Probability:The term probability sampling is used when the selection of the sample is purely based on chance.

The human mind has no control on the selection or non- selection of the units for the sample. Every unit of the population has known nonzero probability of being selected for the sample. The probability of selection may b equal or unequal but it should be nonzero and should be known. The probability sampling is also called the random sampling (not simple random sampling). Some examples of random sampling are: 1.Simple random sampling. 2.Stratified random sampling. 3.Systematic random sampling Types of Probability Sampling Simple random sampling Systematic sampling (interval random sampling) Stratified sampling (may be proportionate or disproportionate) Cluster sampling/one-stage

Nonprobability Sampling
Sampling is the use of a subset of the population to represent the whole population. Probability sampling, or random sampling, is a sampling technique in which the probability of getting any particular sample may be calculated. Nonprobability sampling does not meet this criterion and should be used with caution. Nonprobability sampling techniques cannot be used to infer from the sample to the general population. Any generalizations obtained from a nonprobability sample must be filtered through one's knowledge of the topic being studied. Performing nonprobability sampling is considerably less expensive than doing probability sampling, but the results are of limited value.
The difference between nonprobability and probability sampling is that nonprobability sampling does not involve random selection and probability sampling does. Does that mean that nonprobability samples aren't representative of the population? Not necessarily. But it does mean that nonprobability samples cannot depend upon the rationale of probability theory. At least with a probabilistic sample, we know the odds or probability that we have represented the population well. We are able to estimate confidence intervals for the statistic. With nonprobability samples, we may or may not represent the population well, and it will often be hard for us to know how well we've done so. In general, researchers prefer probabilistic or random sampling methods over nonprobabilistic ones, and consider them to be more accurate and rigorous. However, in applied social research there may be circumstances where it is not feasible, practical or theoretically sensible to do random sampling. Here, we consider a wide range of nonprobabilistic alternatives.

But it should be remembered that judgment sampling becomes essential in some situations. It is rather determined by some person. and the validity of the estimates of parameters based on them unknown. We cannot make a list of all the pieces of coal. Self-selection bias is a major problem in research in sociology.probability sampling is also called non-random sampling Even studies intended to be probability studies sometimes end up being non-probability studies due to unintentional or unavoidable characteristics of the sampling method. Suppose we have to take a small sample from a big heap of coal. We cannot assign to an element of population the probability of its being selected in the sample. self-selection bias In statistics. the sample can be self-selected rather than random. This often introduces an important type of error: self-selection error. the problem arises for rather different reasons. This error sometimes makes it unlikely that the sample will accurately represent the broader population. While the effects of self-selection bias are closely related to those of selection bias. psychology. The upper part of the heap will have perhaps big pieces of coal.[1] The term is also used in criminology to describe the process by which specific predispositions may lead an offender to choose acriminal career and lifestyle. A drawback in non-probability sampling is that such a sample cannot be used to determine the error. The samples in such surveys should be treated as non-probability samples of the population. Any statistical method cannot be used to draw inference from this sample. self-selection bias arises is any situation in which individuals select themselves into a group.[citation needed] It is commonly used to describe situations where the characteristics of the people which cause them to select themselves in the group create abnormal or undesirable conditions in the group. thus there may be a purposeful intent on the part of respondents leading to self- . In this case the sampling is called judgment sampling.In non-probability sampling. economics and many other social sciences. We have to use our judgment in selecting a sample to have an idea about the quality of coal. causing a biased samplewith nonprobability sampling. Volunteering for the sample may be determined by characteristics such as submissiveness or availability. The non. the sample is not based on chance. Somebody may use his personal judgment in the selection of the sample. In public opinion polling by private companies (or other organizations unable to require response).

we might use clients who are available to us as our sample. The most important distinctions among these types of sampling methods are the ones between the different types of purposive sampling approaches. Explanation Self-selection makes it difficult to determine causation. we sample simply by asking for volunteers. there are a number of differences between the people who chose to take the course and those who chose not to. now it's probably the "person on the street") interviews conducted frequently by television news programs to get a quick (although nonrepresentative) reading of public opinion. If that was the case. the problem with all of . We can divide nonprobability sampling methods into two broad types: accidental or purposive. then it is not meaningful to simply compare the two sets of scores. Haphazard or Convenience Sampling One of the most common methods of sampling goes under the various titles listed here. I would include in this category the traditional "man on the street" (of course. Clearly. In particular. (You don't really believe that psychologists use college students because they believe they're representative of the population at large. Self-selection bias causes problems for research about programs or products. In many research contexts. In clinical practice. Accidental. possibly as the result of mistakes by those designing any given study. and dedicated than those who did not. self-selection makes it difficult to evaluateprograms. do you?). due to self-selection. I would also argue that the typical use of college students in much psychological research is primarily a matter of convenience. However. one might note significantly higher test scores among those who participate in a test preparation course.selection bias whereas other types of selection bias may arise more inadvertently. Those who chose to take the course might have been more hard-working. For example. and makes it difficult to do market research. to determine whether the program has some effect. and credit the course for the difference. Most sampling methods are purposive in nature because we usually approach the sampling problem with a specific plan in mind. Due to self-selection. there were other factors affecting the scores than merely the course itself. and that difference in dedication may have affected the test scores between the two groups. studious.

we sample with a purpose in mind. There are a number of problems with this sampling approach. have you ever run into people in a mall or on the street who are carrying a clipboard and who are stopping various people and asking if they could interview them? Most likely they are conducting a purposive sample (and most likely they are engaged in market research). But. as in snowball sampling. how do you know that those three variables -. We might sample for diversity as in heterogeneity sampling. or quota sampling. They size up the people passing by and anyone who looks to be in that category they stop to ask if they will participate. when we do a modal instance sample.these types of samples is that we have no evidence that they are representative of the populations we're interested in generalizing to -. y Modal Instance Sampling In statistics.are the only or even the most relevant for classifying the typical voter? What if religion or ethnicity is an important discriminator? Clearly. And. First. Purposive sampling can be very useful for situations where you need to reach a targeted sample quickly and where sampling for proportionality is not the primary concern.we are sampling with a purpose. they interview a "typical" voter. or the "typical" case. you are likely to get the opinions of your target population. but you are also likely to overweight subgroups in your population that are more readily accessible. We usually would have one or more specific predefined groups we are seeking. and income in the population. income -. With a purposive sample. expert. One of the first things they're likely to do is verify that the respondent does in fact meet the criteria for being in the sample. for instance. Purposive Sampling In purposive sampling. education. In a lot of informal public opinion polls. Or. we might capitalize on informal social networks to identify specific respondents who are hard to locate otherwise. In all of these methods we know what we want -.age. For instance. the mode is the most frequently occurring value in a distribution. All of the methods that follow can be considered subcategories of purposive sampling methods. educational level. They might be looking for Caucasian females between 30-40 years old. how do we know what the "typical" or "modal" case is? We could say that the modal voter is a person who is of average age. In sampling. we are sampling the most frequent case. modal instance sampling is only sensible for informal sampling contexts.and in many cases we would clearly suspect that they are not. it's not clear that using the averages of these is the fairest (consider the skewed distribution of income. y Expert Sampling . for instance). We might sample for specific groups or types of people as in modal instance.

and often are.? Nonproportional quota sampling is a bit less restrictive. age. Instead. you will continue to sample men but even if legitimate women respondents come along. But the other reason you might use expert sampling is to provide evidence for the validity of another sampling approach you've chosen. For instance.you have some acknowledged experts to back you. if you know the population has 40% women and 60% men. you select people nonrandomly according to some fixed quota. because it would be the best way to elicit the views of persons who have specific expertise. So. we convene such a sample under the auspices of a "panel of experts. y Heterogeneity Sampling . religion. education race. etc. First. let's say you do modal instance sampling and are concerned that the criteria you used for defining the modal instance are subject to criticism. You might convene an expert panel consisting of persons with acknowledged experience and insight into that field or topic and ask them to examine your modal definitions and comment on their appropriateness and validity. and that you want a total sample size of 100. In this method. if you've already got the 40 women for your sample." The problem here (as in much purposive sampling) is that you have to decide the specific characteristics on which you will base the quota. This method is the nonprobabilistic analogue of stratified random sampling in that it is typically used to assure that smaller groups are adequately represented in your sample. wrong. The advantage of doing this is that you aren't out on your own trying to defend your decisions -. expert sampling is essentially just a specific subcase of purposive sampling. Often. In proportional quota sampling you want to represent the major characteristics of the population by sampling a proportional amount of each. but not the sixty men. There are two types of quota sampling: proportional and non proportional. you will not sample them because you have already "met your quota. y Quota Sampling In quota sampling. In this case. here. Will it be by gender. The disadvantage is that even the experts can be. you will continue sampling until you get those percentages and then you will stop.Expert sampling involves the assembling of a sample of persons with known or demonstrable experience and expertise in some area. For instance. you specify the minimum number of sampled units you want in each category. you're not concerned with having numbers that match the proportions in the population. you simply want to have enough to assure that you will be able to talk about even small groups in the population." There are actually two reasons you might do expert sampling.

and we aren't concerned about representing these views proportionately. The friend also refers a friend. you begin by identifying someone who meets the criteria for inclusion in your study. ‡ Snowball sampling . For instance. co-workers. We imagine that there is a universe of all possible ideas relevant to some topic and that we want to sample this population. what we would like to be sampling is not people. not identifying the "average" or "modal instance" ones. or shoppers at a single mall. in order to get all of the ideas. almost the opposite of modal instance sampling. Haphazard or Accidental sampling . there are times when it may be the best method available.The researcher chooses the sample based on who they think would be appropriate for the study. ‡ Judgmental samplingor Purposive sampling .We sample for heterogeneity when we want to include all opinions or views. if you are studying the homeless. ‡ Deviant Case-Get cases that substantially differ from the dominant pattern(a special type of purposive sample) ‡ Case study . if you go to that area and identify one or two. and especially the "outlier" or unusual ones. Although this method would hardly lead to representative samples. In many brainstorming or nominal group processes (including concept mapping). not the population of people who have the ideas. Snowball sampling is especially useful when you are trying to reach populations that are inaccessible or hard to find. In effect. y Snowball Sampling In snowball sampling. Heterogeneity sampling is. you may find that they know very well who the other homeless people in their vicinity are and how you can find them. This is usedprimarily when there is a limited number of people that have expertise in the areabeing researched. You then ask them to recommend others who they may know who also meet the criteria. we have to include a broad and diverse range of participants. Another term for this is sampling fordiversity. are all examples of convenience sampling. To sample friends.The first respondent refers a friend.members of the population are chosen based on their relative ease of access. etc.The research is limited to one group. in this sense. Other examples of nonprobability sampling include: ‡ Convenience. ‡ ad hoc quotas . you are not likely to be able to find good lists of homeless people within a specific geographical area. However. Clearly. we would use some form of heterogeneity sampling because our primary interest is in getting broad spectrum of ideas.A quota is established (say 65% women) and researchers are free to choose any respondent they wish as long as the quota is met . but ideas. often with a similar characteristic or of small size.

I explain the meaning of the four major levels of measurement: nominal. First. you have to understand the fundamental ideas involved in measuring. Here we consider two of major measurement concepts. non-probability sampling techniques are useful when there are limited resources. such as a pilot study In summary. . And unobtrusive measures presents a variety of measurement methods that don't intrude on or interfere with the context of the research. such as if sampling illegal drug users ‡ if researchers are truly interested in particular members of a population. you have to understand the different types of measures that you might use in social research. an inability to identify members of the population. Qualitative research provides an overview of the broad range of non-numerical measurement approaches. interval and ratio. There are two major issues that will be considered here. Second. In Levels of Measurement.Advantages of Non-Probability Sampling Techniques ‡ useful and quick method in certain circumstances ‡ might be only method available. Survey research includes the design and implementation of interviews and questionnaires. Then we move on to the reliability of measurement. ordinal. including consideration of true score theory and a variety of reliability estimators. Scaling involves consideration of the major methods of developing and implementing a scale. We consider four broad categories of measurements. and a need to establish the existence of a problem Disadvantages of Non-Probability Sampling Techniques ‡ the subjectivity of non-probability sampling prevents making inferences to the entire population ‡ validity and credibility questionable due to selection bias ‡ the reliability of the resulting estimates can not be evaluated which results in theuser not knowing how much confidence can be placed in any interpretations ofthe survey findings Measurement Measurement is the process observing and recording the observations that are collected as part of a research effort. not the entire population ‡ exploratory research attempting to determine whether a problem exists or not.

we would describe the level of measurement as "nominal". then you know that you would never average the data values or do a t-test on the data. in this example "party affiliation. 2 and 3 to the three attributes." That variable has a number of attributes. and "independent". Why is Level of Measurement Important? First. "democrat". The level of measurement describes the relationship among these three values. We don't assume that higher values mean "more" of something and lower numbers signify "less". knowing the level of measurement helps you decide how to interpret the data from that variable. knowing the level of measurement helps you decide what statistical analysis is appropriate on the values that were assigned.Levels of Measurement The level of measurement refers to the relationship among the values that are assigned to the attributes for a variable. Here. we arbitrarily assign the values 1. There are typically four levels of measurement that are defined: y y Nominal Ordinal . we simply are using the numbers as shorter placeholders for the lengthier text terms. Second. Let's assume that in this particular election context the only relevant attributes are "republican". When you know that a measure is nominal (like the one just described). we only use the values as a shorter name for the attribute. In this case. If a measure is nominal. What does that mean? Begin with the idea of the variable. In this case. We don't assume the the value of 2 means that democrats are twice something that republicans are. then you know that the numerical values are just short codes for the longer names. We don't assume that republicans are in first place or have the highest priority just because they have the value of 1. For purposes of analyzing the results of this variable.

For example. for example. For example.we had twice as many clients in the past six months as we did in the previous six months. A player with number 30 is not more of anything than a player with number 15. and is certainly not twice whatever number 15 is. At lower levels of measurement.S. the number of clients in past six months. higher numbers mean more education. on a survey you might code Educational Attainment as 0=less than H. In applied social research most "count" variables are ratio. Weight is a ratio variable." It's important to recognize that there is a hierarchy implied in the level of measurement idea. 4=college degree. 3=some college. Finally. it makes sense to compute an average of an interval variable. In this measure.80 degrees is not twice as hot as 40 degrees (although the attribute value is twice as large). 1=some H. For example. 5=post college. 2=H. But note that in interval measurement ratios don't make any sense .. degree. Here. But is distance from 0 to 1 same as 3 to 4? Of course not. Because of this. In ordinal measurement the attributes can be rank-ordered. No ordering of the cases is implied. where it doesn't make sense to do so for ordinal scales. The interval between values is interpretable. At each level up .S.S. the distance from 30-40 is same as distance from 70-80. in ratio measurement there is always an absolute zero that is meaningful.y y Interval Ratio In nominal measurement the numerical values just "name" the attribute uniquely. This means that you can construct a meaningful fraction (or ratio) with a ratio variable. Why? Because you can have zero clients and because it is meaningful to say that ". The interval between values is not interpretable in an ordinal measure. jersey numbers in basketball are measures at the nominal level. In interval measurement the distance between attributesdoes have meaning.. when we measure temperature (in Fahrenheit). assumptions tend to be less restrictive and data analyses tend to be less sensitive... distances between attributes do not have any meaning.

We turn next to some of the special issues involved in administering a personal interview. question placement and sequencein your instrument. Scaling Scaling is the branch of measurement that involves the construction of an instrument that associates qualitative constructs with quantitative metric units. In the end. we'll look at how you select the survey method that is best for your situation.and develop an understanding of the relationships between reliability and validity in measurement.the hierarchy. reliability is the "consistency" or "repeatability" of your measures. Reliability Reliability has to do with the quality of measurement. There you will find out that we cannot calculate reliability -. you have to learn about the foundation of reliability.we can only estimate it. Before we can define reliability precisely we have to lay the groundwork. With this foundation. it's important to integrate the idea of reliability with the other major criteria for the quality of measurement -. Survey Research Survey research is one of the most important areas of measurement in applied social research. Finally. including a precise definition of reliability. decisions about question content.decisions about question wording. Next. there a variety of different types of reliability that each have multiple ways to estimate reliability for that type. scaling remains one of the most . Along with that.validity -. the true score theory of measurement. decisions about response format. Because of this.g. you can consider the basic theory of reliability. In its everyday sense. Once you've selected the survey method. it is desirable to have a higher level of measurement (e. we'll consider some of the advantages and disadvantages of survey methods. you need to understand the different types of measurement error because errors in measures play a key role in degrading reliability. In general. interval or ratio) rather than a lower one (nominal or ordinal). First. A "survey" can be anything form a short paper-and-pencil feedback form to an intensive one-on-one in-depth interview. and. we will be address a number of issues including: the different types of questions. you have to construct the survey itself. Here. Scaling evolved out of efforts in psychology and education to measure "unmeasurable" constructs like authoritarianism and self esteem. We'll begin by looking at the different types of surveys that are possible. the current level includes all of the qualities of the one below it and adds something new. These are roughly divided into two broad areas: Questionnaires and Interviews. In many ways. The broad area of survey research encompasses any measurement procedures that involve asking questions of respondents..

Although these techniques are not considered here.arcane and misunderstood aspects of social research measurement. it attempts to do one of the most difficult of research tasks -. measurement theorists developed more advanced techniques for creating multidimensional scales. Most people don't even understand what scaling is.measure abstract concepts. The basic idea of scaling is described in General Issues in Scaling. Scales are generally divided into two broad categories: unidimensional and multidimensional. The unidimensional scaling methods were developed in the first half of the twentieth century and are generally named after their inventor. including the important distinction between a scale and a response format. . And. We'll look at three types of unidimensional scaling methods here: y y y Thurstone or Equal-Appearing Interval Scaling Likert or "Summative" Scaling Guttman or "Cumulative" Scaling In the late 1950s and early 1960s. you may want to look at the method of concept mapping that relies on that approach to see the power of these multivariate methods.

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