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Victor Stec Nov.

11, 2018

Campbell, P.S., & Scott-Kassner, C. (2013). Music in childhood: From preschool through the elementary

grades (4th ed.). Cenage Learning.

What is a curriculum, and why is it important to have one?

A curriculum can be interpreted as the activities used in a classroom which promote significant musical
learning. A curriculum should be dynamic and never static as to evolve to the conditions of its
surroundings that are all influenced by teacher attitudes and training; administrative and parental
expectations, as well as the latest trends in education. A curriculum is essential as it serves a guideline to
how an educator organises a school year.

Describe the differences between an ideal curriculum, a formal curriculum, an instructional

curriculum, an operational curriculum and an experiential curriculum. Give sources for each type.

An ideal curriculum is one that professionals have come to value as a comprehensive and balanced
procedure to early childhood and elementary curricula. A formal curriculum is an all-around frame of
outcomes and goals that establishes consistency in a program while an instructional curriculum
highlights the specific plans to which teachers use in creating lessons. This consists of lists of materials
and pinpoints how students will be assessed. An operational curriculum is comprised of the activities
actually implemented in class which are dynamic and subject to many influences. The experiential
curriculum is that what is received by students and perceived by administrators and parents. The highest
importance is placed on the development of a strong formal curriculum as it serves a basis for the
curriculums that succeed it. This curriculum establishes large goals, aptitudes and outcomes which then
offer educators the opportunity to develop their own instructional curriculums to most efficiently
achieve their personal in class goals.

What constitutes a balanced and effective curriculum in music?

A balanced curriculum serves the purpose of training students the skills in becoming musically
independent individuals. This could, for instance, consist of a child’s artistic, aesthetic and creative
development and their exposure to a wide variety of vocal and aural repertoire. A teacher must have a
big picture along with a specific picture in mind when organising an effective curriculum. A big picture
would have the educator establishing musically the level at which a certain grade remains following its
completion. A specific picture would view one grade separately and establish age-appropriate goals
given the level of their musical abilities. An educator would likewise need to incorporate activities aimed
at building specific long term skills, such as, singing expressively and confidently in a large range while
also teaching conceptually; signifying the instruction to students of specific musical concepts.
Furthermore, an educator should encourage students development of their own personal attitudes
towards different music’s through exposure to different repertoire.
Victor Stec Nov. 11, 2018

What considerations are important when establishing a curriculum? What factors might influence its
successful implementation?

When establishing a curriculum it is significant to take into consideration the number of meetings in a
year an educator will have with a group, the number of concerts per year, and the goals for the
integration of music in different curricula’s. Additionally, the expectations of administrators and other
community members along with the number of music teachers in a school should be taken into account.
Factors that might influence a curriculums successful implementation include: teacher attitudes,
priorities and training; facilities and equipment; socioeconomic status of a community and the stability
or transience of a student population.

What are the elements of a three-legged lesson plan, and how to they relate to each other?

The elements of a three-legged lesson plan include:

- Objectives: what a lesson attempts to achieve regarding student growth

- Strategies: what procedures and materials are used to achieve the objectives
- Evaluation: reflecting upon the level of success of the objectives

Objectives are related to Strategies, as to accomplish one requires the execution of the other. Evaluation
relates to both its predecessors as it involves the assessment of the execution of them both.

How do these elements relate to any effective lesson plan format?

The use of these three elements encompass the requirements of an effective lesson plan format as they
all together comprise of a goal, procedure and student evaluation that are clearly organised. They can
be used when teaching with “The Problem Solving Approach”, albeit in a different arrangement, where
students are more involved in their own learning through problem solving with the teacher serving more
so as a facilitator to their education. “The Quadrant Approach” is yet another style in which elements of
the three-legged lesson plan may be used although with the focus on teaching four unique cognitive
styles: divergers, assimilators, convergers and accommodators. This lesson plan style is notably used as a
reminder to teachers of each student’s ideal method of learning as to teach with different emphasis to
build on strengths of each learner while encouraging the improvement of weaker manners of

Where do specific lessons belong in a curriculum, and how do they connect back to the curriculum

Specific lesson plans could be incorporated, for instance, in a unit based curriculum. These units can
span from days to weeks and focus on teaching specific ideas rather than using a spiral approach. Units
allow students to get immersed in a specific topic of learning over a period of time. Subjects could
include the music of a composer or musician, children’s literature or music and art. Units could likewise
offer educators the opportunity to create further specific lessons regarding the overall unit topic. A
curriculum framework could be based around a yearly theme which could take advantage of using units
as a means of highlighting distinct topics.
Victor Stec Nov. 11, 2018

How are unit plans different from a sequential curriculum based on musical skills and concepts?

A sequential based curriculum is based on the teaching of musical skills and concepts while a curriculum
formulated around unit plans focuses on particular topics with each unit spanning from a couple of days
to numerous weeks. Early childhood education frequently uses unit plans as young children do not yet
isolate life in subject areas; with their learning being predominantly holistic.

Critique the following idea. “I see the children only once a week, which is totally inadequate, so I
choose materials and activities that I think are fun. I want them to have a good time. It’s impossible
for me to follow a sequential curriculum.”

While I understand the educators struggle with the lack of class time given for music, there is no excuse
for there not to be a method of implementing a curriculum that offers students “a good time”. As I
learnt in class, every song/activity we learn features a set of musical skills (whether it be singing, rhythm
or musically expressing oneself) that offer students the opportunity to unknowingly develop musical
competencies. An educator could then use the specific characteristics of such activities to formulate a