You are on page 1of 27

# Renewable Energy Group

Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Welcome!

Energy Balance of Solar Collector

E-mail:m.Kharseh@gmail.com

1
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Liquid Flat Plate Collectors

1. Heat Loss from Collector

2. Testing of Solar Collectors

2
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Useful Heat Gained By The Collector

Not all of solar radiation hits the sloped surface can be used:

Some solar radiation is reflected and re-emitted away

Some of the gained energy is lost again to the surrounding

qu = S⋅ Ap − ql

qu = Useful heat gained by the collector
S = Solar Energy absorbed in absorber
Ap = Area of the absorber plates
ql = Heat lost from the collector
3
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Heat Losses from Collector

The thermal losses depends on:
– The temperature difference between the absorber
plate and the ambient air
– The overall heat loss coefficient, Ul [W/m2,K]

q l = U l ⋅ A p ⋅ Tpm − Ta ( )
Tpm = Mean temperature of absorber plates
Ta = Ambient air temperature

4
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Heat Losses from Collector

Whenever the absorber plate is warmer than the ambient air,
heat is lost from the collector through:

– the cover (top), [W] (
qt = Ut ⋅ Ap ⋅ Tpm − Ta )
– the bottom, [W] qb = U b ⋅ Ap ⋅ (Tpm − Ta )

– the sides, [W] (
qs = Us ⋅ Ap ⋅ Tpm − Ta )

Most of the heat losses is through the cover

5
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Overall Heat Loss Coefficient

Then, the total heat losses is:

q l = qt + q b + qs

Since the heat loss equations are expressed on the basis
of the same temperature difference, it is then possible to
evaluate the overall heat loss coefficient, Ul, by

ql = U l ⋅ Ap ⋅ (Tpm − Ta )

U l = Ut + U b + Us

Typical values of Ul ranges from 2 to 10 W/m2K
6
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Thermal Network for a Flat-Plate

qu

7
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Bottom Heat Losses Coefficient

The heat losses coefficient through the bottom
is represented by two series resistors, R3 and
R4. It is possible to assume R4 is zero:

1 λ
Ub = =
R3 δ b

λ = thermal conductivity of insulator
δb = thickness of insulated bottom

8
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Side Loss Coefficient

Similarly, the heat transfer coefficient for the collector side is:

2 ⋅ L3 ⋅ (L1 + L2 ) λ
Us = ⋅
L1 ⋅ L2 δs

L1= length of casing
L2= width of casing
L3= height of casing
λ= thermal conductivity of insulation
δs = thickness of insulated side

9
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Top Loss Coefficient
−1
   

Ut = 
N 1
+ 
 
+
σ ⋅ T (
2
pm + Ta
2
⋅ T)(
pm + T )
a

 Tpm − Ta 
e αa   1 2N + f − 1 + 0.133 ⋅ ε p 
 C  + −N
T ⋅    ε + ⋅ ⋅ α ε
 N +f   p 0.00591 N a g 
 pm 

α a = 5.7 + 3.8 ⋅ v wind or α a = 2.8 + 3 ⋅ v wind or Nu = 0.86 Re1/ 2 Pr1/ 3

( )
f = 1 + 0.089 ⋅ α a − 0.1166 ⋅ α a ⋅ ε p ⋅ (1 + 0.07866N )

N = number of covers
C = 520 ⋅ ( 1 − 0.000051 ⋅ β ); 0 ≤ β ≤ 70
2
σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant
εp = emissivity of plate
100
e = 0.43 ⋅ ( 1 − ) εg = emissivity of glass (0.88)
Tpm
αa = convection coefficient of ambient air (W/m2K)
νwind =Wind speed of ambient air (m/sec)
β = collector tilt (degree) 10
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Top Loss Coefficient

Determine the overall loss coefficient for a collector, single glass
cover, with the following specification:
 Plate emissivity 0.95
 Ambient temperature 10 0C
 Mean plate temperature 100 0C
 Collector sloped angel 450
 Wind speed 2 m/sec
 Back-insulation thickness 50 mm
 insulation conductivity 0.045 W/m.K
 Collector bank length 10 m
 Collector bank width 3m
 Collector thickness 75 mm
 Edge insulation thickness 25 mm

11
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Heat Balance of Collector

( (
qu = Ap S − U l Tpm − Ta ))

• This expression depends on two factors:
1. Ul : is a function of the mean plate temperature, Tpm
2. Tpm: is the mean plate temperature, which is unknown

• We need to express qu in terms of a known temperature.
• The only known temperature is the fluid inlet temperature

12
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Absorber Cross-section

The useful heat gained by the absorber plate can be divided into:
1. the heat gained from the area above the tube
2. the heat gained from the fin

qu′ = qu′ tube + qu′ fin

tube fin

W-Do
W
13
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Heat Gain per unit Length

The useful heat transfer rate to the fluid in the absorber cross-section is:

qu′ = [F ⋅ (W − Do ) + Do ] ⋅ [S − U l (Tb − Ta )]

F: Standard Fin Efficiency

tanh[m ⋅ (W − Do )/ 2]
F=
m ⋅ (W − Do )/ 2

Hyperbolic
tangent
Do= tube outer diameter
W = distance between tubes
Where m is :
Tb = local absorber temperature above the bond
m = (Ul/λpδp)½
λp = thermal conductivity of absorber plate
δp = thickness of absorber plate 14
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Collector Efficiency Factor, F′

qu′ = [F ⋅ (W − Do ) + Do ] ⋅ [S − U l (Tb − Ta )]

To relate this expression to the local fluid temperature that results from
this heat transfer, the collector efficiency factor, F’, is introduced:

U0 1
F' = =
Ul  1 1 
WU l  + 
U l ⋅ [F (W − Do ) + Do ] πDi α f 

Di= tube inner diameter
αf = convection coefficient of fluid
Uo= overall heat loss coefficient from fluid to ambient
Ul = overall heat loss coefficient from absorber to ambient
15
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Collector Efficiency Factor, F′

Thus, useful gain can be expressed as :

qu′ = F ′ ⋅ W ⋅ [S − U l (Tf − Ta )]

We eliminated Tb from the equation and obtain an
expression for useful gain in term of known dimensions,
physical parameters and fluid temperature.

16
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Heat Gain in Cross-section

We can express an energy balance on the fluid flowing
through a signal tube of a small length dy as:

Fluid Flow  /n) ⋅ c pTf (y)
(m  /n) ⋅ c pTf (y + dy)
(m

dy
y
Number of tube in
the absorber plate

n ⋅ qu′ ⋅ dy = m  ⋅ c p ⋅ dTf − n ⋅ F' ⋅ W ⋅ [S − U l (Tf − Ta )] = 0
 ⋅ c p ⋅ dTf ⇒ m
dy

17
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Heat Gain in Cross-section

Solving this differential equation, we can determine the
fluid temperature at any position y:

 Ul ⋅n ⋅W ⋅F ' 
- y

Tf (y)-Ta -S/U l  m ⋅c p 
=e 
Tfi -Ta -S/U l

If the collector has a length L in the flow direction, then the
outlet fluid temperature Tfo is found by substituting L for y, note
that “n.W.L =Ap”

 Ul ⋅ Ap⋅F' 
- 
Tfo -Ta -S/U l  m  ⋅c p 
= e 
Tfi -Ta -S/U l
18
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Heat Removal Factor, FR

The heat removal factor, which relates the actual heat gain
to the maximum heat gain, is define as:

qu Actual hea t gain  ⋅ c p (Tfo − Tfi )
m
FR = =
qu Maximum heat gain Ap [S − U l (Tfi − Ta )]

Using the last equation in the previous slide, we can express
FR that is independent of the outlet temperature, Tfo:

 

Ul ⋅ Ap  


mc p  
− F' ⋅
m ⋅Cp 
FR = 1 − e  
U l Ap  
 
 
19
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Heat Gain in Cross-section

Then the collector heat removal factor times this
maximum possible useful energy gain is equal to
the actual useful energy gain qu

qu = Ap ⋅ FR [S − U l (Tfi − Ta )]

20
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Heat Gain in Cross-section
Using FR the useful heat gain can now be determined based on
the inlet temperature.
• But the overall heat loss coefficient, Ul, is a function of
the mean plate temperature, Tpm
  − F' ⋅ l p  
 U ⋅A 

mc p   m ⋅Cp   qu = Ap ⋅ FR [S − U l (Tfi − Ta )]
FR = 1 − e  
U l Ap  
 
 

U0 1
F' = =
Ul  1 1 
WU l  + 
U l ⋅ [F (W − Do ) + Do ] πDi α f 

U l = Ut + U b + Us

−1
   

Ut = 
N
+
1

+

(
σ ⋅ Tpm
2
)(
+ Ta2 ⋅ Tpm + Ta ) 

  + − + ⋅ ε 
 C  Tpm − Ta 
e αa  1 2 N f 1 0.133 p
⋅    + −N
T +   ε p + 0.00591⋅ N ⋅ α a εg 
 pm  N f  
21
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Mean Plate Temperature

1. Guess a first value of Ul (2 – 10 W/m2,K) and calculate
the heat gain, qu.
2. Tpm can then be calculated from the original heat gain
equation:
( (
qu = Ap S − U l Tpm − Ta ))

3. Use the calculated Tpm to derive a new Ul.
4. Continue with iterations until Ul remains approximately
the same from one calculation to another.
– Since Ul is only vaguely dependent on the temperature,
one or two repetition should be necessary

22
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Instantaneous Collector Efficiency

Collector is exposed to solar radiation while the fluid flow rate
and temperature increase is measured.

– The useful heat gain in a collector operating under steady
state condition equals the enthalpy increase of the fluid:

(
qu=m c p T fo -T fi )
– The instantaneous collector efficiency is the ratio of the
useful heat gain to the incident solar radiation:

ηi=
qu
=
( )
m c p T fo -T fi FR
= [S-U (T -T )]
L fi a
Ap I T Ap I T IT
23
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Instantaneous Collector Efficiency
The efficiency curve for a collector is plotted as a function of (Tfi – Ta)/IT

[Tfi-Ta/IT]⋅103 [K⋅m2/W]

The efficiency curve yields a straight line since FR, (τα) and Ul are
fairly constant for a collector type when the flow rate is constant
24
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Example

Casing: Cover:
Material: glass
Length = 2.4m
N = 1
Width = 1.2m
αc = εc = 0.84
δb = 25mm n2/n1 = 1.526
λb = 0.036W/mK

Heat carrier:
Absorber:
Fluid: water
Length = 2.3m
Width = 1.15m m = 15kg/h
δp-c1 = 25mm Ti = 293 K
δp = 0.5mm hf = 205W/m2K
λp = 237W/mK
αp = 0.9
Ambient:
εp = 0.1
D0 = 13.4mm Ta = 273 K
Di = 12.4mm Va = 5 m/s
W = 143mm
Kδc = 0.03

25
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

Assignment 2
Useful heat gained by the collector and collector efficiency
1. Determine the best slope angle of your solar collector, for your
region, that produces the maximum energy.
2. Annual & monthly available solar energy on sloped surface in your
region.
3. Annual & monthly useful heat gained by one square meter of solo
collector.
4. Monthly solar collector efficiency.
5. annual average solar collector efficiency
Using following Assumption:
W=0.143 m, Do=0.0134, Di=0.0123, δb=0.05, δs=0.025,
δp=0.001, λinsulation=0.045, λp=237 and the flow rate is 0,004
kg/s

26
Renewable Energy Group
Great Ideas Grow
Better Below Zero!

S = (τα)b ⋅ GbT + (τα)d ⋅ (GdT + GrT )

τ ⋅α
(τα ) =
1 − (1 − α )ρd

qu = Ap ⋅ FR [S − U l (Tfi − Ta )]

  − F' ⋅ l p  
 U ⋅A 
U0 1

mc p   m ⋅Cp   F' = =
FR = 1 − e   Ul  1 1 
U l Ap   WU l  + 

 U l ⋅ [F (W − Do ) + Do ] πDi α f 

U l = Ut + U b + Us

−1
   

Ut = 
N
+
1

+

( 2 2
)(
σ ⋅ Tpm + Ta ⋅ Tpm + Ta ) 

  2N + f − 1 + 0.133 ⋅ ε p 
 C  Tpm − Ta 
e αa  1
⋅   + −N
T    ε p + 0.00591⋅ N ⋅ α a εg 
 pm  N +f   27