You are on page 1of 72

Section-1

10/03/1431 PETE 302: Subsurface Production 1


Engineering
The Petroleum Industry
Production System
y Overview
Integrated View
Drilling Engineering

Well Completion

P d ti Engineering
Production E i i

Surface Subsurface
P d ti
Production P d ti
Production
Surface Production
(from wellhead to
downstream)

Petroleum
Vertical flow
Performance
(from wellbore to Wellhead)
Production
System

Inflow Performance
(from reservoir to
wellbore)
Petroleum Production System
Petroleum Production System
Build Your Habits

Private: •
-Be proactive
-Begin
Begin with the end in mind
-Put first things first
Go from Dependence
to Independence
Public: •
-Think
Think win/win
-Seek first to understand
th to
then t be
b understood
d t d
-Synergize

G from
Go f Independence
I d d
to Interdependence
Sharpen the saw; Self renewal: •

-Physical (exercise, nutrition, stress management)


-Mental (reading, visualizing, planning, writing)
-Social (service,
(service empathy
empathy, synergy
synergy, intrinsic security)

-Spiritual (value clarification & commitment, study &


meditation)
Well Completion
Well completion includes all •
design work and operations
needed to prepare the well, after
it has
h been
b drilled,
d ill d for
f
production.
production
W k
Work-over O
Operations
ti
Work-over operations, on the other •
hand, include all operations
performed on the well after starting
production
d ti forf the
th purpose off
remedial of producing problems
problems.
Section 2
Section-2
Well Completion Design
Main objective:
j

To Obtain Maximum Recovery


In The Most Economical Way
Factors Influencing
g Well
Completion Design
Reservoir Production Rate Reservoir Drive
Considerations Starting Point Mechanism

• Location of Determines the •Solution Gas


various fluids size of: Drive
in the formation • Producing • Gas Cap
• Flow of fluids Conduits Drive
through the • Surface Facilities • Water Drive
rock
• Characteristics
of the rock
Solution Gas-
Drive
Reservoirs

Low Angle of
Dip
Solution Gas-
Drive Reservoirs

High
Angle
of Dip
Gas Cap Drive
Reservoirs

Low Angle of Dip


Gas Cap Drive
Reservoirs

High Angle of Dip


Water Drive
Reservoirs

Low Angle of Dip


(Thick Sand)
Water Drive
Reservoirs

High Angle of Dip


(Thin
i Sand)
Gas Fingering

Water Encroachment
Fingering of Free Gas into Well Along
B ddi Planes
Bedding Pl
Fingering of Water into Well Along
Bedding Planes
Solution-Gas Drive
Reservoirs

High Angle of Dip


Low Structural Relief, Not
St tifi d
Stratified
Gas Cap Drive
R
Reservoirs
i

Low Angle of Dip High Angle of Dip


Water Drive Reservoirs

Low Angle of Dip High Angle of Dip


Reservoir Considerations
1 Multiple Reservoirs
1. 2 Secondary Recovery
2.
• Multiple Completions in Needs
one casing • Completion method
• Multiple Completions in should be adaptable
Several Casings to secondary
• Commingling Production recovery:
• Several Wellbores • Water flooding Æ
Increase in volume of
3. Stimulation fluid to be handled
• Special perforating pattern • Thermal Methods Æ
(to isolate zones) Special casing
• Adaptable to high injection cementing, etc.
rates (fracturing)
• Special isolation equipment
Reservoir
Considerations
4. Reservoir
H t
Heterogeneity
it
Water Encroachment
Stagger Completion ƒ
I t
Intervall
Best: Concentrate on ƒ
one zone at a time
starting from bottom
Additional Completion ƒ
During Workover (W/O)

Gas Fingering
Reservoir Considerations
5. Sand Control
5
• Affects type of
completion
• Li it production
Limits d ti rate
t
6. Artificial Lift
• Single completion
• Large casing and tubing

7. Workover Frequency
• Completion conductive to
wire line
• Through-tubing re-
completion and workover
Factors Influencing Well
Completion Design
Mechanical Considerations:
Key
y To:
Deplete the reservoir effectively ƒ
Monitor downhole performance ƒ
C t l fl
Control flow off reservoir fl id ƒ
i fluids
Minimize / Remedy damage ƒ
Modify well situation when necessary ƒ
Mechanical Considerations
Consider automatic shut-in
systems and press control
Safety methods (offshore, populated &
remote locations)
Consider most economical
Cost procedure
Simplest, reliable equipment &
Simplicity
p y procedures
Operating Pressure, temperature, corrosivity
C diti
Conditions t .
etc
Minimize number of components ƒ
Limit moving parts ƒ
Reliability Avoid debris traps ƒ
Use proved technology and ƒ
components
Methods of Completion
Main Objective
j of Completion:
p
To produce for maximum recovery in the
most economical and safest manner

Basic Decisions in Designing Well


p
Completion:
Method / Type of completion ƒ
Casing – tubing configuration ƒ
Completion interval ƒ
Size of production tubing ƒ
Methods of Completion
p

Openhole
Completion

Liner
Completions

Perforated
Completions
Open Hole Completion
Advantages
Minimum formation damage ƒ
W/gravel pack, provides ƒ
excellent sand control
No perforating Expenses ƒ
Log Interpretation not critical ƒ
Full diameter opposite pay zone ƒ
Easily deepened ƒ
Easily converted to liner or ƒ
perforated completions
p p
Open Hole Completion

Disadvantages
Difficult control of excess ƒ
Gas or water production
Difficult selective ƒ
stimulation
CSG sett ini th
the d
darkkƒ
Open Hole
C
Completion
l ti
Ad
Advantages
t
Minimum formation ƒ
damage
No perforating expenses ƒ
Log interpretation not ƒ
critical
Adaptable to sand control ƒ
technique
Clean out problems ƒ
avoided
Open Hole
C
Completion
l ti
Disadvantages
Different control of excess ƒ
Gas or water production
Production casing is set ƒ
before drilling producing
zone
Selective stimulation ƒ
Additional rig time ƒ
Reduced diameter ƒ
Cannot be easily ƒ
deepened
Perforated Liner Completion
Advantages
Minimum formation ƒ
damage
Excessive water/gas can ƒ
be controlled
Selective stimulation ƒ
possible
Can easily be deepened ƒ
Helps control sand ƒ
production
Perforated Liner Completion

Disadvantages
Reduced well bore ƒ
diameter
Log interpretation is critical ƒ
Selective stimulation ƒ
Diffi lt liner
Difficult li cementing
ti ƒ
More expensive ƒ
(perforating, cementing &
Rig time)
Perforated Cased Completion

Ad
Advantages
t
Easy control of excessive gas or ƒ
water production
Can be selective to stimulation ƒ
Logs & formation samples ƒ
available to assist in decision to
set CSG or abandon
Easily deepened ƒ
Adaptable to sand control ƒ
Adaptable to multiple ƒ
Completion
Minimum rig time ƒ
Perforated Cased Completion

Disadvantages
Perforating cost could ƒ
be significant
Liable to formation ƒ
damage
S l ti stimulation
Selective ti l ti ƒ
Log interpretation ƒ
critical
Casing–tubing
Casing tubing Configurations

Conventional Configurations ƒ
Single Zone Completion .1
1
Multiple Zone Completion.2

Unconventional (Tubing-less) ƒ
Single Zone Completion .1
Multiple Zone Completion.2
Cased completion
p with Tubing

perforated interval and Production


Casing

tubing
Packer

Perforation
Conventional Completions

SINGLE ZONE COMPLETIONS


U dF
Used For
High producing rates ¾
Corrosive well fluids ¾
High Pressures¾
Governmental / Operator¾
policies
li i
Pumping Well Flowing Well
Alternate Completion
Gas Lift
Conventional Completions

MULTIPLE ZONE
COMPLETIONS
Used For
Obtaining higher production ¾
Faster pay out ¾
Multi-Reservoir control¾
requirements
i t
Dual-Zone
Completion
Triple Completion

-Three Zones
-Two or Three Packers
-Two or Three Tubing
g
Strings
Unconventional Completions
p
Multiple Tubingless Completions
Initially used with 27/8 in. pipe, currently, 3 1/2 in. & 4 ½
in. are used
Advantages:
Reduced cost •
Each zone is independent •
Communications between strings is easily •
detected and eliminated.
Disadvantages:
Restricted production rates •
High-rate stimulation treatments are more •
difficult
Triple
Tubingless
C
Completion
l ti
Openhole
p Multilateral Drilling
g

T
Target
t Zone
Z
Dyna Drill

Target Zone
9 5/8
5/8-in. Cas
Casing
g
Orientation Nipple
Running Hollow Starter Mill
Whip-stock
Whip stock and Shear Stud
Packer - Orienting Millable Hose

and Setting Packer Composite Core


Soft-Centered
Hollow Whip-stock

Anchor Latch

Multilateral Packer

Orienting Nipple
Window and
Watermelon Mills
Used to Ream/
Feather Window
Watermelon
Mill

Window
Mill
9 5/8-in. Casing

Formation Bit
and Directional-
Drilling Soft-Centered
Assembly Used Whipstock

to Drill Angle
Angle-
Build Section of
Hole 8 1/2-in.
/ O
Openhole Lateral
Motor
MWD
Bit
Limited Isolation/
Limited-Isolation/
Access Multilateral
Tubing Access
Completion Sleeve

Commingled Production
Dual-Production
Packer
Limited-Isolation Tubing
Access Multilateral Access Sleeve

Completion
Level 1 TAML
(Segregated
production) Packer
Open-hole
horizontal
branch
Drillpipe Wash down System
Wash-down
9 5/8-in. Casing
Centralized Lateral for Screens Run
Liner Hangers
in Open Hole (Sized
(Sized-
Centralized
Liner Joint Salt Mud Displaced)

8 1/2-in. Open Hole

7-in. Casing
3 1/2-in. Dual Float Shoe with
Production Prepack Screen Sealbore Sub
Packer
6-in. Open Hole

Running Tool Expandable Flapper Seal


Washpipe Assembly
Ad
Advanced d 4 1/2
1/2-in.
in Upper Tubing
13 3/8-in. Casing
Multilateral Top of 7-in. Liner

Completion Window Bushing


Assembly

Hollow Whipstock
Commingled Production Orienting Latch
Multilateral Packer

Orienting
g Nipple
pp
Retrievable Packers
4 1/2-in. 4 1/2-in.
Predrilled Casing Predrilled Casing

6 1/8-in. 6 1/8-in.
p Hole
Open Open Hole
9 5/8-in
5/8-in. Casing
Advanced Dual Packer

Multilateral
Durasleeve
Completion Swivel

7-in. Lateral Liner

Access Sleeve on Long String


Segregated Production 8 1/2-in. Hole
Hollow Whipstock
and Orienting Ratch Latch

Multilateral Packer
Orienting Nipple
with Mating Lock
PBR and
Re-entry Seal Assemblyy
Guide
9 5/8-in. Casing

Re-entry
Re entry Access
Centralized Steel
Window Joints
Retrievable Diverter
Window Bushing
for Full-Gauge
8 1/2-in. Open Hole
Tools
g
7-in. Casing

Full-Gauge
7-in. Service Tool
Intelligent Completions
Sensors •
Ability to open/shut off •
open/shut-off
Currently main application: water •
cresting
ti control
t l
Multilateral well completion for downhole
separation and disposal of water
P bl
Problems
1.- Three wells producing from the same reservoir, have the following pressure •
data:

Pressure, psi @ node # •
Well # 8 6 3 1 •
1 3250 1700 400 30 •
2 3250 2800 400 30 •
3 3250 2800 1400 30 •
Discuss pressure distribution in the 3 wells and possible problems in each one. •
2.- List two ways by which the following factors affect well •
completion design: •
-Driving Mechanism •
- ………………………………………………………… –
…………………………………………………………. –
-Multiple
Multiple Reservoirs •
……………………………………………………………. –
……………………………………………………………. •

-Needs for artificial lifting •
…………………………………………………………… –
..…………………………………………………………. –
3.- Find the density and pressure gradient in psi/ft for the •
following fluids : •
-Fresh water - ………………… •
-Crude of 36 API - ……………………….. •
-Gas with a molecular weight of 19 at 1500 psi and 180ºF…. •
-Brine of 1.075 specific gravity - …………………………. •

4.- Show where would you drill & complete wells in the •
following reservoirs: •
5 -A well encountered zone A,
5.-A A which is oil-bearing,
oil-bearing and was •
covered by 9 5/8 inch production casing with shoe @ •
7,500’.The presence of another, oil bearing lower zone B was •
confirmed from improved seismic,
seismic so the well was deepened •
using an 8 ½ inch bit to a depth of 8,200’. •
You are required to design a suitable completion for the well, •
taking into consideration the following points:
-The completion should allow simultaneous production from
the two zones. Zone A has sweet, high API ( 40ºAPI )crude,
while
hil zone B has
h sour and d corrosive,
i relatively
l ti l low
l gravity
it
( 29ºAPI ) crude.
Zone B is composed of loose sand that would be produced
along
l with
ith the
th crude.
d The
Th graini size
i distribution
di t ib ti is i as given
i to
t
allow the calculation of gravel and screen sizes.
Grain Diam., inch: o.1 0.07 0.04 0.01 0.006 0.001
C
Cum. Wt
Wt., % : 12 34 60 81 90 99
You can draw sketches as needed.