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Quadrotor / Quadcopter

The First Manned Quadrotor

• Quadrotor is a kind of unmanned aerial vehicle

(UAV)

• 29/9/1907: Louis Bréguet & Jacques Bréguet,

under the guidance of Professor Charles

Richet, demonstrated the first flying quadrotor

named Bréguet-Richet Gyroplane No. 1

Advantages of quadrotor

• Quadrotor is a rotary wing UAV

• Its advantages over fixed wing UAVs:

– Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL)

– Able to hover

– Able to make slow precise movements.

– Four rotors provide a higher payload capacity

– More flexible in maneuverability through an

environment with many obstacles, or landing in

small areas.

Quadcopter anatomy

Quadrotor structure

• Front motor (Mf) (+x) • Each spinning motor

• Back motor (Mb) (-x) provides

• Right motor (Mr) (+y) – thrust force (T) for lifting

• Left motor (Ml) (-y) – torque () for rotating

• Mf and Mb rotates CW

• Mr and Ml rotates CCW

• This arrangement can

overcome torque effect to

prevent on the spot

spinning of the structure

Basic movements

X (North)

Y (East)

Z (Down)

Reference Frames

• There are a few reference frames to model

the kinematics and dynamics of a quadrotor

– Inertia Frame (Global frame), Fi

– Vehicle Frame, Fv

– Vehicle-1 Frame, Fv1

– Vehicle-2 Frame, Fv2

– Body Frame (Local frame), Fb

X (North)

Z (Down)

flat surface

• The starting position of the quadrotor is the

origin of the global frame or the inertia frame

(Fi)

• Fi: x-y-z axis is right hand system with x

pointing to North, y pointing to East and z

pointing to Down, it is also known as the NED

system

The Vehicle Frame

• Fv is the vehicle frame

• It is the inertia frame, Fi, linear shifted to the

centre of gravity (COG) for the quadrotor

• The coordinates of the COG for the quadrotor

wrt Fi is (xc, yc, zc).

Xv

Fv

Yv

Zv

Xi (North)

Fi

Yi (East)

Zi (Down)

The Vehicle-1 Frame

Xv

F v1

Xv1

Fv

Yv

Zv Yv1 Zv

Zv1

The Vehicle-2 Frame

Xv 2

F v2 Xv1

F v1

Yv1

ZvZv2 Yv1 Yv2

The Body Frame

Xv 2

F v2

Xv2

Fb Xb

Zb

Zv2 Yb Yv2

Vehicle Frame Body Frame

, , are known as Euler angles. They are measured from different frames (Roll in

Fv2 frame, Pitch in Fv1 frame, Yaw in Fv frame)

Gimbal Lock

• This is a fundamental problem when

using sensors to sense Euler angles

• When pitch angle is 90 degrees, roll and

yaw rotation give the same sensor

readings

• Information for 1 dimension is lost and

the actual configuration of the rigid body

is not correctly sensed

• Solution:

– Avoid 90 degree pitch when using Euler

angle sensor

Quadrotor State Variables

• Positions in Fi : pn, pe, h

• Velocities in Fb: u, v, w

• Angular velocities in Fb: p, q, r

• Euler angles:

– Yaw angle in Fv: ψ

– Pitch angle in Fv1: θ

– Roll angle in Fv2: ϕ

Quadrotor Kinematics

the same frame (Fi):

pn u Cθ Cψ Sφ Sθ Cψ − Cφ Sψ Cφ Sθ Cψ + Sφ Sψ u

d v

p e = Rb v = Cθ Sψ Sφ Sθ Sψ + Cφ Cψ Cφ Sθ Sψ − Sφ Cψ v

dt

− h w − Sθ Sφ Cθ Cφ Cθ w

angle

p ratesφ(F

, F , F ) 0

v v1 v2 0

v2() v2 v1 ( )

q = R b φ 0 + R b ( φ ) R v 2 θ θ + R b ( φ ) R v 2 (θ ) R v1 (ψ ) 0

v2 v1 v

r 0 ψ

0

p 1 0 − Sθ φ φ 1 Sφ Tθ Cφ Tθ p

q = 0 C

φ S φ C θ θ

and θ

= 0 C φ − S φ q

r 0 − Sφ Cφ Cθ ψ ψ 0 Sφ Cθ Cφ Cθ r

Equation of Coriolis

• Inertia frame, Fi looking at Body frame, Fb

• Vector p is moving in Fb and Fb is rotating and

translating with respect to Fi

• Time derivative of p as seen from Fi is

obtained using equation of Coriolis:

d d

p= p + ωb × p

dti dtb

Quadrotor Dynamics

dv dv

• Equation of Coriolis: m = m + ωb × v = f

dti dtb

• m is the mass

• vector v is the velocities

• vector ωb is the angular

velocities in the body frame

• vector f is the applied forces

• In body coordinates:

u rv − qw fx

v = pw − ru + 1 f

m y

w qu − pv f z

Rotational Motion

d d

• Equation of Coriolis for rotational motion: h= h + ωb × h = m

dti dtb

• vector h is angular momentum, h = Jωb

• J is symmetric inertia matrix I x 0 0 p τ φ

J = 0 0 ; ωb = q ; m = τ θ

• vector m is the applied torque

Iy

0 0 I z r τψ

• Substitutes into equation of Coriolis:

p p p τ φ

J q + q × J q = τ θ

• Angular acceleration is hence given by: r r r τψ

p {( I y − I z )qr + τ φ } I x

q = { ( I − I ) pr + τ } I

z x θ y

r {( I x − I y ) pq + τψ } I z

Summary of Equation Set

p n Cθ Cψ Sφ Sθ Cψ − Cφ Sψ Cφ Sθ Cψ + Sφ Sψ u

p = C S Sφ Sθ Sψ + Cφ Cψ

Cφ Sθ Sψ − Sφ Cψ v

e θ ψ

− h − Sθ Sφ Cθ Cφ Cθ w

u rv − qw fx

v = pw − ru + 1 f

m y

w qu − pv

fz

φ 1 Sφ Tθ Cφ Tθ p

θ = 0 Cφ − Sφ q

ψ 0 Sφ Cθ Cφ Cθ r

p {( I y − I z )qr + τ φ } I x

q = { ( I − I ) pr + τ } I

z x θ y

r {( I x − I y ) pq + τψ } I z

Thrust Force and Gravity Force

• fx , fy , fz are total forces acting on the body frame, Fb

• there are two components:

– quadrotor thrust force (produced by propeller)

– gravity force

• Total thrust in Fb: T = Tf + Tb +Tl + Tr

• Gravity force in Fi : (0,0,mg)

• In Fb:

fx 0 0 0 − mgSθ

f = 0 + R b R v 0 = 0 + mgC S

y v i θ φ

f z − T mg − T mgCθ Cφ

Torque / Moment

• Roll : τϕ = l (Tl - Tr)

• Pitch : τθ = l (Tf - Tb)

• Yaw : τψ = τr + τl - τf - τb

yawing torque on the body of the

quadrotor (Newton's 3rd Law)

• The direction of the torque is int he

opposite direction to the motion of the

propeller

controlled by its angular speed in rpm:

– Ti = kf ωi2

– τi = km ωi2

• i can take the value 1 (front motor), 2 (right

motor), 3 (back motor) and 4 (left motor)

Simplified model

p n Cθ Cψ Sφ Sθ Cψ − Cφ Sψ Cφ Sθ Cψ + Sφ Sψ u

p = C S Sφ Sθ Sψ + Cφ Cψ

Cφ Sθ Sψ − Sφ Cψ v

e θ ψ

p x

− Sφ Cθ

u Cθ Sφ Sθ

− Cφ Cθ

Cφ Sθ u

w

p = R v1 R v 2 v = 0

for position estimate y

p z

v2 b

w − Sθ

Cφ

Sφ Cθ

− Sφ v

Cφ Cθ w

θ = 0 Cφ

Cφ Tθ p p

− Sφ q = q

Cφ Cθ r r

φ p τ φ I x

fx 0 0 0 − mgSθ

θ = q = τ θ I y f = 0 + R b R v 0 = 0 + mgC S

ψ r τψ I z y v i θ φ

v = pw − ru + 1 f = 1 f = 1 0 + g C S

θ φ

(qr, pr, pq)

m y m y m

w qu − pv f z f z − T Cθ Cφ

px Cθ Sφ Sθ Cφ Sθ u 0 − Cφ Sθ Cψ − Sφ Sψ

p = 0 Cφ

T

− Sφ v = 0 + − Cφ Sθ Sψ + Sφ Cψ

y m

φ p τ φ I x pz − Sθ Sφ Cθ Cφ Cθ w g

− Cφ Cθ

px 0 − Cφ Sθ Cψ − Sφ Sψ

p = 0 + − C S S + S C

T

y m φ θ ψ φ ψ θ = q = τ θ I y

pz g − Cφ Cθ ψ r τψ I z

State Estimates

• States to be measured or estimated: φ 1 Sφ Tθ Cφ Tθ p p

– p, q, r (from sensors)

θ = 0 Cφ − Sφ q = q

– ϕ,θ,ψ ψ 0 Sφ Cθ Cφ Cθ r r

– dot p, dot q, dot r

– px, py, pz (from sensors) φ ∫ pdt

– u, v, w θ = qdt

– dot u, dot v, dot w ∫

ψ rdt

∫

• From rate gyroscopes, we can get (p,q,r) φ p τ φ I x

• Integrating and differentiating (p,q,r) to get θ =

q = τ θ I y

(ϕ,θ,ψ) and angular acceleration ψ r τψ I z

p x Cθ Sφ Sθ Cφ Sθ u

• From position sensor (usually external p = 0 Cφ

− Sφ v

camera), we get (px, py, pz) y

p z − Sθ Sφ Cθ Cφ Cθ w

• Differentiating position to get (u,v,w)

• From accelerometer, we get T/m, toggether px 0 − Cφ Sθ Cψ − Sφ Sψ

with Euler angles, we can get position p = 0 + − C S S + S C

T

acceleration y m φ θ ψ φ ψ

pz g − Cφ Cθ

Case study: From rest to hover in z

• A quadrotor is resting at its vehicle frame

• There is no rotational movement

• It starts to climb to a certain height and hovers

• T > mg, a is positive vertically, v increases, h increases

• T < mg, a is negative vertically, v decreases to zero, h increases

• T = mg, a is zero, v is zero, h maintains

Case study: From hover to x and hover

• From hovering,

• Negative pitch, ax is positive , vx increases, x

increases

• Positive pitch, ax is negative, vx decreases to

zero, x increases

• No pitch, T = mg, a is zero, vx is zero, x is

maximum

• Exercise: How to maintain h during these

operation?

Jerk free planning

• Jerk is the time derivative of acceleration

• Physically, it is sudden start or stop

• Maximum force is upon the quadrotor with jerk

quadrotor is climbing up to a height to hover with jerk-free

movement.

da d 2 v d 3 z

jz = = 2 = 3

dt dt dt

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