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Boundary layers 261 ots asume that, af is usual, dp/dr is given as function of x, and eee tant the veloc) w is given as @ function of y at rome init cet a, Then we cam determine numerically, from each u, the va ced u/3e, and with ope of the knowm algorithms we can then ‘top by step, in the x-direction, A dificulty exists, however, in Pome angularties which appear on the fixed boundary. ‘The simplest Taret ene Row situations under discussion is that of water streaming Tonga thin it plate. Fre a reduction in variables is possible, we can see w= f(y /24). By numerical integration of the resulting differential ‘Chuation we obtain an expression fr the rap pe=Lixpvapnd, (b breadth, | Tength of the plate, up velocity of the undisturbed water Riauve 0 the plate). The velocity profile is shown io [Fig. 8.1] Tor practical purposes the most important result of these investiga tions if that in certain cases, and at & point wholly determined by the Guomnal conditions, the flow separates from the wall [Fig, 8.2). A fiuid Jayer which is set into rotation by friction at the wall thus pushes itself fat ints the tree Duid whete, in causing a complete transformation of the motion, i plays the seme role as a Helmholtz surface of discontinuity. A thange inthe cocficient of viscosity # produces a change io the “hekness of the vortex layer (this thickness being proportional to ‘Viulfou)), out everything else remains unchanged, so that one may, if Gres ashes, take the limit u—+0 and still obtain the same flow picture. ‘Separation can only occur i there Is en increase in pressure along the wall in the direction of the stream “The amount of insight packed into this part of Prandt’s paper is staggering, and much of the present chapter will be spent fling in the details, particularly with regard 10 the derivation of the Fig. 8.1. Prandtls diagram of the velocity profile in the boundary layer (on a fiat plate, ' i | | SR 262° Boundary layers boundary layer equations (88.2) and theic solution in the ease of flow past a fat plate (88.3) ‘After the passage quoted above, Prandt ‘emphasizes how the fow of @ Buid of smal) viscosity’ must he dealt with in two interacting parts, namely an inviscid flow obeying Helimhottz's dre teens and thin boundary layers in whieh vies effects layers is regulated by low but, on the other Boundary layers 263 ca A Fig. 8.4. Pranuit's hend-operated flow tani, water tank (Fig. 8.4). These include flow past a wall, fow past & cucular are at zero incidence, and flow past a circular cylinder. In the last ease he demonstrates that even a very small amount of suction into a slit on one side of the cylinder is enough to prevent separation of the boundary layer on that side (Fig, 8.5). He notes, t00, a most interesting consequence of this, because ‘the speed must decrease in the broadening aperture through which (he water flows, and therefore the pressure must rise’. A, substantial adverse pressure gradient will therefore be impressed fn the boundary layer on the corresponding side wall of the tank Fig. 8.5. Sketch of the final photograph in Prandt!’s pepes.