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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 10 | Oct 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Crumb Rubber in Concrete: Static and Dynamic Evaluation
Dr. M. R. Wakchaure1, Mr. S. S. Channa2
1Professor, Department Of Civil Engineering, Amrutvahini College of Engineering Sangamner, pune University.
2 PG Student, Department Of Civil Engineering, Amrutvahini College Of Engineering Sangamner, pune University.
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Abstract - Concrete is most widely used building material III. LITERATURE REVIEW
in the world. Concrete consists of aggregates, cement and
water. The major part of concrete besides the cement is the This part represents the a review of most literature to
aggregate. Aggregate include sand and crushed stone / bring out the background of the study to be undertaken in
Gravel. About 3 corers tonnes of waste tyres are produced the present work. The research contribution which have
in India per year. Rubber materials are flexible, durable direct relevance and contributed greatly to understanding
and elastic which are the properties required for the behavior of rubber concrete. T.senthil Va Divel 1 et.al
manufacturing itself. But crumb rubber is found to possess discussed the behavior of waste tyre rubber aggregate
properties that are required for replacement of fine concrete under impact loading. In his paper attempt is
aggregate in concrete. Hence this project aimed to study made to cast and test the cylindrical specimen made of
the effectiveness of rubber as substitute for fine aggregate normal concrete(plain) and concrete with waste tyre
and utilize the waste tyre crumb rubber in concrete, to crumb rubber as aggregate for impact loads with a steel
minimize global warming. Concrete specimens casted and ball drop weight the result shows that, WTRAC 6%
tested for concrete mix with various percentage of replacement of both fine and coarse aggregate improves
replacement (0.5 to 7%) and its effect for replacement are the energy absorption capacity and ductility
discussed in this project. characteristics. Tantala et.al2 in his study presented the
toughness of normal concrete mixture and the concrete
Keywords - Crumb rubber, Compressive strength, Waste with WTRAC mixtures with 5%and 10% buff rubber
Tyre Crumb Rubber Concrete, Drop weight test, replaced by volume of coarse aggregate the result shows
Compressive strength, Ductility index. that, toughness of both WTRAC mix was higher than
normal concrete mixture however the toughness of
I. INTRODUCTION WTRAC with 5% buff rubber was higher than 10% buff
rubber (2to6mm) because for higher rubber content
In recent years, waste handling and management is the
compressive strength decreases. M.R. Wakchaure et.al6
primary issue faced by the countries all over the world.
Reported that, use of waste tyre crumb rubber particle of
One of the critical wastes to be managed in today’s
size passing through 1.18 mm is sieve and retained on 600
scenario is ‘waste tyre’ because; modern development in
micron sieve are used in concrete at varying percentages
transportation has produced large number of vehicles,
from 0.5% to 2% increases the workability of concrete.
which creates enormous amount of waste tyres. One of the
largest potential recycling routes is in construction, but
IV. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
usage of waste tyres in civil engineering is currently very
low. Currently, only 5% of scrap tyres are recycled in civil
A. Materials used
engineering applications. Hence this project aimed to study
the effectiveness of rubber as substitute for fine aggregate a) Cement
and utilize the crumb rubber tyres in concrete, to minimize
global warming. In the present investigation an attempt is For this research, locally available ordinary Portland
made to find out energy absorption capacity of WTCRC cement (53 grade) of Specific gravity of cement 3.15 was
under impact drop test and find out the respective used throughout the work.
reduction in compressive strength
b) Physical properties of fine aggregate
II. OBJECTIVE OF INVESTIGATION
Locally available fine aggregate used was 4.75 mm size
1. Use of waste tire crumb rubber particle (WTCRP) as a confirming to zone II with specific gravity 2.693. The
partial replacement to fine aggregate in concrete at testing of sand was conducted as per IS: 383-1970.
varying percentages from 0.5% to 7% ,to check the
energy absorption capacity of concrete. c) Physical properties of coarse aggregate
2. To reduce the effect of waste tire rubber on
surrounding environment Crush stone aggregate of size 20 mm and 12.5 mm was
3. To check the workability of concrete for varying used throughout the experimental work. Coarse aggregate
percentage of cement paste. used was 20mm with specific gravity 2.912 and coarse
4. To determine the ductility index of crumb rubber aggregate of 12.5 mm with specific gravity 2.82. Testing of
concrete. coarse aggregate was conducted as per IS: 383-1970.

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 10 | Oct 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

d) Water Table 1: Mix proportioning

The water used was potable, color less and odor less that is Fine Coarse
free from organic impurities of any type. Water Cement Aggregat
Aggregat
(kg/m3) (kg/m3) e e
e) Rubber aggregate
(kg/m3) (kg/m3)
Waste tyre crumb rubber collected from local tyre 209.87 383.16 685.75 1157.55
remolding plant, from which steel wire and fabric have
been removed has granular texture and the sizes are 0.5 1 1.789 3.02
passing through 4.75 mm IS sieve and retaining on 2.36
mm IS sieve (R1), passing through 2.36 mm IS sieve and
retaining on 1.18 mm IS sieve (R2), passing through 1.18 V. TESTING PROGRAM
mm IS sieve and retaining on 600 μ IS sieve (R3). Pictures
of crumb rubber used in this study is shown in fig 1.The In this study concrete cube and cylinders were cast of M20
specific grade concrete. For compression test total 45 standard
gravity size cubes were casted to estimate the decrease in
of compressive strength with increase in rubber content and
crumb for drop weight test 45 cylinders were casted to estimate
rubber energy absorption capacity of concrete under impact
is 1.14 loading.

A. Compressive Strength

The cured cubes were tested to find the effects of
the crumb rubber on the compressive strength of concrete
Fig.1(a) R1 were determined using static compressive tests. For each
sample three representative samples were tested. These
tests were performed at Amrutvahini College of
engineering, testing of material laboratory, Sangamner on
a compression testing machine. The loading rate was 3.4
KN/Sec. Fig. 2 shows the details of the compression test
setup.

B. Impact resistance under drop weight test

Drop weight test was performed on cylindrical
specimens (150 mm in diameter and 64 mm in height,
Fig.1(a)R2 three specimens for each mix) as per ACI Committee 544
to estimate the energy absorption capacity of concrete
specimens. In this test, repeated loading was applied on
the specimen from a height. The number of blows was
obtained for the prescribed level of distress (occurrence of
first crack and failure cracks). Specimens of 28 days age
were tested by the drop weight impact testing machine
fabricated in the laboratory as per guidelines of ACI
committee 544. The machine consists of a 4.5 kg hammer
dropping from 450 mm height on a hardened steel ball of
65 mm diameter. The steel ball was placed at the centre of
Fig.1(a)R3 specimen and this specimen was placed on the base plate
within the positioning lugs as shown in fig 3. The hammer
Fig.1 Different sizes of crumb rubber particles
was dropped repeatedly and the number of blows (N1)
B. Mix Proportioning required to cause the first visible crack on the top was
recorded. Number of blows (N2) which caused opening of
Concrete mix design in this experiment was designed as cracks in such a way that the concrete pieces started
per the guidelines in IS 10262-2009. All the samples were touching side lugs was also recorded. The values of N1 and
prepared using design mix. M20 grade of concrete was N2 were designated as initial crack resistance factor and
used for the present investigation. The table 1 shows mix ultimate crack resistance factor respectively.
proportion of concrete (Kg/m3)

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 10 | Oct 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. Compressive Strength Test

Test results for compressive strength at 28 day are as
shown in Table 2 and demonstrated in Graph 1

Table 2: Test results for compressive strength at 28 days

Percentage Compressive Strength (MPa)
of crmb
rubber R1 R2 R3
0.0 26.5 26.5 26.5
0.5 25.12 25.82 26.41
1.0 25.08 25.52 26.33
Fig 2 compression testing machine
1.5 24.95 25.04 26.07
2.0 24.35 24.92 25.78
2.5 23.96 24.26 25.42
3.0 23.28 23.82 25.18
3.5 23.04 23.52 24.93
4.0 22.78 23.24 24.68
4.5 22.38 22.86 24.56
5.0 21.92 22.48 24.28
5.5 21.36 22.12 24.15
6.0 20.58 21.85 23.96
6.5 20.24 21.58 23.48
7.0 19.78 21.44 23.33
Fig 3 Drop weight testing machine

The impact energy at initial crack, Ep,dwi (where
first subscript p denotes the type of energy absorbed i.e.
30
potential energy and second subscript dw denotes the type
of test i.e. drop weight) was calculated by the equation 25
Compressive Strength (MPa)

given below:
20
Epdwi = N1mgh
15
Similarly, the impact energy at ultimate crack, Ep,dwu was
10
calculated by the equation given below:
5
Epdwu = N2mgh R1 R2 R3
0
where, N1 and N2 are the number of blows at initial and 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ultimate crack level, m is the mass of drop hammer (4.5 % CR
kg), g is acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2) and h is
the releasing height of drop hammer (450 mm).
Graph 1-Compressive strength of all mixes

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 10 | Oct 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

B. Impact resistance under drop weight test 3.0 1132 1093 1212
a) Energy consumed at initial crack 3.5 880 1073 1212
Test results for energy consumed at Initial crack 4.0 834 1132 1271
are as shown in below table 3 and demonstrated
4.5 656 954 1073
in Graph 2.
5.0 576 854 834
Table 3: Impact test results for energy consumed at initial
crack (E1) 5.5 457 755 775
6.0 477 497 656
Percentage E1 (Joule)
of crumb 6.5 457 477 576
Rubber R1 R2 R3 7.0 417 457 497
0.0 794 794 794
0.5 993 834 814 1500
R1 R2 R3
1.0 1212 914 834 1200
1.5 1351 1013 854 900
2.0 1410 1093 874 E1 (Joule)
600
2.5 1351 1013 1073
300
3.0 1053 1013 1112
0
3.5 880 1033 1132 0 4 1 52 6 3 7 8
% CR
4.0 775 1053 1192 Graph 2- Energy consumed at initial crack (Joule)
4.5 556 874 993
5.0 477 775 775 1800
R1 R2 R3
5.5 417 695 715 1500
6.0 397 576 596
E2 (Joule)

1200
6.5 358 417 497 900

7.0 298 377 417 600
300
0
b) Energy consumed at final crack (Joule) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Test results for energy consumed at final crack are as % CR
shown in below table 4 and demonstrated in Graph 3.
Graph 3- Energy consumed at final crack (Joule)
Table 4 : Impact test results for average energy consumed
Table 5: Energy consumed at ultimate crack to energy
at ultimate crack (E2)
consumed at first crack
Percentge E2 (Joule) Percentge Ductility index (E2/E1)
of crmb
of crmb
rubber R1 R2 R3
rubber R1 R2 R3
0.0 874 874 874
0.0 1.10 1.10 1.10
0.5 1033 914 894
0.5 1.04 1.10 1.10
1.0 1271 993 894
1.0 1.05 1.09 1.07
1.5 1410 1093 914
1.5 1.04 1.08 1.07
2.0 1470 1152 934
2.0 1.04 1.05 1.07
2.5 1391 1053 1172
2.5 1.03 1.04 1.09

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 10 | Oct 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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1) Use of smaller size waste tire crumb rubber particles under impact loading, International Journal of
gives higher workability Engineering Research and General Science Volume 3,
2) The R1 type of crumb rubber concrete give higher Issue 3, May-June, 2015,pp 1531-1538.
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increase in crumb rubber content, its lower unit [11] Jing Lv , Tianhua Zhou, Qiang Du, Hanheng Wu “Effects
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