You are on page 1of 46

Introduction to Industrial

Electronics
By James Rehg and Glenn Sartori
Chapter 1
1 Industrial electronics deals with
• PLCs – computers for industry
• Sensors – eyes for PLC
• Actuators – hands for PLC
• Controllers – PLC helper
• But not MATLAB which is the most popular
computing tool for engineers
2 Industrial revolution began mid-?
• 1500s – flush toilets, pocket watch, knitting machine, compound
microscope

• 1600s – refracting telescope, first bacteria, slide rule, steam turbine,


adding machine, air pump, universal joint, pressure cooker, steam
pump

• 1700s – piano, steam engine, mercury thermometer, flying shuttle,


capacitor, English dictionary, sextant, spinning jenny, carbonated
water, flush toilets (again), submarine, spinning mule, bifocals,
circular saw, parachute, self-winding clock, hot-air balloon, steel
roller for steel production, threshing machine, power loom,
bleaching, steamboat, gas lighting, ambulance, cotton gin, ball
bearings, preserving jar, vaccinations, carding machine, metal lathe,
soft drinks, lithography, battery, fourdrinier machine
3 To Automated Manufacturing
• Punch cards – Jacquard – 1801
• Numerical engine – Babbage – 1834
• Motorized crane – Babbitt – 1892
• Vacuum tube – AC to DC – 1904
• Vacuum tube diode amplifier – deForest –
1907
• Remote controlled boat – Tesla - 1890
4 To Automated Manufacturing
• Production machines replacing workers –
1919
• Vacuum tubes control DC motors – 1928
• Car frame factory – A.O. Smith – 1930
• Semiconductor diode – Schottky - 1938
• Variable speed AC motor control – 1941
• Electrically powered and controlled oil
pipeline in California - 1927
5 To Automated Manufacturing
• 1st computer – ENIAC – 1954
• 1st transistor – Shockley – 1947
• Cybernetics (feedback) – Wiener – 1948
• Robot programming – Chappman – 1954
• Solid-state motor-speed control – 1957
• Robot manufacturing company –
Unimation - 1956
6 To Automated Manufacturing
• Computer controlled all-in-one machine –
Kearney – 1960
• Unimate 5k-lbf robot 500 lbf loads – 6
DOF – 1961
• PLC – GM Oldsmobile Div – 1968
• Molins Machine – integrated computer
controlled batch manufacturing- 1969
• Morat knitting machine – 1970
• Lasers for processing and com - 1960
7 To Automated Manufacturing
• Microprocessor – Ted Hoff – Intel – 1971
• Minicomputer-controlled robot (T3) –
Richard Hohn – 1973
• Microcomputer-comtrolled robot by ASEA
ABB Inc. 1977
• Apple II microcomputer – 1978
• Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM_
in Japan, US and GB 1980
8 To Automated Manufacturing
• Direct-drive robot arm Adept Corp 1984
• 64-bit microprocessor Intel Corp 1994
• Tag-based PLCs 1998
• Industrial networks (Ethernit/IP, DevicNet,
Profibus, …) 2000
• Wireless network for automation 2001
9 Feedback Industrial Control
• Automatically monitors a manufacturing
process
• Takes action if the process varies from
required specifications
• Feedback control developed after WWI
• Feedback control perfected during WWII
• Does not define the industrial process
10 Manufacturing System
• Project – complex, parts are one of a kind.

• Job shop
• Repetitive
• Line
• Continuous
11 Manufacturing System
• Project

• Job shop - non-complex products with few


parts and small production volume

• Repetitive
• Line
• Continuous
12 Manufacturing System
• Project
• Job shop

• Repetitive - high volume spread over long


periods with manual labor smaller than the
automation component.

• Line
• Continuous
13 Manufacturing System
• Project
• Job shop
• Repetitive

• Line - Complex products, assembled in


short time due to the large inventory of
subassemblies.

• Continuous
14 Manufacturing System
• Project
• Job shop
• Repetitive
• Line

• Continuous - Highly automated, little


manual labor, usually stops only for
cleaning and changeover.
Manual Machine
15 Class of Machine or System
• Manual machines - A group of machines
operated in manual mode.

• Programmable machine
• Robot
• Material moving system
• Material tracking system
Programmable Machine
16 Class of Machine or System
• Manual machines

• Programmable machine - A material-


processing machine under computer
control.

• Robot
• Material moving system
• Material tracking system
Robot – Honda’s ASIMO
Robot – Friend
17 Class of Machine or System
• Manual machines
• Programmable machine

• Robot - One machine that performs many


tasks under computer control.

• Material moving system


• Material tracking system
Material Moving System
18 Class of Machine or System
• Manual machines
• Programmable machine
• Robot

• Material moving system - An automated


system that moves raw material or finished
product.

• Material tracking system


Material Tracking System
19 Class of Machine or System
• Manual machines
• Programmable machine
• Robot
• Material moving system

• Material tracking system - Raw material or


finished product tracking system that may
read bar codes
Material Storage and Retrieval
20 Class of Machine or System
• Material storage and retrieval system -
May be bench top size or whole
warehouse size sometimes called ASRS.

• Flexible manufacturing cell


• Fixed automation machine
• Flexible manufacturing system
• Continuous process system
Flexible Manufacturing Cell
Flexible Manufacturing Cell
21 Class of Machine or System
• Material storage and retrieval system
• Flexible manufacturing cell - A group of
related machines that perform a process
or step in a larger process.

• Fixed automation machine


• Flexible manufacturing system
• Continuous process system
Fixed Automation Machine
22 Class of Machine or System
• Material storage and retrieval system
• Flexible manufacturing cell
• Fixed automation machine - Dedicated
machine designed to manufacture and
assemble parts with a minimum of human
interaction.

• Flexible manufacturing system


• Continuous process system
Flexible Manufacturing System
23 Class of Machine or System
• Material storage and retrieval system
• Flexible manufacturing cell
• Fixed automation machine
• Flexible manufacturing system - One or
more manufacturing machines integrated
by an automatic material handling system.

• Continuous process system


Continuous Process System
24 Class of Machine or System
• Material storage and retrieval system
• Flexible manufacturing cell
• Fixed automation machine
• Flexible manufacturing system

• Continuous process system - Commonly


used in food, chemical, pharmaceuticals,
and paper products.
25 Manufacturing System
Classification
• Project - Dominated by manual
components - lowest product quality

• Job shop
• Repetitive
• Line
• Continuous
26 Manufacturing System
Classification
• Project
• Job shop – contains mostly manual
components but has some automation

• Repetitive
• Line
• Continuous
27 Manufacturing System
Classification
• Project
• Job shop
• Repetitive - Contains many automated
components, lacks flexible manufacturing
systems, has average product quality

• Line
• Continuous
28 Manufacturing System
Classification
• Project
• Job shop
• Repetitive

• Line - Has excellent product quality and


includes flexible manufacturing systems

• Continuous
29 Manufacturing System
Classification
• Project
• Job shop
• Repetitive
• Line
• Continuous - produces the highest quality,
has the largest automation component and
has the highest need for workers with
skills in industrial electronics is:
30 Experience makes the
troubleshooter
• faster at the process
• better at guessing the fault
• both of these
31 Experienced troubleshooters
• take time to think and analyze system data
before springing to action
• are always busy measuring something
while they search for the fault
32 Regarding troubleshooting, in
most cases
• a single failure has occurred
• multiple system failures have occurred
• single failures and multiple failures each
occur about half of the time
33 Regarding software
troubleshooting, which one is NOT
true?
• Software failures are common.
• Computer programs almost never fail.
• Some knowledge of computer programs is
required for troubleshooting.
• Well documented software is important for
machine troubleshooting.
• Software with many inputs may fail due to
particular inputs.