Righty's_SC_notes | Perfect (Grammar) | Grammatical Number

Righty’s Notes: • • Break the ‘big’ sentence into parts and eliminate phrases Search for pronouns – they

are the ‘key’.

Remember: 1. These are always singular: Crisis, Datum, Group, Army, Statistics, People, Curfew, Citrus, Administration, Audience, Class, Crowd, Faculty, Orchestra, Team, Ethics 2. These are always plural : Crises, Data, Broadcast, Phenomena 3. These are non-countable: Population, Work, Traffic, Happiness, Water 4. Singular pronouns: -one, -body, -thing 5. Singular / plural pronouns: SANAM – Some, Any, None, All, Most (Usage depends on noun. If noun is countable, use ‘are’ Most of the people are. If noun is non-countable, use ‘is’ Most of the water is). 6. All singular count nouns should follow the determiner –‘The’ (the sun, the curfew) 7. Subjunctive can occur in: (a) If clauses (If I were tall… correct!; If I was tall… wrong!) (b) Hopes, proposals, desires and requests formed with word ‘that’. (I respectfully ask that he be allowed to continue) (that + infinitive w/o ‘to’) 8. Object v/s Subject: If a noun is the object of a verb, the verb should end with ‘ed’. If a noun is the subject of a verb, the verb should end with ‘ing’. 9. List of preferences: - ‘to be’ > ‘being’ - ‘in that’ > ‘because’ > ‘since’ > ‘being’ - ‘because’ > ‘on account of’ - ANYTHING > ‘hopefully’ Phrases: 1. ‘One of the NOUNs’ – NOUN is always plural 2. Verb agrees with: subject after ‘or’ in either… or and with subject after ‘nor’ in neither ….nor. 3. ‘Just as’…. ‘so’ 4. ‘Neither’ (A or B), nor C; ‘not’ (A or B), nor C is also correct 5. ‘Not X but rather Y’ 6. Not in X but in Y 7. ‘Same to X, as to Y’ 8. X is unknown, nor it is known (neither not necessary) 9. X is to…. ‘what’… Y is to…. 10. not so much to X …. As to Y 11. ‘If’ clause does not have to be first always… 12. Words (???) to be sought:

propose. Eg: directive requiring X (bingo!). Percentage (%) should always be mentioned in terms of increase or decrease… Eg: 10 % increase in delays (bingo!!).1. urge. Sri Lanka. demand. ‘:’ – COLON – (a) before a list when the list is preceded by a complete independent clause. desire. preferable.0) 3.’ – after a noun triggers the use of a modifier. ‘Directive’ / ‘Order’ (the ones with –ing forms) – do not take ‘that’ to connect the next clause. require. ‘Being’ is almost always wrong (* exception 1. directive.’ – SEMICOLON – (a) used to separate different clauses in a statement. fitting. ‘THAT’ should be as close as possible to the referent. ‘along with’ used only when an independent effect is needed. 13. Lahore. 5. intend. insist. (* Exception 5. vocab. logic.0) ‘To be’ is almost always wrong (* exception 2. suggest. Another form: [OG: 10 SC 181]. 3.0) ‘After when’ is almost always wrong ‘was when’ is almost always wrong. urgent and vital. request. ‘IT’ must always refer to a NOUN. 2. 6. important. 7. ‘AS’ can also mean ‘for instance’ 4. 12. Never start a sentence in comparative conjunction such as ‘just’ Almost always incorrect: 1.0). 9. Words that take subjunctive form: advice. 6. essential. ‘. makes the whole world blind”. ‘There’ with a comma before it is almost always incorrect. (b) used to separate groups. suggestion. The difference is that the second clause starts with capital alphabet. 8. . 9. (c) to separate independent clauses (same as semicolons). instruct. (Exception 6. 2. 8. ask. Eg: I have everything needed to crack GMAT: reading. direct. (b) to introduce quotations. 11. necessary. 10% more delays (wrong) 10. ‘That’ with a comma before it is almost always incorrect. recommend. math and luck. prefer. ‘. ‘WHO’ just after the comma should always refer to the immediate ‘noun’ before the comma and that ‘noun’ is an ‘individual’. when items in a series contain commas. 5. better. plead. 4. imperative. pray. 14. instructions. Pakistan and Colombo. Eg: Grapes are not squeezed: The pulp is pressed. arrange. 7. ‘Being’ used as a verb is almost always incorrect. India. Eg: I visited Delhi. Eg: Mahatma said: “An eye for an eye. intentions. ‘Who’ without a comma before it is almost always incorrect. desirable. order. directive that required X (wrong) [OG 10: SC 162]. advisable. Clauses introduced by ‘when’ should maintain tense across all the clauses. The subject of a sentence beginning with each is grammatically singular. not an action. ‘Which’without a comma before it is almost always incorrect.

Formulae: 1. Correct usage Mistake X for Y Between X and Y Pare away. (so + adjective + as to correct) 12. Have + verb(-ed) + present participle (-ing) is WRONG. 11. Possessive + participle is WRONG. Eg: Have elected retiring (wrong) Have elected to retire (bingo!) 2. Think of X to be Y During the two hours… Chief among which Type for and misc for to for misc be misc as misc of ‘If’ X happens. ‘So as to’ is almost always wrong. 14. Y will happen Think of X as Y During the last two hours… Chief of which . Requires that X be Y Incorrect Usage Mistake X as Y. (Eg: with children included wrong) 13. Eg: Organization’s trying (wrong) 3. Passive voices generally contain ‘by’.10. Sentence with word(s) between ‘to’ and the verb are almost always incorrect. 5. ‘so (adjective) that’ form is frequently tested on the GMAT to express a cause and effect relationship in which there is a ‘degree of intensity’ associated with the ‘cause’ Eg: He is so good a player that he will play for the national team Eg: They are so bad a team that they will all be sacked. ‘preposition’ + NOUN + ‘participle’ is always wrong. ask + noun + infinitive . ask + infinitive 4. so + adjective + (a/an) + noun + that: to emphasize ability or inability. Y will happen. Mistake X to be Y Between X or Y Pare up Reason of From X up to Y Rates of No sooner that… Requires that…. pare down Reason for From X to Y Rates for No sooner than…. It could also mean ‘of a kind’ Eg: He is such a good player that he will play for the national team Eg: It was such bad weather that they canceled the match. such + (a/an/’ ‘) + adjective + noun + that: to emphasize ability or inability. Passive voice is almost always wrong (* exception 3. Should ‘If’ X can (could/would) happen.0).

to Debate about Hardly never Such …. as to be Integrate X into Y Concur in (a decision with him) Situation in which Responsible for choosing Crucial in binding Prohibiting X from (gerund) Y Sales of X ‘forbids’ Y to do Z Blame ‘X’ on ‘Y’ X has half the chance that Y has Afraid of X Met with Manmohan Best among my friends Credited as Regarded to be Prefer X over Y Exchange A with B Afflicted from Warned about Believe X as Y. ‘X’ forbids Y from doing Z Blame ‘X’ over ‘Y’ X has half the chance of Y Afraid by X Met Manmohan of to on that of with . As to be Integrate X with Y Concur with him Situation where Responsible to choose Crucial as a binding.Best of my friends Credited to/for/with Regarded as Prefer X to Y Exchange A for B Afflicted with Warned of Believe X to be Y Contrast X with Y In contrast to X. Y is… Debate over Hardly ever So…. Crucial to bind over misc misc into in in for in Prohibiting X to (verb) Y from Sales for. Contrast X as Y of misc as to for with of to be with In contrast with X. Y is…. Believe X as being Y Contrast X to Y.

Claims to be able to Substitute X for Y Contend that Four times as many Americans X ordered that Y be Z. X ordered Y to be Z X require(s) that Y be Z. for Claims the ability to be Substitute X in place of Y for Contend the ability to Four times as many more Americans A mixture of them is wrong that misc that Company requires that a resume to be error-free and lists salary requirements. followed by ‘be’ Express anxiety that Apprenticeship as a scholar Determined by Not so by X as by Y Different from one another An attempt to ratify Estimated at Attribute ‘cause’ as the cause of ‘cause’ Damage to X (forests) to be to of Adjective + ‘enough’ + that to Allow that X of Y be based on to be.Should either have ‘that’ or ‘to’. . that Express anxiety about that Apprenticeship of being a scholar as Determined as a result of by Not so by X than by Y. as from to . Not so by X but by Y Different one from the other An attempt at ratifying so by. Eg: Company requires that a resume be error-free and list salary requirements..Supposed predecessors (NOUN) Supposedly predecessors misc Estimated to be Attribute ‘effect’ to ‘cause’ Damage of X (forests) adjective + ‘enough’ to Allow X of Y to be based on Z. X require(s) Y to be Z. X allows for Y….

Allergy to X is different from Y Acclaimed as Both X and Y. aid to Consider X as Y Associate X to Y for in to be with Way for providing Allocated for Danger to contract Targeted to X as a means of Y. potential to cause Aid for. allergy for X is different than Y Acclaimed to be Both X as well as Y Believed as having Regarded to have Persuaded X for doing Y to from as and to have as to do Modeled on after for for misc misc Descendent of… Potential for causing Aid in Consider X to be Y Associate X with Y Way to provide Allocated to Danger of contracting Targeted at X as a means to Y Reluctant to dance… Looking forward to Descendent for…. Regarded as ones who have Persuaded X to do Y Modeled after Compensate for Adapted for No less an authority than… Plead guilty for… falling Allergy of. X as a means for Y Reluctant about dancing… to to of gerund at to to Looking forward at to . descendent to… of Potential of causing. Both at X and at Y Believed to have Regarded as having.

Despite the fact… (despite + NOUN) Seem as indicating He had been ill when a child X was modeled on Y to as after Entrusting X upon responsibility. he.Number of people… Suggests it… Sick with Appears to be After 1989 Devices that allow Items to protect Phrase 2 that from misc misc to gerund Amount of: .. with Agreement to the fact that misc to to Began raining to by to on with that Continue singing to to by on Despite his eating the apple.Seem to indicate He had been ill as a child X was modeled after Y Entrusting X with responsibility Agree to the fact that Access to Appeal to Began to rain Built by Choose to Centers on Consistent with Content that Continue to sing X will convert Y to Z Delighted by Depend on Despite eating the apple. he misc misc Suggests that… Sick from Appears Since 1989 Devices to allow Items protecting Phrase 1 Number of: .Amount of hard work… .Used for countable things .Used for uncountable things ..

symbol X is merely a characteristics of those books) Compared to: . Distinguish X from Y: .continuous quantity .Defines the noun it follows .Related to spending or way of living .I have three dogs. .Eg: The red books that contain a symbol X (limits the description to ‘red books’ with symbol ‘X’) Less: (not as much) .for two similar terms Each: .Modify a singular noun Each of which: .Eg: The red books.to contrast unlike things .Specific number .For team / army / any group of persons.Gives an example characteristic of the noun it follows. each of which eats bone.Modify a plural noun Each: -though singular can have a plural verb.‘2 times’ Economic: .Used for referring to nouns immediately preceding it . ‘each of which’ is always singular Which: . Like: . which contain a symbol X (describes all red books.Compare original signatures with forged ones.Introduce essential clauses .Comma used before it .He was very economical in his expenses Reduction of costs: .show resemblance .People are not pleased with the reduction of just 2% in cost of commodities. class.lesser devastation .For pure singular terms or people .Fewer: (not as many) . each eat bone.Fewer limitations .more than 2 times Economical: .to contrast like things .for two very dissimilar terms Compared with: . type or species .used to denote reduced costs .used specifically when amount reduced in known .Type of an issue or matter .to give an example Every: .Introduce non-essential clauses .The problem is political & ecomonic Reduction in costs: . Such as: .No comma before it . That: .I have three dogs.People are happy with the reduction in costs of daily commodities. when follows a plural subject and is not accompanied by ‘of which’ .used for restrictive clauses .Moon compared to her beauty Distinguish Between X and Y: .

The three brothers love one another So long as: .I completed the work at the same time as she did.I love fruits such as apples and .neutral. she .More than two are involved .‘As’ can also mean ‘for instance’ One Another: .I was the best among all my 10 competitors.I liked the .used to refer a place [* a thing a time exception . which when the .Used to compare nouns As: Used to compare clauses (actions) Hardik.bored. as a kid.when the antecedent is a group of people (not to use ‘that’) Like: .when 2 things are related . unbiased .The best judges are disinterested.It rained. eg.If it rains.Jack and Jill love each other As long as: .It’s up to him whether he wants to .used to refer . Whether: If: .The city stared SRK.0] movie. .used for humans . not interested . (this includes apples and oranges (but not apples and oranges) oranges) Where: Which: When: .used for animals / birds . Gujarat .to illustrate a possibility . her or they or them . Disinterested: Uninterested: . leave the company.deals with physical comparison.to offer two different choices .if ‘whom’ can be answered by him.The kangaroos are native to Australlia.I am a native of Rajkot. whole day Native of: Native to: .when more than 2 things are . I would leave. clocked where it rains ticked 6. Among: Between: . .Uninterested in the lecture. 4.I want the best among the two related . I dozed Who: Whom: . . was very naughty.if ‘who’ can be answered by he.used to refer .deals with a condition (=provided - - Each Other: .I love fruits ‘like’ apples and oranges. .Two people are involved .

the meeting is concerned with the hike employees are expecting Rather than: Instead of: Not … but….That aim at + noun . Because: In that: .Rules that aim to identify causes .So long as you maintain your cool.Combine reactant X with reactant Y Length.Combine skill with determination Combine X and Y: . That aim to: That aim at: .almost always preferred over ‘because’ Usual: Is usual: .I am aiming at my target. the meeting should be fine.We decided to continue.He is faster than ‘is usual’ for any human being. Care about: Care for: .I love her because she loves me. belongs .shows a simple causal relationship .When something is compared to .Decided to + verb . Equal: Equivalent: .Singular form .Do not care about problems .I need X rather than .related to .We decided on the new format.India’s GDP is equivalent to that of China’s.reserved for nouns . Concerned for: Concerned with: .qualifies the previous sentence .Worried over an action Combine X with Y: . .2+1 is equal to 1+2.worried or anxious .I am concerned for you.Worried about someone’s condition .Reserved for verbs want X) The number of: A number of: . time The bat was as long as the stump .I care for the patients Decided to: Decided on: .Expresses a out of the given necessity or a fact choices (not a wish) .when quantities are exactly equal .Decided on + noun . . I certainly don’t .Expresses a wish .Plural form Worried about: Worried over: . =if) .When something is compared to itself the sub group to which the thing .that.I don’t need X but Y Y ( does not connote (I cant do without that I don’t need Y) Y. . equal .: .That aim to + verb .when quantities are approximately .He is nicer than usual.

to emphasize the subject. Dream of: Dream about: His own: . noun gerund .We agreed to go . Agree to: Agree with: Agree on: Agree on: .agree on + . before she retired.used to express a positive contrast . present and future: Tense Present Type Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive Simple Progressive Perfect Example Jill played with her friends. (Incorrect: The game was postponed . (both playing and retiring are complete) Jill will play with her friends.I agree with you. Jill has been playing with her friends (and she will keep playing no matter what!) Jill played with her friends.I practice guitar. due to rain). he yearns for money. Due to: Because of: .Means ‘caused by’ (substitute caused by in . Past Perfect Progressive Future Simple .We agreed on the plan on going to town. .The game’s postponement was due to rain.agree on + away.Eg: Despite wealthy. My past. Jill has played with her friends since two hours. he is happy. (not sure if the 101st game is completed) Jill had been playing.used in the context of ‘by that means’ Despite: . Jill had played in 100 games before she played in her 101st game.The game was postponed because of the sentence to check correctness of usage rain. . Thereby: .We agreed .used to express a negative contrast.I practised guitar for 2 years after which I moved to drums.his own is correct.used in the context of ‘in this manner’ or ‘consequently’ [substitute and check for usage] Although: . Jill was playing with her friends. Jill is playing with her friends.Practice: . Thus: . Practise: .eg: Although poor.

• • Present Perfect: When an action began in the past and continues in the present. Expresses possibility. (has/have + past participle) Past Perfect : If more than one action in a sentence occurred in the past. I might pay my taxes. Expresses ability. Past perfect : His wife divorced him because he had had many affairs. Jill will have been playing for 10 years. I can pay my taxes. By the time she retires. I have the means (funds) to pay.Continuous Perfect Perfect Progressive Jill will be playing with her friends. . Paying taxes is something I normally do. but not a certainty. Has been: Used when X is acting on Y and the action is making Y do something. you must use the past perfect tense for the earlier action and simple past tense for the later. (had + past participle) The special verb ‘to have’: Present perfect: He has had many affairs. Eg: The light has been shifted (means some one shifted the light) correct The light has shifted (means the light shifted by itself) wrong! Usage of Modals: I pay my taxes. before she plays her 51st game. General declaration of fact. Jill will have played 50 games.

may be I will not. I should pay my taxes. Expresses reservation.There are many reasons to get an MBA.Allow (X of Y) to be based on Z ..When the emphasis is not on the “doer” of the action.I am afraid of being late. and I expect to comply.X ordered Y to be Z . as to be wrong) 3. I would pay my taxes. ‘would’ is generally present in such a phrase. (least bothered about ‘who’ carried the victim) [OG 10 – SC 57] 4.I will pay my taxes. Use of ‘where’: . If I had the money. Don’t we love Exceptions? 1. ( with + NOUN + being + NOUN COMPLEMENT) . Eg: the apartments each have their own private entrances (not has its own private entrance). with money being the most important. Eg1: more than it originally seemed they would… Eg2: It was widely anticipated… • ‘It’ can also refer to a phrase: OG 10 – SC 60 6. Passive voice is usually wrong except: . Being is usually wrong except: . 2. ‘To be’ is correct when used in idiomatic sense: .OG 10 – SC 165: a community where 49% of the household incomes are…. 5. it is also one of the most expensive.So… as to be [Eg: so unreal as to be true] (such .In addition to being one of the finest restaurants.Because it seemed to be . . • The ‘expletive it’: It is a pronoun with no clear antedecent. If I have nothing else to do with money. I resolve to do so at some later time. When each follows a plural subject. It is required. I must pay my taxes. Expresses possibility. . Expresses future intent. Expresses mild obligation. I am required to pay and I have to comply.Believe X to be Y ( not believe X as Y) . the verb and subsequent pronouns remain in the plural. Eg: The victim was carried to a hospital. May be I will pay. (but I don’t) Expresses strong obligation.Claims to be able to (not claims the ability to) . I will pay my taxes. I could pay my taxes.

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