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Southeast Region: (Information provided by the Southeast Regional Climate Center)

• Temperatures showed significant variations across the Southeast in November. Virginia, North and
South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama experienced temperatures that were colder than normal, but
Florida’s temperatures as well as a few adjacent stations in southeastern Georgia experienced
temperatures that were warmer than normal. Temperatures at Puerto Rican stations were near normal
in November. Over 50 long-term stations were ranked in the top 5 for coldest maximum temperature,
including Morganton, NC (1902-2018; 1st coldest), St. Bernard, AL (1911-2018; 2nd coldest), Washington,
GA (1914-2018; 2nd coldest) and Lincoln, VA (1909-2018; 1st coldest). Two stations, Hialeah and Fort
Lauderdale, FL, were ranked in the top 5 warmest maximum temperatures, and four stations, all in
southern Florida or the Virgin Islands, were ranked in the top 5 warmest minimum temperatures.
Numerous days of northwesterly wind flow in northern regions resulted in more than 20 long-term
stations that were in the top five coldest for their periods of record. Temperatures in that region were as
much as 6 degrees F (3.3 degrees C) colder than normal in northwestern Alabama. Sand Mountain
Substation in Crossville, AL (1948-2018; 4th coldest) reported a monthly mean temperature of 44.7 F (7.1
C), which was 6 degrees F (3.3 degrees C) colder than normal. Jasper, GA (1942-2018; 5th coldest) also
reported a mean monthly temperature 44.7 degrees F (7.1 degrees C), which was 5.7 degrees F (3.2
degrees C) colder than normal. Hickory, NC (1949-2018; 5th coldest) recorded a mean temperature of
45.5 degrees F (7.5 degrees C), which was 4.4 degrees F (2.4 degrees C) colder than normal. Widespread
cold weather, with temperatures as low as 21 degrees F (-6.1 degrees C) across a broad region, were
reported on the morning of November 28, as a ridge of high pressure built into the area following the
passage of a strong cold front through the region. The coldest daily temperature in the region that
morning was 2 degrees F (-16 degrees C) at Mount Mitchell, NC (1980-2018). This was the coldest
minimum daily temperature for any station in November. Freezing temperatures extended south into
northern Florida that day, bringing an end to the growing season there. The coldest temperature
reported in Puerto Rico in November was 70 degrees F (21.1 degrees C) in St. Croix, VI on November 29.
By comparison, warmer than normal ocean temperatures surrounding the Florida peninsula helped
drive southern Florida mean temperatures that were in the top five warmest. Key West, FL (1871-2018;
5th warmest) recorded a monthly mean temperature of 79.8 degrees F (26.6 degrees C) that was 4.0
degrees F (2.2 degrees C) warmer than normal. Hialeah, FL (1945-2018; 4th warmest) reported a monthly
mean temperature of 77.9 degrees F (25.5 degrees C) that was 4.3 degrees F (2.4 degrees C) warmer
than normal. The highest daily maximum temperature reported this month was 94 degrees F (34.4
degrees C) at Aguirre, PR on November 12 and on the U. S. mainland at Everglades City 5 NE, FL on
November 14.

• Precipitation across the Southeast varied from less than an inch (25 mm) in southern Florida to over 8
inches (203 mm) in northern Georgia and northeastern South Carolina. Observers in the driest areas of
Florida reported less than 50 percent of normal rainfall, while extensive areas in northern and central
Georgia, North and South Carolina and Virginia reported more than 200 percent of normal precipitation.
Eighty long-term stations reported a monthly precipitation totals that ranked in the top five for
November. Washington DC (1871-2018, 1st wettest) received 7.57 inches (192 mm) of precipitation, 4.40
inches (112 mm) wetter than normal, breaking the old record of 7.18 inches (182 mm) set in 1875. Other
stations reporting their wettest November on record include Jacksonville, FL (1871-2018; 5.21 inches or
132 mm) and Dallas 7 NE, GA (1958-2018; 9.53 inches or 242 mm). In addition, Cape Hatteras, NC (1957-
2018; 5th wettest) received 11.27 inches (286 mm) and Rome, GA (1899-2018; 3rd wettest) reported
10.38 inches (263 mm) of precipitation. Precipitation totals in the Florida Peninsula were drier than
normal and were mainly in the lower third of all November amounts, but none were ranked in the driest
10 years. Tampa, FL reported 0.63 inches (16 mm) for the month, 0.92 inches (23 mm) drier than
normal. Key West, FL (1871-2018) reported 1.21 inches (31 mm) in November, 1.09 inches (28 mm)
below normal and West Palm Beach, FL (1888-2018) reported 1.79 inches (45 mm), 2.96 inches (75 mm)
below normal. Rainfall in Puerto Rico was slightly drier than normal, with San Juan, PR observing 5.68
inches (144 mm), 0.67 inches (17 mm) drier than normal. The highest 1-day rainfalls across the region
ranged from 4.17 inches on November 13 at Cape Hatteras (1874-2018; 9th highest 1-day November
value) to 0.23 inches (6 mm) at Tampa, FL (1890-2018) on November 2, over a third of their monthly
total this year. Danville, VA (1945-2018; 1st wettest 1-day amount for November) received 2.71 inches
(69 mm) on November 12. Heavy rains caused flooding of streams and roadways in Georgia and North
and South Carolina on November 12, in Georgia and South Carolina on November 14, and in Virginia on
November 24. Snow was observed unusually early in the season in the Washington D. C. area on
November 15, as a developing low pressure system moved up the East Coast. This resulted in the first
measurable snow that occurred there in November in the last 22 years. Reagan International Airport
received 1.4 inches (35 mm) and Dulles International Airport received 3.0 inches (76 mm). The snow,
which was mixed with sleet and freezing rain, snarled traffic and closed schools. The highest verified
total snowfall for the month, 6.0 inches (154 mm), fell at Mount Weather, VA on the 15th in the same
storm that brought snow to the DC area.

• There were 80 severe weather reports across the Southeast during November, which is nearly double
the median monthly frequency of 45 reports during 2000–2016. Of those, 75 percent (60 of 80) were
wind reports. A total of 16 tornadoes (6 EF-0, 7 EF-1 and 3 EF-1s) were confirmed across the region,
which is much higher than the median frequency of 11 tornadoes observed during November. On
November 2, a squall line moved across the Tampa Bay area, resulting in four brief EF-1 tornadoes and
damage from straight-line winds of 40 to 65 mph (18-29 m/s). On the same day, an EF-2 tornado in
Halifax County, VA snapped several mature pine trees 24 to 36 inches (610 to 914 mm) in diameter and
severely damaged the roofs of several homes and a barn. On November 5-6, a strong cold front and
associated upper level low led to the development of a strong line of thunderstorms, which produced
three brief tornadoes in Alabama, as well as numerous high wind reports. Strong winds associated with
the passage of the front resulted in scattered wind damage to trees and buildings in central Georgia on
the evening of the 7th. A short-lived EF-0 tornado in Santa Rosa, FL resulted in tree damage to a small
area and was accompanied by straight-line winds estimated at 70 mph (31 m/s) that blew playground
equipment 100 feet (30 m) away. An EF-1 tornado in Atlantic Beach, NC on November 13 destroyed
numerous sheds and caused the loss of some roofing material which may have been compromised by
Hurricane Florence in October. On November 14 an EF-2 tornado in Emerald Isle, NC and downed
several power lines as well as caused siding and roof damage to several structures. The tornado moved
over Bogue Sound as a waterspout and weakened before coming onshore again, blowing some
trampolines into a tree.

• Small areas of moderate drought (D1) and larger areas of abnormally dry conditions (D0) were present
in parts of the Southeast throughout November. Early in the month, some residual dryness in
northwestern Alabama and northeastern Georgia was noted, but rainfall in those areas quickly erased
the dry conditions by mid-month. These rains missed areas of the Atlantic coast from southern Florida
through southern South Carolina, however, leading to an expansion of abnormally dry conditions there.
Moderate drought conditions developed in the southeast corner of Georgia and extreme northeastern
FL, and a separate area of moderate drought along the East Coast of Florida developed and expanded to
an area west of Lake Okeechobee by the end of November. No drought was reported in Puerto Rico in
November, but the area of abnormally dry conditions (D0) in the south central part of the island
expanded to cover more than 26 percent of the commonwealth by the end of the month. The
precipitation that ended the dry conditions in Alabama and parts of Georgia was not welcome to
farmers in those regions, who were trying to recover from the impacts of Hurricane Michael. Wet soils
slowed field work significantly, and the crops that were left in the field degraded in quality due to their
lengthy exposure to the wet conditions, especially cotton and pecans that were still harvestable after
the hurricane. The wet soil also caused problems for peanut farmers because harvesting was delayed.
Peanuts left too long in wet soil separated from the plants before they were dug up, reducing the
number of peanuts harvested, as many were left behind in the ground. Some peanuts were also over-
mature due to harvesting delays, resulting in lower quality that reduced their value. The delays in
harvesting of summer crops also led to delays in planting winter grains and forage, although those that
were planted in a timely way benefited from the ample moisture. Because of the wet and cool
conditions, livestock producers were forced to feed hay earlier than usual while they waited for their
forage stands to become established. In northern Florida, pasture quality declined due to wet and cool
conditions late in the month, while in southern Florida, pastures declined due to dry conditions there.