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Energy Balance of Solar Collector
Mohamad Kharseh
Email:m.Kharseh@gmail.com
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Liquid Flat Plate Collectors
1. Heat Loss from Collector
2. Testing of Solar Collectors
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Useful Heat Gained By The Collector
Not all of solar radiation hits the sloped surface can be used:
Some solar radiation is reflected and reemitted away
Some of the gained energy is lost again to the surrounding
qu = S⋅ Ap − ql
qu = Useful heat gained by the collector
S = Solar Energy absorbed in absorber
Ap = Area of the absorber plates
ql = Heat lost from the collector
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Heat Losses from Collector
The thermal losses depends on:
– The temperature difference between the absorber
plate and the ambient air
– The overall heat loss coefficient, Ul [W/m2,K]
q l = U l ⋅ A p ⋅ Tpm − Ta ( )
Tpm = Mean temperature of absorber plates
Ta = Ambient air temperature
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Heat Losses from Collector
Whenever the absorber plate is warmer than the ambient air,
heat is lost from the collector through:
– the cover (top), [W] (
qt = Ut ⋅ Ap ⋅ Tpm − Ta )
– the bottom, [W] qb = U b ⋅ Ap ⋅ (Tpm − Ta )
– the sides, [W] (
qs = Us ⋅ Ap ⋅ Tpm − Ta )
Most of the heat losses is through the cover
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Overall Heat Loss Coefficient
Then, the total heat losses is:
q l = qt + q b + qs
Since the heat loss equations are expressed on the basis
of the same temperature difference, it is then possible to
evaluate the overall heat loss coefficient, Ul, by
ql = U l ⋅ Ap ⋅ (Tpm − Ta )
U l = Ut + U b + Us
Typical values of Ul ranges from 2 to 10 W/m2K
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Thermal Network for a FlatPlate
qu
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Bottom Heat Losses Coefficient
The heat losses coefficient through the bottom
is represented by two series resistors, R3 and
R4. It is possible to assume R4 is zero:
1 λ
Ub = =
R3 δ b
λ = thermal conductivity of insulator
δb = thickness of insulated bottom
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Side Loss Coefficient
Similarly, the heat transfer coefficient for the collector side is:
2 ⋅ L3 ⋅ (L1 + L2 ) λ
Us = ⋅
L1 ⋅ L2 δs
L1= length of casing
L2= width of casing
L3= height of casing
λ= thermal conductivity of insulation
δs = thickness of insulated side
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Top Loss Coefficient
−1
Ut =
N 1
+
+
σ ⋅ T (
2
pm + Ta
2
⋅ T)(
pm + T )
a
Tpm − Ta
e αa 1 2N + f − 1 + 0.133 ⋅ ε p
C + −N
T ⋅ ε + ⋅ ⋅ α ε
N +f p 0.00591 N a g
pm
α a = 5.7 + 3.8 ⋅ v wind or α a = 2.8 + 3 ⋅ v wind or Nu = 0.86 Re1/ 2 Pr1/ 3
( )
f = 1 + 0.089 ⋅ α a − 0.1166 ⋅ α a ⋅ ε p ⋅ (1 + 0.07866N )
N = number of covers
C = 520 ⋅ ( 1 − 0.000051 ⋅ β ); 0 ≤ β ≤ 70
2
σ = StefanBoltzmann constant
εp = emissivity of plate
100
e = 0.43 ⋅ ( 1 − ) εg = emissivity of glass (0.88)
Tpm
αa = convection coefficient of ambient air (W/m2K)
νwind =Wind speed of ambient air (m/sec)
β = collector tilt (degree) 10
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Top Loss Coefficient
Determine the overall loss coefficient for a collector, single glass
cover, with the following specification:
Plate emissivity 0.95
Ambient temperature 10 0C
Mean plate temperature 100 0C
Collector sloped angel 450
Wind speed 2 m/sec
Backinsulation thickness 50 mm
insulation conductivity 0.045 W/m.K
Collector bank length 10 m
Collector bank width 3m
Collector thickness 75 mm
Edge insulation thickness 25 mm
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Heat Balance of Collector
( (
qu = Ap S − U l Tpm − Ta ))
• This expression depends on two factors:
1. Ul : is a function of the mean plate temperature, Tpm
2. Tpm: is the mean plate temperature, which is unknown
• We need to express qu in terms of a known temperature.
• The only known temperature is the fluid inlet temperature
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Absorber Crosssection
The useful heat gained by the absorber plate can be divided into:
1. the heat gained from the area above the tube
2. the heat gained from the fin
qu′ = qu′ tube + qu′ fin
tube fin
WDo
W
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Heat Gain per unit Length
The useful heat transfer rate to the fluid in the absorber crosssection is:
qu′ = [F ⋅ (W − Do ) + Do ] ⋅ [S − U l (Tb − Ta )]
F: Standard Fin Efficiency
tanh[m ⋅ (W − Do )/ 2]
F=
m ⋅ (W − Do )/ 2
Hyperbolic
tangent
Do= tube outer diameter
W = distance between tubes
Where m is :
Tb = local absorber temperature above the bond
m = (Ul/λpδp)½
λp = thermal conductivity of absorber plate
δp = thickness of absorber plate 14
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Collector Efficiency Factor, F′
qu′ = [F ⋅ (W − Do ) + Do ] ⋅ [S − U l (Tb − Ta )]
To relate this expression to the local fluid temperature that results from
this heat transfer, the collector efficiency factor, F’, is introduced:
U0 1
F' = =
Ul 1 1
WU l +
U l ⋅ [F (W − Do ) + Do ] πDi α f
Di= tube inner diameter
αf = convection coefficient of fluid
Uo= overall heat loss coefficient from fluid to ambient
Ul = overall heat loss coefficient from absorber to ambient
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Collector Efficiency Factor, F′
Thus, useful gain can be expressed as :
qu′ = F ′ ⋅ W ⋅ [S − U l (Tf − Ta )]
We eliminated Tb from the equation and obtain an
expression for useful gain in term of known dimensions,
physical parameters and fluid temperature.
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Heat Gain in Crosssection
We can express an energy balance on the fluid flowing
through a signal tube of a small length dy as:
Fluid Flow /n) ⋅ c pTf (y)
(m /n) ⋅ c pTf (y + dy)
(m
dy
y
Number of tube in
the absorber plate
n ⋅ qu′ ⋅ dy = m ⋅ c p ⋅ dTf − n ⋅ F' ⋅ W ⋅ [S − U l (Tf − Ta )] = 0
⋅ c p ⋅ dTf ⇒ m
dy
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Heat Gain in Crosssection
Solving this differential equation, we can determine the
fluid temperature at any position y:
Ul ⋅n ⋅W ⋅F '
 y
Tf (y)Ta S/U l m ⋅c p
=e
Tfi Ta S/U l
If the collector has a length L in the flow direction, then the
outlet fluid temperature Tfo is found by substituting L for y, note
that “n.W.L =Ap”
Ul ⋅ Ap⋅F'

Tfo Ta S/U l m ⋅c p
= e
Tfi Ta S/U l
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Heat Removal Factor, FR
The heat removal factor, which relates the actual heat gain
to the maximum heat gain, is define as:
qu Actual hea t gain ⋅ c p (Tfo − Tfi )
m
FR = =
qu Maximum heat gain Ap [S − U l (Tfi − Ta )]
Using the last equation in the previous slide, we can express
FR that is independent of the outlet temperature, Tfo:
Ul ⋅ Ap
mc p
− F' ⋅
m ⋅Cp
FR = 1 − e
U l Ap
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Heat Gain in Crosssection
Then the collector heat removal factor times this
maximum possible useful energy gain is equal to
the actual useful energy gain qu
qu = Ap ⋅ FR [S − U l (Tfi − Ta )]
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Heat Gain in Crosssection
Using FR the useful heat gain can now be determined based on
the inlet temperature.
• But the overall heat loss coefficient, Ul, is a function of
the mean plate temperature, Tpm
− F' ⋅ l p
U ⋅A
mc p m ⋅Cp qu = Ap ⋅ FR [S − U l (Tfi − Ta )]
FR = 1 − e
U l Ap
U0 1
F' = =
Ul 1 1
WU l +
U l ⋅ [F (W − Do ) + Do ] πDi α f
U l = Ut + U b + Us
−1
Ut =
N
+
1
+
(
σ ⋅ Tpm
2
)(
+ Ta2 ⋅ Tpm + Ta )
+ − + ⋅ ε
C Tpm − Ta
e αa 1 2 N f 1 0.133 p
⋅ + −N
T + ε p + 0.00591⋅ N ⋅ α a εg
pm N f
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Mean Plate Temperature
1. Guess a first value of Ul (2 – 10 W/m2,K) and calculate
the heat gain, qu.
2. Tpm can then be calculated from the original heat gain
equation:
( (
qu = Ap S − U l Tpm − Ta ))
3. Use the calculated Tpm to derive a new Ul.
4. Continue with iterations until Ul remains approximately
the same from one calculation to another.
– Since Ul is only vaguely dependent on the temperature,
one or two repetition should be necessary
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Instantaneous Collector Efficiency
Collector is exposed to solar radiation while the fluid flow rate
and temperature increase is measured.
– The useful heat gain in a collector operating under steady
state condition equals the enthalpy increase of the fluid:
(
qu=m c p T fo T fi )
– The instantaneous collector efficiency is the ratio of the
useful heat gain to the incident solar radiation:
ηi=
qu
=
( )
m c p T fo T fi FR
= [SU (T T )]
L fi a
Ap I T Ap I T IT
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Instantaneous Collector Efficiency
The efficiency curve for a collector is plotted as a function of (Tfi – Ta)/IT
[TfiTa/IT]⋅103 [K⋅m2/W]
The efficiency curve yields a straight line since FR, (τα) and Ul are
fairly constant for a collector type when the flow rate is constant
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Example
Casing: Cover:
Material: glass
Length = 2.4m
N = 1
Width = 1.2m
αc = εc = 0.84
δb = 25mm n2/n1 = 1.526
λb = 0.036W/mK
Heat carrier:
Absorber:
Fluid: water
Length = 2.3m
Width = 1.15m m = 15kg/h
δpc1 = 25mm Ti = 293 K
δp = 0.5mm hf = 205W/m2K
λp = 237W/mK
αp = 0.9
Ambient:
εp = 0.1
D0 = 13.4mm Ta = 273 K
Di = 12.4mm Va = 5 m/s
W = 143mm
Kδc = 0.03
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Assignment 2
Useful heat gained by the collector and collector efficiency
1. Determine the best slope angle of your solar collector, for your
region, that produces the maximum energy.
2. Annual & monthly available solar energy on sloped surface in your
region.
3. Annual & monthly useful heat gained by one square meter of solo
collector.
4. Monthly solar collector efficiency.
5. annual average solar collector efficiency
Using following Assumption:
W=0.143 m, Do=0.0134, Di=0.0123, δb=0.05, δs=0.025,
δp=0.001, λinsulation=0.045, λp=237 and the flow rate is 0,004
kg/s
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S = (τα)b ⋅ GbT + (τα)d ⋅ (GdT + GrT )
τ ⋅α
(τα ) =
1 − (1 − α )ρd
qu = Ap ⋅ FR [S − U l (Tfi − Ta )]
− F' ⋅ l p
U ⋅A
U0 1
mc p m ⋅Cp F' = =
FR = 1 − e Ul 1 1
U l Ap WU l +
U l ⋅ [F (W − Do ) + Do ] πDi α f
U l = Ut + U b + Us
−1
Ut =
N
+
1
+
( 2 2
)(
σ ⋅ Tpm + Ta ⋅ Tpm + Ta )
2N + f − 1 + 0.133 ⋅ ε p
C Tpm − Ta
e αa 1
⋅ + −N
T ε p + 0.00591⋅ N ⋅ α a εg
pm N +f 27