Food Safety Class Information | Foodborne Illness | Bacteria

Food Safety Class

Intro: If you work with food, you are responsible for ensuring that you do not endanger the safety of the food. This is a legal and moral responsibility. Here at the Pub, we expect you to uphold the following: • Keeping yourself and your workplace clean. • Protecting food from anything that could cause harm. • Following good habits, such as washing your hands before handling food. • Staying alert to food safety hazards. • Following the rules for food safety in your workplace and working with care. • Be proactive with correcting possible hazards that may occur in your work environment. Food safety protects everyone. Poor food safety threatens health, reputations, profits and jobs. Everyone who works with food has a responsibility to safeguard food so that it does not cause illness or harm. The following icons were published in 2005 by the international Association for food Protection (IAFP). The purpose for the icons is to provide an easily recognizable symbol that conveys a specific food safety message to food handlers of all nationalities.

they are a particular problem in hogs and can cause tichinosis in pork Naturally poisonous plants. illness caused by pathogenic microorganisms that live and multiply in your body after you have eaten contaminated food. and clams) that cause ciguatera poisoning in humans because they have eaten poisonous plankton (marine microorganisms).the way bacteria reproduce and increase their numbers. viruses. Onset or incubation period. This is sometimes referred to as bacterial growth in numbers. fish and shellfish. Foodborne infection. and. Staphylococcus aureua. yeasts. (ex. There are three main types of food contamination: Biological Chemical Physical Biological contamination is cause by very small life forms. Contamination. fungi and some parasites. Multiplying. ONSET PERIOD AND DURATION When your body detects that you have eaten something harmful. There are other biological contaminants apart from bacteria.microorganisms that multiply in living calls. most bacteria do not harm humans. which is known as microorganisms. Out of the thousands of bacteria throughout the world. referred to as pathogenic bacteria. mussels. Pathogenic bacteria cause disease. Pathogen.a poison produced by some living organisms. such as bacteria. They include: illness caused by toxins in food.microorganisms responsible for most foodborne illnesses. including bacteria. Sammonella) Foodborne organism that causes disease. Listeria. SYMPTOMS.microorganisms that live on and inn people. Food is contaminated when it contains or carries something that is harmful to human health. ‘flu and the foodborne disease Hepatitis A Mold.all the illnesses caused by eating contaminated food. Foodborne illness. it usually tries to get rid of the food by the quickest method. WORDS TO KNOW: Bacteria. as well as some marine fish and shellfish (such as mackerel.these include some types of mushroom. The most common symptoms of a foodborne illness are as follows: • Abdominal pain • Diarrhea • Vomiting • Nausea • Other signs may be fever and headache • Other severe symptoms include paralysis and kidney failure . causing illnesses such as colds. multiplication.the time it takes for the systems of a foodborne illness to start after contaminated food has been eaten.some types can produce toxins(poisons) on foods such as nuts organism that lives on another life that contains something (a contaminant) that is harmful to health.a very small (micro) life form (organism). Parasite. (ex. Toxin. Symptoms.the presence in food of something harmful to health. molds. Clostridium botulinum. Bacteria are responsible for most biological contamination and they cause more cases of foodborne illnesses than any other contaminant. They include Salmonella. But a few types. Foodborne infection and foodborne intoxication come under this heading.FOODBORNE ILLNESSES: Food makes people ill when it is contaminated. such as bacteria and mold. Staphylococcus aureus) Microorganism or Microbe. Contaminated food. animals and other organisms. can cause disease.the signs of an illness.

for instance by adequate cooking.the process by which bacteria multiply by splitting in two Contamination. pregnant.foods which are ideal for bacteria to live on Spoilage. which is why it is so important to prevent bacterial contamination in the first place. Source. Spore.where something comes from Time/temperature control for safety food (TCS food) .more than one bacterium Bacteriology.a simple life form with one cell Binary dry out Dormant.a synonym for potentially hazardous food. especially meat.the study of bacteria Bacterium. (Toxins are rarely destroyed by cooking.a period of inactivity when bacteria do not multiply Multiply. eggs. and vegetables.the presence in food of pathogenic microorganisms or objective substances Danger zone. The Big 7 food Allergens are: • Peanuts • Soybeans • Milk • Eggs • Fish (includes crustaceans) • Tree nuts • Wheat WORDS TO KNOW Ambient temperature. introduced in the 2005 FDA food code. so that we may be able to avoid sickness.ordinary room temperature Bacteria. Pests and pets People Air and dust Dirt and food waste Water Conclusion: just about everything can create or host bacteria! Foodborne illnesses occur when food is: Eaten after it has been contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. or to produce toxins And the bacteria or toxins are not destroyed. very old.a protective coating formed by some bacteria to help them survive adverse conditions such as cooking or drying. ill or recovering from an illness or who have a weak immune system. conditions that allow the bacteria to multiply to levels that cause organism that causes disease Potentially hazardous reproduce Pathogen. shellfish. Where does pathogenic bacteria come from? Raw foods.the temperature range most suitable for bacterial growth Dehydrate. poultry. Spoilage bacteria makes food spoil.) .the process of causing damage.Foodborne illnesses affect people whom are very young. It is important to know if your guests have any food allergies.

6 degrees. In just a few hours it is possible for one bacterium to multiply to millions of bacteria.for example: pickles TEMPERATURE: Most pathogenic bacteria multiply rapidly at temperatures between 41 degrees and 135 degrees. and other acidic products make it difficult for most bacteria to multiply and therefore are useful for preserving food. (ex. left in sunlight. Most bacteria can survive cold temperatures and resume multiplication later when conditions are more suitable. TIME: Bacteria do not need long to multiply to levels that cause foodborne illness. They cannot multiply in dried foods. 6. as soon as liquid is added to foods (ex. ACIDITY: Levels of acidity also effect bacteria.Foods that need temperature control because they support the rapid growth of pathogenic microorganisms or the formation of toxins. (ex. they can quickly multiply to levels which are harmful to health. They reproduce by dividing. cooled slowly. Bacteria can grow on anything. The ideal temperature for bacteria to grow is about 98. Lemon juice. FOOD ACIDITY TEMPERATURE TIME OXYGEN MOISTURE FOOD: like all living things. Bacteria only needs 10-20 minutes to multiply to harmful numbers. referred to as ‘aerobes’ need oxygen to reproduce. dried milk) the reconstructed products provide ideal conditions for bacterial growth. The ideal conditions for bacteria involve 6 main requirements: 1. then two become four and four become eight. Food is also likely to be in the danger zone when something hot and cold is combined. OXYGEN: Some bacteria.) Ways to control food temperatures to keep out of the danger zone: Minimize the time that potentially hazardous foods are kept at temperature danger zones. However. vinegar. Sugar does the same for candy. 3. MOISTURE: Pathogenic bacteria need moisture to stay alive. Prep table) Keep cold foods COLD! Keep hot foods HOT! WORDS TO KNOW: Potentially Hazardous (time/temperature control for safety) foods. but prefers to grow on something that is high in protein and moist. and so on. This range of temperatures is therefore called the temperature danger zone. One bacterium splits in two. Salt is known to absorb moisture in foods such as crackers & bacon. which is the average human body temperature. DANGER ZONE: 41-135 Degrees Foods that are in the temperature danger zone are most likely left on work surfaces. 5. Dried eggs.When pathogenic bacteria spend enough time on the right types of food at ambient temperatures. Others referred to as ‘anaerobes’ thrive without. . jelly and jam. heated slowly. 2. bacteria need nutrients to grow. Pouring hot gravy on top of cold food or hot soup added to cold soup. 4.

The transfer of pathogenic bacteria from one food to another. Wear disposable gloves and change often and when switching to another product. and display Use separate equipment and utensils for preparation of raw meats and poultry and display Wash all raw veggies. Report any signs of problems to your supervisor immediately Remove food waste and trash frequently throughout the day and dispose of it safely and hygienically Report any signs of pests to your supervisor immediately Keep cleaning chemicals in secure. boils.ordinary room temp. immediately before they are eaten. Core Temperature. Danger zone. and all other surfaces when changing tasks Maintain all equipment. Follow manufactures’ instructions for cleaning chemicals.the likelihood of harm.Ready-to-eat Foods. and rice before use.a form of rapid heat treatment that kills pathogenic bacteria but not all spoilage bacteria . Hazard. transportation. including storage. Toxigenic.Anything that could cause harm to the consumer.Toxin-producing Contaminant. utensils.hands. Vehicle of contamination.only a wedding band is allowed Do not smoke. Keep food areas clean. or chew gum in food areas. eat. causing contamination. or similar skin problems properly covered.any substance or object in food that makes the food harmful or objectionable Contamination. clearly labeled containers in non-food storage areas. Separate raw and cooked foods at all times.the temp. Follow strict personal hygiene habits.the temp. Prevention checklist: Keep food covered until use Use utensils to move food Avoid touching food with bare hands unless absolutely necessary. Clean and sanitize all equipment. Risk. fruit.use the correct chemical for the job and follow the methods and quantities specified Wear minimal jewelry –BOH. including: • keeping yourself clean and wearing suitable clean clothing • washing your hands frequently • Keeping any cuts.The presence in food of any harmful or objectionable substance Cross Contamination.Foods which are edible without preparation or treatment. WORDS TO KNOW: Ambient Temperature.Any surface that touches food and therefore creates a risk of contamination. at the center or the thickest part of food. range (41-135) most suitable for bacterial multiplication Pasteurization. Raw food to ready to eat food) Food contact surface. such as washing or cooking. utensils. drink. or tools that carry microorganisms onto food. preparation. (ex. Undo packaging in area away from food.

perishing. rotting.the process by which food becomes unacceptable.the process of reducing microorganisms and their spores to generally safe levels Preventive. Place food in shallow pans Separate food into smaller or thinner portions Use rapid cooling equipment Stir food in a container placed in an ice water bath Use containers that help heat transfer away from food Add clean fresh ice as an ingredient The right time and temperature Food should be cooled as follows: From 135 Degrees Fahrenheit to 70 Degrees Fahrenheit within 2 hours Must be brought down to 41 degrees or lower by a total of 6 hours or less! Words to know: Code Date.insects.any action to reduce the risk of harm. or using heat to destroy pathogenic microorganisms Core organism that causes disease.dehydration damage to food caused by ice crystals during freezing Carrier.the removal of moisture. beetles.the safe storage period Spoilage. 2.Pathogen.a period when microorganisms are inactive and do not multiply Freezer Burn. deterioration and decaying Stored product pests. Sometimes called preventative. including dark or pale patches Visible mold Changes in the usual smell. 5.a person who carries pathogenic microorganisms without suffering symptoms Recognizing spoiled foodDiscoloration. cereals. and other products Dormant. drying.the temperature at the center or the thickest part of food.a date on packaging indicating the period when the food is safe and in the best condition to eat.foods that spoil easily Preservation. such as weevils. drying Perishable. often unpleasant Changes in texture. including sourness . including wrinkling. 3. that contaminate the foods and ingredients you would expect to find in dry goods storage including flour. Also called decomposition. Dehydration. moths and their larvae. 6.the safe treatment of food to delay spoilage Shelf Life. Methods for quickly cooling foods 1. Sanitizing.Keeping food at a safe temperature. nuts. Temperature control. softening becoming pulpy or slimy Alteration of usual flavor. 4.

Always check dates on food to make sure it is not past the “use by” date. . or blowing your nose touching your hair or face.Food Rotation Follow FIFO also known as First in First Out! Rotation is key to preventing food from spoiling. equipment. People. Wet your hands with running water as hot as you can comfortably stand (@ Least 100 degrees F) 2. Counting money) HOW TO PROPERLY WASH YOUR HANDS: The whole process should take approximately twenty seconds. or touching containers of cleaning chemicals dealing with trash and containers taking a break eating. drinking. Wash your hands frequently throughout the day! Always wash you hands when the following occurs: BEFORE: starting work touching raw food or potentially hazardous foods touching ready to eat foods BETWEEN: handling raw and cooked food handling raw and ready to eat foods changing from one task to the next AFTER: handling raw food visiting the bathroom handling raw eggs in their shells coughing or sneezing. Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or warm-air hand dryer. use a paper towel to open the door. because your hands touch so many things throughout the day. Rinse thoroughly under running water 5. or smoking wearing protective gloves handling money Never test food with your fingers or lick your finger tip to make it easier to pick up something (ex. ESSENTIAL HANDWASHING: Your hands are the #1 cause of foodborne illnesses. When in a restroom. Clean under fingernails and between fingers. Vigorously scrub hands and arms for 10 to fifteen seconds. Use a paper towel to turn off faucet. Apply soap 3. and preventing foodborne illnesses. food. 4. plates and glassware. 1. ex. or any other part of your body or clothing cleaning or sanitizing.

Registered Environmental Health Specialist and Registered Sanitarian. reducing them to safe levels Sanitizer. A cleaning schedule sets out the details.Laws and regulations REHS and carried out by specified people at specified intervals and from dirt and soil.tamed.provide a shelter or hiding place Impervious.does not let water through Workflow.a method for assessing the food hazards in any food activity Legislation. a formal system of Hazard Analysis Hazard Analysis. professional who usually enforce food safety legislation in the United States.the presence of pests Integrated pest management. reducing them to safe levels Scheduled cleaning.the likelihood of harm Sanitizing. employees and equipment during all the stages from delivery of raw food and ingredients to dispatch. You must report you have one of the following: Norovirus Salmonella Typhi Shigella species Enterphemorrhagic or Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Hepatitis A virus Or if you have one of the following symptoms: Vomiting Diarrhea Jaundice Sore throat with fever Open lesions Employees must also report: Certain previous illness Exposure to a suspected source of a confirmed foodborne illness outbreak If he/she is suspected as the source of such an outbreak Exposure to others involved in a confirmed outbreak Words to Know Clean.any surface that is touched by hands Risk.the process of killing all microorganisms animal or insect that contaminates or damages food Pet.a chemical that destroys many pathogenic microorganisms.Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. or recently had.the period that a sanitizer must be left so that it will work properly action designed to eliminate or reduce a hazard to an acceptable level Food hazard.any surface that is touched by food Hand contact surface.a comprehensive system of pest prevention and control Pest. domestic animal Harbor. They also offer advice and education to food establishments to help them prevent food safety problems. .the route through food premises for food. procedures carried out as you work Contact time. to wash and rinse Clean as you go.Reporting Illness You must tell the person in charge at work if you have.anything that could make food unsafe to eat HACCP.a chemical that helps dissolve grease and remove dirt Food contact surface. a foodborne illness or one with similar symptoms.the process of reducing pathogenic microorganisms. sale or service of finished product Control or Control measure.

you will play an important part in food safety control by: Following the rules at your workplace Protecting food from contamination Following the basic rules of time and temperature control Watching out for any food hazards Reporting a breakdown. problems or possible food hazards to your manager .HACCP HACCP follows the principles of: Assessing the potential food safety hazards in the work activities Identifying the points where hazards occur and deciding which are the critical points for food safety.these are the ‘critical control points’ Implementing appropriate controls for each critical control point to eliminate or reduce hazards to an acceptable level Establishing a monitoring system to ensure that the controls are effective.what should happen does happen Setting up procedures to correct any problems Reviewing the system from time to time and whenever operations change Documenting the hazard analysis Whatever your work involves.

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