |z| =r in the region R, with r sufficiently large,
ρ+ε
log | P ( z ) |> − r ρ + ε ⇒ | P ( z ) |> e − r
63

Hadanard’s Factorization theorem

If F(z) is an entire function of finite order ρ, then the factorization

F(z) = eh( z) zmP(z) is always possible where h(z) is a polynomial of degree ≤ ρ, m≥ o


is the multiplicity of z =0 and P(z) is a canonical product of rank .

Proof : According to Weierstrass factorization theorem an entire function F(z)

can be factorize in the following from

...(1)

When h(z) is an entire function and P(z) a product which may or may not be

canonical.

By the previous theorem ρc ≤ ρ , so that P(z) is of finite rank k ≤ ρ .


ρ+ ε
Also since | P ( z ) |> e − r

replacing ε by we have

|≤
FεPρ
((zz))=|>eeh(−zr) z m P( z)
ρ+ ε / 2

on infinitely many circles |z| =r of arbitrarily


2 large radius.
ρ+ε / 2
Aslo | F (z) |< er is satisfied for all values of r sufficiently large, since F is

suppose to be of order ρ. Then it follows that


ρ+ ε / 2
| F (z) | er
e Re h ( z )
=| e h( z )
|= m < ρ+ ε / 2
| z P( z ) | e − r
ρ+ε / 2 ρ+ε
= e 2r < er on circles of arbitrarily large radius.

Hence on such circles

Re h( z ) < r ρ + ε

⇒ h(z) is a polynomial of degree not greater then ρ.



⎛ z2 ⎞
Example : Show sin πz = πz ∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟ by Hadaward Factorization Theorem.
n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

sinπ z ∞ π 2n z n
Solution : Let F ( z) = = ∑ (−1)n ....(1)
π z n =0 (2n + 1)!
64

π2 z
=1− + .....
3!

when F ( z ) = ∑ c n z then by the formula
n

n =0

1 log(1 / | c n |)
= lim ...(2)
ρ n→∞ n log n

1 1
= 2 i.e. ρ = ...(3)
ρ 2
Since zeros of F(z) are z =1, 4, ..., n2, ... we have

sin π z ∞
⎛ z ⎞
F ( z) = = e h ( z ) ∏ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ ...(4)
π z n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

But according to Hadamard Factorization theorem, h(z) must be a polynomial

of degee ≤ order of F(z) i.e. degree of

⇒ h( z ) = C (constant)
∞ 1
⎛ z⎞ h( z ) ≤
∴ F (z) = e ∏⎜1− 2 ⎟
C
2
n=1 ⎝ n ⎠
Since F (0) = 1

⇒ C =0

sin π z ∞
⎛ z ⎞
∴ = F ( z ) = ∏ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟
π z n =1 ⎝ n ⎠

Replacing z by z2

sin πz ∞ ⎛ z2 ⎞
= ∏ ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟
πz n =1 ⎝ n ⎠
65