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PREFACE Mathematics education plays an important role in enhancing the development

of our nation and country. It is one of the main contributors that produce young generation with creative and critical thinking. The creative and critical thinking enable youngsters to make wise and rational decisions in their daily lives. Therefore, it is important to equip our young generations with the mathematical knowledge and increase their interest in learning mathematics since their elementary schools. The mathematics performance shown by the pupils through examinations or tests in school is one of the methods used to evaluate pupils’ mastery of mathematical concepts and skills. In this research, one of the cooperative models, Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) was applied to enhance the pupils’ academic performance as well as their attitude towards mathematics. In addition, the common errors made by the pupils in the mathematics tests are analysed and the effectiveness of STAD model in helping the pupils to make less common errors were also evaluated.

1.1

Introduction Mathematical thinking benefits us as members of this modern society not just

because of its application in workplaces but also in businesses and finance. Most important of all, it is very useful in facilitating personal decision making process. Mathematics itself is a powerful tool in providing means in understanding engineering, science, technology and etc. In education field, mathematics equips pupils with essential mathematical knowledge to solve problems in their daily lives. Normally, pupils who excel in mathematics have good financial management. Furthermore, they are able to think independently and wisely in practical and abstract ways in solving problems or challenges faced inside or outside of the classroom.

In the olden days or even nowadays, most of the mathematics teachers let their pupils sit by themselves with papers, workbooks and pencils to struggle independently to understand lessons or solve the problems assigned to them. This learning process can be boring, lonely and frustrating. Therefore, it is not surprising that most of the pupils lost interest in learning mathematics. Subsequently, this leads to poor performance in the class for mathematics subject. Cooperative learning is one of the effective methods used in enhancing pupils’ performance in mathematics. According to Gillies and Ashman (2003), cooperative learning is able to promote higher achievement and liking among students which include the promotion of high-quality cognitive strategies, the constructive management of controversy and debate, time on task, elaborate sharing and processing information, peer encouragement of effort, active peer group involvement in learning, interaction between students of different achievement levels, perceptions of psychological support, positive attitude towards subject areas and perceptions of fairness in grading. Student Teams Achievement Divisions, namely STAD model is one of the cooperative models. According to Davidson (1990), the main idea behind STAD is to motivate students to encourage and help each other in mastering skills presented by the teachers. If pupils want their teams to succeed, they must help and encourage each other to learn the materials. The application of STAD requires the pupils to work in pairs and compare answers, discuss any discrepancies, and help each other with any roadblocks faced during teaching and learning in mathematics. The word “team” is the most important element in STAD. The team provides peer support for academic performance that is significant for positive effect on learning mathematics. 1.2 Teaching and Learning Reflection Based on researcher’s observation, it was discovered that most of the pupils’ performance in mathematics subject of the researched school were weak or could be 2

said as poor. Their academic performance in most of the subject especially mathematics was below expectation. Most of the pupils either failed the mathematics examination or just flied above the passing marks. If this problem was not well tackled from the early learning stage, it was believed that the pupils would not be able to proceed further to achieve higher achievement in mathematics subject now or in the future. After observing the normal teaching and learning process in the mathematics class, it was discovered that pupils were seldom exposed to team or group works. They were often asked to do work individually. This had caused the weaker pupils to lose interest in learning mathematics as they could not catch up with the learning progress in the teaching and learning during the class. When the pupils themselves felt unable to cope with the lesson taught, they would choose to give up their learning in mathematics. This circumstance would cause the pupils’ low academic performance in mathematics and also brought negative effect on pupils’ attitude towards mathematics. Moreover, researcher also discovered that the common errors made by the pupils when solving the mathematics questions or problems was one of the contributors that caused the pupils to lose marks in the mathematics tests and thus affected their academic performance in the mathematics tests. Due to the above scenario, a suitable strategy or technique should be created or designed in order enhance pupils’ performance in mathematics. During the previous teaching and learning experiences, researcher had tried to expose the pupils to cooperative learning during her mathematics lesson in the class. Researcher let the pupils do their work in group or team. It was delighted to see the pupils were showing their interest in learning mathematics in cooperative manners with their team members and improving from time to time. They tended to make less common errors in the mathematics tests and able master most of the previous mathematical knowledge and skills learnt in the class. This was proven that the 3

strategy had successfully increased most of the pupils’ academic performance in mathematics as well as reinforced their learning attitudes in mathematics. Hence, it was hopeful that the STAD, one of the cooperative learning models, was able to help the pupils in increasing their performance in mathematics. According to Orlich et al. (2007), cooperative learning fosters the pupils’ positive interdependence by teaching pupils to work and learn together in a smallgroup setting. It is an approach that organises classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences where pupils are encouraged to learn in a group or as a team. Cooperative learning is an approach to group work that minimises the occurrence of those unpleasant situations and maximises the learning experience and satisfaction that are the results of working on a high-performance team (Felderl and Brent2, 2008). Through cooperative learning, pupils’ learning time is able to be increased while reduces teacher’s workload by teaching pupils to assist each other with learning, completing a task and also monitoring one another’s learning progress during the teaching and learning of mathematics in the class. As stated by Huang (2008) which extracted from Kagan and Olsen (1992), “Cooperative learning is group learning activity organized so that learning is dependent on socially structured exchange of information between learners in groups and in which each learner is held accountable for his or her own learning and is motivated to increase the learning of others.” The STAD strategy in cooperative learning is aimed at enhancing pupils’ learning as a team or group to achieve the goal. It is considered as the simplest of the Student Team Learning (STL) methods. By implementing the STAD strategy in mathematics subject, pupils need to help each other in their learning and work together as a team to resolve obstacles faced in solving a mathematical problem. The 4

team members at last will share their team achievement together. The cooperative learning model requires student cooperation and interdependence in its task, goal and reward structures (Miller and Peterson, n.d).

1.3

Educational Values Reflection Education is an act or process of imparting, or acquiring general knowledge,

developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life. It could be a certain degree, level or kind of schooling (Jackson, 2010). With the reference to Macdude (2006), GATE's chairman and CEO, Mr. Glenn Jones, has said that "Education is the great hope for the survival of humankind and for the forward progress of civilization." Education makes man a right thinker. It tells man how to think and how to make decision. Beside that, through the attainment of education, man is able to receive information from the external world; to acquaint himself with past history and receive all necessary information regarding the present (Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, n.d) Values are the ideals or standards that people use to direct their behavior; values are what people strive to realize in their lives (Lombardo, 2008). Values are very important for us as they are the standards that we have to use in making judgments or decisions about what is important in our life and what is right or wrong in human behaviour. There are many values connected with education. For example, learning, thinking, integrity, honesty, growth, and excellence. These values mirror the general goals and principles of behaviour among educators and schools. These values define the elements that are important in the educational process. Educators need to try to encourage their students to pursue these values through the teaching and learning process in the schools not only in mathematics subject but also all the other subjects. 5

These values are able to help the students to embrace and practice them in their daily lives, enhance their academic performance and also serve as the foundation for the students to acquire factual knowledge and also intellectual skills that they require in their learning process. For example, the value of the love of learning and thinking. This value enhances students not just in academic performance but also aids the students to explore and achieve knowledge and skills which are beneficial to themselves, others and also the society. The educational values are able to help an individual to become a life-long learner. According to Jones (2009), making lifelong learning part of one's life also fosters a sense of personal empowerment and increased self-esteem. In other words, life-long learning ensures individuals which include the students, to have continued growth and intellectual stimulation, leading to a more fulfilling, enjoyable, and enriched lifestyle in their education.

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RESEARCH FOCUS The challenge in education today is to effectively teach pupils of diverse

ability and differing rates of learning (Effandi Zakaria and Zanaton Iksan, 2006). Therefore, teachers are expected to teach in a way that enables the pupils in acquiring process skills, positive attitudes and values and problem solving skills besides learning the mathematical knowledge. Various types of strategies have been advocated for the use of teaching and learning of mathematics. Cooperative learning is one of the effective strategies. Focus of this research is to apply STAD model during teaching and learning of mathematics subject in the class to improve year 5 pupils’ performance in mathematics from the aspect of their academic performance. Besides, the changes of their attitudes towards mathematics after the implementation of STAD model in the 6

teaching and learning of mathematics are also observed. This research also examines and analyses the common errors made by the pupils in the mathematics test that bring negative effect towards the pupils’ performance in mathematics.

2.1

Research Issue Mathematical thinking is important for all of the members in our society as it

is used widely in the workplace, business and finance as well as for personal decision-making in daily life. Mathematics is fundamental to national richness in providing tools for understanding science, engineering, technology and economics and also in public decision-making. In the education field, mathematics equips pupils with exclusive powerful ways to describe, analyse and change the development of world. It can motivate moments of pleasure for all pupils when they solve a problem for the first time, discover a more elegant solution, or notice hidden connections. Pupils who are functional in mathematics are those who able to think independently in applied and abstract ways. They can reason, solve problems and evaluate risk. Therefore, it is important for pupils to master the subject of Mathematics. In the Section 1.2, the previous teaching and learning reflection had been discussed. It was discovered that the year 5 pupils’ academic performance in mathematics was weak and the pupils were showing low interest and confident in learning mathematics. The social interaction in the class during the teaching and learning of mathematics in the class was low as well. Moreover, it was discovered that most of the pupils often made some common errors that caused them to lose marks in the mathematics tests due to their inappropriate attitude and low mastery in mathematical concepts. It was also realised that pupils were bored with the teaching and learning strategy applied by the teacher in the class in which the pupils were asked to do their study and work individually. However, pupils showed a high interest

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in learning when they were asked to work as a team and do their work cooperatively with their team members. Therefore, it is important for us as mathematics teachers to use and apply the cooperative learning strategy especially the STAD model during the teaching and learning in the mathematics class so that our pupils can learn mathematics effectively.

2.2

Literature Review of the Research Issue Based on Huang (2008) which adapted from Chong (1994), cooperative

learning is formed based on three main theories. The theories are social interdependence theory, cognitive developmental theory and behavioral learning theory. According to INTIME (2008), interaction with other people is essential for human survival. In an education setting, social interdependence refers to students’ efforts to achieve, develop positive relationships, adjust psychologically, and show social competence. There are two main theorists that play important roles for the cognitive development theory. They are Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Piagetian perspectives suggest that when individuals work together, socio-cognitive conflict occurs and creates cognitive disequilibrium that stimulates perspective-taking ability and reasoning (INTIME, 2008). This means that different views from peers can put a child in disequilibrium, prompting them to accommodate this and make sense of different ideas and perspectives. Vygotsky presented the theory that children learn through their interaction with others, thus the people in their world hold great influence on their learning (Driscoll and Nagel, 2002). "What the child can do in cooperation today he can do alone tomorrow." (Myers, 2001 adapted from Vygotsky, 1986, p. 188). It is believed that children learn through their peers. When they are working together with their peers on a task or learning together with them, they are

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learning at the same time. After they have learnt the knowledge or skill needed from their peers, they can perform the same task again by themselves. For behavioral learning theory, the contributors are Watson, Skinner, Pavlov and Thorndike. The behavioral-social perspective presupposes that cooperative efforts are fueled by extrinsic motivation to achieve group rewards (INTIME, 2008). The extrinsic motivation can be in the form of praises, presents and also formal recognitions. With the help of extrinsic motivation, children tend to be more motivated to work with other group members in settling a task or achieving a goal. The various features of cooperative learning, particularly positive interdependence, are highly motivating because they encourage achievement-oriented behaviours such as trying hard, praising the efforts of others, and receiving help from the group members. It is understood that children are learning in numerous ways. They learn from reading, observing, listening, and also teaching others. As stated by Putnam (1997) which excerpted from Acorn et al. (1970) about what people learn: “ 10% of what they READ 20% of what they READ and HEAR 30% of what they SEE 50% of what they SEE and HEAR 70% of what they SAY* 90% of what they SAY and APPLY in life* 95% of what they TEACH others*” It is clearly shown that we learn the most when we teach others so as for the pupils. When the pupils are discussing ideas with the other, they are learning most at the time. Lourenco (1998) claimed that the more time that the pupils invest in their own learning process, the more they will learn. This has shown that pupils learn more 9

when they spend more time and effort in doing their own learning. This approach is believed to enhance students’ performance and achievement in various subjects and aspects of the language and producing positive social outcomes (Syafini Bt. Ismail and Tengku Nur Rizan Bt Tengku Mohamad Maasum, n.d.). According to Slavin (1989) in Gillies and Ashman (2003), cooperative learning may be an effective mean of increasing students’ achievement, opportunities for learning can be maximised only if group goals and individual accountability are embedded in the cooperative method used. Armstrong et al. (1998) mentioned that pupils commented that using STAD made learning fun and the content easier to understand. According to Snyder and Shickley (2006), the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) expresses that learning with understanding is essential to enable students to solve new kinds of problems that they will inevitably face in the future. This is because not all pupils are participating regularly in the whole class discussions; teachers need to monitor their participation to ensure that some are not left entirely out of the discussion for long periods. The use of small groups will permit the pupils to have the chance to share important thoughts and ideas with their group members, thus improving confidence in sharing of ideas and communicating about mathematical ideas. Besides, cooperative learning groups set the stage for students to learn social skills. These skills help to build stronger cooperation among group members. Leadership, decision-making, trust-building, and communication are different skills that are developed in cooperative learning (Dahley, 1994). In addition, cooperative learning has been shown to improve relationships among students from different backgrounds (Lyman et al., 1988). Effandi Zakaria et al. (2010) mentions that cooperative learning emphasises on social interaction and relationships among groups of students in particular and among classmates in general.

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STAD is one of the simplest and most flexible of the cooperative learning methods, having been used in grades 2 through 12 and in such diverse subject areas as math, language arts, social studies, and science (Mifflin, n.d. excerpted from Biehler/Snowman, 1997). Slavin (1980) claims that STAD has shown positive improvement towards pupils’ academic achievement as well as encouraging pupils to have higher cognitive thinking skill. Teaching and learning in mathematics through STAD model in cooperative learning brings positive effects towards the academic performance and also their achievement in mathematics (Wong, 2007). Cooperative learning experiences promote more positive attitudes toward the instructional experience than competitive or individualistic methodologies. In addition, cooperative learning should result in positive effects on pupils’ achievement and retention of information (Rosini B. Abu, 1998 excerpted from Dishon & O'Leary, 1984; Johnson & Johnson, 1990; Slavin, 1991). According to Wong (1998) adapted from Gan and Wong (1995), cooperative learning has positively improved the attitudes of their participants towards learning mathematics. All cooperative learning structures are designed to increase pupils’ participation in learning. The more opportunities pupils have to participate, the greater likelihood that they will become empowered to do mathematics in knowledgeable and meaningful way (Kennedy and Tipps, 1999). According Effandi Zakaria and Zanaton Iksan (2006), cooperative learning is grounded based on the belief that learning is most effective when pupils are actively involved in sharing ideas and work cooperatively to complete academic tasks. Johnson and Johnson (1998) claims that promotive interaction occurs as individuals encourage and facilitate each other's efforts to reach the group's goals (such as maximizing each member's learning). Besides, a pupil doesn't always catch his own mistakes, though, no matter how skilled he may be. Group correction is an alternative, with peers in small groups pointing out mistakes (Cotter, n.d.). 11

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RESEARCH AIM This action research is carried out to apply one of the cooperative models -

STAD in enhancing the year 5 pupils’ academic performance in mathematics subject. This research is also aimed to evaluate the pupils’ attitude in learning mathematics before and after implementation of the STAD model during the teaching and learning of mathematics in the classroom at one of the primary school which is located at the outskirt of the Miri City.

3.1

Research Objectives Based on the research aim stated above, researcher has decided on four

research objectives that are to be achieved. The objectives are: (a) To evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of STAD model in increasing year 5 pupils’ academic performance in mathematics subject. (b) To determine whether the application of cooperative learning model – STAD model is able to change the pupils’ attitude towards mathematics. (c) To analyse the common errors made by the pupils when answering the questions in the mathematics tests.

3.2

Research Questions The research questions are stated as below:

(a)

Does the implementation of STAD model bring improvement towards year 5 pupils’ academic performance in mathematics subject? What are the improvements shown by the pupils in their academic performance in mathematics after implementing the STAD model?

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(b)

Does STAD model change the pupils’ attitude towards mathematics subject? What are the changes?

(c)

What are the common errors made by the pupils when answering the questions in the mathematics tests? Can STAD model help the pupils to make less common errors in the mathematics tests?

4.0

PARTICIPANTS There were 4 participants in this research. The personal information of each

participant was collected based on the Participant Information Form (Appendix 1). Based on the information collected, the gender of the participants was male. The participants were the year 5 pupils from one of the primary schools at the outskirt of the Miri City. They were all eleven years old. The participants, namely P1, P2, P3 and P4 had different economic background but same cultural background. All of them were from Kedayan cultural background. Their academic performance in mathematics subject was at the range of weak to moderate. This could be seen through their average scores for their mathematics tests in the year 2009. Participants had sat for mathematics tests for five times in the year 2009. The average score of the five tests taken by each of the participants was obtained as their pretest results. The results were stated in the Table 1.

Table 1: Participants’ Average Score in Mathematics in the Year of 2009 Participant Test Test Test Test Test 1 P1 P2 P3 P4 49 22 27 27 2 65 44 38 43 3 54 48 47 34 4 58 50 45 38 5 60 54 29 40 Average Mathematics score in 2009 (%) 286/5 ≈ 57 218/5 ≈ 44 186/5 ≈ 37 182/5 ≈ 37 13

5.0

ACTION PROCEDURE The date of implementation for STAD model during the teaching and learning

in mathematics classroom was from 8th February 2010 until 26th March 2010. The duration for the planned research is 6 weeks (2 hours per week). In this session, the action plan for this research was clearly planned. The researcher focused on discussing about the steps of action which included the steps of diagnosing, action planning, taking action, evaluating and specifying learning which contributed to the next cycle and so on. According to O’Brien (1998) which is adapted from Susman (1983), there are five phases to be conducted within each research cycle (Figure 1).

Next Cycle

Diagnosing

Specifying Learning

Action Planning

Evaluating

Taking Action

(Modified from O’Brien (1998); adapted from Susman (1983)) Figure 1: Research Model

Firstly, the problem was diagnosed and defined. Diagnosing corresponds to the identification of the primary problems that were the underlying causes of the 14

organisation’s desire for change (Baskerville, 1999). Therefore, it was important to choose a suitable problem or issue to be researched. To define a suitable issue or problem to be researched and solved, observation was made at the researched classroom. After that, the main issue which was the year 5 pupils’ low performance in mathematics was defined as the main issue that needs to be solved. Researcher and participants were then collaborate in the next activity, action planning. This activity specifies organisational actions that should relieve or improve the primary problem. The discovery of the planned actions must be guided by the theoretical framework. The plan establishes the target for change and the approach to change. After referring to the different resources, STAD model was chosen as the main concept for the planned action. A schedule of work for the implementation of the STAD model was prepared at the stage of action planning. Action planning was important to make sure that the action research for the issue identified could be carried out smoothly according to the work schedule planned. At the stage of action planning, researcher also needed to seek for the literature reviews from the other resources about STAD model as well as the previous researches done about the implementation of the STAD model in the teaching and learning. Action taking was then implemented. Before interpreting the STAD model, the number of participants for this action research was decided and their background from socio-economic and culture were examined. Once the number of participants had been decided, the participants’ previous tests score in the year 2009 were collected. This was done to take the mean scores (base score) of the participants for the mathematics subject. The 5 tests previously taken by the participants were considered as the pre test while the mean scores calculated would be taken as the participants’ pre test data. Referring to the STAD model, participants were assigned into teams of two, with each team mirroring the make-up of the class in terms of ability. Members for 15

each team were decided by the researcher. Each team must have a participant with better academic performance in mathematics. After referring to the participants’ previous academic performance in mathematics, researcher decided to put participant P1 and P3 in team 1 while participant P2 and P4 in team 2. Once these assignments were made, a four-step cycle which refers to teach, team study, test, and recognition would begin. For the first stage of STAD model, class presentation, lesson and materials was presented to the class through direct instruction, discussion format and etc. In the team work phase, pupils were asked to complete worksheet or a task as a group. They were required to work together and help each other in completing the tasks assigned to them. The team members were also responsible for making sure their partners in the group was able to understand and master the skills and knowledge delivered in the class. After 2 weeks of teaching, a post-test was given to each of the participants individually to check their understanding on the materials learned. The team members were not allowed to help each other for the individual test given. The achievement test was then graded by the researcher. The individual achievement scores for every member in each team were then calculated and summed up as the team scores. If the participant’s score was higher than the base score, then the participant would contribute positively to the team score. The scoring methods were used to reward the participants for their effort in making improvement. The use of improvement scores had been shown to increase participants’ academic performance even without teams and it is an important component of student team learning. Team recognition would be given based on their improvement scores. Last stage of the STAD model was team recognition. The team recognition was given based on the group improvement scores. The team which collected the most points was declared as the best team. Rewards were given to the winning team. 16

The rewards could vary but they had to be informal. Here, researcher put up the name of the best team on the class bulletin boards. In addition, rewards in the form of prizes were also given. After that, questionnaire was given to the participants to identify and evaluate participants’ learning attitudes after implementing the STAD learning model. After the first cycle of the action research was completed, the outcomes of the planned action were evaluated. The evaluation includes determining whether the theoretical effects of the action were realized, and whether these effects relieved the problems. After collecting, analyzing and evaluating the data, the activity of specifying learning was formally undertaken last. General findings were identified at this stage. The action research cycle could continue, whether the action was proved successful or not. This was to develop further knowledge about the validity of relevant theoretical frameworks. The second cycle of this action research was carried out after modifying the first action plan. The action research would go for one or more cycles until the problems were overcame and the outcomes and findings fulfilled the objectives of this research.

6.0

DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE The instruments used in this research were achievement test, questionnaire

and observation. The details of these instruments were discussed in this section.

6.1

Achievement Test Testing is extremely important however, because without it no teacher can

really know how much the pupils have learnt (Sachs, 2010). In the other meaning, test is a tool that used to evaluate the pupils’ performance in a specific task or subject.

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This instrument was mainly used to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of the STAD model in increasing the participants’ academic performance for mathematics subject. Through this instrument, researcher aware of and noticed the common errors made by the participants when solving the mathematical problems. The previous five tests that were taken by the participants in the year 2009 were considered as their pretest. The average scores for the tests were calculated as their pretest scores before the implementation of the STAD model in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The post-test was carried out to examine the participants’ academic performance after implementing the STAD model. The post-test items were modified based on the Curriculum Development Centre (2006).

6.2

Questionnaire Questionnaire is used to allow feedbacks from pupils. It also allows each

pupil to have the opportunity to provide anonymous feedback on their experience. It can be used to collect data and allow all participants the opportunity to provide feedback. According to University of Sheffield (2010), the feedback is generally anonymous, which encourages openness and honesty. In this research, 4-point Likert Scale Questionnaire was used. The Likert Scale is a popular format of questionnaire that is used in educational research (Markusic, 2009). The questionnaire was given to the participants to answer after the implementation of STAD model for the last cycle in action plan. The main purpose of this questionnaire was to evaluate the participants’ respond towards STAD model from the aspect of mastery in mathematics, interest towards mathematics and also social interaction in the class. The questions given to the participants to answer in the questionnaire were not arranged according to its groups but were shuffled. 18

18 questions (Appendix 5) were prepared for this questionnaire. The questionnaire was modified based on the questionnaire in Huang (2008). 8 questions were prepared to survey the participants’ interest in learning mathematics. Besides that, 6 questions and 4 questions were designed to survey the participants’ mastery in mathematics and participants’ social interaction in the class respectively.

6.3

Observation Observation is a term that describes several methodological techniques, and

can be used to collect qualitative or quantitative data. Non-verbal behaviour and tactile skills are particularly amenable to observation. The presence of an observer may affect the behaviour of subjects. Data collection may be influenced by the observers' expectations and motives (Lynes, 1999). Besides observing the participants’ learning behaviours and participation informally in the class, parts of the observation were also written in the form of journal to identify and examine the problem faced when carrying out the STAD model during the teaching and learning of Mathematics in the class so that improvement can be done to overcome the problems faced. A journal was written after two weeks of teaching.

7.0

DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE In this section, the methods used to analyse the data collected were discussed.

The researcher had carried out the teaching lesson plan for mathematics subject in the researched school for the chosen participants for 6 weeks times (2 hours of teaching per week). The data were collected and analysed based on the three instruments 19

(achievement test, questionnaire, and observation). based on quantitative and qualitative approaches.

The data analysis was made

7.1

Achievement Test The post-test was built from 10 objective questions and 20 subjective

questions (Appendix 2, Appendix 3 and Appendix 4). The total score allocated for the 10 objective questions was 20% whereas 2% for each correct answer. For the subjective questions, the total score of 80% was given. The score for each of the subjective question was different. Score of 1% until 3% was given based on the level of difficulty of each question. After marking the participants’ post-test 1, the score of the post-test 1 was obtained for each of the participants and recorded down. The comparison of the pretest and post-test 1 scores was done and visualised by using the spreadsheet. Researcher firstly recorded down the scores in Table 2.

Table 2: Form Used in Recording Participants’ Scores Participant P1 P2 P3 P4 Score (%) Pretest Post-Test 1

Researcher compared the pretest and post-test 1 scores as well as measured the effectiveness of STAD model in enhancing participants’ academic performance in mathematics. The scores collected in post-test 2 and post-test 3 were analysed in the form of percentage (%). Each of the post-tests was compared with the test taken in the previous cycle. Researcher also analysed the common errors done by the participants that have caused the participants inability to score well in their achievement tests. 20

The scores achieved by the participants in the pretest and post-tests were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of STAD model in helping the participants to make less common errors in mathematics tests. 7.2 Questionnaire After participants had done the questionnaire, researcher grouped and reorganised the items based on its type. The numbers of participants’ that chose “Strongly disagree”, “Disagree”, “Agree” and “ Strongly agree” for each of the items in the questionnaire were recorded down.

7.3

Observation Three aspects were observed. The aspects were participants’ behaviours,

social interaction, and the participants’ participation during the implementation of STAD model in the teaching and learning of mathematics in the classroom. Through observation, the participants’ learning progress and their attitude shown in mathematics subject are examined. Researcher observed the interaction between the participants as a group or team when the STAD model was implemented. Besides, the engagement of the participants with the class and group activities designed in accordance to the STAD model was also observed.

8.0

RESEARCH FINDINGS In this section, the findings that obtained from the each cycle were discussed

based on the participants’ scores in the pretest and post-tests. Besides, the findings of the questionnaire and observation on participants’ attitude towards mathematics were made. By examining the achievement tests taken by the participants, the common errors made by the participants were analysed.

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8.1

Findings of the First Cycle In this research, the improvement of the year 5 participants’ academic

performance in mathematics was measured by pretest and the post-tests. The comparisons of the pre-test and post-test of the four participants were analysed and interpreted in this section. The pretest and post-test were meant to evaluate the effectiveness of STAD model in increasing the participants’ academic performance in mathematics subject. For the first cycle of this action research, the participants’ scores in the posttest 1 (Appendix 2) after the implementation of the STAD model for the first time are collected and compared with their scores achieved in the pretest. The participants’ scores in pretest and post-test 1 are displayed in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Participants’ Scores in Pretest and Post-test 1

With reference to the data observed in Figure 2, the post-test 1 score of participant P1 if comparing with the pretest score was improving from 57% to 79% while participant P2 was improving from 44% to 70%. Besides that, it was also discovered that the test score of participant P3 was improving from 37% to 46%. In addition, participant P4 was also showing improvement in his post-test 1 score when comparing to his pre test score with his test score improved from 37% to 52%. It was discovered that there were 2 participants’ mathematics test scores were improving for more than 20% if compared to the test scores they obtained in pre test. The participant was participant P1 and P2. The improvement score shown by participant P1 was 22% while the improvement score of participant P2 was 26%. As 22

for participant P3, he obtained the improvement score that more than 5% and that was 9%. On the other hand, participant P4 achieved improvement score of 5%. Based on the pretest scores achieved by the participants, it was discovered that the participants’ academic performance in mathematics were in the range of weak and average. Most of the participants were only able to solve simple mathematical questions with the application of simple mathematical skills. The main important factor that led to their inability to achieve good results in mathematics was because they unable to perform the correct steps in solving the mathematics questions given in the tests as well as the correct answers for the mathematics questions. This happened because of their weak mastery of the 4 basic operations. Besides, they were not able to fully understand the previous lessons taught in the class due to the ineffective teaching and learning strategy in the class. By referring to the participants’ scores in the post-test 1, it was discovered that, the participants’ academic performance in mathematics subject had increased after implementation of STAD model in the teaching and learning of mathematics subject for 2 weeks. They were able to solve the mathematics questions in the test better. Through the observation made during the teaching and learning of mathematics in the classroom, it was noticed that instead of only learning from the teacher, participants learnt better when they were asked to study in the form of group. They enjoyed studying with their team members; correcting their team members’ mistakes in solving mathematics questions or problems as well as sharing knowledge with each other in the group. Not just with the members in their own team, but they also like to share their knowledge with the other team through the group activity that requires interaction among groups, for instance, checking the steps of solving and answers of the

mathematics questions given by the opposite teams. Based on the examination, it was 23

proven by participants that learning could be enhanced when participants or the pupils had positive interaction with their peers. Through the implementation of STAD model, the participants were motivated to give support and assist each other especially their team partners.

8.1.1

Constraint and Suggestion Although all of the participants’ results in the mathematics tests improved

after the implementation of STAD in the first cycle, some constraints were faced. Unable to master the basic concept of multiplication especially in memorizing the multiplication tables was the main constraint faced by the participants that had caused them to lose most of the marks when solving and answering the mathematics questions. Most of the participants were unable to memorise the multiplication tables well. When the participants were unable to memorise the multiplication tables well, this would influence their test scores as they were unable to perform the correct steps of solving the multiplication and also division questions thus giving the wrong answer. Lack of drilling or practices was also one of the constraints that faced during the application of STAD model in the first cycle. Most of the activities or tasks given to the participants required the participants to solve or do in group in the class. Not many worksheets or practices were given to them to be done as homework during their leisure time whether in group or individually to enhance their learning of the mathematical concepts taught in the class. To overcome the first constraint, participants were taught to build and write multiplication table that was required to solve each of the multiplication and division questions or problems. They were taught to use repeated addition to build the multiplication tables. By referring to the multiplication table, participants could easily solve the questions involving multiplication and division without memorising the 24

multiplication tables. In order to overcome the second constraint mentioned above, more worksheets and exercises were given to the participants as homework to do and solve during their leisure time. It was believed that through drilling, participants are able to foster the mathematical knowledge and skills taught by the researcher in the class. Second cycle of this action research was carried out to overcome the constraints faced in the first cycle. It was done to spur the participants to achieve better academic performance for the next mathematics test.

8.2

Findings of the Second Cycle After carrying out the second cycle for another 2 weeks, participants were

asked to sit for the post-test 2 (Appendix 3). The test scores obtained from the participants in the post-test 2 were compared with their test scores in the post- test 1. The comparison could be seen in Figure 3 below:

Figure 3: Participants’ Scores in Post-test 1 and Post-test 2

Based on Figure 3, participant P1 was showing improvement in his post-test 2 score if compared to post-test 1. He improved from 79% to 87%. Participant P2 was showing improvement in his test score by gaining 77% in the post-test 2 if compared to his previous test score, 70% in post-test 1. For participant P3, his test score was improving from 46% to 57%. In the other hand, participant P4’s test score was increasing from 52% to 64%. It was realised that the academic performance of the participants after the implementation of the modified plan in the second cycle was enhanced. All of the participants were doing better in post-test 2 if compared to post-test 1. Among the four participants, participant P3 and P4 achieved the improvement score which more than 10%. The improvement score for participant P4 was 12% while participant P3 25

was 11%. As for participant P1 and P2, they both received more than 5% for improvement score and that was 8% and 7% respectively. Through the observation made, it was discovered that the participants increased their academic performance in mathematics after carrying out the modified action plan in the second cycle. By asking the participants to build out the multiplication tables based on the requirements of the multiplication questions by using repeated addition was shown as an effective method to help the participants to solve the mathematics questions involving multiplication. In addition, by building and writing out the multiplication tables, the participants were able to refer to the multiplication tables built formerly when solving another similar multiplication or division questions. This method proved to benefit the participants with short-term memory or facing difficulties in memorizing the multiplication tables from 1 to 9. Moreover, the drilling method applied together with STAD model succeeded in helping the participants to improve their learning in mathematical concepts and skills. Through practices given to the participants to be done and completed in the group or individually during their leisure time, participants were able to practice and recall the mathematics skills and concepts learnt repetitively.

8.2.1

Constraint and Suggestion When carrying out the modified action plan in the second cycle, it was found

that some of the participants did not finish or complete the tasks or worksheets given to each of the groups. The main reason that caused this situation was due to problem with their learning attitude. Pupils’ learning attitude in mathematics was one of the main reasons that drove the pupils’ low academic performance in the mathematics subject. Pupils usually lack of motivation to complete the homework or practices given to them when there was nobody beside them to guide or motivate them. The learning attitude shown by the participants in this research would be the one of the 26

main factors that stopping them from achieving higher academic performance if there was no action taken to overcome this problem. To solve the issue above, researcher integrated “Token System” together with STAD model to motivate participants learning attitude in mathematics as well as to aid the participants to maximise their academic performance in mathematics. To implement the “Token System”, a reward card was given to each of the participants. When a participant performed well in their learning or completed the tasks or homework given by the researcher, a “smiley face” would be stamped on the reward card. The participants could claim their rewards from the researchers when they had collected 8 smiley faces. This modified action plan was carried out in the third cycle.

8.3

Findings of the Third Cycle After carrying out the action plan modified from the second cycle, post-test 3

(Appendix 4) was given to the participants to obtain the outcomes of the action plan implemented for the third cycle. After calculating the participants’ scores in post-test 3, comparison of their scores in post-test 2 and post-test 3 was made. Figure 4 showed clearly the scores achieved by the participants in post-test 2 and post-test 3, the comparison of scores of the participants obtained from the two tests.

Figure 4: Participants’ Scores in Post-test 2 and Post-test 3 Based on the graph above, participant P1 showed improvement in his test score in post-test 3 if compared to post-test 2. His test score was increasing from 87% to 92%. For participant P2, his test score was increasing from 77% to 84% while participant P3 improved his test score from 57% to 70%. In addition, participant P4 also showed improvement in his test score in post-test 3 if compared to post-test 2 by increasing of test score from 64% to70%.

27

It was discovered that, participant P3 achieved improvement score of 13% then followed by participant P2 with improvement score of 7%. Participant P4 and participant P1 respectively obtained 6% and 5% for their improvement scores. The “Token System” applied together with STAD model reinforced the participants’ learning and enhanced their learning attitude in mathematics was proven to be effective. Participants who completed the homework or practices were given by researcher in time without reminding from the researcher were qualified to collect enough “smiley face” stamps to exchange with mystery rewards. The “Token

System” was meant to be a tool to motivate and reinforce participants’ learning in mathematics as well as to improve their learning attitude. The application of the “Token System” enabled the participant to take learning more seriously for mathematics subject.

8.3.1

Constraint and Suggestion Although “Token System” had proven its effectiveness, it brought

disadvantages at the same time to the participants. One of them was that participants tend to ask for rewards for their completed work or tasks. They were becoming more materialistic. The participants would not work hard to complete the tasks or practices given if no rewards or extrinsic motivation given. Such attitude would also affect their attitude in treating the people around them. For example, they would not lend their hands to the ones who needed it if there was no reward for their sacrifices. To investigate more detail about the “Token System” as well as their advantages and disadvantages, further research should be made to analyse the “Token System” in influencing pupils’ learning in mathematics.

8.4

Participants’ Attitude towards Mathematics

28

A set of questionnaire (Appendix 5) was designed to be used as the instrument to measure participants’ attitude towards mathematics after the application of STAD model. The four participants in this action research had taken the questionnaire after the implementation of STAD model for mathematics subject respectively. The questionnaire was meant to evaluate the effectiveness of STAD model in enhancing participants’ interest, mastery in mathematics and also their social interaction in the class.

8.4.1 Participants’ Interest in Learning Mathematics The Table 3 displayed the participants’ responses towards the implementation of STAD model in the teaching and learning mathematics in the aspect of their interest in learning mathematics based on the eight questions from the questionnaire. From the Table 3, all of the participants strongly disagreed that learning in group was not suitable for them in learning mathematics. Besides that, they were also strongly agreed that they would like to share their knowledge with their team members in learning mathematics. There were 2 participants who respectively agreed and strongly agreed that the group activities increased their interest in learning mathematics and they would like to have group activities most of the time for the mathematics subject. In addition, 2 participants respectively agreed and strongly agreed that the teaching and learning of mathematics was more interesting after the implementation of group activities. There was 1 participant who agreed and 3 participants who strongly agreed that they enjoyed learning in group, looking forward for the mathematics lessons because they could study together with their friends, and continued learning mathematics in groups with their friends.

Table 3: Analysis of Participants’ Interest in Learning Mathematics 29

No. Item Question 1. I enjoy learning in group 4. 5. The group activities increase my interest in learning mathematics. The teaching and learning of mathematics interesting implementation 8. activities. I am looking is much with of more the group for Strongly Disagree

Number of Participant Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 1 3

2

2

2

2

forward

mathematics lesson because I can study together with my 13. friends. I love to share my knowledge with my group members in 15. 16. learning mathematics. I would like to have group activities most of the time. I would like to continue learning mathematics in group with my 18. friends. Learning in group is not suitable for me in learning mathematics. 4 2 1 4 2 3 1 3

8.4.2 Participants’ Mastery in Mathematics The Table 4 below showed the participants’ response towards the mastery in mathematical concepts and skills after the implementation of STAD. Six questions were answered by the participants for this session to survey participants’ opinions

30

towards the implementation of STAD in helping them to master the mathematical knowledge and skills. According to the data arranged in the table 4, it could be seen that there were 3 participants who strongly disagreed that group activities did not help them a lot in learning mathematics. Four of them all agreed that it was easy for them to learn mathematics by working together with their friends and their academic performance in mathematics had improved after learning together with their friends in groups. Moreover, all of them were also able to solve most of the mathematical problems after learning mathematics in groups. 3 participants strongly disagreed while 1 participant disagreed that group activities did not help them a lot in learning mathematics and they were still facing troubles in learning mathematics after the group works were carried out. 3 participants and 1 participant strongly agreed and disagreed respectively that learning in groups made them easier to understand mathematics.

Table 4: Analysis of Participants’ Mastery in the Mathematics No. Item 3. Question It is easy for me to learn mathematics 6. 7. 10. by working 4 Number of Participant Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree

together with my friends. Group activities do not help me a lot in learning mathematics. Learning in group makes me easy to understand mathematics. I am still facing difficulties in learning mathematics after the 3 1 3 1 1 3

14.

group works are carried out. My academic performance in 31

mathematics is improved after learning 17. together with my the after

4

friends together as a group. I able solve most of mathematics problems

4

learning mathematics in group.

8.4.3 Participants’ Social Interaction in the Class The set of questions extracted from the questionnaire below was meant to evaluate the participants’ social interaction with their own team member as well as their friends from the other groups in the class after the implementation of STAD model in the teaching of learning in mathematics. 4 questions were prepared in this session. From the response given by the participants in Table 5, it was discovered that there were 4 participants strongly agreed that they liked to learn with friends and believed that group activities gave them chances to participate activity in the mathematics subject. Respectively, there were 3 participants strongly agreed and 1 participant disagreed that they were able to communicate better with their friends in the class after learning in the groups for mathematics subject and learning in groups enabled them to have positive relationship with their friends.

Table 5: Analysis of Participants’ Social Interaction in the Class. No. Item 2. 9. Question Strongly Disagree I like to learn with friends. I able communicate better with friends after learning in group for mathematics subject 1 3 32 Number of Participant Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 4

11.

Group activities give me chances to participate actively in the 4

12.

mathematics subject. Group learning enables me to have positive relationship with my friends. 1 3

8.5

Participants’ Common Errors There were some errors made by the participants in the mathematics tests

throughout the three cycles of the action research. These errors were the mistakes that caused them to lose marks in the examination and influenced their academic performance in mathematics negatively. STAD model had shown its effectiveness in helping the participants to make less common errors in the mathematics tests through the improvement of scores in their achievement tests (Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4) after STAD model was implemented in the teaching and learning of mathematics in the classroom. It was also discovered that the common errors made by the participants were normally due to the reason of comprehension error, careless error, procedural error and encoding error. In the next sessions, the four common types of errors made the participants were analysed and discussed.

8.5.1 Comprehension Error Comprehension error was made by the participants when they did not understand the requirement of the questions or the specific terms within the problems. When the participants could not understand the requirement of the questions, they 33

would surely unable perform the correct solutions for the questions. Some examples of the comprehension error made by the participants were analysed and interpreted in Table 6.

Table 6: Analysis of Comprehension Errors No. 1. Question and Solution Arrange the numbers in ascending Error: order. 123 540, 120 234, 123 430, 123 411 Participant did not understand the key Solution: word “ascending” in the question. They the meaning of 123 540, 120 234, 123 430, 123 411 Explanation: Error and Explanation

120 234, 123 411,124 430, 123 540 misunderstood

“ascending” with “descending”. 2. Find the differences between 221 Error: 871 and 120 121. 221 871 + 120 121 Solution: 221 871 - 120 121 101 750 341 992

Explanation: Participant did not understand the key word “differences” in the question. They misunderstood the meaning of 34

“differences” with “total”. 3. Write 22 345 in extended notation. Solution: 20 000 + 2 000 + 300 + 40 + 5 Error: 2+2+3+4+5 Explanation: Participant did not understand the

concept of “extended notation”. He thought that “extended notation” was just about separate the 5 digit numbers in “22 345” and connected them with “+”.

8.5.2 Careless Error Participants often made careless errors in the mathematics tests. Careless error was made due to the participants learning attitude. They tended to rush to solve all the questions in the tests in the shortest time. They did not want to recheck their solutions for the second time although enough time was left for them to do so. Their laziness shown in their learning attitude caused them to make careless error in the mathematics tests. Some examples of the careless errors made by the participants were listed in Table 7.

Table 7: Analysis of Careless Errors No. 1. Question and Solution 574 239 can be written in extended Error: notation as ___________. Solution: 500 000 + 70 000 + 4 000 + 200 + 500 000 + 70 000 + 200 + 30 + 9 Error Explanation: 35 Error and Explanation

30 + 9

The participant overlooked the digit “4” in the numbers “574 239”

2.

700 005 – 37 287 = _______ Solution: 700 005 - 37 287 662 718

Error: 700 005 - 37 285 662 710

Error

Explanation: The participant carelessly copied down the wrong number to be subtracted from 700 005. Instead of 37 287(correct number), the number 37 285 was copied down. 3. 451 062 + 142 337- 361 781 = Solution: 451 062 - 142 337 593 399 593 399 - 361 781 231 618 Explanation: The participant able performed the procedural steps of solving this question participant correctly. However, copied the the Error: 451 062 - 142 337 593 399 593 399 - 361 181 232 218 Error

carelessly

wrong number to be subtracted. Instead the number “361 781”, he copied “361 181”. He carelessly 36

copied the digit “7” with “1”.

8.5.3 Procedural Error Procedural error meant the error occurred during the process of solving the questions. These errors made caused the participants unable to get the correct answer for the questions. The participants who made such errors were mostly due to the problem of incorrect steps or missing steps. Some examples of the procedural errors done by the participants were displayed in Table 8.

Table 8: Analysis of Procedural Errors No. 1. Question and Solution 234 871 × 4 =________ Solution: 234 871 × 4 939 484 × Error: 4 234 871 4 939 704 ×1=4 ×2=8 × 3 = 12 × 4 = 16 × 5 = 20 Erro r Explanation: 37 Error and Explanation

The participant firstly built the timestable of 4. The participant used repeated addition to form the timestable of 4. Mistake occurred at “4 × 7”. He counted “24 + 4” wrongly. Instead of the correct

answer “28”, he wrote “30”. 2. 456 989 + 334 567 – 165 213 = ___ Solution: 456 989 + 334 567 791 556 791 556 -165 213 626 343 Explanation: The participants miscalculated and wrote down the “5” at the ones for the answer “791 556”. This caused the participants unable to proceed to get the correct answer for this question. 3. 628011 – 233 192 – 123 762 =____ Solutin: 628 011 -233 192 394 819 394 819 - 123 762 271 057 Explanation: Firstly, participant only solved first half of the mathematical sentence and 38 Error: Participant did not 628 011 - 233 192 394 819 do the second step Error: 456 989 + 334 567 791 555 791 555 - 165 213 626 342 Error

did not solve the second half of the question. The second step of solving the question and that was subtracting “123 762” from the answer obtained from the first step was missing.

8.5.4 Encoding Error Encoding error occurred when the participants solved the problems but did not write the solution in appropriate and acceptable forms. Encoding the answers for the mathematics questions was the last part of solving the questions. However, some participants unable performed this step well and made such kind of error and thus caused them to lost marks in the mathematics tests. The analysis and interpretation of the participants’ encoding errors were shown in Table 9.

Table 9: Analysis of Encoding Errors No. 1. Question and Solution What is the mixed number for Error:
136 ?

Error and Explanation

Solution:

2 6 13 12 1
Answer: ?

Error

39

Explanation:

2 6 13 12 1

The participant worked out the correct solution to the problem, but unable wrote the correct answer that required by the

Answer: 2 16 2.

problem and that was “mixed number for
136

”.

Jaafar earns RM 345 901. He Error: spent RM 290 000. How much money does Jaafar have now? Solution: RM 345 901 + RM 290 000 RM 635 901 345 901 +290 000 635 901 Explanation: The answer written was not together with its unit. Although the calculation of this question was correct, participants lost marks because no unit “RM” was added together with the answer obtained.

Error

9.0

RESEARCH FINDINGS REFLECTION This research was carried out to apply and evaluate the effectiveness of STAD

model to enhance Year 5 pupils’ performance in mathematics especially their academic performance in mathematics. Besides, this research also aimed to help the year 5 pupils to have positive attitude towards mathematics and analyse the common errors made in mathematics tests. The instruments in this research were achievement test, observation and questionnaire. Each of the instruments was respectively used to evaluate the effectiveness of STAD model in enhancing the participants’ academic performance in mathematics, analysing participants’ common errors in the mathematics tests, 40

observing and determining the constraints faced in each of the cycles when carrying out this action research, and evaluating participants’ attitude towards mathematics. This action research was carried out in total of 3 cycles. 5 previous tests’ scores of the participants were collected and counted to get the participants’ base scores. A post-test was carried out every after 2 weeks of the implementation of STAD model to obtain the data needed to compare the participants’ test’s scores before and after the implementation of STAD model. Action plan was modified for 2 times based on the constraints faced in the previous cycles. The post-tests were meant to identify participants’ improvement shown in academic performance and also the common errors made by the participants in mathematics. Questionnaire was the instrument used to evaluate participants’ attitude towards mathematics from the aspects of interest in learning mathematics, mastery in mathematics and also their social interaction in the class. Observation was done through informal observation in the class, journal and reflection in the daily lesson plan. The aspects observed were based on participants behaviours, social interaction and participants’ participation in STAD model. 9.1 Effectiveness Performance According to the analysis and interpretation of the data presented in Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4, the effectiveness of the STAD model in enhancing participants’ academic performance was proven. The participants’ academic performance was improving from the post-test 1, post-test 2 and post-test 3. Participants gained better scores in the mathematics tests after implementing the STAD in the teaching and learning of mathematics in the classroom. It was proven that implementation of STAD model was effective in increasing participants’ academic performance in mathematics. The improvement scores obtained in their post-tests were the best evidences. 41 of STAD in Enhancing Participants’ Academic

These positive results gained verified that when participants were participating actively in the teaching and learning of mathematics through STAD model with the same group goals, the participants could easily understand the mathematical knowledge taught to them and hence enhanced their academic performance in mathematics. The positive results gained from this research was also supported by Slavin (1980) in Wong (2007), Syafini Bt. Ismail and Tengku Nur Rizan Bt Tengku Mohamad Maasum (n.d) and Slavin (1989) in Gillies and Ashman (2003). Based on the analysis and interpretation of data done, the researcher confidently concluded that the implementation of STAD model is effective in enhancing year 5 pupils’ performance in mathematics.

9.2

Participants’ Attitude towards Mathematics Based on the analysis of the questionnaire shown in Table 2, participants’

attitude towards mathematics were analysed from three aspects (interest, mastery in mathematics, and social interaction). After analysis of the questionnaires was done, it was discovered that the participants’ interest in mathematics had increased after the implementation of the STAD model if compared to before. They found that learning mathematics was fun and enjoyable when cooperative learning was applied. They participated actively in the teaching and learning in mathematics with their own group members through group activities. Through group activities, the participants initiated to finish the tasks given to them. Researchers or teachers only played the role of the guide most of the time when cooperative learning were applied. The findings agreed with Armstrong et al. (1998). The participants’ mastery in mathematics was also improved. This statement could be proven through the analysis of the post-tests (Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4) and also through the questionnaires taken by the participants (Table 4). Participants agreed that the STAD model enabled them to understand better the mathematical 42

knowledge and skills taught to them in the class easily. The participants’ critical thinking and problem solving skills were also enhanced throughout the group discussion. These findings were similar with the findings of Effandi Zakaria and Zanaton Iksan (2006). Moreover, participants’ social interaction in the class was also enhanced after the implementation of STAD model. Participants prefer to work together with their peers or group members more when solving the tasks given in mathematics instead of working alone. They loved to share ideas with their peers or group members and thus maximized their learning. Through the discussion among their own group or with other groups, positive interaction was occurred, hence fostered their relationship. These findings were proven the findings Effandi Zakaria et al. (2010). Therefore, based on these findings, researcher can confidently claim that STAD model is able to enhance participants’ attitude towards mathematics.

9. 3

Participants’ Common Errors The most common errors made by the participants in the mathematics tests

were also analysed in this research. These errors disabled the participants to obtain good scores in mathematics tests. There were four main common errors made by the participants in the tests. The errors were comprehension error, careless error, procedural errors and encoding error. These errors occurred were mainly due to the reasons of did not understand the requirement of the mathematics questions, participants’ impatience in doing the mathematics tests, and their laziness in rechecking their answers. However, most of these errors were pointed out and improved through group learning. Participants taught each other through STAD model and help in correcting the mistakes made by their peers or team members. Hence, the participants would be more aware of the common errors made by them

43

and made less common errors when solving the mathematics questions in the tests. The findings above were supported by the findings of Huang (2008).

10.0

FURTHER RESEARCH Based on the research carried out, it is suggested that the time given to carry

out the research can be extended. The motive to do is so that the researcher can carry out the research for longer time to collect more data to evaluate the effectiveness of STAD in enhancing participants’ performance in mathematics. It is believed that the data collected for this research can be more precise and accurate if more time is given. In addition, it is also recommended that further research can be carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of STAD model in enhancing participants’ performance in other subjects such as Science and English. Thirdly, researcher also proposes that further research can be carried out to overcome the constraints faced in the third cycle after the application of “System Token” with STAD model. Further research should be carried out to analyse the “System Token” in influencing the participants’ learning attitude in mathematics. Lastly, it is suggested that similar research can be carried out in the other primary schools especially the town schools. This is because the teaching and learning styles of the pupils from the town schools might be different with the pupils from the outskirt of the town.

44

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Syafini Bt Ismail and Tengku Nur Rizan Bt Tengku Mohamad Maasum. (n.d.). The Effect of Cooperative Learning in Enhancing Writing Performance. [Online]. Available: http://pkukmweb.ukm.my/~solls09/Proceeding/PDF/Shafini.pdf. [2010, August 10]. University of Sheffield. (2010). Data Collection Method. [Online]. Available: http://www.shef.ac.uk/lets-evaluate/general/methods-collection/questionnaire. html. [2010, February 25]. Wong, Ai Chu. (2007). Keberkesanan Kaedah Pembelajaran Kooperatif Model STAD ke atas Prestasi Matematik Bagi Topik Integer. Open University Malaysia: Thesis of Undergraduate. Wong, Siew Ming. (1998). The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning on Mathematics Achievement and Change in Attitudes Towards Mathematics Among Preservice Teachers of Heterogeneous Ability Majoring in Mathematics in Sarawak Teacher Training College. Jurnal Pendidikan MPS. 1(1): 82-89. APPENDIX 1

PARTICIPANT INFORMATION FORM Please fill your information in the blanks provided for each of the questions. Tick (√) your option. Participant’s Information Name : …………………………………… Class :…………………………………… Gender:…………………………………… Race 1. :…………………………………… Previous test score in mathematics subject: 0 – 30% 31 – 50% 51 – 70% 48

71 – 80% 81 – 100% 2. Interest in mathematics subject: High Medium Low

APPENDIX 2 Post-test 1 MATHEMATICS YEAR 5 Name:_____________________ Date:______________Score:_________________ Section A:Circle the correct answer: 1) 54 143 is read as A. B. fifty-four thousand one hundred and forty-three fifty-three thousand one hundred and forty-three

C. fifty-four thousand one hundred and forty-four D. fifty-four thousand two hundred and forty-four Answer: A 2) What the place value of the numerals 7 in the number 327 610? A. tens

B. hundreds C. thousands D. ten thousand

Answer: C

49

3)

Round off 537 927 to the nearest ten thousand A. 540 000

B. 530 000 C. D. 520 000 500 000

Answer: A

4)

123 458 + 213 654 = A. 333 112

B. 327 112 C. 337 112 D. 338 112

Answer: C 5) 446 819 – 210 456 – 100 000 = A. B. 134 363 135 363

C. 146 363 D. 136 363

Answer: D 6) A. - 15 421 = 54 214. Find the answer in blank. 89 635

B. 69 645 C. 89 635 D. 69 635

Answer: D 7) 31 203 × 2 = 50

A.

62 406

B. 61 406 C. 62 306 D. 61 306

Answer: A

8)

6 456 × 100 = A. B. 64 500 C. 645 600 D. 656 000 64 560

Answer: C 9) 2 435 × 52 = A. 106 620

B. 116 620 C. 126 620 D. 136 620

Answer: C 10) 7 404 ÷ 6 = A 1 034 B. 1 134 C. 1 234 D. 1 334 Answer: C

51

Section B: Answer all the questions below. 1) Write 234 879 in words Answer: two hundreds thirty-four thousands eight hundreds and seventy-nine 2) Write 22 345 in extended notation. Answer: 20 000 +2 000 +300 + 40 + 5 3) Write sixty-five thousand seven hundred and twenty-one in numeral. Answer: 65 721 4) Arrange the numbers in ascending order. 123 540 , 120 234, 123 430, 123 411 Answer: 120 234, 123 411, 123 430, 123 540 5) Round off 871 253 to the nearest ten thousand. Answer: 870 000 6) State the value of the digit 7 in the number 876 234. Answer: 70 000 7) 286 274 + 345 761 = 286 274 + 345 761 632 035 Answer: 632 035 8) 671 921 – 521 813 = 671 921 - 521 813 150 108 Answer: 150 108 52

9) 234 871 × 4 = × 234 871 4 939 484

Answer: 939 484 10) 628 011 – 233 192 – 123 762 = 628 011 - 233 192 394 819 Answer: 271 057 11) Calculate the sum of 234 871 and 123 456 234 871 + 123 456 358 327 Answer: 358 327 12) 267 180 × 3 = 267 180 × 3 801 540 Answer: 801 540 13) 672 234 + 112 234 = ____________ 672 234 + 112 234 784 468 Answer: 784 468 14) Mary had 345 568 sweets. Rafiq took 76 123 sweets from Mary. Rafiq left how many sweets left? 345 568 - 76 123 269 445 Answer: 269 445 sweets 394 819 - 123 762 271 057

53

15)

+ 123 728 = 872 234. Find the answer in 872 234 - 123 728 748 506

Answer: 748 506 16) Find the differences between 221 871 and 120 121. 221 187 - 120 121 101 750 Answer: 101 750 17) Halim has 8 561 crates of oranges. There are 24 oranges in each crate. How many oranges are there altogether? × 8 561 24 34 244 17 122_ 205 464

Answer: 205 464 oranges. 18) Erricson bought 124 980 apples while Rafiq bought 293 345 apples. How many apples altogether? 124 980 + 293 345 418 325 Answer: 418 325 apples. 19) Jaafar earns RM 345 901. He spends RM 290 000. How much money does Jaafar have now? RM 345 901 -RM 290 000 RM 55 901 Answer: RM 55 901

54

20) There are 80 123 match boxes. Each box has 5 matchsticks. How many matchsticks are there altogether? 80 123 × 5 400 615 Answer: 400 615 matchsticks.

55

APPENDIX 3 Post-test 2 MATHEMATICS YEAR 5 Name:___________________Date:_________________Score:________________ Section A: Circle the correct answer. 1) Six hundred fifty-eight thousand six hundred and five written in numerals is A. B. C. D. 658 006 658 055 658 605 658 650

Answer: C 2) Which of the following number has digit 4 with a value of 40 000? A. B. C. D. 842 397 794 316 572 142 390 164

Answer: A 3) 256 641+ 45 723 – 23 454 = A. B. C. D. 275 910 276 910 277 810 278 910

Answer: D 56

4)

2 345 × 32 = A. B. C. D. 75 030 75 040 75 050 75 060

Answe: B 5) A. B. C. D. Find quotient of 19 314 × 6 114 880 114 894 115 884 116 884

Answer: C 6) 1 632 ×5 ÷ 10 A. B. C. D. 716 816 916 1 016

Answer: B 7) 700 005 – 37 287 – 1 000 = A. B. C. D. 614 719 648 719 661 718 671 718

Answer: C

8)

Which of the following is not an improper fraction? 57

A. B. C. D.

73 76 74 78

Answer: D

9)

The shaded part in the diagram above represents
A. B. C. D. 103 104 93 94

Answer: D 10) 2 550 ÷ 3 × 8 = A. B. C. D. 7 040 6 840 6 940 6 800

Answer: D

58

Section B: Answer all the questions below. 1) Write 356 760 in words Answer: three hundred fifty-six thousand seven hundred and sixty 2) 451 062 + 142 337 + 361 781 = 451 062 + 142 337 593 399 Answer: 955 180 3) What is the differences between 776 158 and 43 116? 776 158 - 43 116 733 042 Answer: 733 042 4) 4 761 × 23 = 4 761 × 23 14 283 95 22_ 109 503_ Answer: 109 503 5) 130 100 ÷ 10 × 4 = 13 010 × 4 52 040 593 399 + 361 781 955 180

Answer: 52040

59

6) Find the total of 600 165, 45 783 and 2 546 600 165 + 45 783 645 948 Answer: 648 494 7) 466 954 ÷ 8 = (r) + 554 382 2 546 648 494

Answer: 58 369….2(r) 8) 700 005 – 37 287 = 700 005 - 37 387 662 618 Answer: 662 618 9) 574 239 can be written in extended notation as ___________ Answer: 500 000 + 70 000 +4 000 + 200 + 30 +9 10) Write 92 in words. Answer: nine halves.

60

11) Calculate 123 450 × 3 ÷ 10 =

123 450 × 3

370 350

37 035 10 370 350 - 30 70 - 70 3 -0 35 - 30 50 - 50

Answer: 37 035 12) 2 134 + 321 210 2 134 319 076 = 321 210

Answer: 319 076 13) What is the mixed number for 127 ? = 157 1 7 12 - 7 5 Answer: 157 14) Mary has 123 456 sweets. Rafiq takes 34 123 sweets from Mary. Rafiq has how many sweets left?

123 456 34 123 61

89 333

Answer: 89 333 sweets

15)

- 123 728 = 872 234. Find the answer in

872 234 + 123 728 995 962

Answer: 995 962

16) 872 234 + 123 728 – 165 213 = 872 234 + 123 728 995 962 995 962 -165 213 830 749

Answer: 830 749 17) Azrin has 2 345 crates of oranges. There are 12 oranges in each crate. How many oranges are there altogether?

2 345 × 12 4 690 23 45_ 28 140

62

Answer: 28 140 oranges 18) Mr. Lim puts 15 072 marbles into 12 boxes. How many marbles are there in 7 boxes? 1 256 × 7

8 792

Answer: 8 792 marbles. 19) The population of the three towns are 234 897, 120 970 and 87 123. Calculate the total population of the three towns.

234 897 + 120 970 355 867

355 867 + 87 123 442 990

Answer: 442 990 population 20) A supermarket ordered 5 875 boxes of oranges for Chinese New Year. There are 80 oranges in each box. Find the total number of oranges ordered.

5 875 × 80

0 000 470 00 470 000 63

Answer: 470 000 oranges.

APPENDIX 4

64

Post-test 3 MATHEMATICS YEAR 5 Name:___________________Date:_________________Score:________________ Section A: Circle the correct answer. 1) Six hundred sixty-eight thousand six hundred and five written in numerals is A. B. C. D. 658 006 658 055 668 605 668 650

Answer: C 2) Which of the following number has digit 4 with a value of 400? A. B. C. D. 842 397 794 316 572 402 390 164

Answer: C 3) 256 641+ 45 723 – 23 453 = A. B. C. D. 278 911 279 910 278 811 279 910

Answer: A 4) 2 345 × 31 = A. B. 72 695 72 694 65

C. D.

72 705 72 704

Answer: A 5) A. B. 6 523 C. D. 6 623 6 723 45 661÷ 7 6 423

Answer: B 6) 1 632 × 5 ÷ 10 A. B. C. D. 716 816 916 1 016

Answer: B 7) 25 789 + 37 287 – 1 000 = A. B. C. D. 61 176 61 176 62 076 62 176

Answer: C

8)

Which of the following is an improper fraction? A. B. C.
13 76 34

66

D.

78

Answer: B

9)
The shaded part in the diagram above represents

A.
B. 104 C. 93 D.

103

114

Answer: D 10)
338 460 ÷ 6 × 4 = A. 222 640 B. 223 640 C. D. 224 640 225 640

Answer: D Section B: Answer all the questions below. 1) Write 151 760 in words Answer: one hundred and fifty-one thousands seven hundred and sixty 2) 451 062 + 142 337 - 361 781= 451 062 + 142 337 593 399 Answer: 231 618 593 399 - 361 781 231 618 67

3) What is the difference between 76 159 and 43 816 76 159 - 43 816 32 343 Answer: 32 343
4) 4 761 × 45 =

4 761 × 45 23 805 190 44 214 245 Answer: 214 245 5) 113 010 ÷ 10 × 6 = 11 301 × 6 67 806

11 301 10 113 010 - 10 13 - 10 30 -30 1 -0 10 -1 0

6 ) Find the total of 600 165, 45 783 and 12 546 7) 234 + 124 165 600 + 45 783 = 2 +1 645 94824 + 34 + = 3 + 54 Answer: 658 494 = 3 + 44 + 14 = 3 + 1 + 14 = 4 14 Answer: 4 14 68 645 948 + 12 546 658 494

8) 168 352 ÷ 32 =

5 261 32 168 352 - 160 83 -64 1 95 - 1 92 32 - 32

9) 994 229 can be written in extended notation as _________________

Answer: 900 000 + 90 000 + 4 000 + 200 + 20 +9 10) Write 74 in words.

Answer: seven quarters

11) Calculate 123 450 × 6 123 450 × 6 740 700 Answer: 740 700

12) 12 134 + 321 210 12 134 309 076

= 321 210. Find the answer in

.

69

Answer: 309 076

13) What is the mixed number for 136 ?
2 6 13 - 12 1

Answer: 2 16 14) Azrin had 145 456 sweets. Alif took 54 023 sweets from Azrin. Azrin left how many sweets? 145 456 - 54 023 91 433 Answer: 91 433 sweets.

15)

- 423 788 = 972 134. Find the answer in 972 134 - 423 788 1 395 922

.

Answer: 1 395 922 16) 456 989 + 334 567 – 165 213 = 456 989 + 334 567 791 556 Answer: 626 343 791 556 - 165 213 626 343

17) Zul has 12 345 crates of oranges. There are 12 oranges in each crate. How many oranges are there altogether? 12 345 × 12 18) Ali put 469 278 marbles into 9 boxes. How many marbles in 8 boxes? 24 690 123 45 148 140 52 142 9 469 278 Answer: 148 140 oranges - 45 19 - 18 12 52 142 - 9 × 8 37 417 136 - 36 18 - 18

70

19) The population of three towns are 214 897, 121 970 and 187 123. Calculate the total population of the three towns. 214 897 + 121 970 336 867 Answer: 523 990 population 20) A supermarket ordered 115 875 boxes of oranges for Chinese New Year. There are 8 oranges in each box. Find the total number of oranges ordered. 115 875 × 8 927 000 Answer: 927 000 oranges. 336 867 + 187 123 523 990

APPENDIX 5

Questionnaire

Recently, your mathematics teacher has applied cooperative learning during the teaching and learning of mathematics subject in the classroom. Your opinion and view about this cooperative learning strategy is need. Please give your respond based on the questions posed below on how much you agree with the application of

71

cooperative learning strategy for mathematics subject by using four-point scale which stated as below: 1 – Strongly disagree 2 – Disagree 3 – Agree 4 – Strongly Agree

Instruction: Please (√) at the columns which match with your answer. For example, Scale No. 1. Question I enjoy learning mathematics with my team member. 1 2 3 4 √

Scale No. 1. 2. 3. Question I enjoy learning mathematics in group. I love to learn with friends It is easy for me to learn mathematics by working together with the others. 4. The group activities increase my interest in learning mathematics. 1 2 3 4

72

5.

The teaching and learning of mathematics is much more interesting with the

implementation of group activities. 6. Group activities do not help me a lot in the learning of mathematics subject. 7. Learning in group makes me easy to understand mathematics. 8. I am looking forward for the mathematics lessons because I can learn together with my friends. 9. I able communicate better with my friends after learning in group for mathematics subject.

Scale No. 10. Question I am still difficulties in learning mathematics after the group works was carried out. 11. Group activities give me chances to 1 2 3 4

participate actively in the mathematics lessons. 12. Learning in group enables me to have positive relationship with my friends. 13. I love to share my knowledge with my group

73

members in learning mathematics.

14.

My academic performance in mathematics is increased after learning together with my friends.

15.

I would like to have group activities for the mathematics lesson most of the time.

16.

I

would

like

to

continue

learning

mathematics in group with my friends. 17. I able solve most of the mathematics problems after learning mathematics in group. 18. Learning in group is not suitable for me in learning mathematics.

74

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