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Duhok Polytechnic University

Technical College of Engineering

Petrochemical Department
Transport Phenomena Fourth
Year- 2018-2019

Losses in Pipe Systems and Fittings

Ex. No. (5-6)

Name :Muhammad Akram

Date of Experiment: 6/11/2018
Date of Submitting : 13/11/2018
page contents
1 Cover page
2 contents
3 Introduction
4 Objective
5 Materials and Apparatus
6 Description of Equipment
(Sketch or Picture)
7 Procedures
8 Calculations and Results
9 Discussion / Analysis
10 Conclusion
11 Reference
12 Worksheet
Absract :

We did this test to investigate the head loss due to

friction across bends and elbows, and to find the
bend/elbow constant for given pipe
A typical piping system involves pipes of different diameters connected to
each other by various fittings or elbows to direct the fluid, valves to control the
flow rate, and pumps to pressurize the fluid. Piping systems involve changes in
direction without a change in diameter, and such flow sections are called bends or
elbows. The losses during changes of direction can be minimized by making the
turn easy on the fluid by using circular arcs (like 90° elbow) instead of sharp turns
(like the miter bends). Sudden or gradual expansion or contraction sections are also
involved to accommodate changes in flow rates or properties such as density and
velocity. Valves are commonly used to control the flow rates by simply altering the
head loss until the desired flow rate is achieved.

Bernoulli’s equation relates pressure, velocity and elevation between any two
points in the flow. But since the equation have some restriction, a new term must
be introduce.
P1/ρg + V1/2g + z1= P2/ρg + V2/2g + z2 + hL
Head loss is added because in real life situation there are losses. The head loss will
increase when the fluid flow through fittings (elbows or bends) due to the friction
effect that caused by the viscosity. This situation can be proved by calculation of
the drop in the flow rate. Minor losses expressed in terms of loss coefficient, Kι and
defined as: Kι = hι / (V²/ (2g). The values of Kι are related to the pipe friction
factors by a constant which is dependent on the ratio of the bend radius to the pipe
diameter R/D
Purpose of the test :

The following specific topics can be investigated on this experimental:
1. Influence of pipe diameter, flow velocity, flow rate change.
2. Losses from pipe components such as angles, bends and T-pieces.
3. Losses due to changes of cross section and shut-off fittings of various
4. Determination of pump characteristics, system characteristics and the
operating point
Material used :

2. fittings
3. oils inside pipes
4. fluid measurement pipe
Apparatus and Materials

Pipes fluid measurement machine

oil fittings
Procedure :

1)Firstly pump is activated with opening the valve of pipe line to be

worked on.
2) Flow velocity in line is arranged to determinated value with
controlling of the relevant valve.
3) Inlet valve of line is opened with specifing the line of element to be
analysed on and connecting the manometer on inlet-outlet pressure
measuring points of element.
4) Pressure difference (ΔP) between two end where the manometer is
connected is read from device screen.
5) ΔP values is repeated in 2 different flow rate and for at least 3
elements and results are recorded to the data paper.
6) For ending the experiment, the pump firstly is closed, then inlet
valves of all lines are closed. The inlet valve of store equipment is
completely left opened
Calculations and Result : exp 5
Q average
𝑄1 =200 L/h
𝑄2 =145 L/h
200/1000*3600= 5.5*10−5 𝑚3 /s
145/1000*3600= 4.02*10−5 𝑚3 /s

*𝒉𝑳 =h1-h2 = 1408-1405= 3/1000 =0.003m

d= =0.026m

4𝑄 4 (5.5∗10−5 )
V= = =0.103 m/s
𝜋 𝑑2 𝜋 (0.026 )2

Q1=5.5 ∗ 10−5 h1-h2 h4-h5 h5-h6 h7-h8 h8-h9 h10-h11

ℎ𝐿 (m) 0.003 0.009 0.005 0.049 0.005 0.001
d (m) 0.026 0.016 0.016 0.02 0.026 0.026
V(m/s) 0.10 0.27 0.27 0.17 0.10 0.10

Q2=4.02*10−5 h1-h2 h4-h5 h5-h6 h7-h8 h8-h9 h10-h11

ℎ𝐿 (m) 0.001 0.004 0.003 0.027 0.00 0.001
d (m) 0.026 0.016 0.016 0.02 0.026 0.026
V(m/s) 0.075 0.20 0.20 0.13 0.075 0.075
Calculations and Result : exp 6
1.pipe section 4 – horizontal pipe
Volumetric h4 mm h5 mm Head loss in
flow 𝑚3 /s mm
200 1303mm 1294mm 9mm

Q= 5.5*10−5 𝑚3 /s
4𝑄 4∗5.5∗10−5
V= 2 = =0.276 m/s
𝜋 𝑑 𝜋∗(0.016)2
𝑓𝐿𝑉𝑒 2 0.037∗1∗(0.276)
ℎ𝐿 =hf= = =8.97 mm
2𝑔𝑑 2∗9.81∗0.016
2.Pipe section 1 elbow 90
Volumetric flow h1 mm h5 mm Head loss in mm
𝑚3 /s
145 1408mm 1400mm 8mm

Q=4.02*10−5 𝑚3 /s
4𝑄 4∗4.02∗10−5
V= = =0.075 m/s
𝜋 𝑑 2 𝜋∗(0.026)2

ℎ𝑣 𝑔 𝑓𝐿
K=2 - -∆𝑧
𝑉𝑒 2 𝑑
0.008∗9.81 0.037∗0.15
K=2 - -0.08=2.7
0.0752 0.026

hL= hf+hm
𝑓𝐿𝑉𝑒 2 𝐾𝑉𝑒 2
hL = +
2𝑔𝑑 2𝑔

0.037∗0.15∗0.0752 2.7∗0.0752
2∗9.81∗0.026 2∗9.81

v=8.35 *10−4 at temperature 18 c

𝜌𝑉𝑑 𝑉𝑑 0.075∗0.026
𝑅𝑒 = = =
𝜇 𝑣 8.35 ∗10−4
Table and Graph :
Volumetric h(mm)
Flow V in
h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 h7 h8 h9 h10 h11 h12 h13

200 1408 1405 1310 1303 1294 1289 1224 1175 1170 1172 1171 1168 1413

145 1406 1405 1349 1345 1341 1338 1276 1249 1249 1246 1247 1248 1408
Discussion and conclusion
we are using bend and elbows pipe the investigate the head loss in the
pipe. Different from previous experiment when we use straight pipe,
bends and elbows pipe will contribute to minor loss in the head loss. The
losses in the bends and elbows are caused by the flow seperation on the
inner side of the pipes. System consists of 6 different flow line could be
opened and closed separately. These parts are equipped with several pipe
sections and fittings. Pressure differences are determined in inlet and
outlet of selected fitting element via 2 manometers. There are flowmeter
(0-2000 L/h), 90.45° elbow, “T” connection, ball valve, disk valve, gate
valve, ball valve with drain, silt trap, swing check valve, spring check
valve, counter, pressure regulator, “U” connection (return connection)

we manage to carry out the experiment without any problem. The

percentage error also is very small about 1% error which is acceptable.
We also managed to observe the effect of bends and elbows pipe to the
flow of fluid
1. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Guidelines for Biotechnology
Engineering Lab 1, 3rd edition (Jan 2007), Syed Abu Bakar Al-
2. Fluid Mechanics Fundamental and Applications, Yunus A. Cengel,
John M. Cimbala