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You are on page 1of 650

teachers who review our titles to ensure that the

contents are in line with the current syllabus

and examination requirements as set by the

Examination Syndicate, Ministry of Education

Malaysia.

• Adda Ong

• Rosaimi Abd Wahab

• Tam Siew Shong

• Yap Wei Yee

• Chen Kheng Bin

*****************************************

(Formerly known as Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd.)

4 Jalan Pemaju U1/15, Seksyen U1

Hicom-Glenmarie Industrial Park

40150 Shah Alam

Selangor Darul Ehsan

First published 2013

No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or

by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of

Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T)

Impression One Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur

ii

Contents

Forces and Pressure 166

3.1 Understanding Pressure 167

FORM 4

3.2 Understanding Pressure in Liquids 170

3.3 Understanding Gas Pressure and 176

CHAPTER 1

Atmospheric Pressure

3.4 Applying Pascal's Principle 186

Introduction to Physics 1

3.5 Applying Archimedes' Principle 189

1.1 Understanding Physics 2 3.6 Understanding Bernoulli's Principle 196

1.2 Understanding Base Quantities and 4 SPM Exam Practice 3 201

Derived Quantities

1.3 Understanding Scalar and Vector 11

Quantities

1.4 Understanding Measurements 11

1.5 Analysing Scientific Investigations 22 CHAPTER 4

SPM Exam Practice 1 30 Heat 206

4.1 Understanding Thermal Equilibrium 207

4.2 Understanding Specific Heat Capacity 211

4.3 Understanding Specific Latent Heat 222

CHAPTER 2

4.4 Understanding the Gas Laws 233

SPM Exam Practice 4 245

Forces and Motion 37

2.1 Analysing Linear Motion 38

2.2 Analysing Motion Graphs 51

2.3 Understanding Inertia 58

2.4 Analysing Momentum 66 CHAPTER 5

2.5 Understanding the Effects of a Force 80 Light 251

2.6 Analysing Impulse and Impulsive Force 91

5.1 Understanding Reflection of Light 252

2.7 Being Aware of the Need for Safety 98

5.2 Understanding Refraction of Light 265

Features in Vehicles

5.3 Understanding Total Internal 276

2.8 Understanding Gravity 99

Reflection

2.9 Analysing Forces in Equilibrium 110

5.4 Understanding Lenses 285

2.10 Understanding Work, Energy, Power 124

SPM Exam Practice 5 307

and Efficiency

2.11 Appreciating the Importance of 141

Maximising the Efficiency of Devices

2.12 Understanding Elasticity 142

SPM Exam Practice 2 159

iii

FORM 5

3.3 Analysing Electromagnetic Induction 452

3.4 Analysing Transformers 469

CHAPTER 1

3.5 Understanding the Generation and 478

Waves 315 Transmission of Electricity

1.1 Understanding Waves 316 SPM Exam Practice 3 486

1.2 Analysing Reflection of Waves 324

1.3 Analysing Refraction of Waves 330

1.4 Analysing Diffraction of Waves 336

1.5 Analysing Interference of Waves 341

1.6 Analysing Sound Waves 352 CHAPTER 4

SPM Exam Practice 1 362 4.1 Understanding the Uses of the 494

Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope(CRO)

4.2 Understanding Semiconductor 508

Diodes

4.3 Understanding Transistors 515

CHAPTER 2

4.4 Analysing Logic Gates 523

Electricity 369 SPM Exam Practice 4 538

2.1 Analysing Electric Fields and Charge 370

Flow

2.2 Analysing the Relationship between 375

Electric Current and Potential

Difference CHAPTER 5

2.4 Analysing Electromotive Force and 402 5.1 Understanding the Nucleus of an 549

Internal Resistance Atom

2.5 Analysing Electrical Energy and 409 5.2 Analysing Radioactive Decay 550

Power 5.3 Understanding the Uses of 564

SPM Exam Practice 2 417 Radioisotopes

5.4 Understanding Nuclear Energy 567

5.5 Realising the Importance of Proper 572

Management of Radioactive

Substances

CHAPTER 3

SPM Exam Practice 5 575

Electromagnetism 423

3.1 Analysing the Magnetic Effect of a 424 SPM Model Test 582

Current-carrying Conductor

Answers 600

3.2 Understanding the Force on a 437

Current-carrying Conductor in a

Magnetic Field

iv

Key Words

FORM 4 displacement – sesaran pressure – tekanan

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physics distance – jarak pressure in liquids – tekanan cecair

elastic collision – perlanggaran kenyal submerged – tenggelam

accuracy – kejituan explosion – letupan transmitted – tersebar

base quantity – kuantiti asas forces in equilibrium – daya-daya

base unit – unit asas dalam keseimbangan Chapter 4 Heat

consistency – kepersisan free fall – jatuh bebas

derived quantity – kuantiti terbitan gravitational force – daya graviti absolute temperature – suhu mutlak

derived unit – unit terbitan impulsive force – daya impuls absolute zero – sifar mutlak

error – ralat inelastic collision – perlanggaran tak boiling – pendidihan

fixed/constant variable – kenyal Boyle’s law – Hukum Boyle

pembolehubah dimalarkan inertia – inersia calibration – penentukuran

hypothesis – hipotesis kinetic energy – tenaga kinetik Charles’ law – Hukum Charles

inference – inferens mass – jisim condensation – kondensasi

investigation method – kaedah motion graph – graf gerakan freezing – pembekuan

penyiasatan potential energy – tenaga keupayaan fusion – pelakuran

manipulated variable – power – kuasa Gas law – Hukum gas

pembolehubah dimanipulasikan resolution of force – leraian daya heat – haba

measurement – pengukuran resultant force – daya paduan melting – peleburan

measuring instrument – alat speed – laju Pressure law – Hukum tekanan

pengukur specific heat capacity – muatan haba

ticker-timer – jangka masa detik

micrometer screw gauge – tolok skru tentu

velocity – halaju

mikrometer specific latent heat – haba pendam

weight – berat

natural phenomena – fenomena tentu

alam semula jadi work – kerja

specific latent heat of fusion – haba

oscillation – ayunan pendam tentu pelakuran

parallax error – ralat paralaks specific latent heat of vaporisation –

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

physical quantity– kuantiti fizik haba pendam tentu pengewapan

prefixes – imbuhan apparent weight – berat ketara sublimation – pemejalwapan

random error – ralat rawak Archimedes’ principle – Prinsip temperature – suhu

relative deviation – sisihan relatif Archimedes thermal equilibrium – keseimbangan

responding variable – pembolehubah atmospheric pressure – tekanan terma

bergerak balas atmosfera thermocouple – termogandingan

scientific skills – kemahiran saintifik Bernoulli’s principle – Prinsip Bernoulli vaporisation – pengewapan

sensitivity – kepekaan buoyancy – keapungan

standard form – bentuk piawai buoyant force/upthrust – daya tujah

stopwatch – jam randik ke atas Chapter 5 Light

systematic error – ralat sistematik density – ketumpatan angle of incidence – sudut tuju

vernier callipers – angkup vernier depth – kedalaman aperture – bukaan

zero error – ralat sifar enclosed – tertutup apparent depth – dalam ketara

fluid – bendalir concave mirror – cermin cekung

force multiplier – pembesar daya converge – menumpu

Chapter 2 Forces and Motion kinetic theory of matter – teori kinetik convex mirror – cermin cembung

acceleration – pecutan jirim critical angle – sudut genting

collision – perlanggaran lifting force – daya angkat diminished – diperkecilkan

conservation – keabadian matter – jirim diverge – mencapah

deceleration – nyahpecutan Pascal’s principle – Prinsip Pascal erect image – imej tegak

v

focal length – panjang fokus vibration – getaran step-up transformer – transformer

incident ray – sinar tuju injak naik

wave – gelombang

lateral inversion – songsang sisi transmission – penghantaran

wavefront – muka gelombang

magnified – diperbesarkan

wavelength – panjang gelombang Chapter 4 Electronics

optical centre – pusat optik

plane mirror – cermin satah base – tapak

principal axis – paksi utama cathode rays – sinar katod

Chapter 2 Electricity

ray diagram – rajah sinar collector – pengumpul

real depth – dalam nyata effective resistance – rintangan doping – pengedopan

real image – imej nyata berkesan emitter – pengeluar

reflected ray – sinar pantulan electric charge – cas elektrik fluorescent screen – skrin

reflection – pantulan electric current – arus elektrik berpendarfluor

refraction – pembiasan electric field – medan elektrik forward-biased – pincang ke depan

refractive index – indeks pembiasan electric power – kuasa elektrik full wave – gelombang penuh

total internal reflection – pantulan electromotive force (e.m.f.) – daya half wave – separuh gelombang

dalam penuh gerak elektrik (d.g.e.) hole – lohong

virtual image – imej maya electron flow – aliran elektron integrated circuit – litar bersepadu

energy efficiency – kecekapan tenaga light-dependant resistor (LDR) –

internal resistance – rintangan perintang peka cahaya (PPC)

dalaman light-emitting diode (LED) – diod

FORM 5

parallel circuit – litar selari pemancar cahaya (DPC)

Chapter 1 Waves potential difference – beza logic gate – get logik

keupayaan p-n junction – simpang p-n

amplitude – amplitud

resistance – rintangan rectification – rektifikasi

angle of incidence – sudut tuju

series circuit – litar bersiri reverse-biased – pincang songsang

angle of reflection – sudut pantulan voltage – voltan

angle of refraction – sudut pembiasan thermionic emission – pancaran

work – kerja termion

constructive interference – interferens

truth table – jadual kebenaran

membina

crest – puncak Chapter 3 Electromagnetism

destructive interference – interferens Chapter 5 Radioactivity

alternating current – arus ulang-alik

membinasa biomass – biojisim carbon dating – pentarikhan karbon

diffraction – belauan coil – gegelung chain reaction – tindak balas berantai

echo – gema current-carrying conductor –

critical mass – jisim genting

frequency – frekuensi konduktor membawa arus

direct current – arus terus cloud chamber – kebuk awan

interference – interferens

interference pattern – corak direct current motor – motor arus deflection – pemesongan

interferens terus electroscope – elektroskop

longitudinal wave – gelombang electromagnet – elektromagnet half-life – setengah hayat

membujur electromagnetic induction – aruhan ionising power – kuasa pengionan

elektromagnet nuclear fission – pembelahan nukleus

period – tempoh

magnetic field – medan magnet

plane wave – gelombang satah nuclear fusion – pelakuran nukleus

moving coil ammeter – ammeter

propagation – perambatan gegelung bergerak nucleon number – nombor nukleon

resonance – resonans national grid network – rangkaian grid penetrating power – kuasa

ripple tank – tangki riak nasional penembusan

sound wave – gelombang bunyi primary – primer proton number – nombor proton

superposition – superposisi renewable energy – tenaga yang radiation – sinaran

boleh diperbaharui radioactive decay – reputan radioaktif

transverse wave – gelombang

secondary – sekunder random – rawak

melintang

step-down transformer – transformer

trough – lembangan injak turun

vi

FORM 4

1

CHAPTER

Introduction to Physics

Year 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Paper 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Section A B C A B A B C A B A B C A B A B C A B A B C A B

Number of questions 3 – – – – – 3 – – – 1 – 2 – – – – – 2 1 – – 1 – 3 – – – – –

ONCEPT MAP

Scientific

INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

investigations

Observing a situation

Understanding Physical Measurements

Physics quantities Identifying a

problem or question

Scalar Measuring

quantities instruments Identifying

Natural Everyday variables involved

phenomena objects

Vector • Accuracy Formulating

quantities • Consistency a hypothesis

• Sensitivity

Physics

Designing and carrying

concepts

out an experiment

Errors in

Base Derived measurements

quantities quantities

Fields of study Collecting and

in Physics tabulating data

Prefixes errors errors

Interpreting data

and drawing conclusions

Standard

form/scientific

notation Techniques Writing a report

to reduce errors for the investigation

COMPANION WEBSITE

Learning Objectives 1

1.1 Understanding Physics

What is Physics?

1 The word ‘Physics’ comes from the Greek 4 The majority of natural phenomena can be

word ‘Physikos’ which means knowledge of explained using the principles of physics.

nature. For example,

2 The aim of physics is to explain the (a) we cannot see an object behind a wall

fundamental nature of the universe by using because light travels in a straight line.

the simplest explanations. (b) grass appears green because the leaves of

3 Mankind is often eager to understand natural the grass absorbs all the colours of the

F

phenomena. Since the beginning of time, man spectrum except green. Green light is

O

has had a keen interest in the wonders of his reflected, therefore grass appears green.

1

R

environment. This explains man’s interest in

CHAPTER

M

understanding how an appliance works.

4

The goal of physics is to gain a better understanding of the world in which we live. Observe the things around you. Have

you ever considered why and how things around you work?

The laws of physics help us to answer questions like those given below.

How do fireworks work? How does email from your What is Bluetooth technology?

What is launched into the sky to desktop get to a friend How does Bluetooth technology

make such beautiful displays? halfway around the world? create a connection between

electronic devices wirelessly?

How does a telescope function? How did the universe come about? How does a mobile phone

How can we see stars and galaxies, function without wires?

which are far beyond our vision? How do SMS get to our

mobile phone?

What do physicists do? Physicists explore the universe. They try to answer basic questions about the world.

Their investigations range from the study of the vast galaxies which are millions of kilometres away from us to that of the

tiny particles which are smaller than atoms. Many of the technological marvels we see today are the result of the

application of physics. The laws and concepts of physics can help us to understand the occurrence of natural phenomena

around us. We can apply the knowledge of physics to improve the environment and our standard of living.

Introduction to Physics 2

Fields of Study in Physics

1 In general, physics is

mechanic atomic,molecular and

concerned with the study electron physics

of energy and the heat

properties of matter.

2 The fields of study in

physics are divided into light

Modern Physics nuclear

classical physics and Classical Physics – scientific beliefs physics

modern physics. – regarding motion about the basic

and energy structure of the

3 Investigations in modern material world

physics involve the sound

F

observations of particles O

1

particle R

as tiny as protons and physics

CHAPTER

M

neutrons in atoms to

electricity and

objects as large as the magnetism astrophysics relativity 4

stars and planets in the

universe. Figure 1.1 Field of study in Physics

Importance of Physics

1 The knowledge obtained from the study of 4 Research in physics has also led to the use of

physics is important in other sciences, including radioactive materials in the study, diagnosis

astronomy, biology, chemistry and geology. and treatment of certain diseases.

2 There is a close connection between physics 5 The application of physics in the creation of

and practical developments in engineering, sophisticated medical instruments such as

medicine and technology. For example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray,

engineers design automobiles and machines computerised tomography (CT) scan are some

by taking into consideration concepts and examples of its contribution to medical

theories in physics. technology.

3 The study of physics is fast expanding, leading 6 Physics helps to improve the quality of life.

to advances in technology which have in Theories and principles of physics explain the

turn brought many benefits to mankind. The operation of many modern home appliances,

application of these fundamental laws and like the television or the microwave oven.

theories have enabled engineers and scientists to 7 Table 1.1 shows some of the objects which we

put satellites into orbit, receive information from use in our daily lives. These objects function

space probes, and improve telecommunications. and operate on the principles of physics.

Table 1.1

Object Principle of physics

Wristwatch Elasticity, electricity, electronics

Bread toaster Electrical energy, heat

Bicycle Mechanics, dynamics, kinematics

Fan Electromagnetism, mechanics

Computer Electronics, electricity, electromagnetism

Air conditioner Thermodynamics, electronics, mechanics

Mobile phone Waves, electronics

Video camera Optics, electronics

3 Introduction to Physics

Malaysia’s first satellites, MEASAT 1 and MEASAT 2, were built by Hughes Space and

Communications International, Inc. of California. MEASAT 1 was launched on

12 January 1996 from Kourou, French Guiana, and MEASAT 2 was launched on

13 November 1996.

These two satellites serve as a communication network for telephone, television,

and data transmission for trade, education, and other telecommunications services;

with a coverage stretching from India to Hawaii and from Japan to Eastern Australia.

TiungSAT-1 is a micro satellite designed and fully built in Malaysia. It was successfully launched

on 26 September 2000 from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan.

This satellite operates at a height of 1000 km from the Earth’s surface and serves as a

F

O

communication satellite with applications in telecommunications, education, fisheries, forestry,

and pollution control. It contains scientific apparatus, cameras, and other equipment for

1

R

relaying voice and data, signals from remote sensors and global positioning systems (GPS) for

CHAPTER

M

purposes of surveying, weather forecasting, detection of forest fires and oil spills.

4

Photograph of the Earth taken from the TiungSAT-1 at a height of

653 km, at a location with bearings 61° 12′ N, 128° 4′ W.

1.1

A the word ‘physics’ originated from a Greek word meaning ‘knowledge of nature’.

B physics is a scientific discipline based on experiments.

C theories in physics originated from sciences such as chemistry and biology.

D physicists often construct models to represent a phenomenon.

2 What is physics?

3 State some advantages of studying physics.

4 State several fields of study in physics.

Base Quantities

1 A quantity that is measurable is called a 2 Examples of physical quantities are the room

physical quantity. temperature, the volume of a block of wood,

the speed of a car, the pressure of a gas, the

EN weight of a person, etc.

D 3 Quantities which cannot be measured are

non-physical quantities.

4 Physical quantities are categorised into base

quantities and derived quantities.

5 Base quantities are physical quantities that

cannot be defined in terms of other physical

(a) Mass (b) Time (c) Temperature quantities.

Figure 1.2 Daily activities that involve measurement

Introduction to Physics 4

6 Every physical quantity is expressed as a numerical 10 The 11th General Conference of Weights and

value in a particular unit of measurement. Measures held in Paris in 1960 adopted the

For example, International System of Units, universally

abbreviated SI (Système International d’Unités in

Length of a metre rule = 100 cm

French) for the recommended practical system

of units of measurement.

11 The SI defines seven base units: metre, kilogram,

physical numerical unit of second, kelvin, ampere, mole, and candela.

quantity value measurement 12 Table 1.2 shows five important base quantities

and their corresponding SI units.

7 A unit, in measurement, is a quantity adopted

as the standard by which any other quantity of Table 1.2 F

the same kind is measured.

Base quantity Base SI units O

8 There are many different units. A particular

1

R

quantity may be written in different units based Name Symbol Name Symbol

CHAPTER

M

on the cultural background of the community. Length metre m

9 Below are some examples: 4

Mass m kilogram kg

Mass: grams, kilograms, tonnes, pounds, ounces

Length: inches, feet, miles, metres Time t second s

Time: seconds, minutes, day, hour, month Electric current I ampere A

But in scientific work, life is much easier if Temperature T kelvin K

everyone uses a common system of units.

1

metre One metre is the distance travelled by light in a vacuum in ––––––––––– of a second.

299 792 458

0.039 m

the form of a platinum-iridium cylinder (0.039 m in

kilogram 0.039 m platinum diameter and height) kept by the International Bureau of

1 kg -iridium

Weights and Measures at Sevres, France.

second One second is the time taken for 9 192 631 770 periods of oscillation of the caesium-133 atom

to occur.

straight parallel conductors

two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible

ampere I=1A I=1A

cross-sectional area, and placed one metre apart in vacuum,

would produce between these conductors a force of

2 × 10–7 newton per metre of length.

1 metre

1

kelvin One kelvin is of the temperature of the triple point of water.

273.16

5 Introduction to Physics

2 Table 1.3 shows some examples of derived

Derived Quantities

quantities and their corresponding derived units.

1 Derived quantities are physical quantities Several derived units are complex. Hence,

derived by combining base quantities. This can special names are used to replace these units.

be done by multiplication or division or both. For example, the special name for the derived

The unit for a derived quantity is known as a quantity, force, is newton (N).

derived unit.

Table 1.3 Derived quantities and units

Formula

F

Name Symbol Unit in SI base unit Special name

O

Length × Breadth m × m = m2

1

R Area A –

CHAPTER

4

Volume V Length × Breadth × Height m × m × m = m3 –

Displacement m = m s–1

Velocity v –

Time taken s

Acceleration a –

Time taken s

Mass kg

Density ρ = kg m–3 –

Volume m3

Pressure P pascal, Pa

Area m2

N

= N m–2

m2

Period s

or N × m = N m

Time taken s

J = J s–1

s

Introduction to Physics 6

1

Figure 1.3 shows an electric kettle used to boil water power is used, the time taken to boil the same volume

of mass 2 kg. of water would be less than 15 minutes.

From the above description, identify the physical

quantities. Then, classify these quantities into base

quantities and derived quantities.

Solution

The physical quantities are mass, electric current,

Figure 1.3 energy, temperature, power, time and volume.

Classification: F

When the switch is turned on, the electric current in

Base quantities: mass, electric current, temperature O

the heating element produces heat energy. The

1

and time R

temperature of water increases steadily until it starts to

CHAPTER

Derived quantities: energy, power and volume M

boil after 15 minutes. If another kettle with a greater

4

Standard Form

expressing very large or very small numbers. (a) 1 A 10 and A can be an integer or a

This method is called standard form or decimal number.

scientific notation. (b) n is a positive integer for a number greater

2 Standard form is based on powers of the base than one or a negative integer for a

number 10. In standard form, the magnitude number less than one.

or numerical value of a physical quantity can 3 All numbers can be written in the standard

be written as: form where only one digit appears before the

decimal point, the value being adjusted by

A × 10n

multiplying by the appropriate power of 10.

Green light of wavelength 0.00000051 m travels at a speed of 300 000 000 m s–1.

Express these values in standard form.

Solution

Wavelength of green light = 0.00000051 m

= 5.1 10–7 m

Speed of light = 300 000 000 m s–1

= 3.0 108 m s–1

Prefixes

1 A prefix is a letter placed at the beginning of a written in standard form as 2.0 × 103 metres,

word to modify its meaning. The SI allows can also be written as 2.0 kilometres where the

other units to be created from standard or base prefix kilo (k) means 1000. Table 1.4 gives the

units by using prefixes, which act as prefixes for other multiples or sub-multiples

multipliers. of 10.

2 The SI units, used with prefixes, indicate 3 From Table 1.4, it can be seen that the prefix

multiples or sub-multiples of a base unit. For symbols make it easier for us to express very

example, 2000 metres (metre as base unit) large or very small numbers.

7 Introduction to Physics

Table 1.4 For example,

(a) the unit of speed is metre per second or m s–1,

Power/

Prefix Symbol Value which is in terms of the base units metre and

Factor

second.

tera- T 1012 1 000 000 000 000 (b) the unit of area is square metre or m2, which is

giga- G 109 1 000 000 000 a multiple of the base unit metre.

mega- M 106 1 000 000

kilo- k 103 1000 3

hecto- h 102 100

deka- da 10 10 Identify the smallest and the largest measurements

deci- d 10–1 0.1 from the following.

F

O centi- c 10–2 0.01

2.15 × 10–2 cm

1

CHAPTER

M

micro- µ 10–6 0.000001 2.15 × 103 km

4 nano- n 10–9 0.000000001 2.15 × 108 nm

pico- p 10–12 0.000000000001

Solution

Convert each measurement to the same base unit, i.e.

metre, m.

2.15 × 10–2 cm = (2.15 × 10–2) × 10–2 m

Rules and conventions for using the SI: = 2.15 × 10–4 m

(a) A prefix is written in front of the symbol for the unit 2.15 × 10 µm = (2.15 × 1010) × 10–6 m

10

For example, kilowatt is written kW. 2.15 × 10 km = (2.15 × 103) × 103 m

3

For example, newton metre is written N m.

2.15 × 10 nm = (2.15 × 108) × 10–9 m

8

(c) Compound prefixes are not used, i.e. a unit may take

= 2.15 × 10–1 m

only one prefix.

For example, nm is 10–9 m but 10–9 m is not mµm. The smallest measurement is 2.15 10–2 cm.

(d) The symbol for a unit with its prefix is considered to

be a single symbol. The largest measurement is 2.15 103 km.

For example, 1 cm2 = (0.01 m)2 and not 0.01 m2.

(e) Gram is a special unit in the SI although gram is not a

SI unit. Prefixes are used with the symbol g and not

with kg. 4

For example, 103 kg is written Mg and not kkg.

(f) When writing numbers in SI units, digits are arranged Derive the units for the following physical quantities

in groups of three with a space, instead of a comma, (a) Density (d) Force

between the groups of digits. In the case of a number (b) Velocity (e) Work

consisting of 4 digits only, the number is written (c) Acceleration

without a space.

in terms of base units.

For example, 1000 W, 300 000 J and 0.0001 A.

Solution

Unit [Mass]

Expressing Derived Quantities and (a) Unit [Density] = _____________

Unit [Volume]

Their Units in terms of Base Quantities

kg

and Base Units = 3 = kg m–3

m

Derived quantities and their units can be separated Unit [Displacement]

into their respective base quantities and base units. (b) Unit [Velocity] =

Unit [Time]

Sometimes, the derived unit shows the relationship m = m s–1

between the derived quantity and the base =

s

quantity.

Introduction to Physics 8

(c) Unit [Acceleration] Solving Problems Involving Conversion

Unit [Change in velocity] of Units

=

Unit [Time]

A derived quantity in a specified unit can be

m s–1 = m s–2

= s expressed in terms of a different unit by the use of a

multiplication factor to change the value of the

(d) Unit [Force]

prefix in the SI unit.

= Unit [Mass] × Unit [Acceleration]

For example,

= kg × m s–2

(a) Convert the unit of area in m2 to cm2.

= kg m s–2

1 m = 100 cm

(e) Unit [Work]

1 m2 = (100 cm)2

= Unit [Force] × Unit [Displacement]

= 1002 cm2

= kg m s–2 × m F

= 10 000 cm2

= kg m2 s–2 O

= 104 cm2

1

R

(b) Convert the unit of volume in mm3 to m3.

CHAPTER

M

1 mm = 0.001 m

= 10–3 m 4

5 1 mm = (10–3 m)3

3

= (10–3)3 m3

Based on the formulae for derived quantities in Table = 10–9 m3

1.3, show the relationship between the following derived

quantities and their corresponding base quantities.

(a) Acceleration (c) Force 6

(b) Momentum (d) Density

Convert

Solution (a) 0.0008 Gm to µm.

Change in velocity

(a) Acceleration = (b) 78 µm to Mm.

Time Express your answers in scientific notation.

Displacement

Time Solution

= (a) 0.0008 Gm

Time

Length = 8 × 10–4 × 109 m 1 Gm = 109 m

= = 8 × 105 m

(Time)2

= 8 × 105 × 106 µm 1 µm = 1 × 10–6 m

(b) Momentum = Mass × Velocity = 8 × 1011 µm ∴ 1 m = 106 µm

Displacement (b) 78 µm

= Mass ×

Time = 7.8 × 101 × 10–6 m

Length = 7.8 × 10–5 m

= Mass × 1 Mm = 106 m

Time = 7.8 × 10–5 × 10–6 Mm ∴ 1 m = 10–6 Mm

= 7.8 × 10–11 Mm

(c) Force = Mass × Acceleration

Change in velocity

= Mass ×

Time

7

Length

Time The density of sea water is 1.05 g cm–3.

= Mass ×

Time Express this density in the unit kg m–3.

Length

= Mass × Solution

(Time)2

1 g = 10–3 kg

Mass

(d) Density = 1 cm = 10–2 m

Volume 1.05 g cm–3 = 1.05 × (10–3 kg) × (10–2 m)–3

Mass = 1.05 × (10–3 kg) × (106 m–3)

=

(Length)3 = 1.05 103 kg m–3

9 Introduction to Physics

8 1.2

1 The wavelength of blue light is 0.000000475 m.

Azman rides his bicycle at a velocity of 20 km h–1. Write its wavelength in nm.

with dimensions 4.0 cm × 1.5 cm × 1.4 cm.

3 Convert

(a) 72 km h–1 to m s–1.

(b) 15 m s–1 to km h–1.

Figure 1.4

F4/1/5

O 4 Which of the following correctly matches a physical

1

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M

20 km

20 km h–1 = –––––– Physical quantity SI base unit

4 1h

A Temperature °C

20 × 103 m = 5.6 m s–1

= ––––––––––

3600 s B Area cm2

C Force kg m s–2

D Power J

1 SPM

Clone

’09

5 Which of the following quantities is correctly

Which of the following measurements is the smallest? matched to its SI base unit?

A 1.57 107 µA

F

B 1.57 102 mA Quantity SI base unit

O

C 1.57 10–2 A

1

RA Area cm2

CHAPTER

MB Momentum kg m s–1

Comment

First, convert all the measurements into the same 4C Frequency s

unit, that is ampere (A), then compare their values.

A 1.57 107 µA = 1.57 107 10–6 A

= 1.57 10 A 6 Write the following quantities in standard form.

B 1.57 102 mA = 1.57 102 10–3 (a) 0.000000000521 m

(b) 0.02413 J

= 1.57 10–1 A

–2 (c) 3 036 000 000 000 km

C 1.57 10 A

Answer C 7 Express the following measurements in the units

specified.

(a) 1 s = ____________ ns

2 SPM

Clone

(b) 1 ms = ____________ s

’06 (c) 3.86 ms = ____________ ns

Which of the following physical quantities is not a (d) 1 g = _____________ mg

base quantity? (e) 1 kg = ____________ g

A Time C Length (f) 643 mg = ____________ kg

B Weight D Electric current

Comment 8 Express each measurement in row I in the unit

specified in row II.

Weight is a derived quantity.

Weight = Mass Gravitational strength

W = mg II 0.4 mm 240 mg 0.06 m 40 cm2 0.02 m2

II m kg mm m2 mm2

Answer B

Introduction to Physics 10

1.3 Understanding Scalar and Vector Quantities

Most quantities measured in science are classified as either scalar or vector quantities.

Physical quantities

• A physical quantity which has only magnitude or size. • A physical quantity which has both magnitude

and direction.

Walk 500 m and you will

find the hospital. Walk 500 m due east and you F

will find the hospital. O

Which way?

1

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M

rth 4

no

eas

t

Common examples:

Length Speed Time Density Common examples:

Temperature Power Mass Energy Force Acceleration Velocity

Volume F4/1/4

Work Distance Momentum Displacement Weight

F4/1/5

1.3

1 How is a scalar quantity different from a vector 2 Give five examples of scalar quantities.

quantity? Give an example of each. 3 Give five examples of vector quantities.

1.4 Understanding (c) a pair of vernier callipers and

Measurements (d) a micrometer screw gauge.

1 Physics is a science which involves measurements

of various physical quantities.

2 Choosing an appropriate instrument to measure

a physical quantity depends on the size of the

measurement and the accuracy needed. Figure 1.5

For example, to measure a length, we can 3 Table 1.5 showsF4/1/6

various instruments suitable

choose between for use to measure the lengths of objects

(a) a measuring tape, depending on their sizes and accuracies.

Table 1.5

Length to be measured Suitable instrument Example Accuracy Example of reading

Several metres or more Measuring tape Length and breadth of a 1 cm 56 cm

(Figure 1.5) classroom

Several cm to 1 m Metre rule Length of a simple pendulum 0.1 cm 2.6 cm

Between 1 cm to 12 cm Vernier callipers External and internal 0.01 cm 2.07 cm

diameter of a test tube

Less than 2.5 cm Micrometer screw gauge Diameter of a wire 0.01 mm 2.00 mm or

(0.001 cm) 0.200 cm

11 Introduction to Physics

Measuring Tape

• Carpenters use a metal

1 A measuring tape is used for measuring a comparatively long distance

measuring tape for more

without the need for accuracy. accurate measurements. It

2 It is often used in sports events such as the long jump, shot-put and has an accuracy of 0.1 cm.

javelin. • Tailors also use a flexible

3 It is not accurate in its measurement and has an accuracy of plastic measuring tape

1 cm (i.e. the smallest division on the tape is 1 cm). However, it is which has an accuracy of

flexible and therefore is useful for measuring distances or lengths other 0.1 cm.

than a straight line.

4 It is also useful for measuring the circumference of a round object, for

F

example the sizes of the trees in the forest.

O

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Metre Rule

result of taking a reading, with the eye of

4

the observer in the wrong position with

1 A metre rule is used to measure lengths from a

respect to the scale of the ruler. Figure 1.6

few cm up to 1 m. A metre rule has an accuracy

shows the correct position of the eye when

of 0.1 cm (i.e. 1 mm).

reading the scale.

2 Precautions to be taken when using a ruler:

(c) Avoid zero errors and end errors.

(a) Ensure that the object is in contact with

The ends of a ruler, which may be worn

the ruler to avoid inaccurate readings.

out, are a source of errors in measurement.

(b) Avoid parallax errors by ensuring the line

Thus it is advisable to use the division

of sight of the observer is perpendicular to

mark ‘1’ of the scale as the starting point

the scale of the measuring instrument. F

when taking a measurement.

O

1

wooden

R

ruler block

CHAPTER

Figure 1.6 Parallax error = 2.2 cm

9

Figure 1.8 shows the measurement of the length of a (c) State one category of error that must be avoided

wooden block with a ruler. when reading the scale.

(d) What is the length of the wooden block?

ruler

(a) Accuracy = 0.1 cm

(b) To avoid end errors.

(c) Parallax error

Figure 1.8 (d) Length of block

= (2.8 – 0.6 ) cm

(a) State the accuracy of the ruler.

= 2.2 cm

(b) Why is the zero mark on the ruler not used as the

origin of the measurement?

Introduction to Physics 12

Vernier Callipers

1 A pair of vernier callipers is used to measure an object with dimensions up to 12.0 cm with an accuracy

of 0.01 cm*.

1 Main scale: Graduated in intervals of 0.1 cm from 0 to 12 cm.

2 Vernier scale: A scale which can slide on the main scale.

beaker F

How to take the reading O

6 Main scale reading

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3

• Read the mark on the main scale M

3.24 cm inside jaws preceding the ‘0’ mark on the vernier

4

scale. The ‘0’ mark on the vernier scale

acts as pointer for the main scale

3.24 cm

reading.

• The ‘0’ mark on the vernier scale in this

2 main scale 5 tail example lies between

vernier scale 1

3.2 cm and 3.3 cm. Therefore, the

3.24 cm

reading on the main scale is

3.2 cm.

4 outside

jaws

7 Vernier scale reading

• Read the mark on the vernier scale that

is exactly in line or coincides with any

mark on the main scale.

• In the example, the fourth mark on the

vernier scale is exactly in line with a

the ‘0’ mark on mark on the main scale.

the vernier scale Therefore, the vernier scale reading

= 4 0.01 cm

Figure 1.9

= 0.04 cm

F4/1/7 Vernier scale reading

= Main scale reading +

vernier scale reading

Parts and Functions = 3.2 cm + 0.04 cm

3 Inside jaws — To measure the internal = 3.24 cm

diameter of an object.

4 Outside jaws — To measure the external

diameter or length of an

object. * It means any readings taken from the vernier

callipers has to be written to two decimal

5 Tail — To measure the depth of an object.

places even it is a whole number, e.g. 2.00 cm.

13 Introduction to Physics

2 An instrument which does not register a zero reading when the actual reading is zero has a zero

error. A pair of vernier callipers has a zero error if the ‘0’ mark on the main scale is not in line

with the ‘0’ mark on the vernier scale when the jaws of the callipers are fully closed.

To eliminate the zero error: Correct reading = Callipers reading – Zero error

Zero errors

0 1 0 cm 1

0 1

F main scale

main scale main scale

O

vernier scale vernier scale

1

R vernier scale

0 10 0 10

CHAPTER

M 0 5

10

The fourth mark on the vernier scale is

4 in line with a mark on the main scale. The ‘0’ mark on the main scale is The second mark from the '10'

∴ Zero error = 0.04 cm exactly in line with the ‘0’ mark on mark on the vernier scale is in line

the vernier scale when the pair of with a mark on the main scale

The ‘0’ mark on the vernier scale is to the Zero error = –0.02 cm

vernier callipers is fully closed.

right of the ‘0’ mark on the main scale. The ‘0’ mark on the vernier

scale is on the left of the

‘0’ mark on the main scale.

10

to measure the diameter of a steel ball.

What is the diameter of the steel ball?

Solution

Main scale reading = 2.1 cm steel ball

Vernier scale reading = 0.05 cm

Diameter of the steel ball = 2.1 cm + 0.05 cm = 2.15 cm Figure 1.10

11

callipers to measure the size of an object.

Figure 1.11(b) shows the reading before the pair of

object

vernier callipers is used.

Determine the correct size of the object.

Solution

First, determine the zero error.

Zero error = +0.02 cm (a)

Then, find the reading from the pair of vernier callipers.

Main scale reading = 3.2 cm 0 1

Vernier scale reading = 0.04 cm

∴ Vernier calliper reading = 3.2 + 0.04 = 3.24 cm

0 5 10

Correct size of object

= Vernier calliper reading – Zero error (b)

= 3.24 – (+0.02) = 3.24 – 0.02 = 3.22 cm Figure 1.11

Introduction to Physics 14

Micrometer Screw Gauge

1 A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure small lengths ranging between 0.10 mm and 25.00 mm. It

can be used to measure diameters of wires and thickness of steel plates to an accuracy of 0.01 mm

(therefore, any readings obtained from an micrometer screw gauge should be written to two decimal

places with the unit mm, e.g., 2.00 mm).

1 Main scale: A scale which is marked on the sleeve. F

2 Thimble scale: A scale which is marked on the thimble. O

1

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M

4

3 4 2 thimble (with thimble scale)

3 and 4

anvil spindle lock

5 ratchet knob hen taking a reading, the thimble is turned

W

until the object is gripped very gently

between the anvil and the spindle.

sleeve

(with

main

1

scale)

5 T

he ratchet knob is then turned until a

‘click’ sound is heard.

mm 5 1 mm 30 The ratchet knob is used to prevent the

7 user from exerting too much pressure on

25 the object.

1 mm

horizontal 20 The grip on the object must not be

reference excessive, as this will affect the accuracy

line

of the reading.

6

Figure 1.12

F4/1/8

6 Main scale reading Read the thimble scale reading at the point

Read the main scale reading at the edge of the where the horizontal reference line of the main

thimble. Take note that an additional half scale scale is in line with the graduation mark on the

division (0.5 mm) must be included if the mark thimble scale.

below the horizontal reference line is visible. Therefore, the thimble reading = 0.26 mm

Therefore, the reading on the main scale = 7.5 Thus, the reading of the micrometer screw gauge

mm = Main scale reading + Thimble scale reading

= 7.5 mm + 0.26 mm = 7.76 mm

15 Introduction to Physics

2 The accuracy of the micrometer screw gauge is also affected by zero errors.

Before using it, determine its zero error, if any.

The zero error can be corrected by using the formula below:

No zero error

horizontal 5

reference line

0 ‘0’ mark is in line

with the horizontal

45 reference line

F

O

Positive zero error Negative zero error

1

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M horizontal horizontal

reference line 4th mark above ʻ0ʼ reference line 0 3rd mark below ʻ0ʼ

4 5 is in line with the is in line with the

horizontal Zero errors 45 horizontal

0 reference line reference line

12 Nature of Measurement

Figures 1.13(a) and (b) show the readings on a

actual value of a particular physical quantity.

micrometer screw gauge before and after being used

2 The difference between the actual value

to measure the size of an object.

of a quantity and the value obtained in

measurement is the error.

mm

0

3 To measure is to make an acceptable estimate.

45

Errors in Measurement

(a)

1 No measurement is exact. All measurements

mm 0 10 45 will have some degree of error or uncertainty.

40 2 There are two main types of errors.

35 (a) Systematic errors

(b) Random errors

(b)

Figure 1.13

The reading of the gauge can be corrected, if the errors are known.

= 16.00 mm + 0.41 mm 2 Systematic errors in measurement result from

= 16.41 mm (a) an incorrect position of the zero point,

Zero error = – 0.02 mm known as zero error,

Correct reading (b) an incorrect calibration of the measuring

= 16.41 – (– 0.02) instrument.

= 16.41 + 0.02 3 Systematic errors always occur (with the same

= 16.43 mm value) if we continue to use the instrument in

the same way.

Introduction to Physics 16

4 Systematic errors explain why all readings Parallax errors are present in positions A, B,

taken are always larger or always smaller than and D, thereby giving inaccurate readings.

the actual value.

5 A zero error arises when the measuring

instrument does not start from exactly Reading = 15.2

zero.

Reading = 15.1

6 Zero errors can be corrected or eliminated.

(a) For measurements of lengths (using a pair Reading = 15.0

gauge):

Keys:

Correct reading Wrong reading

= Reading obtained – Zero error Correct reading

(b) For electrical instruments, by adjusting the F

Figure 1.15 O

zero adjustment screw.

1

R

3 An observer P, who repeatedly puts his eye at

CHAPTER

3 4

M

2 2 3 4

1 1 point A will read 15.2 m every time, so

0 0

A V parallax has caused a systematic error of 4

5

5

or

+0.2 m.

4 Another observer Q, who positions his eye

carelessly, and randomly, anywhere between A

and D will read values which vary randomly,

ranging from 14.9 m to 15.2 m. For this

observer, parallax has become a source of

random error.

Zero adjustment screw is adjusted until the pointer 5 If the observer Q repeats his reading several

is at the ‘0’ mark before use.

times, and takes the average of the results, he’ll

Figure 1.14 end up with an answer that’s closer to the

actual value; repeating the measurements will

Random Errors do nothing at all for the observer P.

6 How to avoid parallax errors?

1 Random errors may occur for a variety of (a) To avoid parallax errors, the position of

reasons. They may be due to the eye must be in line with the reading to

(a) personal errors such as parallax error. be taken, as in position C (Figure 1.15).

(b) natural errors such as changes in wind, (b) To overcome parallax errors in instruments

temperature, humidity, refraction, magnetic with a scale and pointer, e.g. an ammeter,

field or gravity while the experiment is in it is often useful to have a mirror behind

progress. the pointer. The correct reading is obtained

(c) the use of a wrong technique of measurement by making sure that the eye is exactly in

such as applying excessive pressure when front of the pointer, so that the reflection of

turning a micrometer screw gauge. the pointer in the mirror is right behind it

2 Random errors can be minimised by repeating (refer Figure 1.16).

the measurements several times and taking the pointer's image

average or mean value of the readings.

anti-

parallax

mirror

Parallax Errors

instrument because the observer’s eye and the (a) Wrong reading () (b) Correct reading ()

pointer are not in a line perpendicular to the – pointer’s image – pointer’s image

plane of the scale. can be seen in the cannot be seen, it is

2 Figure 1.15 shows the observer’s eye at four mirror right behind the

different positions A, B, C, and D, while pointer

reading the scale of a measuring cylinder. Figure 1.16

17 Introduction to Physics

Consistency, Accuracy and Sensitivity

Measurement

1 The consistency of a measuring 1 Accuracy is the degree 1 The sensitivity of a measuring

instrument is its ability to of how close a instrument is its ability to respond

register the same reading measurement is from quickly to a small change in the value

F when a measurement is made the actual value. of the quantity to be measured.

O repeatedly. 2 An accurate instrument 2 A measuring instrument that has a scale

1

CHAPTER

to the actual value of a Ruler A

4

quantity.

0 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

actual

value

Ruler B

Consistent Inconsistent accurate 0 mm

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140

Figure 1.17

2 A set of measurements is inaccurate Ruler B is more sensitive than ruler A as it has

consistent if all the values are an accuracy of 0.1 cm compared to ruler A

Figure 1.18

close to the mean value. which has an accuracy of 0.5 cm

3 An instrument with Figure 1.19

High consistency 100% accuracy does

⇒ Small deviation from 3 As an example, a micrometer screw

not exist.

the mean value gauge is more sensitive than a pair of

4 The error is the

vernier callipers. When the diameter of

difference between the

3 A deviation is the difference a heated wire increases by 0.01 mm,

measured value and

between the measured value and the pair of vernier callipers is unable to

the actual value.

its mean value or the average detect it.

5 A measured value with

value. 4 In addition to the size of the divisions

a very small error has a

4 The consistency of a measuring on the scale of the instrument, the

high accuracy.

instrument can be improved by design of the instrument has an effect

6 Ways to improve the

(a) eliminating parallax errors on the sensitivity of the instrument.

accuracy of a

during measurement. For example, a thermometer has a

measurement:

(b) exercising greater care and higher sensitivity if it can detect small

(a) Repeated readings

effort when taking readings. temperature variations. A thermometer

are taken and the

(c) using an instrument which is with a narrow capillary and a thin-

average value is

not defective. walled bulb is more sensitive.

calculated.

5 A sensitive measuring instrument

(b) Avoid parallax

responds faster and to a greater extent

errors.

with small variations in the physical

(c) Avoid zero errors.

quantity measured.

(d) Use measuring

6 The measurement of large quantities in

instruments with a

units of kilogram or kilometre does not

higher accuracy.

require sensitive instruments as small

For example, a

variations in such measurements can

pair of vernier

be ignored. On the other hand, the

callipers is more

measurement of the diameter of a wire,

accurate than a

which has a smaller value, requires a

metre rule.

more sensitive instrument.

Introduction to Physics 18

13

Solution

A portion of the heat in the liquid is absorbed by the thermometer after the thermometer is placed in the liquid.

This will lower the temperature of the liquid.

For example, the temperature of a liquid is 70 °C before measurement. When the thermometer is placed in the

liquid, it gives a reading of 69 °C.

F

O

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Consistent but inaccurate Accurate and consistent Accurate but inconsistent Inaccurate and inconsistent

Figure 1.20

1 The drawings in Figure 1.20, which show the with a metre rule may be consistent but not

distribution of gunshots fired at a target board, accurate due to end errors. In this respect, this

serve to illustrate the meaning of consistency type of instrument gives readings which,

and accuracy. however, do not represent the actual value of

2 The bullseye in the centre of the target board the measured quantity.

represents the actual value of the quantity to 4 A sensitive measuring instrument too, may not

be measured. be accurate or consistent. This is due to

3 A consistent measuring instrument is not external variations which cause variations in

necessarily accurate. For example, a measurement the readings.

14 Other Instruments

accuracy of the metre rule to 0.01 cm compared to its

original accuracy of 0.1 cm. 1 A stopwatch is used to measure time intervals.

2 There are two types of stopwatches.

metre rule (a) The analogue stopwatch, which is

mechanically operated, with an accuracy

of 0.1 s or 0.2 s.

(b) The digital stopwatch, which is electronically

rod

operated, with an accuracy of 0.01 s.

10 turns of wire

Figure 1.21

Solution

0.5 cm Accuracy: Accuracy: Accuracy:

Diameter of wire, d = 10 turns

0.2 s 0.1 s 0.01 s

10 of wire.

(a) Analogue (b) Digital

= 0.05 cm

Figure 1.22 Types of stopwatches

19 Introduction to Physics

Thermometer Ammeter and Voltmeter

1 There are two types of mercury thermometers 1 An ammeter is an instrument used to measure

which are commonly used. the amount of electric current flowing

(a) Mercury thermometers with a range of through a particular point in an electrical

temperature measurements between –10°C circuit. It has a scale graduated in the SI unit,

and 110°C, with an accuracy of 1°C. ampere (A).

(b) Mercury thermometers with a range of 2 The common ammeter has an accuracy of

temperature measurements between 0°C 0.1 A or 0.2 A.

and 360°C, with an accuracy of 2°C. 3 For measuring very small currents, a

milliammeter with an accuracy of 0.1 mA or

0.2 mA is used.

F

O (a) Range: –10 °C to 110 °C Accuracy: 1 °C power source

1

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M

ammeter resistor

4

2 A mercury thermometer is a sensitive electrical circuit

instrument because

4 A voltmeter is an instrument used to measure

(a) mercury is a liquid metal which is sensitive

the potential difference (voltage) between any

to temperature changes. It expands and

two points in an electrical circuit. Voltmeters

contracts uniformly with temperature.

have an accuracy of 0.1 V or 0.2 V.

(b) the thin-walled glass bulb allows a quick

heat transfer between the heat source and power source

the mercury.

(c) the capillary tube, which has a small

diameter, amplifies a small expansion in resistor voltmeter

the bulb into a large linear expansion

along the length of the capillary tube.

switch

3 SPM

Clone

’06

The figure below shows two ammeters. Which ammeter is more sensitive?

Explain your answer.

1 2 0.5

0 3 0 1 Comments

A A

Sensitivity of a measuring instrument depends on the

value of the smallest division on the measuring scale.

The values of the smallest divisions for P and Q are

0.1 A and 0.05 A respectively.

Answer

Ammeter P Ammeter Q Ammeter Q is more sensitive as its smallest division is

smaller in value (0.05 A). The smaller the value of the

smallest division, the more sensitive the instrument is.

Introduction to Physics 20

1.4

shop is exact but it lacks sensitivity. Why?

and consistency?

of a 20-sen coin using a metre rule with the help of

two set squares. F

O

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CHAPTER

coin M

(a)

4

set

square

metre

rule

0 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6

(b)

What is the diameter of the coin?

4 The figure below shows a pair of vernier callipers used to measure the diameter of a pencil. Figure (b)

being used to measure 100 sheets of paper. shows the reading when the gap of the micrometer is

closed.

main

40

scale

0 5

35

vernier

scale

30

(a)

What is the thickness of a sheet of paper?

What is the advantage of measuring 100 sheets of

paper instead of a sheet directly?

to measure the width of a spoon. Figure (b) shows (b)

the reading when the jaws are closed. What is the actual diameter of the pencil?

21 Introduction to Physics

1.5 Analysing Scientific Investigations

3 The theories postulated have to be verified by

Scientific Investigations

experiments. Based on the experimental

results and his observations, the physicist will

1 Studies in physics involve precise and complete draw conclusions as to whether the theory can

observations, and accurate measurements. be accepted or rejected.

2 A physicist makes observations of natural 4 The steps in a scientific investigation are

phenomena and attempts to put forth theories shown in Table 1.6.

to explain the phenomena.

F Table 1.6

O

Step Explanation

1

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CHAPTER

observations the object or phenomenon to be studied.

4

• Observations are made using the senses of sight, hearing, touch,

taste, and smell.

2 Identifying a • After all the information has been gathered, a suitable question is

suitable question suggested for a scientific investigation.

inferences • An inference is an early conclusion that you draw from an

observation or event using information that you already have on it.

and course of a scientific investigation.

controlling • Identifying the manipulated variables, responding variables, and

variables fixed (or constant) variables.

• Manipulated variables are the physical quantities which you

control and change (i.e. manipulate) for the purpose of investigating

the results of an experiment.

• Responding variables are the physical quantities whose values

change as a result of the changes made to the manipulated variables.

• Fixed or constant variables are physical quantities which are kept

constant throughout the experiment.

a hypothesis regarding the relationship between the manipulated variable and

the responding variable in the phenomenon under investigation.

• A hypothesis must be tested to verify its validity. The test is in the

form of experiments.

and conducting apparatus/materials and working procedures.

experiments

7 Tabulating data • Experimental data are collected and tabulated in a suitable form.

data interpretation of the graph and the drawing of conclusions.

Introduction to Physics 22

5 The following is an example of a systematic scientific investigation on the period of oscillation of a

pendulum, conducted by a student.

Hafiq took his brother to the playground. From the shape of the graph of T against , Hafiq was

His brother played on two different swings able to draw a conclusion on the validity of his

as shown in Figure 1.26. Swing A is hypothesis.

shorter than swing B.

Swing B

F

Swing A

O

6 Conducting the experiment

1

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M

Hafiq decided to verify his hypothesis by using

apparatus such as a simple pendulum. He conducted an 4

experiment and wrote a report as described in

Experiment 1.1 (page 24).

Figure 1.26

each swing was different.

5 Formulating a hypothesis

that the period of oscillation of a swing increases as the

length of the swing increases.

think, ‘What are the factors affecting the

time or the period of oscillation of the

swing? How does the period of the swing 4 Identifying and controlling

vary with its length?’ So he decided to variables

investigate how the period of oscillation of

Hafiq proceeded to identify the variables relevant to

the swing varies with its length.

the oscillation of the swing:

(a) Period of oscillation, T

(b) Length of swing,

(c) Mass of the load, m

(d) Amplitude of oscillation, θ

Hafiq classified all the variables under specific

categories.

(a) Manipulated variable: length of swing,

3 Drawing inferences

(b) Responding variable: period of oscillation, T

Hafiq inferred that the period of (c) Fixed variables: mass of load, m, and amplitude of

oscillation of a swing, i.e. the time taken oscillation, θ

for one complete oscillation, is larger He intends to conduct his experiment in a laboratory so

(i.e. slower) if the length of the swing as to control external variables such as wind

increases. disturbances.

23 Introduction to Physics

1.1

Inference Arrangement of apparatus

The period of oscillation of a pendulum depends on plywood

its length. clamp

Hypothesis

The longer the length of the pendulum, the longer

its period of oscillation.

F Aim

O To investigate the relationship between the period of

1

CHAPTER

M pendulum.

4 Variables stopwatch

(b) Responding : period of oscillation, T

4 The bob is displaced to the side and allowed to

(c) Fixed : mass of pendulum bob, m and

oscillate at a small angle of oscillation.

amplitude of oscillation, θ

5 The time t1 for 20 oscillations is measured with

Apparatus/Materials a stopwatch.

Retort stand with clamp, metre rule, stopwatch, 6 The time t2 for another 20 oscillations is

protractor, 100 cm thread and two small pieces of measured. The mean value t20 is calculated.

plywood. t

––20– is calculated.

7 The period of oscillation, T = 20

Procedure

1 A simple pendulum is prepared. 8 The process is repeated for = 30.0 cm,

2 The apparatus is arranged as shown in Figure 1.27. 40.0 cm, 50.0 cm and 60.0 cm.

3 The thread is adjusted so that the length, , from 9 The data is recorded in Table 1.7.

the centre of the bob to the point of suspension 10 A graph of period, T against length, is plotted.

is 20.0 cm.

Tabulation of data

Table 1.7 ❺

❶ The third and

The row at the top Time for 20 oscillations, subsequent columns

of the table must Length of

t (s) Period, normally show

contain the name pendulum, values that are

T (s)

of the variable, (cm) t1 t2 Mean, t20 derived from the

symbol, and unit 20.0 17.3 17.5 17.4 0.87 responding variable.

of measurement. These values are

30.0 21.9 22.4 22.2 1.11

used in plotting the

40.0 25.0 26.0 25.5 1.28 graph.

❷

Manipulated variables 50.0 28.1 28.2 28.2 1.41

are filled in the first column. ❹

60.0 30.6 30.6 30.6 1.53 All numerical values

The values are fixed at

uniform intervals such as must be stated to the

10.0 cm, 20.0 cm, 30.0 cm, same number of

❸

Experiment 1.1

and so on. The values must Responding variables are filled in the second column. decimal places. Values

also be in ascending or The values are obtained from measurements made during derived from measured

descending order. Avoid the experiment. Normally, this column is divided into values can be expressed

recording readings several columns when repeated measurements of the to the same number or

haphazardly. responding variable are taken. The average value is to an additional number

calculated and used in the calculations. of decimal places.

Introduction to Physics 24

Graph Conclusion

The graph of T against shows a curve with a The period of oscillation increases when the length

positive gradient. of pendulum increases.

Graph of T against The hypothesis is valid.

O

Figure 1.28

F

O

1

R

CHAPTER

M

4

Tabulating data

• The values of readings obtained in an experiment are known as data from the experiment.

• All data collected in an experiment must be orderly presented in tabular form to facilitate the investigation and

interpretation of the data.

Drawing Graphs

1 A correctly drawn graph can convey information in greater detail than a written explanation of

the experimental data.

2 A graph shows the relationship between two physical quantities. Figure 1.29 shows the

relationship between the period of oscillation, T of a pendulum and the length of the

pendulum, , as conducted in Experiment 1.1 by Hafiq.

Title of the graph

1.6

Responding 1.4

variable on y-axis Correct plotting of

1

(name and unit 1.2 point (within 2

stated)

small square)

1.0

0.8

Draw a smooth curve

0.6 (with points balanced

for graph not passing

0.4 through all the points)

0.2

Experiment 1.1

O 10 20 30 40 50 60 (cm)

Manipulated

variable on x-axis

Suitable scales (name and unit

stated)

Figure 1.29

25 Introduction to Physics

Suitable Scales for Graphs

1 Suitable scales for the axes must be chosen to show the experimental data clearly and effectively.

A good graph has to be sufficiently large, filling about two thirds of the graph paper, and must

show special features, if any, of the graph.

2 Use a scale which can be read easily. Table 1.8 shows some examples of suitable scales.

Table 1.8

① Scale 2 cm : 1 unit ② Scale 2 cm : 2 units ③ Scale 2 cm : 5 units

or or or

multiples/submultiples. multiples/submultiples. multiples/submultiples.

F For example, For example, For example,

O

1

R

CHAPTER

0 0 1 2 0 2 2 4 4 0 5 5 5 10

0 0 1 10 20 0 200

200 400

400 0 50 5050 100

0 0 0 0.1 0.2 0 0.20.2 0.40.4 0 0.50.50.5 1.0

2 cm : 3 units 5 The scales for the two axes need not be the

2 cm : 6 units same.

2 cm : 8 units For example,

For example, x-axis : 2 cm : 5 units

y-axis : 2 cm : 0.1 unit

y

0.1

x

0 3 6 5

0 6 12 x

0 8 16 5 10

Figure 1.30

Figure 1.31

4 Scale 2 cm : 4 units can be used but some

students do plot the points wrongly in using 6 The points plotted must cover the graph drawn

this scale. at least half of the graph paper, and not

concentrate on one section only, so that higher

accuracy can be obtained.

Introduction to Physics 26

Analysing Graphs

Table 1.9

1 p 2 p 3 p

F

q q q O

1

R

CHAPTER

M

p increases as q increases p decreases as q increases p increases linearly with q

4

4 p 5 p 6 p

q q 1

q

15

Table 1.10 shows the results of an experiment to (c) What is the objective of taking two readings of the

investigate the relationship between the tensile force spring extension?

on a spring and its extension. (d) Are the data in each column written in the correct

way?

Table 1.10

Spring Solution

Mass of Tensile extension (a) Manipulated variable: Tensile force

weight force (cm) Responding variable: Spring extension

(g) (N) 1 2 Average (b) A ruler was used to measure the spring extension.

200.0 2.0 0.5 0.6 0.55 It has an accuracy of 0.1 cm.

400.0 4.0 1.1 0.9 1 (c) Two readings of the spring extension are taken,

the first after the weight is added and the second,

600.0 6.0 1.6 1.5 1.55 after the weight is removed. The repeated

800.0 8.0 2.0 1.9 1.95 measurements are to ensure the consistency and

1000.0 10.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 accuracy of the measurements.

(d) With the exception of the column for the average

spring extension, all other column data are written

(a) State the manipulated and responding variables in

in the correct way. The second and fifth data in the

this experiment.

column of average spring extension should rightly

(b) What instrument was used to measure the

be written as 1.00 and 2.50 respectively.

extension of the spring? What is its accuracy?

27 Introduction to Physics

16 (ii) when T = 1.3 s

Draw a horizontal

T 2 = 1.69 s2 line at T 2 = 1.69 s2,

A student carried out Experiment 1.1 and plotted a ∴ = 42.0 cm not at 1.3.

graph of T 2 against as shown in Figure 1.32. (2.80 – 0.75) s2

(c) (i) m = –––––––––––––

T is the period of oscillation while is the length of (70 – 19) cm

the pendulum. m = 0.04 s2 cm–1

T 2 (s2) 40 Normally write

Graph of T 2 against (ii) g = –––

m the answer to

4 2 decimal

40 places and

=( –––––––––––––

0.04 s2 cm–1 don’t forget

about the unit.

F This point is selected because = 1000 cm s–2

O the line goes through the corner P

= 10.0 m s–2

1

R

(d) The oscillation should be in one plane (not a

CHAPTER

Draw this draw

4 2 horizontal line. this Note: If the line goes through the origin, you can

1.69

triangle. take the original O as one of the points for the

triangle drawn to determine the gradient.

Same

comment Draw

Q

as P. this

R vertical

line.

(cm)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 17

Figure 1.32

The graph in Figure 1.33 shows the results of an

(a) State the relationship between T 2 and . experiment to investigate the relationship between

(b) From the graph, find the pressure and temperature of a gas. The gas

(i) the value of T, the period of oscillation when pressure is measured for temperature variations from

is 60 cm, and 30 °C to 200 °C.

(ii) the length of the pendulum, , when T is 1.3 s. Pressure, P (N m–2)

Show on the graph how you determine the two

500

values.

(c) The acceleration due to gravity, g is given by the 400

formula below:

300

40

g = ––

m 200

2

where m is the gradient of the graph T against . 100

(i) Calculate the gradient, m.

Show how you determine m. 0 100 200 Temperature, T (°C)

40

(ii) Using the formula g = –– , calculate the

m

Figure 1.33

acceleration due to gravity, g.

(d) State one precaution that should be taken during (a) What is the gas pressure at temperatures of

this experiment. 0 °C and 250 °C?

(b) What is the temperature when the gas pressure is

Solution zero?

(a) T 2 is directly proportional to .

(b) From the graph, Draw the Solution

vertical By extrapolating (extending the graph beyond the

(i) when = 60 cm dotted line at

T 2 = 2.40 s2 = 60 cm. experimental data) the graph to intercept the x and

∴ T = 1.55 s y-axes:

Introduction to Physics 28

Pressure, P (N m–2)

1.5

500

480 N m–2

400 1 Taylor arranges two similar springs with different

loads. He oscillates both loads and notices that the

300

heavy load makes one complete oscillation after the

200 250 N m–2 light one has completed two oscillations.

100

–270 °C

250 °C

–300 –200 –100 0 100 200 Temperature,

T (°C)

Pressure at 250 °C = 480 N m–2 F

O

(b) At zero pressure, temperature of gas = –270 °C

1

R

CHAPTER

M

Based on the above information, state

SPM

Clone

(a) one suitable inference, 4

4 ’06 (b) one appropriate hypothesis that could be

investigated,

The figure below shows two wooden tops P and Q, (c) the aim of the experiment to be carried out,

with P partly coated with tin. P and Q are of the same (d) the variables in the experiment,

size and are given the same initial rotational velocity. (e) the way you would tabulate your data,

tin (f) the expected graph, and

(g) your conclusion.

2 A student carried out an experiment to investigate

the relationship between the temperature of water

when heated, with its mass, m. He used the same

immersion heater for different masses with the

P Q same initial temperature θ0. However, the time of

heating was the same for all the masses. The final

(i) temperature θ of the water after being heated are

tin recorded.

The following figure shows the graph of θ against

1

–– obtained.

m

θ (°C) 1

Graph of θ against m

P Q 34

(ii) 33

Based on the above information:

(a) State one suitable inference. 32

(b) State one suitable hypothesis.

31

Comments

You will notice from the figures: 30

(i) top P is partly coated with tin, and thus possesses

more mass, and 29

(ii) top P still rotates while top Q has stopped.

28

Answer

(a) The time for the top to stop its rotation is affected 27

by its mass.

(b) The bigger the mass of the top, the longer it will 26 1

m (kg )

-1

O 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

rotate before stopping.

29 Introduction to Physics

(a) Extrapolate the graph and find its intercept on the (i) Draw a triangle on the graph and hence

θ-axis. The intercept gives the value of the initial determine the gradient, k, of the graph.

temperature θ0. What is the value of θ0? (ii) Calculate the value of the specific heat

(b) State the relationship between θ and m. capacity of water.

(c) The specific heat capacity, c, of water is given by (d) Determine the mass, m, of water used if the final

the equation: temperature is 31 °C. Show on the graph how

4.5 × 104 you determine the value of m.

c = –––––––

k (e) State one precaution for this experiment.

where k is the gradient of the graph.

F

O

1

R

CHAPTER

4 1. Physics is the knowledge of nature. It is a branch of 9. A parallax error is the error in reading a measurement

science concerning the study of natural phenomena, due to the position of the observer’s eye with respect

properties of matter and energy. to the scale of the measuring instrument is not

2. Physical quantities are quantities that can be perpendicular.

measured. 10. A zero error is the error when measurements do not

3. Base quantities are physical quantities that cannot be start from exactly zero.

defined in terms of other physical quantities. 11. A zero error can be corrected using the formula

4. The SI defines seven base units: metre (m), below:

kilogram (kg), second (s), kelvin (K), ampere (A),

mole (mol) and candela (Cd).

Actual measurement = Reading obtained – Zero error

5. Derived quantities are quantities derived from a

combination of two or more base quantities.

6. Prefixes and standard form are used to represent 12. Accuracy is the degree of how close a measurement

very large and very small numbers. A general form of a is to the actual value.

standard form is written as A × 10n, where 1 A 10 13. Consistency of a measuring instrument is its ability to

and n is an integer. get the same reading when a measurement is made

7. A scalar quantity is a physical quantity which has repeatedly.

magnitude only. 14. Sensitivity of a measuring instrument is its ability to

8. A vector quantity is a physical quantity which has detect small changes within a very short period of

both magnitude and direction. time.

1

Multiple-choice Questions

Understanding Physics Base Quantities and

numerous disciplines (or branches)

Derived Quantities

1 Which field of Physics is of study. Which discipline deals with

concerned with the study of heat the spontaneous disintegration of 3 Which of the following is not an SI

and its effects on matter? radioisotopes? SPM

base quantity?

Clone

A Length

B Mechanics B Astrophysics B Temperature

C Electromagnetism C Nuclear physics C Time

D Thermodynamics D Quantum mechanics D Weight

Introduction to Physics 30

4 The base SI unit of mass is the Which of the following lists of

SPM

A microgram

Clone B milligram C gram D kilogram capacities are arranged in

’03

ascending order?

5 Which of the following physical quantities is described correctly?

A 5 10–5 m3, 5 dm3, 500 cm3

Physical quantity Base or derived quantity SI unit B 500 cm3, 5 dm3, 5 10–5 m3

A C 5 dm3, 500 cm3, 5 10–5 m3

Temperature Base K

D 5 10–5 m3, 500 cm3, 5 dm3

B Volume Base m3

C Work Derived kg m s–2

D Momentum Derived kg m s–2

1.3 Scalar and Vector

6 A derived quantity can be B 1.034 10 6 Quantities

expressed as a combination of C 1.034 107 16 Which of the following lists of

base quantities. Which of the F

D 1.034 108 physical quantities consists only of

O

following is the combination of scalars?

1

base quantities for force? 12 Diagram 1 shows a box with R

A time, mass, velocity

CHAPTER

dimensions 6 cm 4 cm M

mass B mass, velocity, acceleration

A 2 cm.

length time C speed, volume, work 4

mass length 2.0 cm D velocity, acceleration, force

B

time time

17 Some equations are listed on a

4.0 cm

mass length page of a physics book.

C 6.0 cm

time

mass time Diagram 1

D mass

length length What is the volume of the box, in density =

m3? volume

7 A useful method of expressing A 48 C 0.048 work = force distance

very small or very large number is B 0.48 D 4.8 10–5 velocity

acceleration =

A Arabic numerals time

B Greek letters 13 The gravitational force, F, between

C significant figures

SPM

two objects of masses m1 and m2

Clone

’05 is given by the equation:

D scientific notation How many vector quantities are

Gm1m2

8 What does the prefix pico stand F= contained in these equations?

r2 A 1

SPM

for?

Clone

’03 A 10–12

where r is the distance between B 2

their centres and G is the universal C 3

SPM

Clone B 10–9

’07 C 109 gravitational constant. D 4

What is the unit of G?

D 1012

A N m kg –2

9 In which of the following sets are B N m2 kg –2

the prefixes arranged in ascending C m2 kg –2 1.4 Understanding

order? D N m–2 Measurements

A nano, mega, milli, kilo

14 The density of lead is 11.3 g cm–3 18 Diagram 2 shows a part of the

B mega, kilo, nano, milli SPM at room temperature. What is its scales on a pair of vernier callipers.

C nano, milli, kilo, mega

Clone

’08 value in SI unit?

D kilo, milli, mega, nano

A 1.13 × 10–5 kg m–3

10 Which of the following B 1.13 × 10–3 kg m–3 3 4

SPM

Clone measurements is the smallest? C 1.13 × 104 kg m–3

’09 A 4.7 104 m D 1.13 × 107 kg m–3

B 4.7 105 cm

15 The capacity of a container is the 0 5 10

C 4.7 107 mm

maximum volume of liquid it can Diagram 2

D 4.7 1011 µm

contain. The labels for three

11 In Tawau, Pop FM is being containers are given below. What is the correct reading?

SPM

Clone transmitted at the frequency of –5 3 3 A 2.90 cm

’06 113.5 MHz. What is the frequency 5 10 m 5 dm

B 3.03 cm

of the radio waves in Hz? C 3.15 cm

A 1.034 105 500 cm3

D 3.23 cm

31 Introduction to Physics

19 Diagram 3 shows the scale of a C

SPMmicrometer screw gauge.

Clone

’05

10

0 1 2

5

0

D

Diagram 3

P Q

What is the reading shown?

A 2.04 mm Diagram 4

B 2.05 mm

C 2.06 mm The period of an oscillation is the

D 2.40 mm 23 A, B, C and D shows parts of four time taken for the bob to move

SPM different galvanometers. from P to Q and back to P again.

F Clone

20 George has been asked to ’07 Which is the most sensitive? Using a stopwatch, how can a

O

student measure the period

1

R determine, as accurately as

possible, the volume of a piece of A accurately?

CHAPTER

M 0

wire. The wire is about 60 cm in A Time one oscillation carefully

0.2

4 length and about 0.3 cm in for a few times.

diameter. B Time ten oscillations and

0.4 divide by 10.

Which measuring instruments

should he use? C Time the motion from P to Q

B

0 and double it.

Length Diameter 0.4

A micrometer vernier 26 Diagram 5 shows a graph relating

callipers 0.8 SPM

Clone P and T.

’03

B metre rule vernier P

callipers C

0

0.5

C metre rule micrometer 1.0

b

D vernier micrometer 1.5

callipers 2.0

T

a O

21 A measuring instrument can D Diagram 5

0 1

detect a small change in the

2 The equation of the graph is

quantity to be measured. This

3 b

measuring instrument is A P= T+a

4 a

considered to be

A accurate b

B P= T+b

B consistent/precise a

C sensitive b

C P=– T+a

1.5 Scientific Investigation a

22 A, B, C and D shows the shooting

b

SPM

marks on a target. Which of the 24 An experiment was carried out to D P=– T+b

Clone

’05 following marks can be used to a

SPM

Clone investigate the relationship

SPM

Clone explain the concept of a ’08 between the period of a simple

’08

measurement which is consistent SPM

Clone pendulum and its length. A brass 27 Diagram 6 shows a graph of S

but not accurate? ’09 bob of 50 g was used in the

1

against .

A experiment. What is the T

manipulated variable?

S

A Amplitude

B Mass of brass bob

C Length of pendulum

B D Period of the simple

pendulum

1

T

25 Diagram 4 shows a swinging Diagram 6

pendulum.

Introduction to Physics 32

Given that the gradient of the 29 The graph in Diagram 7 shows the A M

graph is –g and the intercept on relationship between physical

y-axis is a, what is the equation of quantities X and Y.

the graph?

g X

A T = a – gs C T=a– N

S

g B M

B S = a – gT D S=a– SPM

Clone

T ’04

O Y

28 Which of the following graphs

shows that P increases with but is N

Diagram 7

not directly proportional to θ?

Which statement about the graph C M

A C

is correct?

P P F

A X increases if Y increases. O

B X is directly proportional to Y.

1

R

C The relationship between X 1

CHAPTER

N M

θ θ and Y is linear.

B D D The gradient of the graph D MN

4

P P decreases with increasing Y.

30 The following graphs show that

M is inversely proportional to N

θ θ N

except

Structured Questions

1 Diagrams 1(a) and (b) show the readings of the 2 A pair of vernier callipers is used to measure the

meters for an electrical circuit when the switch is external diameter of a water pipe.

closed. Diagram 2 shows the main and vernier scales of the

vernier callipers when the water pipe is lightly closed

2 3 by the jaws.

4

V

1

5

0

mirror 0 1 2 3

(a)

2 3

4 6

8

mA

2

Diagram 2

10

0

mirror

(a) Determine the vernier readings. [1 mark]

(b) Before the vernier callipers is used, the jaws are closed.

Diagram 1 Diagram 3 shows the main and vernier scales of the

(a) Write the readings of the voltmeter and of the vernier callipers with the jaws closed.

milliammeter.

(i) Voltmeter: _____________ V [1 mark] cm

0 1 2

(ii) Milliammeter: __________ mA [1 mark]

(b) Give an example of a systematic error that could

occur in the above measurements [1 mark]

(c) Some meters have a strip of mirror mounted 0 1

under the pointer and near the scale, as shown in

Diagrams 1(a) and (b). Suggest how this may

help to eliminate a possible source of error.

[1 mark] Diagram 3

33 Introduction to Physics

(b) Name this systematic error in the vernier callipers. 5 Diagram 6 shows a mercury thermometer.

[1 mark]

(c) This error can be taken into account by adding it -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

from the reading obtained. Determine the

bulb with thin bore

external diameter of the water pipe with the glass wall

correction. [2 marks]

Diagram 6

3 Diagram 4 shows a micrometer screw gauge used to

(a) What is the accuracy of the thermometer?

measure the diameter of a wire.

[1 mark]

lock (b) State the physical change in the mercury when

thimble X

anvil spindle the thermometer is placed in a cup of hot water.

0 5 30

25

[1 mark]

F wire

20

15 (c) Explain briefly why the bulb has a thin wall.

O [1 mark]

1

CHAPTER

Diagram 4 the correct answer in the brackets to complete the

4 sentence below.

(a) (i) Name the part labelled X. [1 mark]

The sensitivity increases with (larger, smaller) bore

(ii) What is the function of X? [1 mark]

diameter. [1 mark]

(b) Four readings for the diameter were taken at

different places along the wire. The values are

tabulated in Table 1 below. 6 Four students each made a series of measurements

of the acceleration due to gravity, g. Table 2 shows the

Relative deviation results they obtained.

Diameter (mm)

(%)

3.47 3.52 3.49 3.50 0.43 Results: g (m s–2)

Student

Table 1 1 2 3 4

(i) Why is the diameter measured at four P 9.46 9.20 8.98 8.77

different places along the wire? [1 mark] Q 8.46 8.51 8.42 8.45

(ii) What is the purpose of calculating the R 9.82 10.09 9.87 8.93

relative deviation? [1 mark]

S 9.82 9.78 9.85 9.79

4 Diagram 5 shows the top part of a measuring cylinder Table 2

containing some mercury.

(a) If the actual value of g is 9.81, which student

R

obtained a set of results that could be described as

6

(i) precise and accurate? [1 mark]

P

S (ii) precise but not accurate? [1 mark]

Table 3 shows the smallest divisions of four types of

7 mercury measuring instruments.

Q

cm3 Instrument Smallest division

Diagram 5 Micrometer screw gauge 0.001 cm

(a) What is the physical quantity measured by the Vernier callipers 0.01 cm

measuring cylinder? [1 mark] Metre rule 0.1 cm

(b) Diagram 5 indicates four ways the observer’s eye Measuring tape 0.1 cm

could look when taking the reading from the

measuring cylinder. [1 mark] Table 3

Put a circle around the eye position which gives

the correct reading. (a) Name the instrument a student should use to

(c) What is the value of the smallest division on the measure

scale? [1 mark] (i) the diameter of a piece of wire, [1 mark]

(d) Why mercury is used, instead of other liquids, in (ii) the internal and external diameters of a

barometer? [1 mark] beaker used in the laboratory. [1 mark]

Introduction to Physics 34

Essay Questions

7 (a) Diagram 7 shows two ammeters, J and K, with (b) Using the different distributions of shooting marks

different sensitivities that can be used in electrical on a target, illustrate the differences between

circuit to measure the current. accuracy and consistency.

[4 marks]

2

(c) (i) Given a glass rod and a metre rule as shown

1 3

in Diagram 8, explain how a student can

0 4 determine the diameter of the wire.

A [6 marks]

metre rule

(a) Ammeter J F

wire

O

1

R

0.5

CHAPTER

M

0

glass rod

1

4

A

Diagram 8

(ii) Suggest a more suitable measuring

instrument which the student can find in the

(b) Ammeter K

laboratory to measure the diameter of the

Diagram 7 wire. [1 mark]

(i) What is meant by sensitivity? [1 mark] (iii) Which method will give you a more accurate

(ii) With reference to Diagram 7(a) and measurement? Explain your answer.

Diagram 7(b), determine the currents [1 mark]

measured by the ammeters. [2 marks] (iv) State the precautions that should be taken

(iii) Compare the sensitivities of ammeters J during the measurements using the

and K. Relate to the scales on the ammeters. instrument in (c)(ii).

[3 marks] [2 marks]

Experiment

1 A student carries out an experiment to determine the relationship between the length, , of a coil of wire wound round a

SPM rod and its number of turns, n. Vernier calipers are used to measure the length, , of the coil as shown in Diagram 1

Clone

’10

Vernier callipers

0 1 2 3

cm

0 5 10

rod

coil

Wire

Diagram 1

The results of this experiment are shown in the graph of against n in Diagram 2

The period of oscillation, T, of the simple pendulum is given by the following equation:

35 Introduction to Physics

(cm) Graph of againtst n

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

F

O

1

R 0.8

CHAPTER

M

0.6

4

0.4

0.2

0 n

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

(a) Based on the graph in Diagram 2

(i) What will happen to as n increases? [1 mark]

(ii) Determine the value of when n = 12. Show on the graph, how you determine the value of [2 marks]

(iii) Calculate the gradient, m, of the graph show on the graph how you determine m. [3 marks]

(b) The diameter, d, of the wire can be determined using the formula:

d = km

where, m = gradient of the graph

k = constant

what is the value of

(i) k?

(ii) d in SI unit [3 marks]

(c) This experiment is repeated by using a rod of bigger diameter.

(i) What happens to the gradient of the graph, m? [1 mark]

(ii) Give one reason for the answer in (c)(i) [1 mark]

(d) State one precaution that should be taken to improve the accuracy of the readings in the experiment. [1 mark]

COMPANION WEBSITE

Introduction to Physics 36 Online Tests

FORM 4

2

CHAPTER

Year 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Paper 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Section A B C A B A B C A B A B C A B A B C A B A B C A B

Number of questions 8 1 – 1 – 1 7 1 1 – 1 – 8 1 – – – 1 9 1 – 1 – 1 9 1 1 – – –

ONCEPT MAP

Kinematics Dynamics

motion • s – t graph

• v – t graph

Mass Hooke’s

Impulse, Conservation law

Ft = mv – mu of F = kx

• Distance • Speed momentum

Newton’s first

• Displacement = Distance law of motion

Time Impulsive force,

• Velocity mv – mu Elastic potential

F= energy,

Displacement t

= 1 2

Time Effects of a force E= kx

• Acceleration 2

• Deceleration

v–u

a= t Newton’s second Forces in Newton’s third

law of motion equilibrium law of motion

F = ma

Acceleration due

to gravity, g Work, Energy

W = Fs

Equations of

motion

• v = u + at Gravity Potential Kinetic energy,

• s = 1– (u + v)t energy, 1

2 Ep = mgh Ek = 2 mv2

• s = ut + 1– at 2 Safety features

2 Weight, in the design of

• v2 = u2 + 2as W = mg vehicles Power

COMPANION WEBSITE

Learning Objectives 37

2.1 Analysing Linear Motion

Linear Motion

2 Examples of linear motion: Earth

Sun

F

O (a) A spinning top (b) The earth orbiting

2

R the sun

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M

(a) A passenger on a moving escalator Figure 2.2

4 4 The study of the motion of an object without

considering the forces acting on it is called

kinematics.

5 The study of the motion of an object and

(b) An athlete running a 100 m race

F

the forces acting on the object is called

Figure 2.1 O dynamics.

2

R

CHAPTER

M

Distance, Displacement, Speed and Velocity

4

1 The physical quantities of motion are distance, displacement, speed, velocity, time and

acceleration.

Motion

An object in motion changes position.

Distance Displacement

• The total length of the path an object travels from • The distance an object travels in a specific

one location to another. direction.

• Distance is a scalar quantity. • The magnitude of displacement is equal to the

shortest distance between two points.

• Thus, displacement is a vector quantity.

Speed and velocity both describe how fast an object is moving but

there is an important difference between these two quantities,

i.e, velocity is related to direction.

Velocity

Speed • Velocity is the speed of an object in a specified

• Speed is the distance covered per unit time, that is, direction, that is, the rate of change in

the rate of change in distance. displacement.

Total distance travelled, s (m)

_________________________ Distance moved in a specific direction

______________________________________

Speed, v = Velocity, v =

Time taken, t (s) Time taken

• Speed is a scalar quantity. ____________________

Displacement, s (m)

=

Time taken, t (s)

• Velocity is a vector quantity.

2 Both distance and displacement have the same SI units.

They are measured in metres (m).

3 Both speed and velocity have the same SI units of metre per An object moves from position

second (m s–1). A to B. The figure below

4 However, since displacement and velocity are vector quantities, the shows five possible paths

direction of motion must be stated together with the magnitude. taken by the object. Which is

the shortest path?

Q

R B

1

P X

A

Figure 2.3 shows the location of two towns, P and Q.

Y F

N

lake O

2

The path with the shortest R

CHAPTER

Jamil's length is APB (the straight line M

Town Q

car that joins A and B) and APB is

Raven's 4

helicopter known as the displacement

Town P from A to B. Q

The magnitude of the

mountain displacement is the shortest R

Figure 2.3 distance that links the initial

and final positions of an

Jamil drives a car along the road from town P to town Q, which is 300 km away. object that has moved.

P

The journey takes 5 hours. Raven flies a helicopter due east from town P to Q A

The other paths, AQB, ARB,

for a distance of l00 km in half an hour. AXB and AYB are known as

Analyse, in terms of speed and velocity, Jamil's and Raven's journeys. the distances travelled from A

to B.

Solution

Jamil’s journey Raven’s journey

Distance travelled = 300 km Displacement = 100 km due east

Time taken = 5 hours Time taken = 0.5 hour

Distance travelled Distance in a

________________

Speed, v = Displacement

____________ specific direction.

Velocity, v =

Time taken Time taken

_______ 300 km _______ 100 km

= =

5h 0.5 h

= 60 km h–1 = 200 km h–1

The speed of the car is 60 km h–1. The velocity of the helicopter is 200 km h–1 due east.

2

1 Refer to Example 2.

An athlete runs 100 m in 10 s.

2 The term average velocity is used because the

What is his average velocity?

athlete is not running at a constant velocity of

10 m s–1 in the whole race. Solution

3 Similarly, the speed of the car (in Example 1) is s

Average velocity, v = __

an average speed since the speed of the car is

t

not the same throughout the whole journey.

______ 100 m

4 Table 2.1 shows the difference between average =

speed/average velocity and constant speed/ 10 s

constant velocity. = 10 m s–1

Table 2.1

A car moves at an average speed/velocity of A car moves at a constant or uniform speed / velocity

20 m s–1 (equivalent to 72 km h–1). of 10 m s–1.

This means the car may move 15 m in the first This means the car moves 10 m in the first second,

second, 25 m in the next second and 20 m in the 10 m in the next second, 10 m in the third second,

third second. and so on.

On average, the car moves a distance/displacement The car always covers a distance or displacement

of 20 m in 1 second for the whole journey. of 10 m in 1 second for the whole journey.

The magnitude of speed/velocity remains the same.

15 m 25 m 20 m

F t=0 t=1s t=2s t=3s 10 m 10 m 10 m

O

2

CHAPTER

equal distances in equal successive time intervals, no matter how small the

F

time interval is. O

2

distance of 10 m every second, or 1 M

m every 0.1 s.

CHAPTER

SPM

3 ’07/P1

In an activity for a Physics lesson, a student was (a) Total distance travelled = AB + BC

instructed by his teacher to run due north for = 12 + 16

a distance of 12 m before moving east for another = 28 m

16 m. The time taken was 20 s. _____________________ Total distance travelled

Average speed, v =

What was the student’s Time taken

(a) average speed, and 28 m

_____ =

(b) average velocity?

20 s

= 1.4 m s–1

Solution (b) Displacement

= The distance travelled in the direction of AC

16 m

B C = 122 + 162 Apply Pythagoras’ theorem

= 20 m

__

tan θ = 16 To determine the

direction of AC

12

= 1.333

12 m

tan θ = 53.1°

N Average velocity, v

Displacement

=

θ Time taken

20 m

A =

20 s

= 1 m s–1 in the direction N 53.1° E

4

Figure 2.4 shows a car moving round a roundabout. Solution

VR

VP (a) The speed of the car is 3 m s–1.

P (b) (i) At P:

R

The velocity, vP = 3 m s–1 due east

(ii) At Q:

The velocity, vQ = 3 m s–1 due west

N Q (iii) At R:

VQ The velocity, vR = 3 m s–1 due N 45° W

If the car covers a distance of 3 m each second, find The speed remains constant throughout while the O

2

VR V

(a) the speed of the car, F4/2/3 velocity is changing (i.e. change in direction, but not

P

R

P

CHAPTER

(b) the velocity of the car at in magnitude, bearing in mind that velocity is a vector M

R

(i) P (ii) Q (iii) R quantity which has both magnitude and direction.) 4

VQ

1 When the velocity of an object changes with 3 Since velocity is a vector quantity (i.e., it has

time, the object is said to be accelerating. magnitude as well as direction), acceleration

2 Acceleration is defined as the rate of change is, thus, a vector quantity.

in velocity with time. F4/2/3

4 The SI unit for acceleration is metre per

Acceleration, a Initial velocity = u second per second or m s–2 (read as metre per

Change in velocity Final velocity = v second squared).

= Time taken = t

Time taken

Final velocity – Initial velocity

=

Time taken

∴

a = v – u

t

v–u

v>u Acceleration, a = v<u

t

Acceleration Deceleration/Retardation

• When v > u, a is positive, the velocity is increasing. • When v < u, a is negative, the velocity is decreasing.

• Thus, the speed of the object increases and is said • Thus, the speed of the object slows down and is

to be accelerating. said to be decelerating.

For example, For example,

u=0 v = 30 m s–1 u = 30 m s–1 v=0

30 35 30 35 30 35 30 35

25 40 25 40 25 40 25 40

20 20 20 20

45 45 45 45

15 15 15 15

50 50 50 50

10 10 10 10

5 m s–1 55 5 m s–1 55 5 m s–1 55 5 m s–1 55

0 60 0 60 0 60 0 60

60 60 60 60

55 27

30

3

5 55 27

30

3

5 55 27

30

3

5 55 27

30

3

5

6 6 6 6

50

24

50

24

50

24

50

24

21 9 10 21 9 10 21 9 10 21 9 10

18 12 18 12 18 12 18 12

15 15 15 15

45 15 45 15 45 15 45 15

40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20

35 25 35 25 35 25 35 25

30 30 30 30

The driver steps on the accelerator when the traffic The driver applies the brakes when he sees the

light turns green. The car increases its speed with traffic lights turn red to reduce its velocity with a

F4/2/4 F4/2/5

an acceleration of 6 m s–2. deceleration or retardation of 6 m s–2 until it stops.

Mathematically, we write as: a = 6 m s–2 Mathematically, we write as: a = –6 m s–2

5

From a constant velocity of 2000 m s–1, the velocity of Acceleration, a

a rocket increases to 3000 m s–1 in 5 s when the rate of v–u

=

combustion in the combustion chamber is increased. t

What is the acceleration of the rocket? 3000 m s–1 – 2000 m s –1

=

5s

Solution

1000 m s –1

= 200 metres per second per

5s second, i.e., a gain in velocity

200 m s –1 of 200 m s–1 in each second.

=

1s

u = 2000 m s–1 v = 3000 m s–1

F t=0 t=5s = 200 m s–2 Also read as 200 metres per

O second squared.

2

R

CHAPTER

The acceleration of the rocket in Example 5 is 200 m s–2. This means that its velocity increases by 200 m s–1

for every second, as illustrated in the following diagram.

F

t=0 t=1s Ot = 2 s t=3s t=4s t=5s

2

R v = 2600 m s–1 v = 2800 m s–1 v = 3000 m s–1

CHAPTER

4 F4/2/9

6

Azmi cycles at a uniform speed of 20 m s–1. He then Solution

stops pedalling and his bicycle comes to a stop after u = 20 m s–1, v = 0 m s–1 and t = 8 s

8 s. What is his average deceleration? v – u

____

Acceleration, a =

u = 20 m s–1 v=0 t

_____ 0 – 20

=

8 Negative means

= –2.5 m s–2 deceleration.

t=8s

stop pedalling bicycle stops Deceleration = 2.5 m s–2

Figure 2.5

Displacement Velocity Acceleration

causes causes

’03/P3/(B)

Ticker-timer

1 A ticker-timer is a device used in the laboratory to study the motion of a moving object,

usually a trolley.

2 The ticker-timer can be used to determine the (c) The velocity of the object

following variables. (d) The acceleration of the object

(a) The time interval of the motion (e) The type of motion of the object

(b) The displacement of the object

2 1

A vibrating metal strip with a pin is set to vibrate A ticker-timer consists of an electrical

up and down 50 times per second (i.e., at 50 hertz, vibrator, which is connected to an alternating

which is the frequency of the a.c. supply). current (a.c.) power supply (12 or 6 V).

1 vibrator

2 metal strip

F

50 dots are O

2

punched on the R

tape in one second

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M

3

ticker-tape 4

inclined runway

4 trolley

Figure 2.6

3 4

Each time the metal pin moves down, The ticker tape is attached to a trolley which moves on a

it makes a dot on the carbonised ticker F4/2/6

bench or runway. As the trolley moves, it pulls the tape

tape which passes underneath it. through the ticker-timer. A trail of dots is punched on

the ticker tape at equal time intervals. Thus, the dots on

the tape form a complete record of the motion of

the trolley.

The type of motion of the trolley can be inferred from the distance between the dots on the ticker

tape pulled by the trolley.

direction of motion

The distance between two neighbouring dots is equal. The object is moving at a constant/uniform velocity.

F4/2/14(a)

between two neighbouring The distance between

F4/2/14(c)two neighbouring dots is

dots is small. greater.

The object is moving slowly. The object is moving at a greater velocity.

The distance between two neighbouring The distance between two neighbouring dots

F4/2/14(d) F4/2/14(e)

dots increases. decreases.

The velocity increases. The velocity decreases.

The object is accelerating. The object is decelerating.

To Find the Time Interval of Motion and Velocity of an Object SPM

’05/P3/(B)

1 The time for 1 dot-space, or 1 tick of time is the time interval between one carbon dot and

the next one on the ticker tape.

dot

number 0 1 2 3 4 5 678 910 20 30 40 50

direction

of one tentick

motion of time

First 10-tick Second 10-tick Third 10-tick Fourth 10-tick Fifth 10-tick

strip strip strip strip strip

Figure 2.7

F

O Since the vibrating pin makes 50 dots in 1 4 Therefore, one 10-tick of time

2

∴ 10-tick = 0.2 s

CHAPTER

1 5 Similarly, one 5-tick of time and one 2-tick of

4 ∴ 1 tick = s = 0.02 s

50 time can be calculated as shown in Table 2.2.

2 A 10-tick of time is the time interval from dot 6 With the quantities of time interval and

number 0 to dot number 10 on the tape. displacement, we can calculate the velocity of

3 The next 10-tick of time is the time taken to an object.

move from dot number 10 to Fdot number 20.

O

2

R Table 2.2

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M

10-tick strip Time taken to move from A to B Constant velocity,

A 4 = 10 × 0.02 s s 8 cm

direction of motion B v = =

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 = 0.2 s t 0.2 s

∴ 10-tick = 0.2 s = 40 cm s–1

8 cm

5-tick strip Time taken to move from P to Q Average velocity,

P direction of motion = 5 × 0.02 s s 6 cm

Q v = =

1 2 3 4 5 = 0.1 s t 0.1 s

6 cm

∴ 5-tick = 0.1 s = 60 cm s–1

R = 2 × 0.02 s s 5 cm

direction of motion S v = =

1 2

= 0.04 s t 0.04 s

∴ 2-tick = 0.04 s = 125 cm s–1

5 cm

7

A trolley is moving down a runway. A strip with six The ticker-timer vibrates at a frequency of 50 Hz.

dot-spaces as shown in Figure 2.8 is obtained. Find the acceleration of the trolley.

Solution

1 2 3 4 5

direction

Frequency, f = 50 Hz

of motion A B P Q ∴ 1 tick = 0.02 s

0.5 cm

Average velocity from A to B: u = = 25 cm s–1

1.5 cm 0.02 s

0.5 cm

1.5 cm

Average velocity from P to Q: v = = 75 cm s–1

Figure 2.8 0.02 s

Time taken (from the midpoint of AB to the Change in velocity

________________

Acceleration, a =

midpoint of PQ) to produce the change in velocity Time taken

= 5 × 0.02 s ____ v – u

= 0.1 s =

t

Watch out! It is 5-tick, not 6-tick. The average

velocity happens somewhere at the midpoints (75 – 25) cm s–1

______________

=

of AB and PQ respectively. Therefore, the time 0.1 s

taken for the change in velocity is from the

midpoint of AB to the midpoint of PQ. ________ 50 cm s–1

=

0.1 s

= 500 cm s–2

= 5 m s–2

Alternative method F

O

2

The time taken, t to produce the change in velocity can also be found as shown below. R

CHAPTER

First, label the time as an interval of 0.02 s at the dots as shown in the figure below. M

direction

of motion

0 0.02 s 0.04 s 0.06 s 0.08 s 0.10 s 0.12 s

t

0.01 s 0.11 s

Making a Tape Chart 2 On the tape, lines are drawn across dots

number 0, 10, 20 and so on, from the start of

1 Figure 2.9 shows a ticker tape obtained in an the first clear dot, to mark off in sections 10

experiment. dot-spaces long.

dot 3 The 10 dot-spaces are labelled in order. The tape

number 01 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30

is then cut at the lines to form 10-tick strips.

1 2 3

direction 4 The 10-tick strips are pasted in order side by

of motion one tentick

of time side on paper, preferably a graph paper, for

easy measurement, to form a tape chart as

Figure 2.9

shown in Figure 2.10.

Velocity, v (or distance moved per tentick) v

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Time in ticks t

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Time in seconds

Figure 2.10

5 The length of each 10-tick strip is the distance the time taken for each strip is the same, i.e.

moved in one 10-tick of time, that is, 0.2 s. 0.2 s.

6 The length of the strip represents velocity. The 7 As such, the tape chart is practically a velocity-

longer the strip, the greater the velocity since time graph where the vertical axis is the

velocity (distance moved per 10-tick), while length actually represents the velocity since the

the horizontal axis indicates the time since time taken for each strip is the same.

each strip starts 0.2 s after the one before. 9 Tape charts can also be made of strips with

8 Some may prefer to label the vertical axis as 5 dot-spaces or 2 dot-spaces.

length of the strips, but remember that this

ity 2.1

Apparatus/Materials Calculation

Trolley, runway, ticker-timer, 12 V power supply, (a) Displacement = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6

F ticker tape, cellophane tape and wooden block.

O where x is the length of the strip.

(b) Time taken = 6 × 10-tick

2

R Arrangement of apparatus

= 6 × 0.2 s

CHAPTER

M

ticker tape ticker-timer

= 1.2 s

4 trolley

Displacement

12 V a.c. inclined Average velocity = ____________

power runway

Time taken

supply wooden

(x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6) cm

= _________________________

block

Figure 2.11 1.2 s

F

Procedure O (c) Average velocity for the 1st strip:

2

R x1

___

1 The apparatus is set up as shown

M in Figure 2.11. u= cm s–1

CHAPTER

0.2

2 The inclination of the runway is set so that the

4 it is released.

trolley will roll down freely after Average velocity for the 6th strip:

3 A length of ticker tape is passed through the x6

v = ___ cm s–1

ticker-timer and attached to the trolley. 0.2

4 The ticker-timer is switched on and the trolley is

released. ime taken for the change in velocity, t

T

5 The ticker tape obtained is then cut into 6 pieces = (6 – 1) × 0.2 s

of 10-tick strips. = 5 × 0.2 s

6 The strips are pasted side by side on a graph = 1.0 s

paper to form a tape chart.

Results Acceleration of the trolley is calculated from the

velocity (distance moved per tentick) formula:

v–u

5 a=

x6

t

6

4

x5

5

Discussion

3

The length of strip increases uniformly.

x4

2

4

Thus, the trolley moves down the runway at a

x3 constant or uniform acceleration.

3

1

x2

2 Conclusion

x1 1

The average velocity and acceleration of a trolley are

thus determined.

Activity 2.1

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time in ticks

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Time in seconds

t

Figure 2.12

F4/2/10

To prepare a friction-compensated runway

In Activity 2.1, there are two main forces acting on the trolley along the runway, i.e., the component weight of the trolley

down the runway and the frictional force of the runway on the trolley (please refer to Section 2.9 on page 118).

(a) If the slope is not steep enough, (b) If the slope is too steep, the trolley (c) The slope is adjusted until the trolley

after a slight push, the trolley moves moves down the runway by itself. goes down at uniform velocity, after

a short distance and then stops. The dots get farther apart. a slight push. The dots on the tape

The dots on the tape get closer. are equally-spaced. This is a

friction-compensated runway.

Physics Blog

direction of motion

direction of motion

direction of motion

trolley given a slight push

stop trolley goes down on its own F

trolley given a slight push

velo O

2

city cons

Key : incr tant v R

eas elocit

ing y

CHAPTER

component weight friction M

8

F4/2/11b F4/2/11c

A student carried out an experiment using a trolley Average velocity

and a ticker-timer that vibrates at a frequency of ____________________

Total distance travelled

=

50 Hz. Figure 2.13 shows a tape chart consisting of Time taken

10-tick strips that he obtained. 30 cm

______

= = 30 cm s–1

velocity (distance moved per tentick)

1.0 s

4 = 0.30 m s–2

10 (c) Average velocity for the 1st strip:

3 Key :

____ 2 cm

start u = = 10 cm s–1

component

weight

8 0.2 s

2 trolley given a slight push friction

6

Average velocity for the 5th strip:

1 ______

stop 10 cm

v = = 50 cm s–1 Watch out, not 5 × 10-tick!

4 0.2 s The time taken for the

2

Time taken, t change in velocity is from

= 4 × 10-tick the midpoint of the 1st strip

to the midpoint of the 5th

0 = 4 × 0.2 s = 0.8 s strip.

0 10 20 30 40 50 Time in ticks

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Time in seconds OR:

t Time taken, t From the time axis.

0.1 0.9

= (0.9 – 0.1) s = 0.8 s

Figure 2.13 Change in velocity

_________________

∴ Acceleration, a =

Find F4/2/12 Time taken

(a) the total distance travelled,

____ v – u

(b) the average velocity, =

(c) the acceleration of the trolley. t

______________ (50 – 10) cm s–1

Solution =

0.8 s

(a) The total distance travelled = 50 cm s–2 = 0.5 m s–2

(from dot number 0 to number 50)

Note: Since the motion is of uniform acceleration, the

= (2 + 4 + 6 + 8 + 10) cm

average velocity in (b) can also be calculated

= 30 cm u+v

(b) Total time taken from the formula –v = .

= 5 × 10-tick

The total time taken 2

is 1 s if you label the –1

= 5 × 0.2 s time axis in seconds. –v = (10 + 50) cm s = 30 cm s–1

= 1.0 s 2

In the questions, the vertical axis may not be labelled as As explained earlier, the distance between dots, or the

velocity or distance moved per 10-tick (or 5-tick or length of a strip, represents the velocity of a moving

2-tick). However, the way to solve the problems is still object. Therefore, the increase in distance between dots

the same. and the increase in length between successive strips

represent the increase in velocity. If the increment is

uniform, then the increase in velocity is uniform, that is,

the object is moving with uniform acceleration.

(a) In the figure below, the increase in distance

9 between the successive dots is equal (i.e., 0.2 cm).

Therefore, the acceleration is uniform.

Figure 2.14 shows a tape chart for a trolley which

F

O

moves up on an inclined plane. Determine the direction of motion

2

1.0 cm 1.2 cm 1.4 cm 1.6 cm 1.8 cm 2.0 cm

CHAPTER

1

4 2 (b) In the figure below, the increase in length between

6 3 the successive strips is equal (i.e., 1 cm). Therefore,

5 4 the acceleration is uniform. (Alternatively, if a

4 5 straight line can be drawn across all the top

3 midpoints of the strips, the acceleration is uniform)

2 F

Velocity (cm per tentick) Velocity

1

O

2

R 8

7

CHAPTER

0 M Time (s)

0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24 6

t 5

4 4

0.02 0.22

3

Figure 2.14 2

1

Time (s)

Solution Time

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

The time of each 2-tick strip = 2 × 0.02 s

= 0.04 s (c) In the figure below, there is no increase in length

6 cm between the successive strips. Therefore, the

u = = 150 cm s–1 acceleration is zero (the object is moving with

0.04 s

constant or uniform velocity).

1 cm

v = = 25 cm s–1

0.04 s Velocity (cm per tentick) Velocity

Time taken to produce the change in velocity, t 6

= 5 × 0.04 s

= 0.20 s = 5 × 2-tick

Time(s)

OR: t = (0.22 – 0.02) s Time

If the time axis is 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

= 0.20 s labelled.

Acceleration, a

(d) In the figure below, the decrease in length between

v – u

____ the successive strips is equalVelocity

(i.e., 2(cm

cm). Therefore,

= per tentick)

t the deceleration is uniform.

(25 – 150) cm s–1 8

= 0.2 s Velocity (cm per 5-tick) 7

Velocity

16 6

–125 cm s–1 14

= 0.2 s 12 Velocity (cm per tentick) 5

Veloc

10

8 4

= – 625 cm s–2 6

3

= – 6.25 m s–2 4

2

6

Time(s) 2

∴ Deceleration = 6.25 m s–2 0 Time

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 1

Time (

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Time

Forces and Motion 48

F4/2/34

The Equations of Linear Motion

For linear motion with uniform acceleration, a, the displacement or Summary of the equations for

distance travelled, s, in a particular direction is given by: linear motion with uniform

s = Average velocity × Time taken acceleration:

v = u + at

∴ s = 1 (u + v)t 1

s = (u + v) t

2 2

1 2

s = ut + at

2

rearrange rearrange

v = u + at a = v – u t = v – u v 2 = u2 + 2as

t a

substitute substitute s = displacement F

u = initial velocity O

2

v = final velocity R

1 1 a = uniform acceleration

( )

CHAPTER

s = (u + v)t 1 s = (u + v) t M

2 s = u + v t 2 t = time interval

1 2

= (u + u + at)t 1 (v – u) 4

2 = (u + v) a

2

1

= (2ut + at 2) (v 2 – u2)

2 = 1

2 a

1 2 2 2

s = ut + at 2as = v – u

2

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

linear motion with uniform acceleration. (II) For s = (u + v) t:

2

Each of the four equations of motion involves 4 physical

quantities. The velocity of a rocket travelling at 2000 m s–1

To solve numerical problems, you need to know 3 increases to 6000 m s–1 after moves through a

quantities before you can find the value of the fourth distance of 80 km. Calculate the time for the rocket

quantity. In the beginning, you may be unsure of which to reach this velocity.

equation to choose to solve the problem. You may start 2000 m s–1 6000 m s–1

by trial and error. After some practice, you will be able to

select the required equation easily.

80 km

The table below shows some examples.

A car accelerates from 20 m s–1 with an acceleration u = 2000 m s–1, v = 6000 m s–1,

of 2 m s–2. s = 80 km = 80 000 m, t = ?

What is the velocity after 8 seconds? Unable to

? ×? calculate t

Solution 1 because only

First trial: s = ut + at2 2 quantities

2

u = 20 m s–1, a = 2 m s–2, t = 8 s, v = ? are known.

Unable to ?

? × 1 3 quantities

calculate v, Second trial: s = (u + v) t

First trial: v 2 = u 2 + 2as because only 2 are known.

2 quantities are Can be used

(2000 + 6000) to find t.

? known. 80 000 = t

2

Second trial: v = u + at

v = 20 + 2(8) t = 20 s

3 quantities are

= 36 m s–1 known. Can be

used to find v.

10 12

Starting from rest, a sprinter reaches his top velocity By applying the brakes, a driver reduces the

in 3 seconds. He runs a distance of 24 m in the velocity of his car from 20 m s–1 to 10 m s–1 after

3 seconds. What is his acceleration? a distance of 30 m. Calculate the deceleration of

(Assume his acceleration is uniform.) the car.

Solution

u = 0, s = 24 m, t = 3 s, a = ? Solution

1 u = 20 m s–1, v = 10 m s–1, s = 30 m, a = ?

Applying s = ut + at 2:

2 Applying v 2 = u2 + 2as:

1 102 = 202 + 2a(30)

F 24 = 0(3) + a(3)2

O 2 100 – 400

a =

2

R 2(30)

a = 2 × 24

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M = –5 m s–2

9

Deceleration = 5 m s–2

4 = 5.3 m s–2

F 1 SPM

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2

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from town P to town S.

Salina is driving at a velocity of 10 m s–1.

Seeing a cow in front, she brakes 4 to stop her car. 3 km

Q R

If the deceleration of the car is 2 m s–2, what is 1 km

the distance the car covers before it comes to a S

halt?

5 km

Solution

P

u = 10 m s–1 v=0

F4/2/14a

A 4.0 km C 7.5 km

s=?

B 5.0 km D 9.0 km

Comments

u = 10 m s–1, v = 0, a = –2F4/2/13

m s–2, s = ?

2 2 Displacement is a vector quantity. It is the shortest

Applying v = u + 2as:

distance that links the initial position of an object

0 = 102 + 2(–2)s

to its final position. In the above question, the

4s = 100

100 displacement is the distance PS. Join P to S, and use

s = Pythagoras’ theorem to calculate the displacement.

4

= 25 m Q 3 km R

1 km 3 km 1 km

S

4 km

PS = 3 2 + 4 2

= 5 km

P

Don’t forget to insert the negative sign for deceleration

when doing the calculation. Answer B

F4/2/14b

2.1

1 During a class activity, Hashim walks 20 m due east. 6 When a dart is blown from a blowpipe of 1.2 m

He reverses his direction and walks 12 m. After that, length, it travels at a speed of 15 m s–1. Find the

he reverses his direction again and walk for another time taken for the dart to travel in the barrel.

10 m. If the total time taken is 30 s, what is his

7 Daniel drives his car at a constant velocity of

speed and velocity?

20 m s–1. He steps on his brakes to reduce the

2 A speedboat moves due north for 12 km before velocity of the car to 10 m s–1 after travelling 30 m.

turning east for 8 km. Later, the speedboat moves Calculate the deceleration and the further distance

south for 6 km. What is the displacement of covered before the car stops.

the speedboat from its original position? Find its

average velocity, in m s–1, if the total time taken is 8 An aeroplane needs a velocity of 33 m s–1 for

30 minutes. take-off. F

3 Find the acceleration or deceleration for the tape O

2

v = 33 m s–1

R

charts below. The ticker-timer in use vibrates at a

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frequency of 50 Hz.

u=0

(a) Velocity (cm per 10 ticks) 4

s

10

minimum length of the runway needed by the plane

2 to reach the speed for take-off.

Time

9 Velocity

A baseball pitcher

(cm per holds a baseball in his hand for

10 ticks)

3 m before the baseball is thrown at a velocity of

(b) Length of strips (cm) 39 m s–1.

10

12

3.0 m

10

8

6

4 39 m s–1

2

Time

2

Time

distance of 90 m in 6 s. What is its acceleration?

5 A cyclist starts from rest and reaches a velocity of Find the acceleration of the baseball before it is

20 m s–1 in 8 s. Calculate his acceleration. released.

Motion Graphs

the motion of an object with time.

2 There are two main types of linear motion graphs:

(a) the displacement-time graph

(b) the velocity-time graph

Displacement-time Graphs

Relationship between the

displacement of an object varies with time.

position of an object,

2 Figure 2.15 shows a student cycles at a constant velocity from position

displacement, s, and velocity, v:

A to reach position B, which is 300 m away, in 200 seconds. He rests

s = (+)

for 100 seconds at position B and then cycles back to position A using

v = (+)

the same straight path. He reaches position A after another 200

(object on the

seconds. right of O and

N

zero velocity — at rest moving

displacement (m)

due east)

positive velocity O

F — moving in a fixed direction

negative velocity

O — moving in opposite direction s=0 v=0

B B

2

R s = (–) s = (+)

the starting point

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(object right with

4 ∆y

on the respect to O)

I II III left of

A ∆x A O and v = (–)

time (s) moving (object moving

O 100 200 300 400 500

due due west)

F

Figure 2.15 west)

O

F4/2/15

2

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From conclusion 1:

• In Section I of the graph: Velocity = Gradient

To find the velocity, use the formula: (0 – 300) m

Change in displacement =

Velocity = (500 – 300) s

Time taken

= – 1.5 m s–1

300 m

Velocity, v = The negative sign shows that the direction of

200 s motion is opposite to its original direction.

= 1.5 m s–1 Take note that velocity is a vector quantity.

Gradient of the graph • At t = 500 s, the graph intersects the t-axis.

∆y The displacement at this moment is zero, that is,

= the student has returned to the original position.

∆x

(300 – 0) m

=

(200 – 0) s

= 1.5 m s–1 • In Section II of the graph, a horizontal line is drawn from

t = 200 s to t = 300 s. During this period, the student

remained at position B, which is 300 m away from position

A, the origin, with a velocity of zero.

Conclusion 1 Conclusion 2

On a displacement-time On a displacement-time graph,

graph, the gradient of the a horizontal line (gradient = 0)

graph is equal to the shows that an object is

velocity of the object. stationary, i.e., not in motion.

Velocity-time Graphs SPM

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1 A velocity-time graph (v-t graph) is a graph that shows the variance in the velocity of an object against

time.

2 A car starts from rest and accelerates for 20 seconds until it reaches a velocity of 30 m s–1. The driver

maintains this velocity for 20 seconds. The velocity of the car is then reduced until it stops at t = 60 seconds.

3 The graph in Figure 2.16 shows how the velocity of the car changes against time.

v = 0 m s-1 v = 30 m s-1 v = 30 m s-1 v = 0 m s-1

t=0 t = 20 s t = 40 s t = 60 s

starts stops

v (m s-1)

F

constant velocity O

2

30 To determine the acceleration of the car R

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• From conclusion 1: M

acceleration deceleration Acceleration, a

(positive ∆y ∆y (negative 4

I II III = Gradient

gradient) gradient)

(0 – 30) m s–1

= (60 – 40) s

∆x ∆x

t (s) The negative

0 20 40 60

= –1.5 m s–2 sign indicates

∴ The deceleration of deceleration.

FigureF4/2/17

2.16 the car is 1.5 m s–2.

• Using the formula:

Change in velocity

Acceleration = Conclusion 3

Time taken

v–u A negative gradient indicates deceleration.

Acceleration, a =

t

(30 – 0) m s–1

= 20 s • Distance travelled from t = 20 s to t = 40 s:

Distance = Velocity × Time

= 1.5 m s–2 = 30 m s–1 × 20 s

∆y = 600 m

• Gradient of the graph =

∆x • Area under the graph (for section II)

(30 – 0) m s–1 = 30 × 20

= = 600 unit2

(20 – 0) s

1.5 m s–2

=

Conclusion 4

Conclusion 1

On a velocity-time graph, the area under

On a velocity-time graph, the gradient of the the graph is numerically equal to the distance

graph represents the acceleration of the object. travelled.

from t = 20 s to t = 40 s. A horizontal line is

shown in the graph. This method of calculating the distance travelled

can be applied to any velocity-time graph,

whether the velocity is constant or not.

For example, in Section I of the graph, the area

1

Conclusion 2 of the shaded triangle (= × base × height)

2

On a velocity-time graph, a horizontal line equals 300. So, the car travelled a distance of

(gradient = 0) represents a constant velocity. 300 metres in the first 20 second of its motion.

13

Figure 2.17 shows the velocity-time graph of a Solution

motorcycle travelling along a straight road between (a) The line OA shows that the motorcycle accelerates

two traffic lights. uniformly from 0 m s–1 to 12 m s–1.

The line BC shows that the motorcycle decelerates

uniformly before coming to a rest.

velocity (m s–1)

(b) The motorcycle is moving at a constant velocity

for 10 s (line AB of the graph).

(c) Distance between the two traffic lights

A B = Area under the graph

12 –

1

F = (10 + 25) × 12 = 210 m

O 2

2

R (d) From 0 s to 5 s:

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M

12 – 0

C Acceleration = = 2.4 m s–2

4 time (s) 5–0

O 5 10 15 20 25

From 5 s to 15 s:

Figure 2.17

Acceleration = 0 because the

object is moving

(m From

velocity s–1) 15 s to 25 s: at constant

(a) Explain the motion of the F motorcycle as

Acceleration velocity

represented by the lines OAO and BC on the – A

0B– 12

12 = = – 1.2 m s–2

2

graph. R

25 – 15

CHAPTER

(b) What is the time interval Mduring which the Thus, the acceleration-time graph is as shown below.

motorcycle is moving at a constant velocity?

4 C –2

(c) What is the distance between the two traffic O 5 10 acceleration 15 20 25

(m s time

) (s)

lights? 2.4

(d) Sketch an acceleration-time graph to represent

time (s)

the motion of the motorcycle between the two

–1.2

traffic lights.

Non-uniform Velocity

positions of a ball falling from rest

50

55

24

27

60

30

3

6

5

10

and its corresponding displacement-

t=0 time graph.

21 9

18 12

15

45 15

40 20

35 25

30

55

60

5

gradient is steeper the second second as compared with

⇒ greater velocity

30

27 3

50

24

10

21 9

18 12

15

45 15

40

35

30

25

20

gradient

s2

= velocity with non-uniform velocity.

(at t = 1 s)

3 To determine the ball’s instantaneous

velocity, for example, at t = 1 s or

Δs t = 2 s, a tangent must be drawn at the

50

55

24

27

60

30

3

6

5

10

Δt

respective points on the graph, as

t=2s

21 9

18 12

15

45 15

time, t (s)

40 20

35 25

30

O 1 2

4 The gradient of the tangent is equal

(a) (b) to the velocity.

5 However, the stone is falling with

Figure 2.18

F4/2/18 uniform acceleration.

Non-uniform Acceleration

1 Figure 2.19 shows an

athlete running a 100 m

track and the corresponding

velocity-time graph of his

motion.

2 The athlete increases his

velocity, v (m s-1)

constant velocity velocity (accelerates) until

the maximum velocity.

smaller gradient gradient = 0 He maintains the

smaller acceleration zero acceleration maximum velocity to

F

finish the race. O

2

gradient of tangent

3 The acceleration of the R

athlete can be determined

CHAPTER

Δv = acceleration at this instant M

by drawing tangents at the

Δt 4

respective points and

time, t (s) determining the gradients

O t1 t2

Figure 2.19

of the tangents.

F4/2/19

displacement

velocity

A

time time

The object moves at a constant acceleration.

constant velocity. straight line

Gradient Represents the acceleration of the object.

the object.

The object is stationary. Horizontal line The object moves at a constant velocity.

The object stops.

original position. the time-axis

in a specific Sign of the Positive ⇒ Acceleration

direction. gradient Negative ⇒ Deceleration

Negative ⇒ The object moves (positive or

in the opposite negative)

direction.

No significance

graph object

14

The velocity-time graph in Figure 2.20 shows a particle (a) 10 s (from t = 0 s to t = 10 s, the velocity is

starting from rest and travelling east. positive).

v ( m s –1 )

(b) 4 s (from t = 16 s to t = 20 s, the velocity is

negative).

B

20 (c) Distance travelled while moving towards the

east, S1 = Area of triangle ABC

10

1

C P R = × 10 × 20

A t ( s) 2

5 10 16 18 20

= 100 m

–10

F Q Distance travelled while moving towards the west,

O S2 = Area of triangle PQR

2

R

Figure 2.20 1 = × 4 × 10

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M 2

(a) How long does the particle travel towards the east?

4

= 20 m

(b) How long does the particle travel towards the west?

(c) Find the average speed and the average velocity. Total distance

Average speed =

Solution Time taken

100 + 20

To understand the above situation better, please refer =

F

to the figure below which demonstrates the positions 20

O

6 m s–1

=

2

CHAPTER

v=0 v = 20 m s–1 v=0 Average velocity =

A B 4 C Time taken

t=0s t=5s t = 10 s

100 – 20

=

N

v=0 v = –10 v=0 20

R Q P = 4 m s–1 to the east

t = 20 s t = 18 s t = 16 s

(Please note that in the situation discussed, the

20 m

particle is always to the east of its original

Note: The particle is at rest from t = 10 s to t = 16 s. position.)

F4/2/21a

v

An object moving at a decreasing acceleration is

moving at a decreasing velocity.

A

t

B

The velocity of an object with a decreasing acceleration

is always increasing. However, the rate of increase is

Area A (above the t-axis) getting smaller.

= Distance travelled by the moving object in its original

direction

Area B (below the t-axis)

=Distance travelled by the moving object in the

opposite direction

Total distance travelled = Area A + Area B

Final displacement = Area A – Area B

2 SPM

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car in motion. B 6 m D 15 m

velocity(m s-1) Comments

6 Displacement = Area above the time-axis – Area below

4 the time-

2 axis

0 time (s)

1 1

= (6)(2 + 3) – (2)(6)

-2 2 2

-4

= 15 m – 6 m F

= 9 m O

2

-6

R

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What is the displacement of the toy car in 6 s? Answer: C

4

2.2

s (m)

1 The figure 3 The figure below shows the velocity-time graph of a

shows the 20

motorcycle starting from rest and travelling north.

displacement-

15

time graph v (m s–1)

10

of a moving

5 12

particle.

t (s)

O 3 10 15

15 20

(a) What is the velocity of the particle in the initial O t (s)

6 10 13

period of 3 seconds?

(b) How long is the particle stationary?

(c) At what point in time does the particle return to –10

its original position?

(d) Calculate (a) What is the deceleration from t = 10 s to t = 13 s?

(i) the average speed, and (b) What is the displacement of the motorcycle

(ii) the average velocity of the moving particle. during the first 13 s?

(c) For how long is the motorcycle travelling towards

2 The the south?

v (m s–1)

velocity- (d) What is the final displacement of the motorcycle

time graph at t = 20 s?

shows the 12 (e) What is the average velocity of the motorcycle for

movement the whole journey?

of a particle. 4 A sports car starting from rest, accelerates uniformly

t (s)

to 30 m s–1 over a period of 20 s. The car maintains

O 3 6 10 the velocity for 30 s. The velocity is then reduced

(a) What is the total distance, in m, travelled by the uniformly to 20 m s–1 in 10 s and then brought to

particle in 10 seconds? rest after another further 10 s.

(b) For how long is the particle moving with constant Draw a velocity-time graph to represent the journey

velocity? as described above. From the graph, find

(c) Calculate the ratio of acceleration : deceleration. (a) the acceleration of the car for the first 20 s,

(d) Calculate the average velocity of the particle. (b) the distance travelled, and

(c) the average velocity over the time described.

2.3 Understanding Inertia

SPM SPM

Concept of Inertia ’05/P1 ’09/P1

2 Newton's first law of motion (also known as the Law of Inertia)

states that:

a straight line unless acted upon by an external force.

O motion in a straight line is called inertia.

2

R 4 Only an external force (or a non-zero net force) can cause a change to

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the state of motion of an object (either at rest or moving at the same

4 speed in a straight line).

5 The external force is a non-zero net force, if more than one external

force act on the object.

SPM

Situations Involving Inertia ’09/P1

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1 When a boy is riding a bicycle that runs over a stone, he is

2

R

thrown forward and off the bicycle.

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Explanation

4

The stone abruptly stops the motion of the bicycle, but the

inertia of the boy keeps him in the forward motion and

throws him forwards.

F4/2/23

A cardboard is placed on the rim of a glass and a coin is

2

placed on top of the centre of the glass. When the

cardboard

cardboard is pulled away quickly, the coin resting on the

coin

cardboard drops straight into the glass.

Explanation

The inertia of the coin maintains its state of rest. When the

card is pulled away, the coin falls into the glass due to gravity.

Note:

If the card is pulled away slowly, the frictional force

between the coin and the card causes the coin to accelerate

so that it moves together with the card. However, if the card

is pulled quickly, the time is too short for the friction to

cause any appreciable movement of the coin.

3 If thread Y is pulled slowly, thread X will snap. If thread Y is

thread X pulled suddenly, then thread Y will snap.

(can withstand 10.5 N)

Explanation

When thread Y is pulled slowly, the additional force to the

weight (10 N)

weight causes thread X to snap when the tension exceeds

thread Y snaps

the breaking force. When thread Y is pulled abruptly, the

weight maintains its state at rest due to inertia. Thread Y

thus stretches and snaps. (If the weight does move, it will

stretch and snap thread X instead.)

4 When a stationary bus starts to move forward with an

acceleration, the passengers are thrown backwards.

Explanation

The passengers in the bus are originally in a stationary

state. When the bus starts to move forward with an

acceleration, the inertia of the passengers keeps them in

their position. Thus, the passengers are thrown backwards.

F

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2

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forwards.

Explanation

The passengers are in a state of motion when the bus is

moving. When the bus stops suddenly, the inertia of the

passengers keeps them in motion. Thus, the passengers

lurch forwards.

When the weight is raised and then released, the thread

fine

thread

snaps when it passes point P.

thread

snaps Explanation

The fine thread is able to support the weight when it is

stationary. When the weight is allowed to fall, the weight

P

maintains its inertia of moving downwards when it passes

point P. The inertia of the weight causes an additional force

weight to exert on the thread, thus causing it to snap.

F4/2/25

7 If a book is pulled out very quickly from the middle of a

BO

OK

BO

OK

BO

OK

Explanation

The inertia of the books above keeps them in their original

position.

F4/2/26

Again, if the book is pulled out slowly, the books above it will

move together with the book as explained in situation 1 .

8 The decorative item hanging from the rear-view mirror

swings backwards when a stationary car starts to move or

accelerates.

Explanation

The inertia of the decorative item keeps it in its original

position while the car moves forwards.

comes to a sudden halt.

Explanation

F

O

The inertia of the decorative item keeps it in motion when

2

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F object will not change its state of motion unless forced to do so.

• Inertia = ‘Laziness’ literally, such that an

O

2

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4 I am in

I am at rest, motion.

I will always I will always

stay at rest. move at

constant

speed in a

straight line.

• Force is needed to change its velocity, i.e.,

(a) to get the object to start moving, or

(b) to make the object move faster, slower or change the direction of motion.

Hard-boiled or raw?

On a table are two eggs, one raw and one hard-boiled.

How can the two eggs be distinguished?

Solution

The answer is to spin the egg.

Spin each egg on its side. It is much easier to spin the hard-boiled egg.

A hard-boiled egg is solid whereas a raw yolk floats in the liquid white

in a raw egg. When a hard-boiled egg is spun, the solid contents turn

together with the shell. When a raw egg is spun, the yolk and the liquid

white tend to remain at rest because of inertia. The reluctance to spin

along with the shell makes the raw egg harder to spin.

SPM SPM

Relationship between Mass and Inertia ’04/P1 ’07/P1, P2

moving an empty trolley than a full trolley.

carriers O

2

R

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Massive oil tankers carry M

4

300 thousands tons. With full

Figure 2.21

power on, a tanker with a

very large inertia takes a long

2 Similarly, it is easier to stop an empty trolley than a full one if both are time to accelerate to its

moving at the same speed towards the shopper. maximum speed. The tanker

3 The more mass an object has, the harder it is to change its state of might need to travel a

motion. distance of 10 km before

For example, coming to a stop even with

(a) It is more difficult to start moving a bucket filled with sand. the engine set into reverse

(b) When both the buckets are swinging and an attempt is made to stop condition (propeller in

them at the lowest point of the swing, it is more difficult to stop the reverse rotation).

bucket filled with sand. It is not an easy job to turn

the tanker around since the

inertia of the crude oil is

ceiling

enormous. Supertanker

rope of officers need special training

the same in the handling of heavily

length It is harder

to start it

loaded ships.

sand moving from

rest

It is harder

to stop it

empty bucket filled here with

bucket with sand your hand

Figure 2.22

F4/2/28

(c) This shows that the bucket with more mass offers a greater resistance

to change from its state of rest or from its state of motion.

4 By the same reasoning, it is harder to start a bowling ball moving and

harder to stop it than a hollow rubber ball of the same size.

5 Thus, an object with a larger mass has a larger inertia.

Mass is a measure of the inertia of a body.

6 However, inertia is a phenomenon. It has no unit even though it is

closely related to mass.

2.1

SPM SPM

’04/P3(A) ’06/P3(B)

Relationship between inertia and mass

Situation Procedure

Mrs Tan and her son Siao Yang are sitting on two 1 One end of the hacksaw blade is clamped by a

similar swings. G-clamp to a leg of a table as shown in Figure 2.24.

2 A 50 g plasticine ball is fixed to the free end of

the blade.

3 The free end of the blade is displaced horizontally

and released so that it oscillates. The time for 20

F complete oscillations, t20, is measured using a

O stopwatch. This step is then repeated. The average

2

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M

Figure 2.23 t

T is determined by using T = 20 .

4 Mr Tan gives each of them a push while they are at 20

rest and later tries to stop them in the same position. 4 Steps 2 and 3 are repeated with plasticine balls of

Mr Tan finds that it is harder to push as well as to masses 75 g, 100 g, 125 g and 150 g.

stop Mrs Tan’s motion. 5 A graph of T against m is drawn.

Inference F

Tabulation of data

The inertia of an object depends onO its mass.

2

R

Hypothesis M Table 2.3

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An object with a larger mass has a larger inertia Mass of Time of 20 oscillations, Period of

(represented by a longer period of 4oscillation). load, t20 (s) oscillation,

Aim t

m (g) t t Average T = 20 (s)

To investigate the relationship between mass and 1 2 20

inertia using an inertia balance 50

Variables 75

(a) Manipulated : mass of plasticine, m 100

(b) Responding : period, T

(c) Fixed : the stiffness of a hacksaw blade 125

and the distance of the centre of 150

the plasticine from the clamp

Graph

Notes

A larger inertia means it is more difficult for the T(s)

oscillation, T longer. Therefore, the period of

oscillation represents the inertia.

Apparatus/Materials

Hacksaw blade, G-clamp, stopwatch, and plasticine

balls of mass 50 g, 75 g, 100 g, 125 g and 150 g. m (g)

Arrangement of apparatus Figure 2.25

Experiment 2.1

Conclusion

G-clamp

The graph of T against m in Figure 2.25 shows that

hacksaw blade the period increases with the mass of the load i.e. an

plasticine object with a larger mass has a larger inertia.

The hypothesis is valid.

Figure 2.24

Effects of inertia

cats shake their bodies knocked downwards against a hard surface,

vigorously to dry their the loose head of the hammer tightens in its

wet fur. The droplets of wooden handle. The hammer head continues

water on the fur tend to with its downward motion after the handle

continue in motion when has come to a stop. This causes the upper

the fur are reversed in part of the wooden handle to slot deeper into

direction during shaking. the hammer head.

As a result, water droplets F

are separated from the fur O

2

and fall off. R

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M

Applications can be forced out easily by

When chased by a bull, run in a zigzag pattern. of the turning the bottle upside

The larger inertia of the bull makes it more concept of down and giving it a quick

difficult for the bull to turn around inertia downward shake, followed by

continuously. a sudden stop. The sauce

continues its downward

movement due to its inertia

when the bottle is stopped

causing the sauce to be

forced out of the

Sumo wrestlers are heavy. bottle.

This is an advantage because the When the branch of an

larger inertia forms a greater apple tree is shaken, the

resistance to his opponent who is apples fall to the ground.

trying to topple him. The apples which are

stationary tend to remain at

rest when the branch is shaken.

As a result, the stalks are

strained and the apples break away

from the branch. Droplets of water on a

wet umbrella can be

spun off if the umbrella

is rotated vigorously

and stopped it

abruptly. Owing to

inertia, water droplets

on the umbrella

continue to move even

though the umbrella has

stopped spinning.

Ways of Reducing the Negative Effect of Inertia SPM

’07/P2

example, the inertia of the passengers causes them to continue moving

at 30 m s–1 until a force acts to change this speed. This is a

dangerous situation. Upon impact, the passengers will crash into

the parts of the car immediately in front of them and suffer injuries

(Figure 2.26).

2 Ways to reduce the negative effect of inertia in a car:

Seat belts secure the driver

F and passengers to their seats.

O When the car stops suddenly,

2

R

the seat belt provides the

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M

external force that prevents Figure 2.26

F4/2/30

4 the driver or passengers from

being thrown forwards.

Airbags mounted on the

F dashboard or steering wheel

O inflate automatically when a

2

R

collision occurs. This prevents

CHAPTER

M

the driver or passengers from

4 crashing into the dashboard.

3 Lorries that carry heavy loads utilise the following features to reduce the negative effects of inertia:

(a) Strong structure behind the driver’s cabin If a loaded lorry stops abruptly, its heavy load, for

strong iron structure

example, timber logs, will continue to move

forward towards the driver’s cabin because of its

massive inertia. A strong iron structure between

the driver’s cabin and the load ensures the driver’s

safety.

F4/2/31 to reduce its inertia The figure shows a liquid product being carried in

three separate compartments instead of one. This

reduces the effect of inertia of the liquid on the

walls of each container if the lorry stops suddenly.

(c) Fastening of the objects to the carrier Big items such as furniture or large electrical

appliances (the objects) must be securely fastened

to the lorry (the carrier) so that the objects become

part of the carrier. This will ensure that the objects

and the carrier always move and stop together.

The objects will not fall off the lorry when the lorry

starts moving, or move forwards when the lorry

stops suddenly.

3 SPM

Clone

’10

identical wooden blocks R and S placed on them.

A Pushed to the right Pushed to the left

Trolley P moves and collides with the stationary

trolley Q. B Pushed to the right Pushed to the right

C Pushed to the left Pushed to the right

R S

D Pushed to the left Pushed to the left

P Q

Comments

The collision of the trolleys causes trolley P to slow

Direction of movement of P Stationary down while trolley Q to start moving. Due to F

inertia, R continues to move fast to the right, and O

2

R

Key : Right appeared to be pushed to the right while S, reluctant

CHAPTER

Left M

to move along with trolley Q, appeared to be

pushed to the left. 4

What happens to wooden block R and S?

Answer A

2.3

1 In a bus moving with a uniform speed in a straight 4 A circus strongman slams a hammer and breaks a

line, a boy drops a steel sphere from rest outside the brick over the hand of a clown. The clown feels no

window. He observes that the steel sphere drops pain. Why?

vertically downwards. Explain. (Caution: Please do not attempt this at home.)

2 A durian is originally placed in a lorry as shown in

Figure (a). When the lorry starts to move with forward

acceleration, the durian rolls backwards. Later, when

the lorry stops suddenly, the durian rolls forwards as

shown in Figure (b). Explain the observations.

hammer

hand brick

on floor

(a)

(a)

(a)

5 Suria runs along a track from P to R through Q while

holding a pail full of water. At which points of the

track will more water likely to be spilt? Give your

explanation.

(b)

(b)

(b) Q

3 The figure below shows two blocks of the same

dimensions but of different materials. One is heavier R

F4/2/32

than the other. WithoutF4/2/32

lifting the two blocks, explain

one way to identify the heavier block.

F4/2/34

2.4 Analysing Momentum

What is Momentum?

1 If a loaded lorry and a car are moving at v

the lorry to stop (Figure 2.27).

2 This is because the lorry possesses a

physical quantity, momentum, more v

than the car.

3 All moving objects possess momentum. Figure 2.27

F 4 Activity 2.2 will help you to gain the idea

O of momentum by comparing the effects

2

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4

Activ To compare the effects of stopping two objects in motion

ity 2.2

Apparatus/Materials One steel ball and one wooden ball of the same diameter, 2 slabs of plasticine.

Arrangement of apparatus F

steel

O

2

R Note

steel

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M steel

Note

Although both balls

4 100 cm wood

The steel ball have the same

released from a diameter, the steel

greater height strikes 50 cm 50 cm ball has a greater

the plasticine at a plasticine mass than the

greater velocity. wooden ball.

(a) (b)

Figure 2.28

(a) Two objects of the same mass moving atF4/2/96

different velocities the same velocity

Procedure Procedure

1 A steel ball is first released from a height of 1 A steel ball and a wooden ball of the same

50 cm and then from 100 cm above a slab of diameter are released from a height of 50 cm

plasticine as shown in Figure 2.28(a). above a slab of plasticine as shown in Figure

2 The depths and sizes of the cavities caused 2.28(b).

by the steel ball on the slab are observed and 2 The depths and sizes of the cavities formed

compared. are observed and compared.

Observations Observations

The depth and size of the cavity caused by the The depth and size of the cavity formed by the

steel ball released from a greater height is deeper steel ball is deeper and larger.

and larger.

Activity 2.2

Conclusion

The moving balls produce an effect on the plasticine which is there to stop the motion. The greater the mass

or the velocity of the moving object is, the greater is the effect (the depth and size of the cavity), the greater is

the momentum.

Linear Momentum

1 Activity 2.2 also shows that it is always harder to stop a massive object Momentum and inertia are

moving at a high velocity. not the same.

2 The above activity serves to explain a concept in physics called

Momentum Inertia

momentum.

3 The linear momentum, p, of a m Inertia depends solely on

mass, m, moving at a velocity, mass while momentum as

v, is defined as the product of v

‘mass in motion’ depends on

mass and velocity. both mass and velocity.

Figure 2.29

F4/2/36 F

Momentum = Mass × Velocity O

Unit = kilogram × metre per second

2

∴ p = mv = kg × m s–1

R

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M

4 The unit of momentum is kg m s–1.

5 Momentum is a vector quantity with the same direction as velocity. 4

the right possesses a positive momentum while an object moving to

the left will have a negative momentum.

15

A ball of mass 0.8 kg strikes a wall at a velocity of (a) Take the direction to the right as positive.

10 m s–1 and rebounds at 6 m s–1. Momentum of the ball before striking the wall, p1

What is its momentum = mv

(a) before it strikes the wall, and = 0.8 × 10

(b) after the rebound? = 8 kg m s–1

Solution 10 m s–1 (b) Momentum of the ball after rebound, p2

= mv

= 0.8 × (– 6)

= – 4.8 kg m s–1

Since direction to the

right is positive, direction

6m s–1 to the left is negative.

momentum is true for a closed system.

A closed system is one where the sum of

1 The term conservation is used if the total

external forces acting on the system is zero.

amount of matter or quantity remains the same

5 The principle shall be discussed in two

before and after the occurence of an event.

situations as shown in Table 2.4.

2 The Principle of conservation of momentum

states that: Table 2.4

A collision An explosion

The total momentum of a system The total momentum of the The sum of the

is constant, if no external force objects before a collision momentums

acts on the system. equals that after the remains as

collision. zero after an

3 An example of an external force is friction. explosion.

SPM SPM

Collisions ’06/P1 ’08/P1

Collisions

Two objects collide and move apart after a Two objects combine and stop, or move together

collision. with a common velocity after a collision.

F m1 m2 m1 m2 m1 m2 m1 m2

O u1 u2 v

u1 u2 v1 v2

2

R

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M

• Momentum is conserved. • Momentum is conserved.

4 • Total energy is conserved. • Total energy is conserved.

• Kinetic energy is conserved. • Kinetic energy is not conserved:

The total kinetic energy after the collision is less

than the total kinetic energy before the collision.

Formula: F Formula:

m1 u1 + m2 u2 = m1 v1 +Om2 v2 m1 u1 + m2 u2 = (m1 + m2) v

2

R

CHAPTER

Most collisions are inelastic as a significant amount of kinetic energy is converted to other forms of energy

during the collision. However, the collisions involving two objects that bounce off one another with little

deformation during collision are approximate elastic collisions. Collisions between air molecules are elastic.

Examples of approximate elastic collisions are as follows:

PhysicsBlog

Collision of steel balls of equal mass Collision of two snooker balls of equal mass

Before collision After collision Before collision After collision

stationary stationary

P

QR S T P QP

RQS RS

T T

• Ball P is pulled to the side and then released so as to • Ball P is hit and moves with velocity u. It is observed

fall back and strike ball Q. It is observed that ball P that ball P stops when it collides with ball Q which

stops, but ball T swings out to the same height from moves away with velocity u.

which the ball P was released. • This shows that ball Q, after the collision, has the

• This shows that ball T possesses the same amount of same amount of momentum and kinetic energy as

momentum and kinetic energy as P before it struck ball P before the collision.

ball Q.

Activ To verify the principle of conservation of momentum in

ity 2.3 (a) elastic collisions, and (b) inelastic collisions

Apparatus/Materials

Ticker-timer, 12 V a.c. power supply, runway, 4 trolleys, wooden block, ticker tape, cellophane tape,

and plasticine.

Arrangement of apparatus

spring-loaded piston

ticker-timer trolley A

ticker tape trolley B

mA

mB

F

friction-compensated

runway

O

2

R

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M

12 V a.c. wooden

power supply block 4

Figure 2.30

Procedure

1 The apparatus is set up as shown in Figure 2.30.

2 The runway is adjusted so that it is friction-compensated.

3 Two trolleys of equal mass are used. Trolley A with a spring-loaded piston is placed at the higher end of the

runway while trolley B is placed halfway down the runway.

4 A ticker tape is attached to trolley A and another to trolley B. Both ticker tapes are allowed to pass through the

ticker-timer.

5 The ticker-timer is switched on and trolley A is given a slight push so that it moves down the runway at

a uniform velocity and collides with trolley B.

6 After the collision, the two trolleys move separately.

7 From the ticker tapes, the velocities of trolleys A and B before and after the collision are calculated.

8 Assuming that the mass of each trolley is 1 unit, the momentum before and after the collision is calculated

and recorded in a table.

9 The experiment is repeated using:

(a) 1 trolley to collide with 2 stationary stacked trolleys,

(b) 2 stacked trolleys to collide with 1 stationary trolley.

Results

1 Ticker tapes obtained:

(a) Trolley A

after during before

collision collision collision

direction

of motion

x2 x1

x2 x1

vA = uA =

0.2 0.2

(b) Trolley B

after during before

collision collision collision

Activity 2.3

direction

of motion

x3 uB = 0

x

vB = 3

0.2

Figure 2.31

Tabulation of data

Table 2.5

Initial total Final total

mA mB uA momentum, vA vB momentum,

mA uA mA vA + mB vB

1 1

1 2

2 1

F

O

2

R

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M Disscussion

4 1 The spring-loaded piston acts as a ‘springy buffer’ in the collision in order to make the trolley bounce off the

other one.

2 Strictly speaking, this collision is not a perfect elastic collision as part of the kinetic energy of the colliding

trolley changes to sound or heat energy during the collision.

F

Conclusion O

2

CHAPTER

Total momentum

4

before collision = Total momentum after collision

Arrangement of apparatus

ticker-timer

ticker plasticine

tape

trolley A

trolley B

12 V friction-compensated

a.c. power runway

supply

wooden block

Figure 2.32

Procedure

1 Some plasticine is pasted onto trolleys A and B (both without a spring-loaded piston) as shown in Figure 2.32.

2 A ticker tape is attached to trolley A only.

3 The ticker-timer is switched on. Trolley A is given a gentle push so that it moves down the runway to collide

with trolley B which is stationary halfway down the runway.

4 After the collision, trolley A attaches itself to trolley B and they move together.

Activity 2.3

5 From the ticker tape obtained, the velocity of trolley A before the collision, and the common velocity of

trolleys A and B after the collision are determined. The initial velocity of trolley B is zero.

6 The experiment is repeated using:

(a) 1 trolley to collide with 2 stationary stacked trolleys,

(b) 2 stacked trolleys to collide with 1 stationary trolley.

Results

Ticker tape obtained: during

collision

before

after

collision

collision

direction

of motion

x2 x1

x2 x1

v = u =

0 .2 0.2

Figure 2.33

Tabulation of data

Table 2.6 F

O

Before collision After collision

2

R

Initial Initial Initial total Final Final Final total

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M

mass, velocity, momentum, mass, velocity, momentum,

mA u (mA u) (mA + mB) v (mA + mB) v 4

1 1+1=2

1 1+2=3

2 2+1=3

Conclusion

From Table 2.6, it is found that:

Total momentum before collision = Total momentum after collision

The principle of conservation of momentum is verified.

16

An astronaut of mass 90 kg moves at a velocity of 6 m s–1 and bumps into a stationary astronaut

of mass 100 kg. How fast do the two astronauts move together after collision?

90 kg 100 kg v

6 m s–1 at rest 100 kg

90 kg

Figure 2.34

Solution

This is an inelastic collision.

Total momentum before collision = Total momentum after collision

m1 u1 + m2 u2 = (m1 + m2)v

(90 × 6) + (100 × 0) = (90 + 100)v

540

Activity 2.3

v = of the two astronauts.

190

= 2.8 m s–1

The two astronauts move at the speed of 2.8 m s–1 after the collision.

–1 –1

3ms 7ms

17

A 50 kg skater is moving due east at a speed of 3 m s–1 before colliding into another skater of mass

60 kg moving in the opposite direction at a speed of 7 m s–1. After the collision, the two skaters hold

on to each other. In which direction will they move? What is the speed of the two skaters?

–1 –1

3ms 7ms

v=?

F

O

2

R

(a) Before collision (b) After collision

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M v=?

Figure 2.35

4

Solution

Total momentum before collision = Total momentum after collision

m1 u1 + m2 u2 = (m1 + m2)v

50 × 3 + 60 × (–7) = (50 + 60) × v

F 150 – 420 = 110v

v = –2.5 m s O –1

v is the common velocity

2

R

of the two skaters.

CHAPTER

momentum to the west is negative.

4

The two skaters will move to the west at a speed of 2.5 m s–1.

18

A trolley of mass 3 kg moving at a velocity of 2 m s–1 collides with another trolley of mass 0.5 kg

which is moving at a velocity of 1 m s–1 in the same direction. If the 0.5 kg trolley moves at a

velocity of 2.5 m s–1 in the same direction after the collision, what is the velocity of the 3 kg trolley?

Solution

3 kg 0.5 kg 3 kg 0.5 kg

(a) Before collision (b) After collision

The collision is elastic.

Total momentum before collision = Total momentum after collision

m1 u1 + m2 u2 = m1 v1 + m2 v2

3 × 2 + 0.5 × 1 = 3 × v + 0.5 × 2.5

6.5 = 3v + 1.25

3v = 6.5 – 1.25

5.25

v =

3

= 1.75 m s–1

The 3 kg trolley moves at a velocity of 1.75 m s–1 in its original direction.

SPM

Momentum and Explosions ’04/P2

1 Rifle

2

The explosion creates a backward momentum on

the rifle. This causes the rifle to recoil backwards.

Total momentum of the rifle

and the bullet is zero as they ard

kw tum

are stationary. bac men v1

mo riflev 2 forward momentum

on on bullet

m1

m2

1 F

When the rifle is fired, the explosion of

O

the gunpowder forces the bullet out of

2

the barrel. A momentum in the forward R

CHAPTER

direction is created. M

4

(a) Before explosion (b) After explosion

Figure 2.36

F4/2/38

upward

momentum

m2

balloon v2 2

Total momentum The balloon shoots upwards,

stationary of the balloon is moving with an upward momentum.

(u = 0) zero as it is

stationary. 1

v1 Air has mass and moves with a velocity.

This creates a momentum in the

m1 downward direction.

downward

momentum

(a) Before explosion (b) After explosion

(b) After explosion

Figure 2.37

3 An explosion is a closed system which does not involve any external force—that is, the total

momentum is conserved in an explosion.

∴ Total momentum before explosion = Total momentum after explosion

0 = m1v1 + m2v2

Rearranging the formula:

m1v1 = –m2v2

where v1 and v2 are of opposite directions.

If we ignore the direction,

m1v1 = m2v2

as the two momenta have the same magnitude.

Bear in mind that the two velocities

• Momentum upwards = Momentum downwards are in opposite directions.

• Momentum forwards = Momentum backwards

Activ To verify the principle of conservation of momentum in an

ity 2.4 explosion

Apparatus/Materials

4 trolleys, 2 wooden blocks, a hammer, and a metre rule.

Notes

The positions of the wooden blocks are adjusted so that each trolley collides with the corresponding

wooden blocks at the same time, t. From the equation d = vt, the magnitude of the velocity v is

directly proportional to the distance d, i.e., v d (if t is constant). Thus, the distance d travelled by the

trolley represents the velocity of the trolley.

Arrangement of apparatus Procedure

F

O (a) Before explosion 1 The apparatus is arranged as shown in Figure

2

R 2.38 (a).

release pin

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M wooden

trolley B trolley A block 2 Two trolleys A and B of equal mass are placed in

4 contact with each other on a smooth surface. The

mB mA spring-loaded piston in trolley B is compressed.

3 The release pin on trolley B is given a light tap to

dB dA release the spring-loaded piston which then

pushes the trolleys apart. The trolleys collide with

(b) After explosion F the wooden blocks.

O

spring- 4 The experiment is repeated and the positions

2

vB loaded R v

piston A of the wooden blocks are adjusted so that both

CHAPTER

M

trolleys collide with them at the same time.

4 5 The distances dA and dB are measured and

recorded.

Figure 2.38 6 The experiment is repeated using

(a) 1 trolley with 2 stacked trolleys,

(b) 3 stacked trolleys with 1 trolley.

Tabulation of data

The results of the experiment are recorded in Table 2.7.

Table 2.7

Before explosion After explosion

Initial total Mass of Mass of Velocity of Velocity of Final total

momentum trolley A, trolley B, trolley A, trolley B, momentum,

mA mB dA (–dB) mA dA + mB (–dB)

0 1 1 0

0 1 2 0

0 3 1 0

Discussion

1 Total momentum before explosion = 0 (because both trolleys are stationary)

Total momentum after explosion = mAdA + mB (–dB) as d represents v,

Activity 2.4

∴ Total momentum after explosion = Total momentum before explosion

Conclusion

Momentum is conserved in an explosion.

19

Jane and John go ice skating. With their skates on,

Jane and John push against each other on level ice.

Jane, of mass 50 kg, moves away at a velocity of

3 m s–1 to the right. What is John’s velocity if he is

75 kg?

Solution

This is a closed system since the external force, i.e.,

friction, is negligible.

Let the velocity of John be v.

F

Total momentum = Total momentum

Figure 2.39 O

after explosion before explosion

2

R

m1 v1 + m2 v2 = 0

CHAPTER

M

50 × 3 + 75v = 0

–150 4

v = _____ The minus sign indicates that

75 John moves to the left,

= –2 m s–1 opposite to Jane’s motion.

Alternative Method

omentum to the right = Momentum to the left

M

m1 v1 = m2 v2

Just ignore the sign as the two

50 × 3 = 75 × v skaters are moving in opposite

v = 2 m s–1 directions.

20

Figure 2.40 shows trolley A, with a weight attached, placed in contact with trolley B on a smooth surface.

release pin

A B

d1 = 1 d2 d2

3

Figure 2.40

spring-loaded piston pushes the two trolleys to move Applying m1 d1 = m2 d2:

in opposite directions. The two trolleys touch the 1 m1 is the total

wooden blocks simultaneously. Trolley A moves one- m1 × d2 = m × d2 mass of trolley A

3 and the weight.

third the distance moved by trolley B. Given that the

two trolleys are of equal mass, m kg, find the mass of m1 = 3m

the weight, in terms of m, that is attached to trolley A. The mass of the weight, m′

= 3m – m

= 2m

21

Harfeez alights a boat at a v m s–1

velocity of v m s–1 and lands

on the dock. v' = ?

The boat bounces backwards

with a speed of v′.

If the masses of Harfeez and

the boat are m and 3m

respectively, find the speed

of the boat (ignoring friction Figure 2.41

F due to water).

O

2

R Solution

CHAPTER

M

m1 v1 + m2 v2 = 0

4 (m × v) + (3m × v′) = 0

3mv′ = –mv

1

v′ = – v

3

1 –1

The speed of the boat = v m s F

3

O

2

R

CHAPTER

4

Application of the Conservation of Momentum

1 Rocket

oxygen. 5 In accordance with the

principle of conservation of

momentum, the rocket gains

a forward momentum and

2 The mixture of hydrogen 1 moves forwards at high

fuel and oxygen burns liquid velocity.

vigorously in the hydrogen

(as fuel)

combustion chamber.

1

liquid

oxygen

expand rapidly and are

forced to discharge 2

through the exhaust combustion 4 A backward momentum

chamber

nozzle at a high is created.

velocity.

3

hot exhaust

gases at

high velocity

4

Figure 2.42

F4/2/41

Forces and Motion 76

2 Jet engine

1 2 3 4

Air from the atmosphere is drawn into In the combustion chamber, The hot gases formed expand rapidly

the engine and compressed by a kerosene fuel burns vigorously and are forced out of the nozzle at

compressor before it is forced into the with the compressed air. high speed through the turbine which

combustion chamber at high pressure. rotates the compressor.

2 compressor

chamber

5 F

1

jet of

O

2

air exhaust R

CHAPTER

intake gases M

nozzle

6

In accordance with the principle of the conservation of 5

momentum, a forward momentum for the engine is produced. The ejected high-speed exhaust gases create

The plane thus flies forwards. a backward momentum.

Figure 2.43

Engines

injector and Rockets

6

The following demonstrates the principle in rockets and jet engines. moves

forward

2 5 1 5 upward

thread

jet of cylindrical 1

1

3 exhaust weight plastic air

front gases air bottle intake

water

3 plastic tube

bicycle rubber stopper 2

pump

nozzle

elastic back tripod stand

band downward

4 turbine blade 3 combustion 4 2 compressor

chamber

1 A weight is placed on the trolley. 1 One-third of a plastic bottle is filled of water.

F4/2/43b

2 As the thread is cut, the weight is

F4/2/43a 2 The bottle is then plugged

F4/2/42tightly with a rubber stopper with a

thrown to the back with a plastic tube.

momentum. 3 Air is pumped into the bottle.

3 This in turn creates a forward 4 When the pressure of the air in the bottle is sufficient, it will

momentum which causes the push the stopper out together with the water. A downward

trolley to move forwards. momentum is produced.

5 This in turn creates an upward momentum which moves the

plastic bottle upwards.

• The principle of the conservation of momentum occurs in nature — the squid uses it to propel itself in the water.

The squid moves forward by discharging a jet of water from its body. An equal and opposite momentum created thus

propels the squid in the opposite direction.

F • The shower of burning fragments from an exploding fireworks launched into the sky is governed by the principle of the

O F4/2/44athat the total momentum is conserved.

conservation of momentum. The symmetrical pattern indicates

2

R

CHAPTER

F

• The large volume of water that rushes out from a water hose with a very high speed has a large momentum. In

O

accordance with the principle of theR conservation of momentum, an equal and opposite momentum is created causing

2

several firemen are needed to hold the water hose.

CHAPTER

4 SPM

Clone

’11

on a straight line, with Q and R touching each other.

A Moves Stationary Stationary

P is given a velocity and collides Q.

B Stationary Stationary Moves

Q R C Moves Moves Stationary

token

P token

D Moves Stationary Moves

token

Comments

The momentum of P is totally transferred to R

What will be observed?

through Q.

Therefore, P stops and R moves with the velocity of

P before collision while Q remains stationary.

Answer B

2.4

1 A pigeon of mass 120 g is flying at a velocity of 5 A butterfly rests on a leaf floating on the surface of a

2 m s–1. What is its momentum? pond.

5 cm s–1

2 A bull of mass 250 kg is moving at a momentum of

750 kg m s–1. Find its velocity.

at a speed of 5 cm s–1 relative to the water. The leaf, F

stationary in accordance with the principle of the conservation O

2

of momentum, moves at 3 cm s–1 relative to the R

CHAPTER

water in the opposite direction. If the mass of the leaf M

(a) Before is 8 g, determine the mass of the butterfly.

(a) Beforeshooting

shooting 4

6 Boat A and boat B are moving at a speed of 2 m s–1

and 1 m s–1 respectively before the two collide head

on. The masses of boats A and B (including the

passengers) are 150 kg and 250 kg respectively.

30 g

1.5 kg

(b) After shooting

velocity of 300 m s–1. What is the recoil velocity of

the pistol? 0.5 m s–1 v=?

A B

If boat A bounces back with a velocity of 0.5 m s–1,

what is the velocity of boat B?

7 Sau Fei and Siew Ling, each with a mass of 60 kg and

49.5 kg respectively, are standing at rest on an ice

rink. Sau Fei throws a ball of mass 0.5 kg towards Siew

Ling.

2 m s–1 while Hizam with a mass of 60 kg, is directly

behind Jamal and moving at 6 m s–1. Hizam decides

to pick Jamal up and continues moving without

stopping. Determine the final velocity of Hizam and What is the recoil velocity of Sau Fei if the velocity of

Jamal. the ball is 8 m s–1? What is the velocity of Siew Ling

after she receives the ball?

2.5 Understanding the Effects of a Force

What is Force?

F

F A force is a push

or a pull.

Pressing a switch

F

Lifting objects

F

F F

O

2

R F

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M

COKE

4 Pulling off the ring of a soft drink tin Stretching a chest expander Kicking a football

(a) the strength or magnitude of your force, and

F4/2/45

(b) the direction in which you are pushing or pulling.

F

2 Therefore, force is a vector quantity since it has both magnitude and

O

10

5

2

0

9

3

6

direction.

2

spring balance

R

3 A spring balance which isM used to measure the weight (or the

CHAPTER

of a force. For example, the4 force pulling a wooden block can be

measured as shown in Figure 2.44. Figure 2.44

The shape of a tube of toothpaste A spring lengthens or compresses A plastic ruler can be bent when

changes when you press on it. when you stretch or compress it. a force is exerted on it.

1 A force can change the shape of an object (deformation of an object). F4/2/46c

F4/2/46a F4/2/46b

Effects of force

2 A force can change the original state of motion (either at rest or in motion) of an object.

(a) To move a stationary object (b) To stop a moving object (c) To change the direction of

motion of an object

A pushing force is required to F4/2/46e

Friction will stop the bicycle A tennis player hits a fast-moving

F4/2/46f

move a F4/2/46d

stalled car. when the boy stops pedalling. tennis ball to return it to his opponent.

The effects of force are applicable in the games below.

(a) Football

1

3 Ben kicks the football to Sani from a corner

Hazuri manages to catch the ball. during a football match. He needs to apply

He needs to apply a force to stop the ball. a force to make the stationary ball move.

Also, as his boot is in contact with the ball,

the force applied deforms the ball.

Hazuri

Ben F

O

2

R

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M

Sani

4

2

Sani's header produces a force on the ball to change its direction.

F4/2/47a

(b) Baseball

3 2 1

If the ball is not hit, it is The force from the bat deforms the ball A pitcher applies a force when

stopped by the catcher. and reverses the direction of the ball. he throws the baseball.

F4/2/47b

rest on the sea. Different engine thrusts are slower than Q.

applied to accelerate the boats. However, 3 Thus, the three quantities: acceleration, mass

speedboat A which applies more engine thrust and force, are related.

increases the velocity at higher rate. 4 The relationship between the three quantities

2 Consider two identical speedboats, P and Q can be determined in the following experiments.

with P heavily loaded. When the same engine

2.2

Situation elastic cord attached to the trolley and stretched to a

fixed length represents one unit of force acting on the

Figure 2.45(a) shows car A and car B of the same

trolley.

mass at the same starting line. Car B is a sports car.

The engine capacity of sports car B is much bigger Apparatus/Materials

than car A. (A car with a bigger engine capacity can

provide greater engine thrust.) Trolley, 3 identical elastic cords, runway, ticker-

Figure 2.45(b) shows that sports car B has built up a timer, carbonised ticker tape, cellophane tape, 12 V

higher velocity than car A after 3 seconds. a.c. power supply and a wooden block.

F

O Arrangement of apparatus

2

B

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M

ticker-timer stretched elastic cord (1 unitgreater engine

of force)

ticker tape thrust (force)

4 A

A friction-compensated

a.c. power runway

supply

trolley

wooden block

(a) t = 0 F

(a)

O F4/2/48

2

B

R greater

CHAPTER

thrust [same extension as (a)]

A (force)

4

(b) t = 3 s

Figure 2.45

(b)

Can you make an inference about this situation?

Figure 2.46

Inference

The acceleration of an object depends on the force Procedure

which acts on it. 1 A friction-compensated inclined runway is

Hypothesis prepared.

2 The apparatus is then set up as shown in Figure

When the mass of an object is constant, the greater 2.46(a).

the force applied, the greater its acceleration. 3 The ticker-timer is switched on and the trolley is

Aim pulled down the runway by an elastic cord

attached to the hind post of the trolley.

To investigate the relationship between acceleration

4 The elastic cord is stretched until the other end

and the force applied on a constant mass.

is level with the front end of the trolley. The

Variables length is maintained as the trolley runs down the

(a) Manipulated : force applied, F runway.

(b) Responding : acceleration of trolley, a 5 The ticker tape obtained is cut into strips of

Experiment 2.2

(c) Fixed : mass of trolley, m, and the 10-tick. A tape chart is constructed and the

stretching force of an elastic cord acceleration, a, is determined.

6 The experiment is repeated with 2, and 3 elastic

Notes cords to double and triple the pulling force to the

The force in this experiment is the stretching force in same constant extension as when one elastic cord

an elastic cord used to pull the trolley. A length of is stretched.

Results

Ticker tape chart:

Velocity (cm per tentick) Velocity (cm per tentick) Velocity (cm per tentick)

the gradient

is tripled

the gradient

is doubled

(a) One elastic cord (b) Two elastic cords (c) Three elastic cords

(a) (1 unit of force) (b) (2 units of force) (c) (3 units of force)

F

Figure 2.47 O

2

R

1 The gradient of the line passing through the dot at the top of each successive strip increases with the number

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M

of cords.

2 This indicates an increase in acceleration when the force is increased. 4

Tabulation of data Graph

Table 2.8 1 The graph of a against F is a straight line passing

through the origin as shown in Figure 2.48.

Units of force Acceleration, This shows that: a F (if m is constant).

applied, F a (m s–2) acceleration, a

1 a1

2 a2

3 a3

force, F

O

Figure 2.48

Conclusion

The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force applied if the mass is constant.

The hypothesis is valid.

2.3 acceleratio

Relationship between acceleration and the mass of an object under a constant force

Situation

Figure 2.49(a) shows two similar lorries, A and B in front of a traffic light. When the light turns green, both drivers

step on the accelerator simultaneously with the same pressure to provide the same engine thrust, F. O

Figure 2.49(b) shows that within 3 seconds, the empty lorry has built up a higher velocity than the heavy one.

Experiments 2.2 & 2.3

B

B

full-loaded F B

lorry

A

A

empty

lorry F A

(a)

t = 0 (b) t = 3 s

Figure 2.49

F4/2/49

83 Forces and Motion

Inference 5 The elastic cord is stretched until the other end

is level with the front end of the trolley. The

The acceleration of an object depends on its mass. length is maintained as the trolley runs down the

Hypothesis runway.

When the force applied on an object is constant, the 6 The ticker tape obtained is cut into strips of

greater the mass of the object, the smaller its 10-tick. A tape chart is constructed and the

acceleration. acceleration, a, is determined.

Aim 7 The experiment is repeated using 2 trolleys (with

a second trolley stacked on the first trolley) and

To investigate the relationship between acceleration 3 trolleys. The elastic cord is stretched to the

and the mass of an object under a constant force. same fixed length as in the first experiment.

Variables Results

F

(a) Manipulated : mass of trolley, m Ticker tape chart:

O

(b) Responding : acceleration of trolley, a

2

(c) Fixed : force applied by an elastic cord, F

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M

Notes

4

(a) The mass in this experiment is represented by the

number of identical trolleys used.

(b) The constant force is applied by stretching the

elastic cord with the same extension for each (a) One trolley (1 unit of mass)

repetition of the experiment. F Velocity (cm per tentick)

O

Apparatus/Materials

2

R

CHAPTER

is halved

elastic cord, runway, wooden block, ticker tape and

4

cellophane tape.

Arrangement of apparatus

(b) Two trolleys (2 units of mass)

ticker-timer stretched elastic cord

ticker tape Velocity (cm per tentick)

friction-compensated runway

a.c. power

supply the gradient is

trolley one third of (a)

wooden block

(a)

stretched elastic cord

(c) Three trolleys (3 units of mass)

F [same extension as in (a)]

Figure 2.51

2 units of mass

The gradients of the lines joining the uppermost dots

for successive strips decrease as the number of

trolleys used increases. This indicates that

acceleration decreases as mass increases.

(b)

Tabulation of data

Figure 2.50

Table 2.9

Procedure

Mass of Inverse

1 A friction-compensated inclined runway is Acceleration,

trolley, m of mass,

prepared. 1 a

Experiment 2.3

(Number of

2 The apparatus is then set up as shown in Figure 2.50. m (m s–2)

trolleys)

3 A ticker tape is attached to the trolley and passed

through the ticker-timer. 1 1.00 a1

4 The ticker-timer is switched on and the trolley is 2 0.50 a2

pulled down the inclined runway by an elastic 3 0.33 a3

cord attached to the hind post of the trolley.

Graph 1

The graph of a against shows a straight line

m

acceleration, a passing through the origin as shown in Figure 2.52.

1

This shows that: a (if F is constant).

m

Conclusion

The acceleration of an object is inversely

O

proportional to its mass when the force acting

Figure 2.52 on it is constant.

The hypothesis is valid.

F

O

2

R

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M

smooth floor. Find its acceleration.

1

From Experiment 2.3: a a=?

m

10 N

The two results are combined.

F

a

m

k is a constant. Figure 2.54

or F ma

∴ F = kma Solution

2 The unit of force is Newton, N. F = 10 N, m = 5 kg

3 In order to make the formula as simple as possible, F = ma

we make k = 1 by defining a force of 1 N as: 10 = 5a

a = 2 m s–2

1 N is the force which gives a mass of 1 kg

an acceleration of 1 m s–2.

1 kg a = 1 m s-2

1N Fnet = ma is the mathematical expression of Newton's

second law of motion.

This law states:

Figure 2.53 The net force on an object is proportional to the rate of

change of momentum.

Change in momentum

F = kma Force

(net)

Time

1 N = k × 1 kg × 1 m s–2 mv – mu The net force on an

Experiment 2.3

t object with a mass

∴ F = ma (v – u) of m to change its

Fnet m velocity from u to v.

t

a=

law of motion Fnet = kma t

23

–152

A car of mass 1200 kg travelling at 15 m s–1 comes a = 2 × 30

to rest over a distance of 30 m. Find Retardation is

deceleration.

(a) the average retardation, and a = – 3.75 m s–2

(b) the average braking force. ∴ Retardation = 3.75 m s–2

Solution (b) F = ma Negative sign indicates

= 1200 × (–3.75) retardation force or

u = 15 m s–1, v = 0 m s–1, s = 30 m opposing force.

= – 4500 N

(a) Using the formula v2 = u2 + 2as:

0 = 152 + 2a(30) Average braking force = 4500 N

F

O

2

R Balanced Forces and Unbalanced Forces ’03/P1 ’05/P1 ’07/P2(C) ’08/P1

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M

1 In general, there may be several forces acting on the object (whether a single force or several

4

on the mass, whether parallel or anti-parallel, forces are acting on it).

or in different directions.

2 Thus, the force, F, must be replaced with the Balanced Forces

net or resultant force when there are several

forces acting on the mass. 1 When the forces acting on an object are

F

O

balanced, they cancel each other out (that is,

2

R to use ΣF = ma

Some prefer

net force = 0).

Fnet = ma 2 The object then behaves as if there is no force

CHAPTER

force vectors. acting on it.

4

3 Since Fnet = 0, the acceleration of the object,

where a is in the direction of the net or a = 0. Thus, the object remains at rest or moves

resultant force. at constant velocity when there is no net force

3 However, for simplicity, F = ma is always used, acting on it. This is Newton’s first law of motion.

bearing in mind that F is the net force acting 4 Examples of balanced forces:

(a) Balanced forces on a stationary gymnast (b) Balanced forces on a car moving at a constant velocity

R

air resistance, G

thrust, T

T = G + Fr

friction, Fr

weight, W W=R

W

W=R

reaction force, R

from beam • There are 3 horizontal forces acting on a car moving

at a constant velocity. The forward thrust, T,

provided by the car engine is balanced by the

frictional force on the wheels and the air resistance.

• The weight of the gymnast, W, is balanced by the

F4/2/143

reaction force, R, from the beam. T = G + Fr

• The two forces are of equal magnitude but opposite

in direction. • The weight of the car, W, is vertically balanced by

• Without the beam (that is, no reaction force), the the reaction force, R, from the road.

gymnast will fall to the ground because of her

weight. W=R

Balanced forces (Fnet = 0, a = 0)

F1 F2

F net = 0

(as no force

acting on it)

F1 = F2 F4/2/53a

From Fnet = ma:

0 = ma

∴ a = 0 (since mass, m cannot be zero)

Object in motion F

Object at rest (v ≠ 0, and the object is moving O

(v = 0 m s–1)

2

at constant velocity) R

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M

5N

2 cm s–1

PHYSICS

200 N Ffriction

Ffriction

Linda pushes a book on a table with a force of 5 N.

F4/2/53c

Zamhari pushes a heavy cupboard with a force of

F4/2/53b The book moves with a uniform velocity of 2 cm s–1.

200 N, but the cupboard does not move. Find the frictional force acting on the book.

Find the frictional force acting on the cupboard. Solution

Solution Using Fnet = ma: because the book

Using Fnet = ma: because the But Fnet = 0 since a = 0 moves with a

cupboard does uniform velocity

But Fnet = 0 since a = 0 5 – Ffriction = 0

not move

∴ 200 – Ffriction = 0 Ffriction = 5 N

Ffriction = 200 N (The frictional force here is known as dynamic

(The frictional force here is known as static friction) friction)

Note: In both situations, the frictional forces are equal to the forces applied.

SPM

Effect of Balanced Forces and Unbalanced Forces on an Object ’08/P2(A)

move at constant velocity at a constant

altitude.

drag or air resistance, G

2 The engine thrust is balanced by the drag due to

engine thrust, T

air resistance while the weight of the aircraft is

T = G

weight, W

W = L

balanced by a lift from the wings. The lift from

the wings is discussed in Chapter 3.

Unbalanced forces (Fnet ≠ 0, a ≠ 0)

lift from wings, L

engine thrust, T

drag or air

weight, W resistance, G

1 When the forces acting on an object do not cancel out each other, a net force known as unbalanced force is

acting on the object.

2 Unbalanced forces produce an acceleration to the mass on which the forces are acting.

F 3 However, the object will accelerate in the direction of the net force.

O 4 When an airplane is moving at a constant velocity, if the pilot increases the engine thrust, the forces acting

2

R

horizontally are no longer balanced. There is a net force forwards and the plane will accelerate in the

CHAPTER

M

forward direction.

4

24

5000 N

Figure 2.55 shows Solution

upward

a small rocket of F

force from Since the upward force is greater than the downward

mass 300 kg at the O

engine

force by 2000 N, the rocket accelerates upwards.

2

R 2000 N

point of take-off. Neglecting the mass of the exhaust gases, the upward

CHAPTER

M resultant

Find its initial mass

upward launching acceleration is given by:

300 kg

acceleration. 4 force Fnet = 5000 N – 3000 N

weight = 2000 N

Fnet = ma

3000 N F 2000

a = mnet =

300

Figure 2.55 = 6.7 m s–2

F4/2/55b

25

John pushes a 12 kg carton with a force of 50 N. • When a floor is smooth, frictional force is nil.

IL (a ≠ 0)

AG

FR

F1 = 50 N

Ffriction = 0 smooth surface

Fnet = 50 – Ffriction

frictional force, Ffriction

velocity with a horizontal force acting on it, friction

is equal in magnitude to the applied force (but

Figure 2.56 acts in the opposite direction).

F4/2/55a

If the carton moves with an acceleration of 2 m s–2,

what is the frictional force acting on the carton? constant velocity

F (a = 0)

E

Solution GIL

FRA

Fnet = ma

Ffriction rough surface

50 – Ffriction = 12 × 2

F = Ffriction

F=F

Ffriction = 50 – 24 = 26 N friction

26 5 SPM

Clone

’05

A shopper pushes a trolley with a force of 20 N. The Two forces F1 and F2 act on a wooden block which is

trolley with a mass of 5 kg, moves at a uniform placed on a table. The friction between the table and

velocity of 1 m s–1. He then increases his force to the block is 3 N.

accelerate the trolley. What force should he apply in

order to give the trolley an acceleration of 2 m s–2? F2 F1

Solution

table

20 N Fʹ = ?

Which pair of forces F1 and F2 will accelerate the block?

1m s–1

a=2m s–2 F

F1 (N) F2 (N) O

2

R

A 4 7

CHAPTER

(a) (b) M

F4/2/57 B 8 5

For (a): Ffriction = 20 N 4

C 6 4

For (b): Fnet = ma The trolley is moving D 9 5

F′ – Ffriction = ma with uniform velocity,

F′ – 20 = 5 × 2 i.e. the force applied

equals friction acting Comments

F′ = 30 N on the trolley.

The block will move with acceleration if the forces

acting on it are unbalanced.

If the difference between the forces F1 and F2 is

27 greater than 3 N, then there is an acceleration.

Mr Brown whose mass is 70 kg, performs as a human Answer D

cannonball at a circus. He is propelled from a 1.6 m

long cannon. He is in the barrel of the cannon for 1.2 s.

6 SPM

Clone

’07

moving at an acceleration of 2 m s–2.

acceleration

Figure 2.57

Find the average net force exerted on him.

Solution If the frictional force acting on the car is 750 N, find

First, we need to find the acceleration of Mr Brown its engine thrust.

in the barrel. Then, apply F = ma to find the net force A 750 N C 2400 N

on him. B 1350 N D 3150 N

u = 0 m s–1, s = 1.6 m, t = 1.2 s Solution

1

Using s = ut + at 2: Use Fnet= ma since two forces are acting on the car.

2

Let T be the engine thrust of the car.

1 T – Friction = ma

1.6 = 0 + a (1.2)2

2 T – 750 = 1200 × 2

a = 1.6 × 2 = 2.22 m s–2 T = 2400 + 750

1.44 = 3150 N

Fnet = ma = 70 × 22.2 = 1554 N Answer D

Newton’s Third Law of Motion

Newton’s third law of motion states that:

If object A exerts a force, F on object B, then object B will exert an equal but opposite force, –F on

object A. In other words:

To every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.

Everyday phenomena that are governed by Newton’s (b) When a man paddles with a backward force, +F

third law of motion: Physics

Blog (action), the reaction force, –F, pushes the boat

(a) When a boy presses on the wall with a force, F, the forwards.

wall presses on his hands with a normal reaction

F

force, –F.

O

2

R

reactions, –F

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M

action,+F

reactions,

4

–F action, +F

F4/2/60b

(c) The principle used in rockets and jet engines can also

be explained by Newton’s third Iaw of motion. The

F action that pushes the exhaust gases out through the

Note: The action and reaction forces of Newton’s third

F4/2/60a O

law act on different objects whereas two nozzle results in a forward force (reaction force) that

2

R

balanced forces act on the same propels the rocket or jet engine forwards.

M object.

CHAPTER

2.5

1 What force is needed so that an object with a mass of 6 (a) When a 2 kg block is pushed with a force of

3 kg has an acceleration of 2 m s–2? 12 N to the right, it accelerates with an

2 A wooden box of mass 2 kg is placed on a smooth acceleration of 3 m s–2. In which direction does

plane. If a force of F is applied to the box, it moves at friction act? Find its magnitude.

an acceleration of 3 m s–2.

a = 3 m s–2

Find the acceleration of another box with mass of

6 kg if the same force is exerted on it.

12 N

3 Puan Zaitun pushes a trolley of mass m kg with a force 2 kg

of 30 N. The trolley moves with a uniform velocity of

1 m s–1. When she doubles her force, the trolley

accelerates at 2 m s–2. Find the mass of the trolley.

F4/2/62

4 Faizal rides a bicycle at a constant speed of 16 m s–1. (b) An additional force of 20 N to the left then acts

He stops pedalling and the bicycle stops completely on the block. In which direction does friction

after 6 s. Given the total mass of Faizal and his now act? Find the new acceleration of the

bicycle is 72 kg, find the average opposing force on block.

Faizal and his bicycle.

5 A race car of mass 1200 kg accelerates from rest to a

–1 12 N 20 N

Clone velocity of 72 km h in 8 s.

SPM

2 kg

’07

(a) Find the acceleration of the car.

(b) Find the net force acting on the car.

F4/2/63

2.6 Analysing Impulse and Impulsive Force

football, his boot is in

contact with the ball for a time t. F

O

• During the time t, an average force F acts on the • When a tennis racket hits an oncoming tennis ball,

2

F4/2/64b R

ball which makes the ball fly off with a the tennis racket delivers a large force that acts on

CHAPTER

M

momentum. the ball for a short time t. The ball bounces off in

• Thus, the force F, acting for a period of time t, the opposite direction. Again, there is a change in 4

produces a change in momentum to the ball, momentum.

since the ball with a mass of m acquires velocity v • The change in momentum is due to the force F

after the time t. acting on the object for a time t.

F = ma

F=m

( )v–u

t

substitute a=

v–u

t

SPM

Ft = mv – mu mv – mu ’07/P1

F = t

Change in momentum

Impulsive force =

Time taken

unit = N s or unit = kg m s–1

unit = N

• Impulse is defined as the product of a

force, F and the time interval, t during which • Impulsive force is defined as the rate of change

the force acts. of momentum during a collision or explosion.

Inpulse = Force × Time

=F×t • Impulsive force is the large force produced in a

• Impulse is a vector quantity and has the same collision or explosion that happens in a short

direction as the force that causes the change in time of impact.

momentum.

• Both are vector quantities.

Rebound and Impulse

1 An object might rebound from a wall, or stick to it without rebounding after striking it.

2 In which situation will the wall exert a greater impulse? Look at Example 28.

28

A tennis ball and a piece of mud with the same mass Solution

(0.060 kg) which are moving at 9 m s–1 strike a wall. Take the direction to the right as positive.

The mud sticks to the wall while the ball rebounds at

6 m s–1. Find the impulse on each object. For the mud: For the tennis ball:

Impulse Impulse

9 m s-1

F = Change in momentum = Change in momentum

O mud = mv – mu = mv – mu

2

R 9 m s-1

= 0 – 0.06 × (–9) = 0.06 × 6 – 0.06 × (–9)

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M

tennis ball = 0 + 0.54 = 0.36 + 0.54

4 6 m s-1 = 0.54 N s = 0.90 N s

Figure 2.58

F on an object if it rebounds after a collision.

O

2

29 R

CHAPTER

M

Figure 2.59(a) shows a 2 kg wooden block initially at If the force acts for 3 s,

4

rest on a smooth surface. A force of 8 N is applied on (a) what is the impulse on the block?

the wooden block. (b) what is the velocity of the wooden block after 3 s?

u=0 v Solution

8N 8N

2 kg 2 kg

(a) Impulse = F × t = 8 × 3 = 24 N s

t=0s t=3s (b) Impulse = Change in momentum

Ft = mv – mu

(a) (b)

24 = 2v – 0

Figure 2.59

v = 12 m s–1

30

A player spikes an oncoming volleyball moving Solution

towards him at a speed of 5 m s–1 to reverse its direction (a) Take the direction away from the hand as positive.

at a speed of 20 m s–1. The mass of the ball is 0.36 kg. Impulse = Change in momentum

5 m s-1 20 m s-1

= mv – mu

= 0.36 × 20 – 0.36 × (–5)

= 0.36 × 20 + 0.36 × 5

F

= 9Ns

mv – mu

(b) F =

t

9

Figure 2.60 300 =

t

(a) Find the impulse on F4/2/164

the ball. 9

(b) If the average force acting on the ball is 300 N, t =

300

how long is the time of contact between the hand

and the ball? = 0.03 s

Effects of Time on Impulsive Force SPM

’09/P1

SPM

’09/P2/(A)

1 From F = mv – mu 1

t F

t

= Change in momentum ⇒ t small, F large

Time of impact

⇒ t large, F small

If the change in momentum is constant, then:

From F 1

t

2 A student throws a raw egg at a high speed at a wall, and another egg

against a towel held by his friends. In which case will the egg break? F

O

2

towel

R

CHAPTER

egg

egg M

egg

egg 4

pile of towel

The egg is stopped by the wall in a very short time The egg thrown against a towel falls on a few towel

interval, resulting in a large force which causes it towels stacked below and does not break.

to shatter. The movement of the egg is stopped in a longer

time interval, resulting in a small force.

In both cases, the eggs are stopped. Thus, the change in momentum is the same. pile of towe

Joginder (mass, m = 50 kg) jumps down from a wall. He lands on a cement ground at a velocity of 6 m s–1.

Joginder bends his knees upon landing. Joginder didn’t bend his knees upon landing.

The time taken to stop his motion is 1.0 s. The time taken to stop his motion is 0.05 s.

u = 6 m s–1

u = 6 m s-1

v = 0 m s–1

v = 0 m s-1

Solution

Take the downward direction as positive. Solution

m = 50 kg, u = 6 m s–1, v = 0 m s–1, t = 1.0 s Take the downward direction as positive.

mv – mu m = 50 kg, u = 6 m s–1, v = 0 m s–1, t = 0.05 s

F =

t The negative sign indicates the mv – mu 50 × 0 – 50 × 6

50 × 0 – 50 × 6 F= =

= force acts as an opposing force t 0.05

1 that reduces the momentum

of the object. = –6000 N

= –300 N

The impulsive force acting on Joginder’s leg is 6000 N!

This force is great enough to break Joginder’s legs.

The impulsive force that acts on Joginder’s leg is 300 N.

This example clearly shows that an effective way to reduce the impulsive force is to lengthen the collision time.

u = 6 m s–1

v = 0 m s–1

93 Forces and Motion

Increasing the Impulsive Force by Reducing the Time of Impact

It should be noted that

the ball is very small and the impulsive force

impulsive forces always

produced is large.

exist in pairs. In the figure

on the right, the change in

momentum of the tennis

ball produces a large

impulsive force on the

racket which reacts to give

rise to an equal but

F2 F1

FF opposite impulsive force to

OO the ball (this is in

A footballer kicking A golfer driving a

2

CHAPTER

Both the racket and the

44

tennis ball are deformed

temporarily due to the

large force being exerted on

A batter hitting a A tennis player hitting a each other.

baseball tennis ball

F

O

2

R

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M

A massive hammer head

moving at a fast speed is

4

brought to rest upon hitting

The effects of

t time ont the

the nail. The large change in

small small

F F

momentum within a short

time interval produces a

large impulsive force which large

magnitudelarge

la

of

drives the nail into the wood. the impulsive

force

pile driver

In

pestle

pile construction,

tion

the pile driver

is raised to a

certain height

before it is

An expert in karate can released. The

mortar

split a thick wooden slab momentum

with his bare hand which acquired by Food such as chillies and

is moving at a very fast the massive onions can be pounded using a

speed. The momentary pile driver is greatest just before it mortar and pestle (both made

contact between the hits the pile. The subsequent from stone). The pestle is

fast-moving hand and change in momentum that brought downwards at a fast

the wooden slab occurs in a short time interval speed and stopped by the

produces a large results in a large impulsive mortar in a very short time.

impulsive force which force which drives the pile into This produces a large

splits the wooden slab. the ground. impulsive force which crushes

the food.

94

Reducing the Impulsive Force by Increasing the

Time of Impact In sports, the effects of

impulsive forces are reduced

to prevent injuries to

athletes. Thick mattresses

Polystyrene and cardboard egg with soft surfaces are used

containers are stiff but in events such as the high

compressible. They will jump and pole-vaulting so

absorb and reduce impulsive that the time of impact

force by lengthening the on landing is extended,

time of impact. thus reducing the

resultant impulsive force.

F F

polystyrene

O O

2

R R

CHAPTER

The use of padding in certain sports equipment M M

like baseball gloves, goalkeeping mitts, pole-

vaulting pits, boxing gloves, and gymnastic mats 4 4

cardboard egg carton

is to prevent injuries to players by reducing the

impulsive force.

The effects of

t

(a) Baseball glove (b) Boxing glove

time on the

large

magnitude of

the impulsive F small

In baseball, a player must catch

the ball in the direction of the

force motion

m

mo

caught

c

cau

of the ball. If the ball is

by stopping it in its path,

the

t impulsive force acting on the

hand

h

ha will be considerable.

Moving

M

Mo his hand backwards

when

wh catching the ball

prolongs

pr the time for the

momentum change to occur so

mo

the impulsive force is reduced.

fabric material which prolongs thee time When a boxer sees that

of impact when the children fall,l, thus his opponent’s fist is

reducing the impulsive force. going to hit his head, he

will move his head

backwards or duck.

This will increase the

stopping time, hence

reducing the average

force on his head since

the momentum change

coarse fabric

material will be longer.

31

A tennis player hits an oncoming 0.060 kg tennis ball Students are always tempted to find the acceleration, a

with a velocity of 60 m s–1. The ball bounces off in the and then use F = ma to find the impulsive force.

opposite direction at 90 m s–1. mv – mu

By using F = , you save the step of finding a,

t

90 m s-1

which is not necessary. Try using the latter formula if the

125 N question mentions the impulsive force, and

acceleration is not stated.

60 m s-1

F

7 SPM

Clone

’07

O

2

R Figure 2.61 The front and rear sections of a car are designed to

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Find the time of impact between the racket and the A To increase the impact time

4 ball if the impulsive force acting on the ball is 125 N. B To increase the impulse

Solution C To decrease the momentum

D To increase the frictional force

Take the direction to the right as positive.

F = 125 N, m = 0.060 kg, v = 90 m s–1, u = –60 m s–1 Comments

F

mv – mu Change in momentum

F = O Impulsive force =

2

t R Time

0.06 × 90 – 0.06 × (–60)

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M

When the time of impact is prolonged, the impulsive

125 =

t force is reduced.

4

5.4 + 3.6

t = Answer A

125

= 7.2 × 10–2 s

8 SPM

Clone

32 ’09

Tiger Woods hits a golf ball of mass 0.045 kg at a An athlete bends his legs upon landing in a long

velocity of 30 m s–1. jump event as shown in the Figure 2.63.

m = 0.045 kg

30 m s–1

Figure 2.62

impulsive force applied on the ball by the club?

Solution Figure 2.63

m = 0.045 kg, u = 0, v = 30 m s–1, t = 5 × 10–3 s

The purpose of bending his legs is to reduce the

Impulsive force, F = mv – mu A impulse on his feet

t

B impulsive force on his legs

(0.045 × 30) – (0.045 × 0)

= C velocity before landing

5 × 10–3 D time of impact between his legs and the sand.

= 270 N

Comments landing to lengthen the time of impact; reducing the

The impulsive force is inversely proportional to the impulsive force.

time of impact. The athlete bends his legs upon

Answer B

2.6

1 A force F acts on a 6 kg object at rest on a smooth 6 A baseball of mass 0.14 kg moving at 40 m s–1 is

surface. If the velocity of the object increases to struck by a bat and rebounds at 60 m s–1.

2 m s–1 in 6 s, what is the value of F ? F

2 An object of mass 2 kg is acted on by a force which O

2

R

causes the velocity of the object to increase from 40 m s-1 60 m s-1

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M

1 m s–1 to 9 m s–1. What is the impulse on the object?

3 The figure shows a helicopter dropping a box of mass 4

60 kg which touches a sandy ground at a velocity of

12 m s–1. The box takes 2 seconds to stop after it (a) (b)

touches the ground.

Given that the time of contact is 5 × 10–2 s, find the

force exerted on the ball.

wall at 15 m s–1. It rebounds at 2 m s–1. 40 m s-1

15.0 m s–1

2 m s-1

box? F4/2/77

4 Beckham kicks a ball with a force of 1500 N. The (b) After collision

time of contact of his boot with the ball is 0.008 s. If the collision time is 0.18 s, find the force exerted

What is the impulse delivered to the ball? If the mass on the car.

of the ball is 0.5 kg, what is the velocity of the ball?

5 A 0.045 kg golf ball strikes a wall at a speed of 8 A pole-vaulter (mass, m = 50 kg) falls onto a foam

30 m s–1 and rebounds at a speed of 20 m s–1. mattress which exerts a force of 250 N on him over a2 m s-1

time interval of 2.0 s.

30 m s-1

u=?

foam 250 N

20 m s-1 mattress

ball is 500 N, find the contact time of the ball with

the wall. fo

Find his velocity just before landing on the mattress. ru

2.7 Being Aware of the Need for Safety Features in Vehicles

’07/P1

of collision to reduce the impulsive force in • Prevents the passenger from being

thrown forward or out of the car. Slows

an accident. This concept was explained in down the forward movement of the

Section 2.6. passenger when the car stops abruptly.

2 Figure below explains the safety features in

the design of vehicles. Headrest

• To push the driver's head so that it moves

F together with the rest of his body when a

O stationary car is knocked from behind and

2

• Prevents the windscreen

CHAPTER

from shattering and reduce

injuries of passengers caused

4 by the shards of glass.

.

Automatic airbag

• Acts as a cushion

for the head and

body in an F

accident and thus

O

prevents injuries to

2

CHAPTER

passenger. M

• Drains away water in

its grooves when the

car is on a slippery

road. The car has

more contact on

the road.

• Prevents the collapse of the front and back doors

of the car into the passenger compartment.

Bumper Also gives good protection from a side-on collision.

• Absorbs the impact

in minor accidents,

thus preventing

damage to the car. Anti-lock braking system (ABS)

• Prevents the wheels from locking when the

brakes are applied suddenly.

• Allows a car to stop quickly in slippery road

conditions and prevents the car from skidding.

Padded dashboard

• Increases the time interval of collision,

thereby reducing the impulsive force Crumple zone

produced during impact. • Increases the time interval of impact so that the resultant impulsive

force is reduced. Therefore, only little energy is transferred to the

inside of the car, and the passengers sustain minimal bodily injuries.

• The car is less likely to rebound upon impact. This reduces the

momentum change or impulse.

98

2.8 Understanding Gravity

SPM SPM SPM A stroboscopic photograph is

Acceleration Due to Gravity ’05/P1 ’08/P1 ’09/P1

a photograph that shows the

images of an object in motion.

1 Figure 2.64 shows a stroboscopic photograph of two steel spheres The images are taken at

(of different sizes) falling under gravity. The two spheres are dropped regular time intervals.

simultaneously from the same height.

2 The time intervals between two successive images are the same.

3 Two inferences can be made from the photograph.

Inference 2 F

Inference 1 s1 O

2

The two spheres are falling R

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M

The two spheres are falling with the same acceleration.

s2

with an acceleration. The two spheres are at the 4

The distance between two same level at all times.

successive images of each s3 Thus, a heavy object and a

sphere increases, showing light object fall with the

that the two spheres are same gravitational

falling with increasing acceleration.

s4

velocity, i.e., falling with an In other words, gravitational

acceleration. acceleration is independent

of mass.

Figure 2.64

vacuum.

1 A free-falling object is an object falling under 4 The demonstration in Table 2.10 shows the

the force of gravity only. difference between a fall in air and a free fall in

2 A free-falling object does not encounter other a vacuum of a coin and a feather. Both the coin

forces like air resistance or friction that would and the feather are released simultaneously

oppose its motion. from the same height.

Table 2.10

In air In vacuum

to vacuum

pump

coin tap

feather

The air resistance to the feather is greater than the In a vacuum, both the coin and the feather would

air resistance to the coin. The feather falls with a fall with the same acceleration regardless of their

smaller acceleration and takes a longer time to reach shapes or masses.

the ground.

Acceleration of Gravity

1 Figure 2.65 shows that all objects are pulled towards the centre of the

Earth by the force of gravity.

2 The objects will fall with an acceleration of 9.8 m s–2 due to the pull of

this gravitational force.

3 Since this acceleration is due to the force of gravity, it is called the

gravitational acceleration.

4 The value of gravitational acceleration is important in physics and is Figure 2.65 Gravitational

F4/2/80 force

specially denoted by the symbol, g. is always acting

5 However, the value of g varies slightly according to location. towards the centre

6 The value of g depends on: of the Earth

F

O (a) Latitude

2

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M

g = 9.832 m s –2

4

North Pole (90° N)

rp = distance from the North Pole to

rp < re the centre of the Earth

re = distance from the Equator to the

re F centre of the Earth

g = 9.780 m s –2

Equator (0°) O

2

R

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M

4 Figure 2.66(a)

F4/2/81a

The elliptical shape of the Earth causes the gravitational acceleration to vary with latitude.

The value of g is smaller at the equator than at the poles because the surface of the Earth is further

from the centre of the Earth at the equator than at the poles.

(b) Height above sea level

The greater the height above the sea level is, the smaller is the value of g.

g1 < g2

g2

Mount Everest

Mount Everest but nearer to

the centre of the earth)

Figure 2.66(b)

F4/2/81b

sectional area of the falling object.

The figure shows that a paper, repeatedly folded and

sealed tightly with a cellophane tape, falls faster than

crumpled

a loosely crumpled piece of paper (together with paper

cellophane tape) of the same mass. folded

2 Air resistance also increases with the velocity of paper

Physics

the falling object. An objectBlogmoving at a higher

velocity encounters greater air resistance than a

similar object moving at a lower velocity.

F4/2/82

Activ To determine the value of gravitational acceleration, g

ity 2.5

Apparatus/Materials

Ticker-timer with carbonised tape, power supply, retort stand, slotted weights with holder, G-clamp, cellophane

tape and soft board.

Arrangement of apparatus

G-clamp

ticker-timer

ticker

tape

F

O

2

12 V a.c. R

power supply ticker tape

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M

stool folded and

stapled

weight here 4

G-clamp

soft board

Figure 2.67

Procedure 2 Calculation of the value of g:

Initial velocity, u

1 A ticker-timer is clamped to a retort stand with a

x cm x

G-clamp and placed on a tabletop as shown in = = cm s–1

2 × 0.02 s 0.04

Figure 2.67.

2 One end of a carbonised ticker tape Final velocity, v

(approximately 1.5 m in length) is attached to a y cm y

= = cm s–1

weight holder with a total mass of 200 g. 2 × 0.02 s 0.04

3 The other end of the ticker tape is passed Time taken, t = (6 – 1) strips × 0.04 = 0.20 s

through the ticker-timer. Gravitational acceleration, g is calculated by

4 A soft board is placed on the floor below the substituting the values of u, v and t into the

weight to stop its fall. v–u

5 The ticker-timer is switched on and the weight formula g = .

t

is released so that it falls squarely onto the soft

board. Discussion

6 Six strips are cut off from the middle section of 1 If the activity is repeated with weights of mass

the ticker tape with each strip containing 2 dot- 250 g, 300 g, etc, the calculated values of g

spaces. would be the same. This shows that gravitational

7 A tape chart is constructed. From the chart, the acceleration, g is not affected by the mass of the

acceleration of gravity is calculated. object.

Results 2 It is found that the value of the gravitational

acceleration, g obtained from this activity is less

1 Ticker tape chart:

than the standard value of 9.8 m s–2. This is

because the weight (object) is not actually free

falling. It is affected by the following:

y cm

(a) Air resistance during its fall.

(b) There is friction between the ticker tape and

Activity 2.5

x cm the ticker-timer.

Conclusion

t A free-falling object falls with gravitational

Figure 2.68 acceleration, g of 9.8 m s–2.

Weight and Gravitational Acceleration SPM

’09/P1

of gravity which is exerted on it by Earth.

2 From the formula: Since acceleration is proportional to the force acting,

a student may think that a sphere with a weight 10

F = force and times the weight of a smaller sphere would fall with

F = ma

a = acceleration an acceleration 10 times that of the lighter one.

Since weight, W, is the force of gravity acting

on an object of mass, m that makes it fall with It is true that the acceleration of an object is directly

an acceleration, g, therefore, using the proportional to the force acting on it. However, at the

corresponding terms, we get: same time, acceleration is also inversely proportional

F to mass. Therefore, the effect of greater force is

O F = m a cancelled by the larger mass of the heavy sphere.

2

R

So all objects in free fall have the same acceleration

↓ ↓

CHAPTER

M

regardless of their masses.

W = m g Unit is the same

4

as force, N.

∴ Weight of object

∴= Mass of object × Acceleration due to gravity

FF

Gravitational Acceleration Oand

O Gravitational Field Strength

22

RR

1 A gravitational field is theMMregion in which an object experiences a

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

44

2 The gravitational field strength is defined as the ratio of the weight

to the mass of the object or weight per unit mass. 10 spring balance

20

measures the

Weight W gravitational

30

40

attraction

Mass m

60

70 (weight) on

the object

Rearranging the formula,

W = m × g

33

g = Gravitational

An object of 8 kg weighs 120 N on a planet. acceleration

Find the gravitational field strength on the planet. g = Gravitational field

strength

Solution

∴ g = 10 m s–2

W = mg

= 10 N kg–1

120 = 8g

120 N W = mg holds true when g

g =

8 kg is given in m s–2 as well as

N kg–1.

= 15 N kg–1

34

Calculate the weight of an astronaut with a mass of 100 kg

(a) on Earth,

1

(b) on the Moon where the gravitational acceleration is of that on Earth,

6

(c) in outer space.

[Take g = 10 m s–2]

Solution

Situation (a) Surface of the Earth (b) Surface of the Moon (c) Outer space

F

O

2

R

CHAPTER

M

4

Mass, m 100 kg 100 kg 100 kg

Weight, W

W = mg Gravitational acceleration, g′ In the outer space, there is

= 100 × 10 1 no gravitational pull on the

= g

= 1000 N 6 astronaut.

1 ∴ g = 0

= × 10 W = mg

6

= 100 × 0

= 1.67 m s–2

= 0 N (no weight)

W = mg′

= 100 × 1.67

= 167 N

Notice that in Example 34, the weight, W varies but the mass, m of an object remains the same.

The differences between mass, m and weight, W:

Mass, m Weight, W

The mass of an object is the amount of The weight of an object is the force of

matter in the object. Definition gravity on the object.

The weight of an object varies with the

The mass of an object is constant

Changing of value magnitude of gravitational field strength, g

everywhere.

of the location.

SI unit

SPM SPM

’03/P1 ’07/P1

Remember our equations of motion with constant Some recommend changing the acceleration, a in the

acceleration: equations to g, but this is not necessary.

Simply bear in mind that while solving problems involving

• v = u + at

free fall, the acceleration, a in the equations has a value of:

1 • a = 10 m s–2 (for downward motion)

• s = ut + at 2

2 ⇒ Since the object is accelerating downwards.

• v2 = u2 + 2as • a = –10 m s–2 (for upward motion)

⇒ Since the object is moving with deceleration.

F 36 SPM

’04/P1

O

Since W = mg,

2

the weight of 25 000 km

CHAPTER

M

an object What is

4 depends on mass weight (a) its speed when it strikes the ground?

20 000 km

the 1 kg g 1 N

1

(b) the height of the coconut tree?

gravitational

mass weight Solution

field strength, 15 000 km 1 kg 2N

g which g2 up = 0 Coconut falls from rest.

decreases as F ap = 10 m s–2

the distance of 10 000 km O

mass weight

2

CHAPTER

5 000 km g3

centre of the

4

Earth

increases.

Earth h

g1 < g2 < g3

35 t = 1.5 s

v=?

Wei Bo is a basketball player. His vertical leap is

( a) v = u + at

0.75 m. What is his take-off speed?

= 0 + 10 × 1.5

Solution = 15 m s–1

1

(b) s = ut + at2

2

1

h = 0 + × 10 × 1.5 × 1.5 = 11.3 m

2

0.75 m 37

After winning a game, a pitcher throws a baseball

s = 0.75 m vertically up with a velocity of 30 m s–1.

a = –10 m s–2 Wei Bo is moving upwards. (a) What is the time taken for the ball to reach the

v = 0 maximum height?

v2 = u2 + 2as At the highest point, (b) What is the speed of the baseball when it returns

0 = u2 + 2 × (–10) × 0.75 Wei Bo is at rest to his hands?

momentarily.

u2 = 15 (c) How long is the ball in the air before it comes

u = 3.87 m s–1 back to his hands?

Solution v2 = 900

(a) Consider the motion B v = ±30 m s–1+ve

from A to B (motion Since the ball is moving downwards (direction of

–

motion is opposite to its initial direction),

up):

u = 30 m s–1 ∴ v = –30 m s–1 –ve

a = –10 m s–2 The speed of the ball is 30 m s–1.

At the (c) When the ball returns to his hands, the

v = 0 highest A C

v = u + at point, displacement, s, is zero.

0 = 30 + (–10)t v = 0 u = 30 m s–1, a = –10 m s–2, s = 0

t = 3 s 1

s = ut + at2

2

The ball takes 3 s 1

0 = 30t + (–10)t2 when the ball

to reach the 2 is thrown. F

maximum height. O

2

5t2 – 30t = 0 R

(b)

When the ball returns to his hands, the

CHAPTER

t(t – 6) = 0 M

displacement, s, is zero. ∴ t = 0 when the ball returns 4

Consider direction upwards as positive. or t = 6 to his hands.

u = 30 m s–1, a = –l0 m s–2, s = 0

v2 = u2 + 2as ∴ The time taken for the ball to return to his

= 302 + 2(–10)(0) hands is 6 s.

(a) From Example 37, by neglecting air resistance, a ball

thrown at 30 m s–1 takes 3 seconds to move up. Lift

This is true as the deceleration is 10 m s–2. The

velocity decreases by 10 m s–1 for each second.

So after 3 seconds, the velocity is zero. reading on the scale shows

the normal reaction force

30 m s–1 20 m s–1 10 m s–1 0 m s–1 0

W = true weight = mg

1 s 1 s 1s W R = normal reaction force

exerted on the girl by the

(b) The velocity when the ball returns to its original platform of the scale

position is of the same magnitude as the initial R

velocity of the ball, but in the opposite direction.

weighing machine

(c) The time to descend to the original position is the

same as the time to ascend. Therefore, an

alternative method to find the total time in the air is Figure 2.70

F4/2/85

shown as follows. 1 When a girl stands on the platform of a weighing

Time to reach the highest point = 3 s scale, there are two forces acting on her:

∴ The total time in the air = 2 × 3 = 6 s (a) the girl’s weight, W (= mg) acting down

at rest wards, and

t=3s 0 m s-1 0 m s-1 t=3s (b) the upward normal reaction force, R exerted

on her feet by the platform of the scale.

t=2s 10 m s-1 –10 m s-1 t=4s 2 The reading of the scale gives the value of the

normal reaction force, R.

3 Table 2.11 shows a different situation in the lift.

t=1s 20 m s-1 –20 m s-1 t=5s [Please take note that when the lift is

accelerating upwards or downwards, the

reading on the scale gives the ‘apparent’ weight,

t=0s 30 m s-1 –30 m s-1 t=6s

which is equal to the normal reaction force on

the feet of the girl.]

Table 2.11

Situation Explanation As force vector

velocity ⇒a=0

R

R – mg = ma

reading shows the

normal reaction R – mg = 0

force, R R = mg

0

acceleration, a = 0 mg

F

O

F net = 0 ∴ Reading on the weighing

The girl feels ‘normal’.

2

F4/2/86b

CHAPTER

4 weighing machine

mg

F4/2/86a

FF

(b) OO of a m s–2

Lift moves up at an acceleration Lift accelerates upwards R1

22

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M

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M

R1 cable

is upwards

44 ∴ R1 > mg

acceleration

=a

Applying Fnet = ma,

0 R1 – mg = ma

R1 = mg + ma

is increased by ma.

weighing machine The girl feels ‘heavier’.

F4/2/87b

mg

F4/2/87a

⇒ Resultant force, Fnet on the girl

cable

is downwards

∴ mg > R2

R2 0 mg – R2 = ma mg

R2 = mg – ma

The girl feels ‘lighter’.

acceleration

=a ∴ Reading on the weighing scale F4/2/88b

is decreased by ma.

weighing machine

mg

F4/2/88a

SPM

38 ’06/P1

balance hanging from the ceiling of a lift.

The reading on the spring balance

= The tension in the spring, T

10

20

30

40

T = mg

50

60

70

= 1.6 × 10

T = 16 N

(b) When the lift is accelerating upwards: F

O

T1 – mg = ma

2

R

T1 = 1.6 × 10 + 1.6 × 2 Apparent weight (the

CHAPTER

W = mg M

= 19.2 N reading on the scale)

Figure 2.71 increases when object

accelerates upwards. 4

F4/2/203

What is the reading on the spring balance if

(a) the lift is stationary? (c) When the lift is accelerating downwards:

(b) the lift moves upwards at an acceleration of mg – T2 = ma

2 m s–2? T2 = 1.6 × 10 – 1.6 × 3 Apparent weight (the

= 11.2 N reading on the scale)

(c) the lift moves downwards at an acceleration of decreases when object

3 m s–2? accelerates downwards.

[Take g = 10 m s–2]

Help! I am floating!

What is the apparent weight of a girl on a weighing scale Solution

in a lift if the cable of the lift suddenly breaks? The girl, the weighing scale and the lift will free-fall if the

cable suddenly breaks.

⇒ a = g

R = mg – ma

= mg – mg

0

= 0

‘weightlessness’. She feels as if she is ‘floating’.

Pulley System

2 The tension, T that results from pulling at the ends of the string or rope

has the same magnitude along its entire length.

In this situation, the tension T, is equal to the pulling force F, even if

the rope is slanting.

boy is pulling a bucket filled with sand. The mass of the bucket with the sand is

A

3 kg. Find the tension in the rope if the bucket is

i(i) stationary, or

(ii) moving up with a constant velocity of 2 m s–1.

Solution

Whether the bucket is stationary or moving up with a constant velocity,

the acceleration, a = 0.

Applying Fnet = ma,

T – mg = ma

T – (3 × 10) = 0

T = 30 N

F

O he boy increases his force to move the bucket upwards with an acceleration of

T

2

R

2 m s–2. Find the applied force, F.

CHAPTER

M

Solution

4

Since the bucket is moving upwards, T > mg.

Applying Fnet = ma,

T – mg = ma

T – (3 × 10) = 3 × 2

T =

F 6 + 30

O

= 36 N

2

R

Applied force, F = 36 N

CHAPTER

1 The heavier mass will accelerate downwards while the lighter

one will accelerate upwards with the same magnitude.

2 The tension is not equal to the weight of either mass.

39

Two masses of 5 kg and 3 kg are connected to a rope Applying Fnet = ma,

which passes over a frictionless pulley. Mg – T = Ma

50 – T = 5a ……(i)

Applying Fnet = ma,

T – mg = ma

T – 30 = 3a ……(ii)

(i) + (ii): 50 – 30 = 8a

8a = 20

a = 2.5 m s–2

Acceleration, a = 2.5 m s–2

Figure 2.72

Substitute the value of a into equation (ii).

Find the tension in the rope and the acceleration of T – 30 = 3 × 2.5

the 3 kg mass when the 5 kg mass is released. T = 30 + 7.5

Solution = 37.5 N

When the 5 kg mass is released, it moves downwards

Tension in the rope, T = 37.5 N

at an acceleration of a (weight Mg > T).

9 SPM

Clone

’07

For Example 39, if you need to find the acceleration

only, you can solve the problem by considering the two A stone falls from a height of 20 m. What is the time

masses together. taken for the stone to reach the ground?

The weight of 50 N overcomes the weight of 30 N. A 1.4 s C 2.8 s

Applying Fnet = ma, B 2.0 s D 3.6 s

50 – 30 = (5 + 3)a Since both the

20 = 8a masses are Solution

a = 2.5 m s–2 moving together. u = 0 m s–1, a = 10 m s–2, s = 20 m

1

Applying s = ut + at 2,

2

40 1

20 = 0 + (10)t 2

F

2 O

2

A 2 kg weight is connected by a rope to a 3 kg R

5t2 = 20

CHAPTER

wooden block. The rope passes over a smooth pulley M

t 2 = 4––

as shown in Figure 2.73.

t = 4 4

= 2 s

Answer B

10 SPM

Clone

’09

coconut falling from a

The weight is then released. Find the tension in the tree.

rope if a friction of 5 N acts against the wooden block. Which of the following

Solution graphs correctly shows

the relationship between

the gravitational force, F

and the mass, m, of the

coconut?

A

F C F

Applying Fnet = ma,

20 – T = 2a ……(i) B

F D F

F4/2/209

For the wooden block, motion is to the right.

Applying Fnet = ma,

T – 5 = 3a ……(ii)

m m

(i) + (ii): 20 – 5 = 5a

5a = 15 Comments

a = 3 m s–2

Substitute a into equation (ii). Gravitational force (weight), w = mg (i.e. F = mg).

T – 5 = 3 × 3 Since g is constant, so F m.

T = 9 + 5 The corresponding graph is a straight line passing

= 14 N through the origin.

∴ Tension in the rope = 14 N Answer C

2.8

1 An object weighs 60 N on the surface of the Earth If the distance between the water surface and his

where the gravitational field strength is 10 N kg–1. hands is 9 m, what is

What is the weight of the object on a planet where (a) the time, and

the gravitational field strength is 18 N kg–1? (b) the velocity

2 Mustafa steps off a 3.0 m high diving board and when the stone strikes the water surface?

drops to the water below. Find his velocity when his 5 A ball is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of

leg touches the water. 20 m s–1. At what height will the ball be when its

3 Alvin tosses a coin up. The coin takes 1.2 s to return velocity reduces to half?

to his hand.

6 A student of mass 50 kg stands on a weighing scale

F in a lift. If the reading on the scale becomes 550 N,

O is the lift accelerating upwards or downwards?

2

CHAPTER

M

7 Find the tension in the rope and the acceleration of

4 the 2 kg weight in each of the following figures.

(a) (b)

Find F

(a) the initial velocity of the coin, O

2

CHAPTER

M

4 A man releases a stone into a well.

4

SPM

the surface of the Moon. Given that the gravitational

Clone

’03 acceleration on the Moon equals

1

of Earth’s

6

gravitational acceleration, find the time taken by the

sphere to reach the surface of the Moon.

SPM SPM

Forces In Equilibrium ’07/P1 ’08/P1

been discussed in Section 2.5. air resistance, G

2 When forces are in equilibrium, the net

force, Fnet or resultant force, FR is zero. The

object will either be W=G

(a) at rest, or

(b) in motion with constant velocity.

3 Examples of two forces in equilibrium are constant

(a) a skydiver falling at a constant velocity, velocity

weight, W

(b) a book resting on a table.

(a) A skydiver falling at constant velocity

normal reaction force, R

Addition of Forces and Resultant Force

R=W

1 In Figure 2.76(a), the two forces of 3 N and

4 N, pushing a wooden block of mass 2 kg on

a smooth surface in the same direction cause

weight, W = mg the block to accelerate at 3.5 m s–2.

(a) a = 3.5 m s-2

Figure 2.74

F

equilibrium of forces, including an object at O

rest on an inclined plane where three forces

2

R

are in equilibrium. The resultant force on the a = 3.5 m s-2

CHAPTER

M

object is zero.

4

normal reaction force, R (exerted by

surface on the object)

smooth surface

n

tio

rough fric (b) Same acceleration (effect) when a force of 7 N

surface

replaces the two forces 3 N and 4 N

Figure 2.76

weight, W = mg 2 Figure 2.76(b) shows that if the two forces are

replaced with a single force of 7 N, it will still

Figure 2.75 accelerate at 3.5 m s–2.

3 Thus, the effect of pushing the block with 7 N

5 A tilted surface is called an inclined plane. is the same as pushing it with 3 N and 4 N in

6 To understand better how three forces work in the same direction, i.e., the block accelerates at

equilibrium, we need to understand 3.5 m s–2.

(a) the resultant force of two forces, and 4 For the example discussed, 7 N is the resultant

(b) the resolution of a force. force of the combined forces of 3 N and 4 N.

5 The resultant force is defined as a single

force that will produce the same effect as the

two or more combined forces that it replaces.

To Find the Resultant Force

SPM

(I) Two Parallel Forces ’09/P1

= =

larger one (to find the difference in magnitude

Add the magnitudes of the two forces.

between the two forces).

The resultant force is in the same direction as the

The resultant force is in the direction of the larger

two forces.

force.

Resultant force, F = F1 + F2

Resultant force, F = F2 – F1

(II) Two Non-parallel Forces (forces at an angle to each other acting at a point) Resultant force, FR

the tail of F1 to the

non-parallel forces.

For example, how to determine the resultant force of the two forces F1

and F2 acting at an angle θ to each other as shown in Figure 2.77?

2 Instead, we can determine the resultant force by drawing scaled Figure 2.77

diagrams using the two methods below.

SPM

Method (I) ’07/P1

F Figure 2.78 shows a scaled diagram of the triangle of forces constructed to determine the resultant force of the

O two forces, F1 and F2, acting at an angle θ to each other (Figure 2.77).

2

R First, choose a suitable scale for the two forces, for example, 1 cm : 20 kN.

CHAPTER

M Then, follow the steps below to determine the resultant force. Complete the triangle by

connecting the tail of F1 to

4 Draw F2 according to the the tip of F2.

Draw the force F1 according scale, with its tail starting B B

4

to the scale. from the tip of F1.

1 3 FR

F2 F2

θ θ

O A F O O

F1 F1 A F1 A

O 2 5

2

CHAPTER

the angle AOB.

4

Figure 2.78

F4/2/93

Method (II)

Figure 2.79 shows a scaled diagram of the parallelogram of forces constructed to determine the resultant of two

forces, F1 and F2 acting at an angle θ to each other (Figure 2.77).

First, choose a suitable scale for the two forces, for example, 1 cm : 50 N.

Then, follow the steps below to determine the resultant force.

With the help of a protractor,

Complete the parallelogram Draw the diagonal of the

measure θ , then draw F 2 so

using a pair of compasses. parallelogram.

that the tails of both forces F 1

and F 2 start at O. 3 4

2 B

C B C

C

F2 FR

F2 F2

θ θ θ

A O A

O O A F1

F1 F1

5

1 This diagonal represents the

Draw the force, F 1 according magnitude and direction of the

to the chosen scale. resultant force, F R.

Figure 2.79

Note that the tails of both forces F1 and F2, and the tail of the resultant force, FR are all at the same point, O and

FR is in between F1 and F2.

F4/2/94

[Note: More students prefer Method (II) to Method (I).]

41

An ocean liner is towed into harbour by two tugs, A and B, exerting forces of 12 kN and 10 kN

respectively and the tow-ropes making an angle of 68°. Find the resultant force acting on the liner.

12 kN

68°

10 kN B

F

O

2

Figure 2.80 R

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M

Solution 4

Use a scale of 1 cm : 2 kN (if a scale of l cm : 1 kN is used, the diagram would be too large).

4

Complete the parallelogram by

using a pair of compasses.

C B and the centre of circle at C.

and the centre of circle

at A.

3

Draw a line, OC, of 5

6 cm to represent Draw the diagonal OB.

the 12 kN force 6 cm FR

from point O.

F2

6

Measure the angle after

drawing diagonal OB.

2 68°

Measure 68º from OA

38° F1

using a protractor.

O 5 cm A

1

Draw a line, OA, of 5 cm to

represent the 10 kN force.

The resultant force, FR, is represented in both magnitude and direction by the diagonal OB.

Length of OB = 9.2 cm

∴ Magnitude of the resultant force, FR = 9.2 × 2 kN

= 18.4 kN

∠AOB = 38°

The ocean liner is pulled forward by a resultant force of 18.4 kN at an angle of 38° to the 10 kN force.

Note: There is no need to draw the scaled diagram following the original directions of F1 and F2 as long as the

angle between them is correctly measured.

[Note: If you prefer to solve the problem by calculation, please refer to Example 48 in page 117.]

(III) Two Perpendicular Forces Figure 2.81 shows the two forces (F1 and F2)

together with the resultant force, FR using the

This is a special situation for two non-parallel forces parallelogram rule.

acting on an object at a right angle to each other. The resultant force is obtained using Pythagoras’

theorem.

FR

F2 F2 F

• tan θ = 2

F1

θ

F1 Note: You can also solve the problem by drawing a scale

F diagram as discussed in section (II).

O Figure 2.81

2

R

CHAPTER

4 42

Samy and Heng Gee pull a crate with forces of 70 N Solution

and 90 N respectively. A sketch of the forces is drawn.

Heng Gee

F

O

2

R 70 N FR

CHAPTER

M

F2 = 70 N θ

4

90 N

= 114 N

70

tan θ = = 0.7778

Samy The incorrect

90 way to determine the resultant force

using the parallelogram rule:

Figure 2.82 tan θ = 37.9°

D force is 114 N C

The resultant which acts in a direction

Find the resultant force on the crate due to these two 37.9° from the original 90 N force.

forces.

F2 FR

BD represents the

resultant force.

A F1 B

using the parallelogram rule: To find the resultant force using the parallelogram

rule, the tails of the three forces FR, F1 and F2 must

D C

originate from the same point.

D C

F2 FR

BD represents the

resultant force. F2 FR

AC represents the

resultant force.

A F1 B

A F1 B

Remember:

Forces and Motion 114

To find the resultant force using the parallelogram

rule, the tails of the three forces FR, F1 and F2 must

originate from the same point.

Resolution of Forces SPM 5 The magnitudes of the vertical and horizontal

’03/P2

components can be determined with

1 Since two forces can combine to give a single knowledge of simple trigonometry. We need to

resultant force, therefore by reversing the know the magnitudes only since the direction

process, a single force can also be resolved or is already known.

broken up into two components. Refer to Figure 2.83(b).

2 This reverse process is known as the

resolution of forces. For ∆ OAB: For ∆ OBC:

3 Usually, a force is resolved into components Fx Fy

cos θ = sin θ =

which are perpendicular to each other. F F

4 Figure 2.83(a) shows a single force, F. Applying

the parallelogram rule, the force F is resolved ∴ F = F cos θ ∴ F = F sin θ

x y

F

into a pair of perpendicular components: the

O

vertical force, Fy and the horizontal force, Fx.

2

R

CHAPTER

M

C B

θ

4

Fy = F sin θ

F Fy F Horizontal component, Fx = F cos θ, and vertical

component, Fy = F sin θ, are not fixed formulae.

θ θ It depends on the position of θ.

O Fx A Fx = F cos θ Generally, you can take the component at the given

angle θ as F cos θ and the other component as F sin θ.

(a) (b) (c) Please study Example 43 carefully.

Figure 2.83

43

Find the horizontal and vertical components for each To find the vertical component:

of the following forces. Fy = F sin θ

= 80 × sin 60°

120 N = 80 × 0.866

60°

80 N = 69.3 N upwards

(b)

60° 120 sin 60°

60°

Figure 2.84

120 cos 60°

Solution

(a)

θ is 60° from vertical line.

80 N

80 sin 60° To find the horizontal component:

60°

Fx = F sin θ

= 120 × sin 60°

80 cos 60°

= 120 × 0.866

= 103.9 N to the left

θ is 60° from horizontal line.

To find the horizontal component: To find the vertical component:

Fx = F cos θ Fy = F cos θ

= 80 × cos 60° = 120 × cos 60°

= 80 × 0.5 = 120 × 0.5

= 40 N to the right = 60 N downwards

* Please take note of the position of the angle .

44

A boy is pulling a toy car with a force of 6 N as shown Solution

in Figure 2.85.

6 sin 30°

6N

30°

6 cos 30°

F Figure 2.85 = 6 × 0.866 = 5.2 N

O Since the toy car is in dynamic equilibrium (a = 0), the

Find the horizontal component of the force. If the toy

2

car is moving with constant velocity, what is the

CHAPTER

M ∴ Friction = 5.2 N

friction against the toy car?

4

45 SPM

’03/P1

O

35 N. The friction against the box is 8 N. 35 N

2

R

25°

CHAPTER

M

8N 35 cos 25°

4 8N

35N

25°

8N

Since the crate moves along the floor, only the

horizontal forces need to be considered.

Figure 2.86

Applying Fnet = ma,

What is the acceleration ofF4/2/97

the crate? 35 cos 25° – 8 = 5a

Solution 23.7 = 5a

a = 4.7 m s–2

First, resolve the pulling force into its horizontal and

vertical components.

46

A gardener pushes a (c) If the gardener pulls the handle with the same

250 kg concrete roller force in a reverse direction, what is the total

with a force of 200 N downward force on the ground then?

directed from the handle. 33° (d) In which direction, pushing or pulling, would the

200 N

The handle is at an roller be more effective in levelling the grass?

angle of 33° to

Solution

the horizontal.

Figure 2.87 Resolve the force into horizontal and vertical components.

F4/2/98

(a) Find the horizontal and vertical components of the

force.

(b) What is the weight of the concrete roller?

What is the total downward force on the ground?

(a) To find the horizontal component: Resultant vertical force on the ground

Fx = F cos θ = Weight + Vertical component

= 200 × cos 33° = 2500 + 109 = 2609 N

= 200 × 0.8387 (c) When the gardener pulls the roller:

= 168 N to the right The vertical component of the force

To find the vertical component: = 109 N upwards

Fy = F sin θ Resultant vertical force on the ground

= 200 × sin 33° = Weight – Vertical component

= 200 × 0.5446 = 2500 – 109 = 2391 N

= 109 N downwards (d) When the gardener pushes the roller, the net

(b) Weight, W = mg = 250 × 10 downward force is greater. This makes it more

= 2500 N effective in levelling the grass.

F

O

2

47 R

CHAPTER

M

Eric and Darren are pulling a trolley on which their What is

sister, Tina is sitting. Both Eric and Darren pull the (a) the total of the forces towards the left? 4

rope with a force of 50 N, which makes an angle of (b) the acceleration of Tina and the trolley?

30° with the direction of motion.

Solution

Resolving the tension forces into components.

a

50 N 50 sin 30°

50 cos 30°

30° 40 N

40 N

30°

50 cos 30°

50 N 50 sin 30°

of the forces.

Total forces to the left

= 2 × 50 cos 30° – 40

Figure 2.88 = 2 × 50 × 0.866 – 40 = 46.6 N

(b) Fnet = ma

The total mass of Tina and the trolley is 30 kg and the 46.6 = 30a

friction between the trolley and the floor is 40 N. a = 1.6 m s–2

To Find the Resultant Force of Two Forces at an Angle to Each Other by Calculation

48

Find the resultant force 8N

First resolve the 8 N force into its vertical and

of the two forces as 120° horizontal components.

shown in Figure 2.89. Total vertical force = 8 sin 60° = 6.93 N

12 N

Total horizontal force to the right = 12 – 8 cos 60°

Figure 2.89 = 12 – 4 = 8 N

Solution F4/2/239 ∴ FR = 82 + 6.932 = 10.6 N

8N 8 sin 60° FR 6.93

tan θ = ____

6.93 N

60° 120°

8

12 N 8 cos 60° 12 N 8N

θ = 41°

∴ The resultant force is 10.6 N at an angle of 41° to

12 N.

F4/2/240

The Effective Components of a Weight on an Inclined Plane

2 The weight of the box is W = mg. The weight can be resolved into two perpendicular

components:

(a) the component vertical or perpendicular to the plane = mg cos θ,

(b) the component down or parallel to the plane = mg sin θ.

F θ

O

2

R θ W = mg

CHAPTER

F θ sθ

sin θ mg co

mOg

2

R W = mg

θ

CHAPTER

4

Figure 2.90

3 To solve problems involving inclined planes, weight is replaced with its two perpendicular

components. F4/2/99

Object in equilibrium on a rough inclined plane

inclined plane

• The figure below shows a box at rest on an • The figure below shows a box on a smooth

inclined plane. inclined plane.

normal reaction force, R

• For an object on a smooth inclined plane, the

vertical Rcomponents of the forces are balanced.

g

n vin n

oHowever, the force downne the plane is not balanced.

tm a pla

tio

F fric

n, jec ith n th

ict

io ob wn w ratio oo

fr do cele sm R

in θ ac a θ

gs sin vin

g

m mg mo h an ne

mg cos θ ctmg t

i cosnθ pla

je th

θ θ ob wn w ratio oo

do cele sm

ac a θ

• Since the box is at rest: sin

mg

The net force perpendicular to the plane = 0 mg cos θ

θ

R – mg cos θ = 0

Applying Fnet = ma,

The net force parallel to the plane = 0

mg sin θ = ma

Ffriction – mg sin θ = 0

a = g sin θ

Therefore: F4/2/100

If θ = 30°, If θ = 60°,

R = mg cos θ a = 10 sin 30° a = 10 sin 60°

Ffriction = mg sin θ = 5 m s–2 = 8.66 m s–2

∴ The greater the inclined angle, the greater its

acceleration.

49

A carton of mass 5 kg is at rest on an inclined plane making an angle of 15° with the horizontal.

Find the frictional force and the normal force acting on the carton.

Solution

l

ma

F nor FR

g

5k

t ion

fric

° 15°

15 50 cos 15°

s in 50

15°

W = mg 50 15°

F

O

2

Friction, FR = mg sin θ Fnormal = mg cos θ R

= 5 × 10 × sin 15°

CHAPTER

= 5 × 10 × cos 15° M

= 50 × 0.2588 = 50 × 0.9659 4

= 12.9 N = 48.3 N

50

Figure 2.91 shows a horizontal force, F acts on a wooden block of weight 8 N placed on a smooth plane inclined at

30° to the horizontal.

ne

pla

o th

F smo

30° W=8N

Figure 2.91

What must the magnitude of F be to prevent the block from sliding down?

Solution

Resolving the force, F and W(= mg) parallel to the plane.

(The vertical component does not play a role because when the block is in motion, it will only move along the

plane.)

°

30

F os

Fc °

30° 30

in

30° 30° m gs

os sin

F c mg 30° W = mg 30°

Forces along the plane

F cos θ = mg sin θ

F cos 30° = 8 sin 30°

8 × 0.5

F =

0.866°

= 4.6 N

Three Forces in Equilibrium

(a) Method A: Resolution of forces

(b) Method B: Drawing a closed triangle of forces

51

A 6 kg weight is suspended from a hook in the ceiling

as shown in Figure 2.92. A horizontal string pulls the T1

F supporting string so that the latter makes an angle of

O 50° T2

50° with the horizontal. Find the tensions in both

2

R

strings.

CHAPTER

4

6 kg

60 N

Figure 2.92

F

Solution

O

2

Method A: Resolution of forcesR Method B: By drawing a closed triangle of forces

CHAPTER

M

The slanting force, T1 is resolved as shown. Starting with any one of the three forces, a triangle

4 of forces is drawn. Let’s say you start with OA

which represents the weight, 60 N.

T1 sin 50°

T1 a Draw the line OA with an arrow, to represent

T2 T1 cos 50° T2 60 N.

50°

b Starting from A, draw line AB which represents

60 N 60 N T2.

c Then, starting from B, draw the line BO which

represents T1 to complete the triangle. The

directions of the three forces follow an

Since the weight is in equilibrium, therefore:

anticlockwise direction. However, if you draw

Vertically:

in sequence 60 N, T1 and T2, you’ll get a triangle

of forces that show a clockwise direction.

Total force upwards = Total force downwards O O O

a b c

T1 sin 50° = 60

60 T1

T1 = 60 N 60 N

sin 50° 60 N

50°

60 A A B A B

= T2 T2

0.7660

After drawing the triangle, use simple trigonometry

= 78.3 N

to solve the problem.

Horizontally: 60 60

= sin 50° = tan 50°

T1 T

2

Total force to the left = Total force to the right 60 60

T1 = T2 =

T1 cos 50° = T2 sin 50° 50°

tan

T2 = 78.3 × 0.6428 60 60

= = 78.3 N = = 50.3 N

= 50.3 N 0.7660 1.192

52

Joan and her sister lift a pail of water of total mass

5.6 kg. Each of them exerts a force of F at 25° to the F cos 25° F cos 25°

25° 25°

vertical. Find the magnitude of F. F F F sin 25° F sin 25°

56 N 56 N

F F

25°

25°

We need to consider the vertical components of the

forces only.

F

Since the pail of water is in equilibrium:

O

Total force upwards = Total force downwards

2

R

2F cos 25° = 56

CHAPTER

M

W = mg 56 W = mg

F = 4

2 cos 25° = 5.6 × 10

Figure 2.93

F4/2/102 = 56 N

= 30.9 N

Solution Note: Method B is not suitable for this question as

Resolve F into its vertical and horizontal components. there is no right angle involved.

53

A lamp of weight 25 N is supported by two ropes as shown

in Figure 2.94. F

25°

F

Given that the tension in rope A is 20 N, find 25°

(a) the angle θ,

(b) the tension in rope B.

Solution

Resolve the forces into their components.

W = mg

T F4/2/102

T cos θ 20 cos 30° Figure 2.94

30° 20 N

θ

25 N 25 N

(a) For horizontal component: (b) Substitute θ = 52.5° into equation (i).

T sin θ = 20 sin 30° F4/2/253

T sin 52.5° = 10

T sin θ = 10 ……(i) 10

T =

sin 52.5°

For vertical component:

T cos θ + 20 cos 30° = 25 = 12.6 N

T cos θ = 25 – 20 cos 30° ∴ Tension in rope B = 12.6 N

T cos θ = 7.68 ……(ii)

T sin θ 10

(i) ÷ (ii): T cos θ = 7.68

tan θ = 1.302

θ = 52.5°

Each elephant in the diagram below is pulling a rope Vertical component:

attached to a mass of 10 kg. The elephants pull with a 2 × 5000 cos θ = 100

force of 5000 N. 100

cos θ = 2 × 5000

= 0.01

5000 N

θ = 89.4°

θ θ 5000 N The angle between the rope, 2θ = 2 × 89.4° = 178.8°

10 kg

See the explanation below.

F Let T = tension in this rope.

O Find the angle between the ropes. 2T cos θ = 100

2

R Can the ropes be pulled to become horizontal? Supposing θ = 90° The rope is

horizontal.

CHAPTER

M 100

Solution T =

2 cos θ

4 Resolve the forces into their components:

50

5000 cos θ 5000 cos θ =

cos 90°

θ Value cannot be

θ

50 determined.

5000 N 5000 N =

0

5000 sin θ 5000 sin θ

F

Note: You may try to use θ = 89.99999° and see what is

O

the value of tension in the rope, T.

2

100 N 100 N

R

CHAPTER

F4/2/103 4

11 SPM

Clone

’04

nail First, indicate the directions of tension forces along

tension,T1

the string. Since the poster is in equilibrium, the

tension,T2 three forces should then form a closed triangle of

forces.

T1

T2

T1

weight, W

W

T2

Which of the following triangles of forces shows the

forces, T1, T2 and W acting on the poster? W

A B C D

Remember:

Draw the second force from the tip of the first force.

F4/2/259

Then, draw the third force from the tip of the second

force to complete the triangle.

Answer A

12 SPM

Clone

’06

string as shown below. 3

A

Measure 30°, same

reasoning as 2 . Then

30° draw line AC to intersect

1 with BC.

Draw a vertical

T T line of 6 cm (to T

represent the

weight of 12 N).

60° 60°

6 cm

(12 N) C

F

O

2

R

CHAPTER

T M

2

30° Measure 30° using a 4

protractor (since the string

Draw a scale drawing of a triangle of forces to makes 30° to the vertical).

Draw a line BC.

determine the tension, T in the string. B

(Use the scale 1 cm : F4/2/104a

2 N)

Measure the length of BC.

BC = 3.4 cm F4/2/104b

∴ Tension, T = 3.4 × 2 N = 6.8 N

2.9

1 Two forces of 60 N and 80 N act on an object. 4 In a circus, a monkey is pulling his chain with a

Find forward force of 20 N as

(a) the greatest and the smallest forces that can be shown in the figure.

exerted,

(b) the resultant force if the force 80 N is acting to

the right and is at right angles to the 60 N force,

(c) the resultant force if the force 80 N is acting to

the right and is at 120° to the 60 N force.

2 Two astronauts push a

800 kg satellite with 45 N

forces of 35 N and 45 N What force does the clown need to apply to the

which make an angle of chain to prevent the monkey from moving forward?

35 N

60° with each other. 5 A footballer is injured and requires traction on his

Find the resultant force foot as shown in the figure below.

and the acceleration

acquired by the satellite.

3 Aunty Anne is

ironing with a

force of 6 N as

shown in the

figure.

What is the effective force that pushes the iron If the force of the traction is 125 N, what is the mass,

forwards? m required to pull the rope?

6 A boy exerts a force of F to pull a box of mass 2 kg 8 A wooden block is placed on top of a smooth

up an inclined plane which makes an angle of 30° runway of length 2 m. The angle of inclination with

with the floor. the floor is 30°. Find

(a) the time and

(b) the velocity of the block

when it reaches the bottom of the runway.

F

9 A bird of mass 0.6 kg stands on the midpoint of a

tion horizontal rope. The rope sags and an angle of 150°

Fric N is formed.

= 3

30°

F

O (a) the normal reaction force, R acting on the box,

2

CHAPTER

with an acceleration of I m s–2.

4 Find the tension in the rope.

shown in the figure. The rope attached to the wall is 10 A traffic light of mass 15 kg is suspended from

horizontal and the rope attached to the ceiling two cables as shown in the figure.

makes an angle of 30° with the horizontal.

F

40° 50°

O

40°

2

R 50°

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M T2

T1

m = 15 kg

Find the tension in each rope. Find the tension in each cable.

2.10 Understanding Work, Energy, Power and Efficiency

SPM

Work ’03/P1

1 Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force.

F F

s

F

s

(a) A manF4/2/105a

pushing a bicycle (b) A weightlifter lifting a barbell

Figure 2.95 F4/2/105b

2 The work done, W is defined as the product 4 One joule is the work done when a force of

of the force, F and the displacement, s in the one newton moves an object over a distance of

direction of the force. one metre, in the direction of the force.

Displacement in the 1m

Work done = Force × 1N

direction of the force

∴ W = F × s

Figure 2.96

F4/2/106a

Work is a scalar quantity.

O

2

R

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M

1 Force, F in the same direction as the 2 Force, F at an angle to the displacement, s

displacement, s 4

F sin θ

F F

F F θ θ F cos θ

s s

a distance

b of s, in the The object does notF4/2/106

move in c the direction of F.

direction of the force. Instead, the horizontal component of the force,

F cos , moves the object on the surface of the floor.

W = F × s Work done, W

Horizontal Displacement in the

= component × direction of the force

= F cos θ × s

∴ W = Fs cos θ

54

55

A worker in a hypermarket pushes a trolley full of

goods with a horizontal force of 120 N for a Man Ling pulls a luggage with a force of 30 N that is

displacement of 15 m. What is the work done by him? applied along the handle at an angle of 40° to the

horizontal. How much work has she done after

Solution walking a distance of 15 m horizontally?

Solution

120 N 120 N

N N

30 30

15 m 40°

F4/2/107 are in the same

15 m

direction.

∴ Work done, W = F × s

= 120 × 15 Work done, W = Fs cosF4/2/108

θ

= 1800 J = 30 × 15 × cos 40° = 345 J

SPM

No work is done when … ’08/P1

(a) James stands still for the displacement, s

30 minutes holding some F = 20 N

A waiter walks a distance of 5 m holding a tray of

books of 20 N. What is the food that weighs 10 N. How much work has the

work done on the books? waiter done to the tray?

direction of motion

W = 20 N

F = 10 N

F

O (b) Nicholas pushes a concrete wall in his

2

R

classroom with a force of 20 N for 30 minutes.

CHAPTER

M weight = 10 N

How much work does he do on the wall?

4 wall

5m

20 N

Solution

The waiter exerts an upward force of 10 N while he

F

O is holding the tray. When he walks forward a

2

CHAPTER

Solution of the force is zero.

4

Work done, W = F × 0 = 0

Work done, W = F × s

= 20 × 0 Alternative method

=0 Use the formula: W = Fs cos θ

Both James and Nicholas will get tired but there F = 10 N, s = 5 m, θ = 90°

is no work done on the books or the wall as the ∴ W = Fs cos θ = 10 × 5 × 0 = 0

force does not move. This means that there is no work done to the tray.

56

1 An upward force must be applied to lift an object

Auntie Sarimah mops

of weight, mg newton, to a height of h metres.

the floor by using a

force of 9 N at an angle 4m

F (= mg)

of 60° to the floor. 60°

How much work has

she done after mopping 9N

a total distance of 4 m?

h

weight

= mg

Figure 2.97

Figure 2.98

Solution 2 The work done is the same as the force

The angle between the force and displacement is 60°. multiplied by the distance, in the direction of

Work done, W = Fs cos θ the force–that is,

= 9 × 4 × cos 60° where F is equal to and

Work done = F × h opposite in direction to

= 18 J W = mg × h the weight, mg.

57

A carton of weight, mg newton, is lifted to the top of a Solution

flight of stairs. (a) Work done

Displacement in the

= Force ×

F direction of the force

W = mg × h

= mgh

h

Reminder

Work done ≠ mg × or mg × b because the

mg

force, F (= mg) acts vertically over a height h. F

b

The work done is not dependent on the path O

2

Figure 2.99 taken i.e. or b, but on the vertical height R

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M

reached.

(a) What is the work done? F4/2/111

(b) If the mass of the carton is 2 kg and the height of 4

the stairs is 60 cm, calculate the work done by the (b) If m = 2 kg, g = 10 m s–2, h = 60 cm = 0.6 m

worker. [Take g = 10 m s–2] ∴ The work done, W = mgh

F

= 2 × 10 × 0.6

= 12 J

h

mg SPM

Energy ’06/P1

b

2 The SI unit of energy is the joule, J. It has the same unit as work.

3 Energy is a scalar quantity. F4/2/111

Heat energy is a type of

energy stored in an object Kinetic energy is the the energy stored in a

energy associated with

due to its position. energy that a body has due compressed/stretched spring

temperature.

to its motion. or elastic material.

FORMS OF ENERGY

Sound energy is the energy which is released Nuclear energy is the Electrical energy is the

energy created when an during a chemical reaction. energy released by a energy of electric charges

object vibrates. Batteries and food store nuclear reaction. or electric currents.

chemical energy.

Energy Transfer and Work Done

A weightlifter displaces a barbell from the ground to a A pitcher throws a baseball towards a batter.

height above his head. Work is done to lift the barbell.

F

O Chemical energy Kinetic energy

2

The work done transfers the chemical energy in the

CHAPTER

M

The chemical energy (stored in food) in the F4/2/113

pitcher’s body to the baseball. The chemical energy

4 weightlifter is transferred to the barbell which is converted to kinetic energy due to the motion of

possesses energy due to its position, that is, the the ball.

gravitational potential energy.

F

2 Work done is the medium forO transferring energy from one object to another.

2

R

CHAPTER

M

Potential Energy

4

1 The potential energy of an object is defined as the energy stored in the object because of its

position or its state.

2 There are two types of potential energy.

Example: A ball raised above the floor Example: A wound coil-spring in a toy car

final position

ball

Elastic potential energy will be discussed in

mass = m kg initial position Section 2.12.

SPM

Gravitational Potential Energy ’04/P1 F

constant velocity to a height, h metres above

the Earth’s surface.

2 Since the box is moving with constant

velocity, its acceleration is zero. mg

3 Thus, the net force acting on the box is zero. h

This means that the upward force, F is equal to

the weight of the box (= mg).

F = mg (in magnitude)

Figure 2.100

F4/2/114

Forces and Motion 128

4 Since the force moves a displacement of h to

lift the box, work is done by the force. 58

Displacement A pole-vaulter of mass 55 kg clears the bar at 6.0 m.

Work done, W = Force × in the direction What is his potential energy at the highest point?

of force [Take g = 10 m s–2]

= F × s Solution

= mg × h

= mgh

It has changed into one form of energy which, 6.0 m

in this case, is the gravitational potential F

energy, Ep stored in the box because of its O

2

vertical position above the ground. R

CHAPTER

M

W Ep

Ep = W 4

= mgh Potential energy, Ep = mgh

= 55 × 10 × 6

∴ Ep = mgh = 3300 J

from position B to C. The h represents the Kinetic Energy

vertical height.

1 Kinetic energy, Ek, is the energy possessed by

an object due to its motion.

m kg

2 Consider a force F acting on a trolley of mass

m kg on a frictionless plane over a distance of s.

C The force accelerates the trolley from an initial

velocity, u (= 0 m s–1) to a velocity, v m s–1.

F

s

h

B A Figure 2.102

Since

m kg the trolley possesses kinetic energy, Ek

(because of its motion), which is acquired

When the ball is displaced from position B to because of the work done, we can reasonably

C

C, work is done. conclude that the kinetic energy of the trolley

Work done, W = F s cos θ F s is transferred from the work done.

=F×h h

=F×s F = ma

θ is the angle betweenBthe force A= mas

vector and the displacement vector. v 2 = u2+ 2as

Vertical height, h = s cos θ (v 2 – u2) (v 2 – u2)

=m as =

2 2

1 2

= mv u=0

7 Therefore, an object raised to a height, h 2

possesses a gravitational potential energy, 1 2

Ep = mgh, which is independent of the path ∴ Ek = mv

2

taken by the object.

59

A pitcher throws a baseball of mass 145 g with a

m m

speed of 20 m s–1. What is its kinetic energy?

v v' = 2v

Solution

Momentum p = mv p = mv

Kinetic energy, Ek = 2 mv

= 2p

1

= mv 2 u=0 Kinetic Ek = 1 mv2

E = 1 m(v)2

2 energy

2 2

1 2

= 2 m(2 v)

1

= × 0.145 × 20 × 20 145 g = 0.145 kg

F

O

2 = 4 1 mv2

2 ( )

2

R = 29 J = 4 Ek

CHAPTER

F

O

2

R interchangeable.

(a) Work done = Energy acquired, and

CHAPTER

M

(b) Energy = Work done

4

1 Figure 2.103 shows a coconut of mass, m kg 3 As the coconut falls to the ground, the

falling from a height of h metres to the gravitational potential energy, Ep decreases

ground. while the kinetic energy, Ek increases due to its

increasing velocity.

4 However, the sum of kinetic and potential

energy remains constant as the coconut falls.

5 When the coconut reaches the ground, all its

100% Ep

initial potential energy has been changed into

kinetic energy.

6 This is a typical example of the conservation

of energy.

h 50% Ep 7 The Principle of conservation of energy

50% Ek states that:

destroyed. It can be transformed

100% Ek

from one form to another, but the

total energy in a system is constant.

Figure 2.103

2

Before falling, the coconut possesses 8 Figure 2.104 shows another example of the

gravitational potential energy, EP = mgh. Since conservation of energy by an athlete during a

the coconut is at rest, its kinetic energy, Ek is zero. pole-vaulting event.

N

bar Ep(gravitational)

M

P

v Ep(elastic)

Ek

Ek(kinetic) L

Q

J K

F

O

Ek of running athlete → Elastic, EP of the bending pole → Gravitational potential energy, EP → Ek of athlete

2

R

CHAPTER

Figure 2.104 Transformation of energy during a pole-vaulting event M

Solution 4

60

1 1

(a) Kinetic energy, Ek = mu2 = × 2 × 102

A durian falls from a height of 6 m. What is the 2 2

velocity of the durian just before it strikes the = 100 J

ground? [Take g = 10 m s–2] (b) The kinetic energy is used to overcome the

Solution frictional force.

Initial kinetic Work done to

According to the Principle of conservation of energy: =

energy overcome friction

Kinetic energy gained = Potential energy lost

Ek = F × s

1 F = F rictional force

mv 2 = mgh 100 = F × 5

2 m is the

mass of F = 20 N

1

× v 2 = 10 × 6 the durian. (c) Heat energy gained = Kinetic energy lost = 100 J

2

v = 120

= 10.95 m s–1

62

The velocity of the durian before it strikes the ground

is 10.95 m s–1. Figure 2.106 shows a v=0

gymnast bouncing on a

trampoline. He moves

upwards at a velocity

of 8 m s–1. h=?

61 How high will he reach? u = 8 m s–1

A moving 2 kg object has an initial velocity of [Take g = 10 m s–2]

10 m s–1. It comes to a stop on a rough surface after

travelling a distance of 5 m.

10 m s–1

stop

Figure 2.106

2 kg

frictional force

rough surface Solution

5m

Potential energy gained = Kinetic energy lost

Figure 2.105 1

mgh = mv 2

Calculate 2

(a) the kinetic energy of the object, 1

10 × h = × 8 × 8

(b) the frictional force acting on the object, 2

(c) the heat energy produced. h = 3.2 m

63

At a children’s playground, Calvin of 30 kg mass Solution

climbs up a concrete slide of 2.3 m height. He slides (a) Change in potential energy

down the slope that has a length of 5 m. At the end of = mg∆h

the slope, which is 0.3 m above the ground, his = 30 × 10 × (2.3 – 0.3)

velocity is 1 m s–1. = 600 J

1

(b) Kinetic energy, Ek = mv 2

2

1

= × 30 × 1 × 1

2

F = 15 J

O (c) Let F be the frictional force. According to the

2

R

Principle of conservation of energy:

CHAPTER

M

Potential Kinetic Work done

+

4

energy lost = energy gained against friction

Figure 2.107

600 = 15 + (F × 5)

(a) What is his change in potential energy? 5F = 600 – 15

(b) What is his kinetic energy at the end of the slope? F = 585

(c) Find the average frictional F force against his 5 F = F rictional force

motion along the slope. [Take Og = 10 m s–2] = 117 N

2

R

CHAPTER

To pull or to lift?

The figure (a) shows a worker pulling a load of mass (c) Explain why the work done in (a) is greater than the

120 kg along a 3 m inclined wooden plane onto a lorry. work done in (b) even though the gain in gravitational

The tension in the rope is 600 N. potential energy of the load is the same.

Solution

worker lorry

(a) Pulling:

rope

Work done, Wa = F × s

600 N

load = 600 × 3

= 1800 J

3 m 0.9 m (b) Lifting vertically:

road

Work done, Wb = mg × h

(a) = 120 × 10 × 0.9

= 1080 J

(c) The work done in situation (a) is greater than that in

situation (b) because extra work is required to

overcome the friction between the load and the

0.9 m

inclined plane. The extra work done changes into

heat energy which dissipates to the surroundings.

(b) Extra info

(a) What is the work done by the worker to pull the load Then, why does the worker choose method (a)?

onto the lorry? Obviously, this is because he only needs to apply a lesser

(b) Instead of pulling, if the worker lifts the load vertically force to pull the load (600 N < 1200 N).

up a height of 0.9 m onto the lorry as shown in figure It is easier to raise a heavy load by pulling it along an

(b), how much work does he need to do? inclined surface than lifting it vertically. This is the function

[Take g = 10 m s–1] of an inclined plane.

Activ To show the principle of conservation of energy

ity 2.6

Apparatus/Materials Final velocity of the trolley and the weight just

before the weight hits the soft board, v

Ticker-timer with tape and power supply, thread, x

trolley, slotted weights with holder, smooth pulley =

5 × 0.02 s

on a clamp, metre rule, triple beam balance, trolley

x

runway, soft board, and cellophane tape. = cm s–1

0.1

2 Calculation:

Arrangement of apparatus Mass of trolley = M

Mass of weight = m F

ticker-timer Height of weight before its release = h O

2

trolley thread Final velocity of trolley and weight = v R

CHAPTER

pulley M

ticker (a) Loss of potential energy of the weight

tape

= mgh 4

1

the weight = (M + m) v2

soft board 2

Figure 2.108 It is found that:

F4/2/293 1

(M + m) v2 = mgh

2

Procedure

1 The mass of the trolley, M is determined using Discussion

the triple beam balance. 1 The loss of potential energy of the weight is not

2 A 150 g weight (m) is connected by a thread, converted to kinetic energy of the weight only.

which passes over a smooth pulley, to the front Part of it is converted to kinetic energy of the

of the trolley. trolley.

3 A friction-compensated runway is prepared and

the apparatus is set up as shown in Figure 2.108. 2 As the trolley and the weight are moving with

4 The height of the weight from the soft board, h the same speed, the total kinetic energy gained

is measured with a metre rule. 1

= (M + m) v 2.

5 The ticker-timer is switched on and the trolley is 2

released.

6 From the ticker tape obtained, the velocity of Conclusion

the trolley and the weight just before the weight

When the weight falls, the loss of its gravitational

hits the soft board is determined.

potential energy is equal to the gain in kinetic

energy of the trolley and the weight. Energy is

Results therefore conserved. The principle of conservation

of energy is thus verified.

1 Analysis of the ticker tape:

the soft board, the the soft board, the In practice, you may find that

trolley moves at a trolley moves with

constant velocity increasing velocity 1

(M + m) v2 < mgh.

2

Activity 2.6

direction

of This is because part of the potential energy lost is

motion

converted to sound energy and does work against

air resistance. The principle of conservation is still

Figure 2.109 true if these are included.

Power SPM 3 The larger units are the kilowatt (kW) and the

’04/P1

megawatt (MW).

1 Power, P is the rate at which work is done, or 1 kW = 1000 W or 103 W

the rate at which energy is transformed. 1 MW = 1 000 000 W = 106 W

4 Power is a scalar quantity as both the work

done and energy are scalar quantities.

Power, P = Work done

Time taken 5 Another unit of power is the horsepower (hp),

Energy transformed which is commonly used in electrical appliances

or P= such as air conditioners.

Time taken

1 hp = 746 W

2 The SI unit of power is the watt (W). 1 hp 3 kW

4

F 1 W = 1 J = 1 J s–1

O 1 s

Power depends on 2 factors:

2

R Work or energy

P= W = E

CHAPTER

M Time

t t

4

1 If t is constant: 2 If W or E is constant:

P∝W 1

P∝ t

Work done ↑, Power ↑

Time taken ↓, Power ↑

For example, F

Two librarians A and B are transferring

O books from For example,

2

R one book Two cars A and B of the same mass accelerate until

CHAPTER

to the table while librarian B carriesMtwo books. 80 km h–1. As both cars have the same mass, both

cars do the same amount of work to accelerate to

4

the same velocity.

t=5s

v = 80 km h–1

A

A

B B

t=0 t = 10 s

stationary v = 80 km h–1

In 10 s, librarian B does more work (lifting 20 takes 10 s to do so.

books as compared to 10 books by librarian A). Car A takes a shorter time to complete the work.

⇒ Librarian B generates more power. ⇒ Car A is more powerful.

ity 2.7

Apparatus/Materials

Weighing scales, stopwatch and ruler.

Arrangement of apparatus

Activity 2.7

Figure 2.110

Procedure Work done by the person in climbing the flight of stairs

= Weight × Vertical height of stairs

1 The mass of the person, m is determined using a

= mgh

weighing scale.

= mgnx

2 The time, t taken by the person to climb a flight

Work done

of stairs is measured with a stopwatch. Power generated by the person =

Time taken

3 The number of steps, n is counted and the height

of each step, x (in metre) is measured using a mgnx

=

ruler. t

Conclusion

Calculation The above method can be used to measure or

compare the power outputs of two or more persons.

Mass of person = m kg F

Note:

Number of steps = n O

The above method measures only the initial power

2

R

Height of each step = x m of the person. In the process of climbing up a flight

CHAPTER

M

of stairs (say, 200 steps) without stopping, the time

Time taken = t s

taken to climb every 10 steps increases as the 4

Vertical height of stairs, h = nx m person becomes tired and hence his/her power

Weight of person = mg N, where g = 10 N kg–1 progressively decreases.

64

A student who is undergoing National Service Work done, W = mgh

training has a mass of 45 kg and takes 6 s to climb a = 45 × 10 × 5.76

flight of stairs of 36 steps. If each step is 16 cm high, = 2592 J

how much power is generated by the student?

[Take g = 10 m s–2] Power generated by the student, P

Work done

Solution =

Time taken

First, find the vertical height, h of the stairs. 2592

h = nx =

6

= 36 × 0.16

n = number of stairs = 432 W

= 5.76 m

65

A stuntman (mass 60 kg) in a movie climbs up onto Power, P can also be expressed in terms of force,

the roof of a building of 56 m high. If the power F and velocity, v.

generated by the stuntman is 2.1 kW, how long does Power, P

it take him to complete this task? [Take g = 10 m s–2] Work done

= Work done = Force × Displacement

Solution Time taken

Time taken Time

2100 = mg × h = Force × Displacement

t Time

= 60 × 10 × 56 = Force × Velocity

Displacement

Change the unit of t Velocity =

Time

kilowatt to watt. 33 600 ∴ P=F×v

2.1 kW = 2100 W t=

2100

t = 16 s

66

A car is moving at a constant velocity of 30 m s–1. Solution

Since the car is moving at constant velocity,

Constant velocity

Fnet = ma = 0 ⇒a=0

engine

thrust

= 700 N

Figure 2.111

Power required, P = F × v

If the total resistance force (road friction and air = 700 × 30

F

O

resistance) acting on the car is 700 N, what is the = 21 000 W

power needed by the car to maintain this velocity?

2

R = 21 kW

CHAPTER

1 Heat engines such as a diesel or a petrol engine, and electric motors are

two common devices that convert F energy from one form into another,

usually mechanical energy. O

2

R

2 The pie chart in Table 2.12 shows the relationship between the total

CHAPTER

M

energy input and total energy output of an efficient device and an

inefficient device respectively.4

Table 2.12

Efficient device Inefficient device

wasted energy useful energy

output output

input energy output input energy output

F4/2/115a F4/2/115b

= Useful energy output + Wasted energy output

the energy input is converted into heat energy as a result

converted into useful of friction or air resistance. This heat is

energy output or lost to the surroundings and cannot

useful work done. be used to produce useful work.

3 Efficiency compares the useful energy output to the energy input.

The efficiency of a device:

Efficiency = × 100% terms of power.

Energy input

Eo (useful) E (useful)

Efficiency = o × 100%

= × 100% Ei

Ei

Eo The useful energy

output and the

t

= × 100% energy input terms

Ei are each divided

t by time.

If efficiency = 100%, then:

Useful energy output = Energy input Useful power output F

⇒ Perfect device ∴ Efficiency = × 100% O

Power input

2

R

P (useful)

CHAPTER

M

= o × 100%

Pi

4

However, this perfect situation is not

achievable, that is, efficiency < 100%.

4 Table 2.13 compares the efficiency of a petrol engine and efficiency of an electric motor.

Table 2.13

Less efficient device (Petrol engine) Efficient device (Electric motor)

wasted energy

(thermal energy) wasted energy

(75 J) (20 J)

energy useful energy

output energy output

100 J 100 J (80 J)

(25 J)

efficiency = 25% electric motor efficiency = 80%

petrol engine

A large portion of the heat produced at high The resultant heat which originates from friction or

Wasted energy

temperature in the engine is not converted into the heating of the coils in the motor is only a small

(Internal energy

kinetic energy of the car.

F4/2/116a portion of the energy input. of the car and

other energy)

100 J (Kinetik energy of

the motion of the car

To increase the efficiency of a device, we need to reduce the wasted energy output.

F4/2/116b

Case Energy input = Useful energy output + Wasted energy output Efficiency

(I) 100 J 60 J 40 J 60

= × 100%

100

= 60%

(II) 80 J 60 J 20 J 60

= × 100%

80

= 75%

produce the same device is able to

useful energy output. Same useful reduce the wasted Efficiency

energy output energy output. improved.

67 13 SPM

Clone

’10

A petrol engine has a work output of 96 kJ per The diagram shows a weight which is connected to

minute. What is the power input if the efficiency of a wooden block through a frictionless pulley with

the engine is 20%? an inelastic string.

Solution

Inelastic string

96 000 J Frictionless table

Frictionless

Power output =

60 s pulley

= 1600 W

P (useful)

F

Efficiency = o × 100% Wooden block

Pi

O Weight

Floor

2

R 1600

20% = × 100%

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M

P

i

4 160 000 What is the energy change in the system after the

Power input, Pi = weight is released?

20

A Potential energy of the wooden block ➞

= 8000 W

Kinetic Energy of the weight

B Potential energy of the weight ➞ Kinetic

F

O

energy of the wooden block

C Potential energy of the weight ➞ Kinetic

2

R

68 energy of the wooden block and weight

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M

D Potential energy of the weight and wooden

A crane lifts a load of 500 kg to a4height of 120 m in block ➞ Kinetic energy of wooden block

16 s.

Comment

When the weight moves downwards, its potential

energy is converted to the kinetic energy of both

the weight itself and the wooden block (since both

120 m are moving)

Answer C

Figure 2.112

of the motor used in the crane?

[Take g = 10 N kg–1]

Solution

Useful energy output = mgh

= 500 × 10 × 120

= 600 000 J Power

Energy input = Power × Time Energy

=

Time

= 45 000 × 16

= 720 000 J

E (useful)

Efficiency = o × 100%

Ei

= 600 000 × 100%

720 000

= 83.3%

14 SPM

Clone

’11

A ball bearing P is released at the top of a smooth plane as shown in the figure.

Smooth plane

Ball bearing P

0.6 m

Q

A 2.5 m s –1 O

2

B 3.5 m s –1 R

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C 4.9 m s –1 M

D 5.8 m s –1 4

Comments

The potential energy of the ball bearing at P is converted to the kinetic energy at Q.

Solution

Kinetic energy at Q = Potential energy at P

1 2

mv = mgh where m is the mass of the ball bearing

2

v = 2gh

= 2 × 10 × 0.6

= 3. 5 m s–1

Answer B

2.10

SPM

Clone

What is the work done on the barbell?

’06

1.8 m

1.7

2 A waiter carries a tray full of dishes weighing 30 N from the kitchen to a customer who is 5 m away.

What is the work done on the tray and dishes?

3 What is the work done by a workman carrying a bag of cement of mass 30 kg up a flight of stairs with

20 steps, if each step is 15 cm in height?

4 A nurse pushes a patient in a wheelchair with a force 9 Saidin, a fireman, slides down a pole when the fire

of 30 N for a distance of 25 m. alarm sounds. He reaches the ground at 5 m s–1.

Given that his mass is 60 kg, find the friction that

acts against his motion as he slides down the pole.

30 N 30 N

25 m 3.0 m

F 5 The figure shows two trucks pulling a ship in a canal

O of length 1.6 km. The tension in each cable is

2

R 5000 N.

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M

10 Simon rides his bicycle down a slope of 5 m vertical

4 height without pedalling his bicycle. The velocities of

the bicycle before and at the end of the slope are

2 m s–1 and 8 m s–1 respectively.

u = 2 m s–1

F

O

2

R

v = 8 m s–1

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ship.

5m

6 A fireman of a mass of 70 kg climbs

4

a 10-m ladder

to rescue a girl.

70 kg, find

(a) the total mechanical energy before Simon

moves down the slope,

30° (b) the work done by Simon against friction along

the slope.

11 A sprinter runs at a steady speed of 8 m s–1 against a

resistance force of 35 N. What is his power?

12 In a hypermarket, a machine can lift a crate of

500 kg up onto a shelf as shown in the figure. The

If the ladder is inclined at an angle of 30° to the wall

F4/2/305 time taken for the machine to do this work is

as shown in the figure, how much work has he done?

1 minute.

7 A 7 kg bowling ball is rolling at 3 m s–1. What is its

kinetic energy?

8 The figure shows a girl on a swing. She is released

from a height of 1.5 m.

2m

500 kg

initial

position

(a) What is the minimum power needed?

v=?

(b) If the machine F4/2/309

is operating at an efficiency of

1.5 m

80%, what is its power input?

13 A pump can force 300 kg of water to a height of

0.3 m

12 m in 20 s. Find its useful power. If the power

input is 2 kW, what is the efficiency of the pump?

Find her maximum velocity.

2.11 Appreciating the Importance of Maximising the Efficiency of Devices

of Devices

1 It has been explained in Section 2.10 that the If the useful energy output (or work done) is

efficiency of diesel and petrol engines is low as constant, then:

a large portion of energy is lost as heat or 1

Efficiency ∝

sound energy. Energy input

2 The efficiency of an electric motor is high but

the efficiency of an electrical generator at a ∴ Efficiency ↑, Energy input ↓

power station is low (about 30%).

3 The main sources of energy of an electrical 8 With higher efficiency, fuel-consuming

generator in a power station are fossil fuels devices will require less fuel to produce the F

such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. same amount of work and hence, the O

2

4 Similarly, vehicles (for transportation) derive R

availability of existing sources of fossil fuels

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M

their energy from petrol and natural gas. Thus, will be prolonged.

fossil fuels are of utmost importance to us. 9 The same reasoning is applicable to other 4

5 It must, however, be noted that fossil fuels are devices. Since less energy input is required to

not renewable and these sources of energy will produce the same amount of work or useful

be depleted some day. energy output, the cost of operating the device

6 Apart from looking for alternative sources of is reduced (we need to pay for energy

energy or increasing the source of renewable consumption).

energy, efforts must be made to maximise the 10 Besides conserving resources, maximising the

efficiency of fuel-burning devices. efficiency can also reduce the heat output or

7 From the formula of efficiency: sound production which might be detrimental

Useful energy output to the environment.

Efficiency = × 100%

Energy input

Devices

Electrical Devices life span is much longer since it does not

have a filament which can burn out when it

Light Fittings overheats.

1 Replace filament light bulbs with fluorescent 3 Use a lamp with a reflector so that the

lamps which have a higher efficiency, preferably illumination can be directed to specific areas.

compact fluorescent bulbs. In this way, the required illumination can be

obtained with a smaller number of light bulbs.

Air Conditioners

1 Choose a brand/model with a high efficiency.

2 Generally, a higher capacity unit has a higher

efficiency but the choice of an air conditioner

is determined by the user’s requirement and

Filament light bulb Compact fluorescent bulbs the size of the room. Central air conditioners

(Efficiency: 2%) (Effeciency: 7–9%) have high efficiencies.

Figure 2.113 3 Ensure that windows are closed and gaps

under doors are sealed when using an air

2 The illumination efficiency of a fluorescent conditioner so that the temperature in the

bulb is four times that of a filament bulb. Its room can be maintained.

Refrigerators 2 When less water is being used, the

1 Choose the capacity of a refrigerator according consumption of electricity to heat up the water

to the size of the family. is correspondingly reduced.

2 The refrigerator must be installed away from 3 A front-loading washing machine uses

sources of heat and direct sunlight. The less detergent compared to a top-loading

distance from the wall must be more than machine.

3 cm to ensure there is good air flow.

3 The doors of the refrigerator must always be

shut tight.

4 Use a refrigerator with a manual defrost device

Operation of Electrical Devices

— such a refrigerator can save as much as

1 The management of electrical devices includes

30–50% electrical energy when compared to a

F

ensuring that the devices are in good operating

refrigerator with an automatic defrost device.

O condition.

However, defrosting must be carried out

2

periodically to maintain the efficiency of the

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refrigerator.

3 Devices must be inspected regularly and

4 5 In terms of energy efficiency, it is more

serviced.

economical to use a large capacity refrigerator

4 For example, the filter in an air conditioner

than a smaller capacity unit.

and the fins of the cooling coil of a refrigerator

Washing Machines must be periodically cleaned to ensure there

1 Use a front-loading machine,

F which is is good air flow and to maintain their efficiency.

more economical in waterO and electricity

2

consumption. R

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M

SPM

2.12 Understanding

4 Elasticity ’08/P2(B)

Meaning of Elasticity

1 Figure 2.114 shows that the shape and the size of an object change

when an external force is applied on it.

when when

force is applied force is removed

when when

force is applied force is removed

Figure 2.114

2 When the external force is removed, the object returns to its original

shape and size.

3 The property of an object that enables it to return to its original

shape and dimensions (sizes) when an applied external force is

removed is called elasticity.

4 Rubber and plastic are examples of elastic materials.

5 Soap or plasticine is deformed when an external force is applied on

them. The deformation is permanent even after the external force is

removed — that is, these materials are non-elastic.

force of

Forces between Atoms repulsion

force of repulsion

increases when

(positive)

x decreases

1 The property of elasticity is caused by the equilibrium distance

existence of forces of repulsion and attraction

between molecules in solid materials. distance of

separation between

2 For simplicity, we will discuss elasticity in xo

2 atoms, x

relation to metals only.

force of attraction

3 Forces of repulsion and attraction between decreases with distance, x

force of force of attraction

atoms are always present in metals in a solid attraction increases with

state. (negative) distance, x

4 In the absence of an applied external force Figure 2.115

on a metal rod, atoms vibrate about their

F

equilibrium positions. The atoms are acting between the two atoms is a force of O

2

separated by a distance called the equilibrium repulsion. When the external force is R

distance, xo. At this equilibrium distance, the

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removed, the repulsive force pushes the atoms M

force of attraction is balanced by the force of back to their original position and the metal

4

repulsion — the resultant force is therefore rod returns to its original length.

zero. 7 When a stretching force is applied to the two

5 The graph in Figure 2.115 shows the ends of the metal rod, its length increases. As

relationship between the resultant force and a result, the separation distance between the

the distance between two atoms, x. two atoms is increased—that is, x > xo. The

6 When a compressive force is applied to the resultant force acting between two atoms is a

two ends of the rod, the length of the rod is force of attraction. When the external force is

reduced and hence the separation distance removed, the force of attraction pulls the

between the two atoms is reduced—that is, atoms back to their original position and the

x < xo. The resultant force (or effective force) metal rod returns to its original length.

Equilibrium

F F F F

Metal rod is compressed, length rod

no in equilibrium

external force Metal rod is stretched,

of rod decreases. condition. length of rod increases.

F4/2/120b

F4/2/120d

F4/2/120f

xo

F F F F

Equilibrium condition:

F4/2/120c

1 Force of repulsion takes 1 Force of attraction takes

F4/2/120e 1 Force of repulsion F4/2/120g

effect. effect.

2 When the compressive force = Force of attraction

2 When the stretching force is

is removed, the force of 2 Resultant force = 0

removed, the force of attraction

repulsion between the atoms between the atoms pulls the

pushes the atoms back to atoms back to their equilibrium

their equilibrium positions. positions.

2.4

Situation

Azizi and Kamaruzzaman, who are 1 year old and

3 years old, are sleeping in their sarong cradles.

The springs of both cradles are identical and new.

Observe the babies and the springs in the Figure

2.116. What inference can you make?

F Inference

O

The extension of the spring depends on the weight or

2

R

force acting on it.

CHAPTER

(3 years old)

4

Hypothesis

Figure 2.116

The greater the stretching force, the longer the

extension of the spring.

F

Aim O

2

R a stretching force (weight) and the extension of a spring.

CHAPTER

Variables 4

(a) Manipulated : weight of load, F

(b) Responding : spring extension, x

(c) Fixed : force constant of the spring, k

Apparatus/Materials

Spring, pin, slotted weight, weight holder, retort stand with clamp, metre rule, and plasticine.

Arrangement of apparatus

clamp

spring

pin as pointer

retort

stand o o

extension, x

plasticine

Experiment 2.4

weight holder

weight

(a) (b)

Figure 2.117

Procedure

1 The metre rule is clamped vertically to the retort stand, with its ‘0’ mark at the top.

2 The spring is suspended from the clamp.

3 The pin is attached to the bottom end of the spring with plasticine.

4 The initial position of the pin, o is noted.

5 A weight holder of mass 50 g is hooked onto the bottom of the spring. A slotted weight of mass 50 g

is added to the weight holder. The total weight acting on the spring is noted and the new position of

the pin, is recorded.

6 The extension of the spring is calculated from the formula: x = – o

7 Step 5 is repeated with the addition of 50 g each time until a maximum of 300 g.

All the respective readings are noted and recorded.

F

Tabulation of data O

2

Original position of the spring = o cm R

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M

Table 2.14

4

Load, Stretching Position Spring

m (kg) force, of pin, extension,

F = mg (cm) x = ( – o )

(N) (cm)

0.10 1.0

0.15 1.5

0.20 2.0

0.25 2.5

0.30 3.0

Graph

The graph of spring extension, x against stretching force, F is drawn.

x (cm)

F (N)

O

Figure 2.118

Conclusion

The straight line in the x-F graph passes through the origin. This shows that the extension of the spring,

x is directly proportional to the stretching force, F.

The hypothesis is valid.

Hooke’s Law

Experiment 2.4

proportional to the stretching force acting on it provided the

elastic limit of the spring is not exceeded.

2 In Experiment 2.4, the spring returns to its original length when

the load is removed — that is, the spring is elastic.

3 As the addition of weights continues (the stretching force increases), a situation will be reached

where there is permanent extension to the spring when the load is removed.

4 The elastic limit of a spring is the maximum stretching force which can be applied to the

spring before it ceases to be elastic, i.e. permanent extension or permanent stretching is

produced.

SPM SPM

’04/P2 ’09/P1

Graph of Stretching Force, F against Spring Extension, x

1 Figure 2.119 shows a graph of stretching force, F against the extension of a spring, x.

F

Q P

E

F F = kx spring not

O spring obeying obeying Hooke’s law

Hooke’s law

2

R

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4

x

O R

Figure 2.119

F line passing through the origin.

Thus, the stretching force is Odirectly proportional to the extension of the spring (that is, the

2

R

extension is directly proportional to the stretching force) and Hooke’s law is obeyed.

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M

3 Beyond point E (EQP), the graph takes the form of a curve — that is, the stretching force does

not vary directly with the extension

4 and Hooke’s law is no longer applicable.

4 If the load is removed at point Q, the spring will contract but with a permanent extension,

represented by line OR.

1 Figure 2.120 shows the linear portion of a graph of the stretching force against the extension of

a spring.

F

a x

O

Figure 2.120

F x

F = kx

where k is a constant known as the force constant or spring constant.

3 From the formula : F = kx

F (N)

k =

x (m)

∴ The unit of k is N m .

–1

4 From Hooke’s law: F = k x

Equation of straight line: y = m x, where m is the gradient.

∴k=m

k= b

a

= gradient of the F-x graph

5 The value of the force constant is a measure of the stiffness of the spring.

To understand the meaning of the force constant, look at the following examples: F

O

2

R

(a) A load of 2.5 N extends spring A by 20 cm. (b) A load of 15 N extends spring B by 20 cm.

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M

Applying F = kx, Applying F = kx,

F F 4

k = k =

x x

2.5 N 15 N

= =

0.2 m 0.2 m

= 12.5 N m–1 = 75 N m–1

B

g extended by 1 metre whereas

in

75

spr

stiff spring spring B requires 75 N for the same

ng A extension.

spri

12.5 ∴ Spring B is stiffer than spring A.

soft spring

x (m)

O 1

1 A larger value of k indicates a stiffer spring.

2 A steeper graph indicates a stiffer spring.

Hooke’s law is also applicable in the case of the

compression of a spring where the compression of the

spring (a decrease in length) is directly proportional to

the compressive force.

F

x = 0 –

Physics Blog

147 Forces and Motion

F4/2/121

69

A spring has an original length of 20 cm. When a load When 200 g is added, load = 300 + 200

of mass 300 g attached to it, the length of the spring is = 500 g

extended to 26 cm. Calculate the force constant, in = 0.5 kg

N m–1, of the spring. What is the length of the spring Stretching force = mg

when the load is increased by 200 g? = 0.5 × 10

[Take g = 10 N kg–1] = 5 N

Solution

From the formula: F = kx

m = 300 g = 0.3 kg

Stretching force = mg Extension, x = F

F k

O = 0.3 × 10 = 3 N 5

=

2

R Extension, x = 26 – 20 50

= 6 cm = 0.06 m

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M

= 0.1 m

From the formula: F = kx

4 = 10 cm

F

k =

x

∴ Length of the spring = 20 + 10

3

= = 30 cm

0.06

= 50 N m–1F

O

2

R

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4 From Hooke’s Law, for a spring under two separate

forces F1 and F2 (or loads W1 and W2) with

Many questions do not need the calculation of the corresponding extensions x1 and x2:

force constant, k. F1 = kx1

The following method explained in these examples F2 = kx2 The stretching force is

is suggested. F1 x1 proportional to the

Dividing, = extension of the spring.

F2 x2

W1 x1

=

0

W2 x2

1 2 m1 x1

Since W = mg, we obtain: =

m2 x2

x1 = 1 – 0

x2 = 2 – 0 Therefore:

F1 F1 x1 F1 1 – 0

–– = –– –– = ––––––––

F2 F2 x2 F2

m1

2 – 0

m1 x1

m2 or –– = –– m1 1 – 0

m2 x2 or –– = ––––––––

m2

2 – 0

Figure 2.121 • Used when one

F4/2/122 extension or both • Used only when

extensions are given, needed to find the

0 = the original length of a spring or easily determined original length or

1 = length of spring for F1 and m1 from the information reading on the scale

2 = length of spring for F2 and m2 given. when no load is