The term growth and development both refers to dynamic process.

Often used interchangeably, these terms have different meanings. Growth and development are interdependent, interrelated process. Growth generally takes place during the first 20 years of life.; development continues after that. Growth: 1. Is physical change and increase in size. 2. It can be measured quantitatively. 3. Indicators of growth includes height, weight, bone size, and dentition. 4. Growth rates vary during different stages of growth and development. 5. The growth rate is rapid during the prenatal, neonatal, infancy and adolescent stages and slows during childhood. 6. Physical growth is minimal during adulthood. Development: 1. Is an increase in the complexity of function and skill progression. 2. It is the capacity and skill of a person to adapt to the environment. 3. Development is the behavioral aspect of growth. THEORIES: 1. Freud¶s Psychosexual Development Theory STAGE 1. Oral AGE CHARACTERISTICS Birth to 1½ y/o Center of pleasure: mouth (major source of gratification & exploration) Primary need: Security Major conflict: weaning 1½ to 3 y/o Source of pleasure: anus & bladder (sensual satisfaction & selfcontrol) Major conflict: toilet training Center of pleasure: child¶s genital (masturbation) Major conflict: Oedipus & Electra Complex Energy directed to physical & intellectual activities Sexual impulses repressed Relationship between peers of same sex Energy directed towards full sexual maturity & function & development of skills to cope with the environment

2. Anal

3. Phallic 4. Latency

4 to 6 y/o 6 y/o to puberty Puberty onwards

5. Genital

2. Erikson¶s Stages of Psychosocial Development Theory

STAGE 1. Infancy

AGE Birth-18 mos

CENTRAL TASK Trust vs Mistrust

(+) RESOLUTION Learn to trust others

(-) RESOLUTION Mistrust, withdrawal, estrangement

Late childhood 3 to 5 y/o Self control w/o loss of self esteem Ability of cooperate & express oneself Learns to become assertive Ability to evaluate one¶s own behavior Compulsive. Maturity 65 y/o to death Integrity vs despair Acceptance of worth & uniqueness of one¶s own life.productivity. Over-control & overrestriction. lack of interests & commitments. Sense of loss. solid foods . selfrestraint or compliance. Acceptance of death. 3. Loss of hope.walk . Havighurst¶s Developmental Stage and Task DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE 1. sense of being mediocre.achieve personal independence . Withdrawal from school & peers. Infancy & early childhood DEVELOPMENTAL TASK .talk .learn sex differences and sexual modesty .control elimination of wastes . Adulthood 25-65 y/o Generativity vs Creativity. Lack of self-confidence.relate emotionally to others . Industry vs Inferiority 6.distinguish right from wrong through development of a conscience . contempt for others. Develop sense of competence & perseverance. career or lifestyle commitments. Early childhood 1½ to 3 y/o Autonomy vs Shame & doubt Initiative vs guilt 3. develop & manipulate. Self-indulgence. stagnation concern for others. 4. Adolescence 12±20 y/o Learns to create. Identity vs role Coherent sense of self. Young Adulthood 18-25 y/o 7. Avoidance of relationship. confusion Plans to actualize one¶s abilities Intimacy vs isolation Intimate relationship with another person. Commitment to work and relationships.2. School Age 6 to 12 y/o 5. selfconcern. & possible anti-social behavior. Willfulness & defiance. 8. Feelings of confusion. fear of wrongdoing. Impersonal relationships. Pessimism.

formulate a conscience based on a value system .form simple concepts of social & physical reality 2. Childhood 3. Middle childhood .develop a set of values that guides behavior 3. Early Adolescence 6. Preadolescence 5. writing & mathematical skills . Sullivan¶s Interpersonal Model of Personality Development STAGE 1.develop concepts necessary for everyday living . Juvenile 4.achieve assurance of economic independence .learn to socialize with peers .establish more mature relationships with same-age individuals of both sexes .learn physical skills. required for games .establish emotional independence from parents .achieve a masculine or feminine social role .build healthy attitudes towards oneself .accept own body .prepare for an occupation .develop attitudes toward social groups & institutions .acquire skills necessary to fulfill civic responsibilities .learn appropriate masculine or feminine role . long-lasting . Levinson¶s Seasons of Adulthood AGE 18-20 yrs 21-27 yrs 28-32 yrs 33-39 yrs 45-65 yrs SEASON Early adult transition Entrance into the adult world Transition Settling down Pay-off years CHARACTERISTICS Seeks independence by separating from family Experiments with different careers & lifestyles Makes lifestyle adjustments Experiences greater stability Is self-directed & engages in self-evaluation 5..prepare for marriage & establishment of a family .achieve personal independence . Late Adolescence AGE Birth to 1½ yrs 1½ to 6 yrs 6 to 9 yrs 9 to 12 yrs 12 to 14 yrs 14 to 21 yrs DESCRIPTION Infant learns to rely on caregivers to meet needs & desires Child begins learning to delay immediate gratification of needs & desires Child forms fulfilling peer relationships Child relates successfully to same-sex peers Adolescent learns to be independent & forms relationships with members of opposite sex Person establishes an intimate. Infancy 2.gain basic reading. Adolescence 4.

Experiments with methods to reach goals. Objects are perceived as extensions of the self. Formal Operations AGE Birth to 2 yrs Birth to 1 month 1-4 months 4-8 months 8-12 months 12-18 months 18-24 months 2-7 years 2-4 year 4-7 years 7-11 years 11+ years DESCRIPTION Sensory organs & muscles become more functional Movements are primarily reflexive Perceptions center around one¶s body. Behavior is ³right´ when it conforms to the rules. Individual understands the morality of having democratically established laws.relationship with someone of the opposite sex 6. Uses fantasy. Piaget¶s Phases of Cognitive Development PHASE a. Exhibits use of symbolism. 7. Initiates acts to change the movement. Differentiates goals and goal-directed activities. When actions satisfy one¶s needs. . ³Right´ is defined as that which is acceptable to & approved by the self. the activity is ³right´ if one is not punished. Approval of others is sought through one¶s actions. Emerging ability to think Thinking tends to be egocentric.´ Cordial interpersonal relationships are maintained. they are ³right. Unable to break down a whole into separate parts. Able to classify objects according to one trait. Individual feels ³duty bound´ to maintain social order. Able to see relationships and to reason in the abstract. Misbehavior is viewed in terms of damage done. Sensorimotor Stage 1: Use of reflexes Stage 2: Primary circular reaction Stage 3: Secondary circular reaction Stage 4: Coordination of secondary schemata Stage 5: Tertiary circular reaction Stage 6: Invention of new means b. Concrete Operations d. A deed is perceived as ³wrong´ if one is punished. Learns to reason about events in the here-and-now. Pre-operational Pre-conceptual stage Intuitive stage c. Becomes aware of external environment. Kohlberg¶s Stages of Moral Development LEVEL AND STAGE LEVEL I: Pre-conventional (Birth to 9 years) Stage 1: Punishment & obedience orientation Stage 2: Instrumental-relativist orientation LEVEL II: Conventional (9-13 years) Stage 3: Interpersonal concordance Stage 4: Law and order orientation LEVEL III: Post-conventional DESCRIPTION Authority figures are obeyed. Develops rituals that become significant. Uses mental imagery to understand the environment. Authority is respected.

Is dependent. May use guilt to manipulate others when attempting to ³help. 8. Recognizes connections to others. Orientation of Individual Survival Transition Transition 1: From Selfishness to Responsibility II. Goodness as Self-sacrifice CHARACTERISTICS Concentrates on what is best for self. not on others¶ responses. Makes responsible choices in terms of self and others.´ Decisions based on intentions & consequences. Religious & moral beliefs are symbolized by stories. Assumes responsibility for own attitudes & beliefs.(13+ years) Stage 5: Social contract orientation Stage 6: Universal ethics orientation It is ³wrong´ to violate others¶ rights. Wants to help others while being responsible to self. Dependent on others. Fowler¶s Stages of Faith STAGE Pre-stage:Undifferentiated faith Stage 1: Intuitive-projective faith Stage 2: Mythical-literal faith AGE Infant Toddlerpreschooler School-aged child CHARACTERISTICS Trust. Conflict between selfishness and selflessness. Increased social participation. Feels responsible for others. Transition 2: From Goodness to Truth III. Self-judgment is not dependent on others¶ perceptions but rather on consequences & intentions of actions. Gilligan¶s Theory of Moral Development LEVEL I. The person understands the principles of human rights & personal conscience. Puts needs of others ahead of own. Accepts existence of a deity. Selfish. Appreciates others¶ viewpoints. Sees self and others as morally equal Assumes responsibilities for own decisions. Morality of Nonviolence 9. hope and love compete with environmental inconsistencies or threats if abandonment. Questions values & religious beliefs in an attempt to form own identity. Person believes that trust is basis for relationships. Imitates parental behaviors and attitudes about religion and spirituality. Integrates other perspectives about faith into own Stage 3: Syntheticconventional faith Stage 4: Individuativereflective faith Stage 5: Conjunctive faith Adolescent Late adolescent & young adult Adult . Accepts concept of reciprocal fairness. Considers needs of self and others. Has no real understanding of spiritual concepts. Basic tenet to hurt no one including self.

Stage 6: Universalizing faith Adult definition of truth. . Makes concepts of love & justice tangible.

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