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Food Safety Class


If you work with food, you are responsible for ensuring that you do not endanger the safety of the food. This is a legal and moral responsibility. Here at the Pub, we expect you to uphold the following:

Keeping yourself and your workplace clean.

Protecting food from anything that could cause harm.

Following good habits, such as washing your hands before handling food.

Staying alert to food safety hazards.

Following the rules for food safety in your workplace and working with care.

Be proactive with correcting possible hazards that may occur in your work environment.

Food safety protects everyone. Poor food safety threatens health, reputations, profits and jobs. Everyone who works with food has a responsibility to safeguard food so that it does not cause illness or harm.

to safeguard food so that it does not cause illness or harm. The following icons were

The following icons were published in 2005 by the international Association for food Protection (IAFP). The purpose for the icons is to provide an easily recognizable symbol that conveys a specific food safety message to food handlers of all nationalities.


Food makes people ill when it is contaminated. Food is contaminated when it contains or carries something that is harmful to human health. There are three main types of food contamination:




Biological contamination is cause by very small life forms, such as bacteria, which is known as microorganisms. Bacteria are responsible for most biological contamination and they cause more cases of foodborne illnesses than any other contaminant. Out of the thousands of bacteria throughout the world, most bacteria do not harm humans. But a few types, referred to as pathogenic bacteria, can cause disease. They include Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureua, Listeria, and, Clostridium botulinum.

There are other biological contaminants apart from bacteria. They include:

Viruses- microorganisms that multiply in living calls, causing illnesses such as colds, ‘flu and the foodborne disease Hepatitis A Mold- some types can produce toxins(poisons) on foods such as nuts Parasites- microorganisms that live on and inn people, animals and other organisms; they are a particular problem in hogs and can cause tichinosis in pork Naturally poisonous plants, fish and shellfish- these include some types of mushroom, as well as some marine fish and shellfish (such as mackerel, snapper, mussels, and clams) that cause ciguatera poisoning in humans because they have eaten poisonous plankton (marine microorganisms).

they have eaten poisonous plankton (marine microorganisms). WORDS TO KNOW: Bacteria - microorganisms responsible for


Bacteria- microorganisms responsible for most foodborne illnesses. Contaminated food- food that contains something (a contaminant) that is harmful to health. Contamination- the presence in food of something harmful to health. Foodborne illness- all the illnesses caused by eating contaminated food. Foodborne infection and foodborne intoxication come under this heading. Foodborne infection- an illness caused by pathogenic microorganisms that live and multiply in your body after you have eaten contaminated food. (ex. Sammonella) Foodborne intoxication- an illness caused by toxins in food. (ex. Staphylococcus aureus) Microorganism or Microbe- a very small (micro) life form (organism), including bacteria, viruses, molds, yeasts, fungi and some parasites. Multiplying, multiplication- the way bacteria reproduce and increase their numbers. This is sometimes referred to as bacterial growth in numbers. Onset or incubation period- the time it takes for the systems of a foodborne illness to start after contaminated food has been eaten. Parasite- an organism that lives on another life form. Pathogen- an organism that causes disease. Pathogenic bacteria cause disease. Symptoms- the signs of an illness. Toxin- a poison produced by some living organisms, such as bacteria and mold.


When your body detects that you have eaten something harmful, it usually tries to get rid of the food by the quickest method. The most common symptoms of a foodborne illness are as follows:

Abdominal pain




Other signs may be fever and headache

Other severe symptoms include paralysis and kidney failure

Foodborne illnesses affect people whom are very young, very old, pregnant, ill or recovering from an illness or who have a weak immune system. It is important to know if your guests have any food allergies, so that we may be able to avoid sickness. The Big 7 food Allergens are:





Fish (includes crustaceans)

Tree nuts



Ambient temperature- ordinary room temperature Bacteria- more than one bacterium Bacteriology- the study of bacteria Bacterium- a simple life form with one cell Binary fission- the process by which bacteria multiply by splitting in two Contamination- the presence in food of pathogenic microorganisms or objective substances Danger zone- the temperature range most suitable for bacterial growth Dehydrate- to dry out Dormant- a period of inactivity when bacteria do not multiply Multiply- to reproduce Pathogen- an organism that causes disease Potentially hazardous foods- foods which are ideal for bacteria to live on Spoilage- the process of causing damage. Spoilage bacteria makes food spoil. Spore- a protective coating formed by some bacteria to help them survive adverse conditions such as cooking or drying. Source- where something comes from Time/temperature control for safety food (TCS food) - a synonym for potentially hazardous food, introduced in the 2005 FDA food code.

hazardous food, introduced in the 2005 FDA food code. Where does pathogenic bacteria come from? Raw

Where does pathogenic bacteria come from?

Raw foods, especially meat, poultry, eggs, shellfish, and vegetables.

Pests and pets


Air and dust

Dirt and food waste


Conclusion: just about everything can create or host bacteria!

Foodborne illnesses occur when food is:

Eaten after it has been contaminated by pathogenic bacteria.

conditions that allow the bacteria to multiply to levels that cause illness, or to produce toxins

And the bacteria or toxins are not destroyed, for instance by adequate cooking. (Toxins are rarely destroyed by cooking, which is why it is so important to prevent bacterial contamination in the first place.)

When pathogenic bacteria spend enough time on the right types of food at ambient temperatures, they can quickly multiply to levels which are harmful to health. The ideal conditions for bacteria involve 6 main requirements:







FOOD: like all living things, bacteria need nutrients to grow. Bacteria can grow on anything, but prefers to grow on something that is high in protein and moist. ACIDITY: Levels of acidity also effect bacteria. Lemon juice, vinegar, and other acidic products make it difficult for most bacteria to multiply and therefore are useful for preserving food- for example: pickles TEMPERATURE: Most pathogenic bacteria multiply rapidly at temperatures between 41 degrees and 135 degrees. This range of temperatures is therefore called the temperature danger zone. The ideal temperature for bacteria to grow is about 98.6 degrees, which is the average human body temperature. Most bacteria can survive cold temperatures and resume multiplication later when conditions are more suitable. TIME: Bacteria do not need long to multiply to levels that cause foodborne illness. They reproduce by dividing. One bacterium splits in two, then two become four and four become eight, and so on. In just a few hours it is possible for one bacterium to multiply to millions of bacteria. Bacteria only needs 10-20 minutes to multiply to harmful numbers. OXYGEN: Some bacteria, referred to as ‘aerobes’ need oxygen to reproduce. Others referred to as ‘anaerobes’ thrive without. MOISTURE: Pathogenic bacteria need moisture to stay alive. They cannot multiply in dried foods. However, as soon as liquid is added to foods (ex. Dried eggs, dried milk) the reconstructed products provide ideal conditions for bacterial growth. Salt is known to absorb moisture in foods such as crackers & bacon. Sugar does the same for candy, jelly and jam.

& bacon. Sugar does the same for candy, jelly and jam. DANGER ZONE: 41-135 Degrees Foods


41-135 Degrees Foods that are in the temperature danger zone are most likely left on work surfaces, left in sunlight, heated slowly, cooled slowly. Food is also likely to be in the danger zone when something hot and cold is combined. (ex. Pouring hot gravy on top of cold food or hot soup added to cold soup.)

Ways to control food temperatures to keep out of the danger zone:

Minimize the time that potentially hazardous foods are kept at temperature danger zones. (ex. Prep

table) Keep cold foods COLD!

Keep hot foods HOT!


Potentially Hazardous (time/temperature control for safety) foods- Foods that need temperature control because they support the rapid growth of pathogenic microorganisms or the formation of toxins.

Ready-to-eat Foods- Foods which are edible without preparation or treatment, such as washing or cooking, immediately before they are eaten. Toxigenic- Toxin-producing Contaminant- any substance or object in food that makes the food harmful or objectionable Contamination- The presence in food of any harmful or objectionable substance Cross Contamination- The transfer of pathogenic bacteria from one food to another. (ex. Raw food to ready to eat food) Food contact surface- Any surface that touches food and therefore creates a risk of contamination. Hazard- Anything that could cause harm to the consumer. Risk- the likelihood of harm. Vehicle of contamination- hands, utensils, or tools that carry microorganisms onto food, causing contamination.

Prevention checklist:

onto food, causing contamination. Prevention checklist: Keep food covered until use Use utensils to move food

Keep food covered until use Use utensils to move food Avoid touching food with bare hands unless absolutely necessary. Wear disposable gloves and change often and when switching to another product. Separate raw and cooked foods at all times, including storage, transportation, preparation, and display

Use separate equipment and utensils for preparation of raw meats and poultry and display

Wash all raw veggies, fruit, and rice before use. Undo packaging in area away from food. Keep food areas clean. Clean and sanitize all equipment, utensils, and all other surfaces when changing tasks

Maintain all equipment. Report any signs of problems to your supervisor immediately

Remove food waste and trash frequently throughout the day and dispose of it safely and hygienically

Report any signs of pests to your supervisor immediately

Keep cleaning chemicals in secure, clearly labeled containers in non-food storage areas.

Follow manufactures’ instructions for cleaning chemicals- use the correct chemical for the job and follow the methods and quantities specified Wear minimal jewelry –BOH- only a wedding band is allowed Do not smoke, eat, drink, or chew gum in food areas. Follow strict personal hygiene habits, including:

band is allowed Do not smoke, eat, drink, or chew gum in food areas. Follow strict
band is allowed Do not smoke, eat, drink, or chew gum in food areas. Follow strict
band is allowed Do not smoke, eat, drink, or chew gum in food areas. Follow strict

keeping yourself clean and wearing suitable clean clothing

washing your hands frequently

Keeping any cuts, boils, or similar skin problems properly covered.


Ambient Temperature- ordinary room temp. Core Temperature- the temp. at the center or the thickest part of food. Danger zone- the temp. range (41-135) most suitable for bacterial multiplication Pasteurization- a form of rapid heat treatment that kills pathogenic bacteria but not all spoilage bacteria

Pathogen- an organism that causes disease. Sanitizing- the process of reducing microorganisms and their spores to generally safe levels Preventive- any action to reduce the risk of harm. Sometimes called preventative. Temperature control- Keeping food at a safe temperature, or using heat to destroy pathogenic microorganisms Core temperature- the temperature at the center or the thickest part of food.

Methods for quickly cooling foods

1. Place food in shallow pans

2. Separate food into smaller or thinner portions

3. Use rapid cooling equipment

4. Stir food in a container placed in an ice water bath

5. Use containers that help heat transfer away from food

6. Add clean fresh ice as an ingredient

From 135 Degrees Fahrenheit to 70 Degrees Fahrenheit within 2 hours Must be brought down
From 135 Degrees Fahrenheit to 70 Degrees Fahrenheit within 2 hours
Must be brought down to 41 degrees or lower by a total of 6 hours or less!

The right time and temperature

Food should be cooled as follows:

Words to know:

Code Date- a date on packaging indicating the period when the food is safe and in the best condition to eat. Dehydration- the removal of moisture, drying Perishable- foods that spoil easily Preservation- the safe treatment of food to delay spoilage Shelf Life- the safe storage period Spoilage- the process by which food becomes unacceptable. Also called decomposition, rotting, perishing, deterioration and decaying Stored product pests- insects, such as weevils, beetles, moths and their larvae, that contaminate the foods and ingredients you would expect to find in dry goods storage including flour, cereals, nuts, and other products Dormant- a period when microorganisms are inactive and do not multiply Freezer Burn- dehydration damage to food caused by ice crystals during freezing Carrier- a person who carries pathogenic microorganisms without suffering symptoms

Recognizing spoiled food-

Discoloration, including dark or pale patches

Visible mold

Changes in the usual smell, often unpleasant

Changes in texture, including wrinkling, drying, softening becoming pulpy or slimy

Alteration of usual flavor, including sourness

Food Rotation

Follow FIFO also known as First in First Out! Rotation is key to preventing food from spoiling, and preventing foodborne illnesses. Always check dates on food to make sure it is not past the “use by” date.


Your hands are the #1 cause of foodborne illnesses, because your hands touch so many things throughout the day. ex. People, equipment, food, plates and glassware. Wash your hands frequently throughout the day! Always wash you hands when the following occurs:

BEFORE: starting work touching raw food or potentially hazardous foods touching ready to eat foods
starting work
touching raw food or potentially hazardous foods
touching ready to eat foods
handling raw and cooked food
handling raw and ready to eat foods
changing from one task to the next

handling raw food visiting the bathroom handling raw eggs in their shells coughing or sneezing, or blowing your nose touching your hair or face, or any other part of your body or clothing cleaning or sanitizing, or touching containers of cleaning chemicals dealing with trash and containers taking a break eating, drinking, or smoking wearing protective gloves handling money

Never test food with your fingers or lick your finger tip to make it easier to pick up something (ex. Counting money)


The whole process should take approximately twenty seconds.

1. Wet your hands with running water as hot as you can comfortably stand

(@ Least 100 degrees F)

2. Apply soap

3. Vigorously scrub hands and arms for 10 to fifteen seconds. Clean under fingernails and between fingers.

4. Rinse thoroughly under running water

Reporting Illness

You must tell the person in charge at work if you have, or recently had, a foodborne illness or one with similar symptoms. You must report you have one of the following:


Salmonella Typhi

Shigella species

Enterphemorrhagic or Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

Hepatitis A virus

Or if you have one of the following symptoms:




Sore throat with fever

Open lesions

Employees must also report:

Certain previous illness Exposure to a suspected source of a confirmed foodborne illness outbreak If he/she is suspected as the source of such an outbreak

the process of killing all microorganisms
the process of killing all microorganisms

Exposure to others involved in a confirmed outbreak

Words to Know

Clean- free from dirt and soil; to wash and rinse Clean as you go- cleaning procedures carried out as you work Contact time- the period that a sanitizer must be left so that it will work properly Detergent- a chemical that helps dissolve grease and remove dirt Food contact surface- any surface that is touched by food Hand contact surface- any surface that is touched by hands Risk- the likelihood of harm Sanitizing- the process of reducing pathogenic microorganisms, reducing them to safe levels Sanitizer- a chemical that destroys many pathogenic microorganisms, reducing them to safe levels Scheduled cleaning- cleaning carried out by specified people at specified intervals and times. A cleaning schedule sets out the details.


Infestation- the presence of pests Integrated pest management- a comprehensive system of pest prevention and control Pest- an animal or insect that contaminates or damages food Pet- tamed, domestic animal Harbor- provide a shelter or hiding place Impervious- does not let water through Workflow- the route through food premises for food, employees and equipment during all the stages from delivery of raw food and ingredients to dispatch, sale or service of finished product Control or Control measure- an action designed to eliminate or reduce a hazard to an acceptable level Food hazard- anything that could make food unsafe to eat HACCP- Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, a formal system of Hazard Analysis Hazard Analysis- a method for assessing the food hazards in any food activity Legislation- Laws and regulations REHS and RS- Registered Environmental Health Specialist and Registered Sanitarian, professional who usually enforce food safety legislation in the United States. They also offer advice and education to food establishments to help them prevent food safety problems.


HACCP follows the principles of:

Assessing the potential food safety hazards in the work activities

Identifying the points where hazards occur and deciding which are the critical points for

food safety- these are the ‘critical control points’ Implementing appropriate controls for each critical control point to eliminate or reduce

hazards to an acceptable level Establishing a monitoring system to ensure that the controls are effective- what should

happen does happen Setting up procedures to correct any problems

Reviewing the system from time to time and whenever operations change

Documenting the hazard analysis

Whatever your work involves, you will play an important part in food safety control by:

Following the rules at your workplace Protecting food from contamination Following the basic rules of time and temperature control Watching out for any food hazards Reporting a breakdown, problems or possible food hazards to your manager

control Watching out for any food hazards Reporting a breakdown, problems or possible food hazards to