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NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T.

DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

CONCRETE- a heavy, rough building material made from a mixture of broken stone or gravel, sand,
cement, and water, that can be spread or poured into molds and that forms a stone
like mass on hardening.

COMPONENTS OF REINFORCE CONCRETE


Major parts of Reinforced Concrete Buildings – Framed structures
Concrete frame structures are the most common type of modern building. It usually consists
of a frame or a skeleton of concrete. Horizontal members are beams and vertical ones are the
columns. Concrete Buildings structures also contain slabs which are used as base, as well as roof /
ceiling. Among these, the column is the most important as it carries the primary load of the building.

Typical RC Framed Building Components


Reinforce concrete frame structure is
actually a connected frame of members which are
firmly connected to each other. These connections
are called moment connections. There are also
other types of connections which include the
hinged connections that are mostly used in steel
structures, but the concrete frame structures have
moment connections in almost all of the cases.
The concrete framed structure should
resist various loads that act on the building during
its life. These loads include Dead loads, live loads
(imposed loads), wind loads, dynamic loads and
earthquake loads.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF AGGREGATE


AGGREGATES

The aggregates normally used for concrete are natural deposits of sand and gravel, where available.
In some localities, the deposits are hard to obtain and large rocks must be crushed to form the
aggregate. Crushed aggregate usually costs more to produce and will require more cement paste
because of its shape. More care must be used in handling crushed aggregate to prevent poor mixtures
and improper dispersion of the sizes through the finished concrete. At times, artificial aggregates, such
as blast-furnace slag or specially burned clay, are used.

TYPES OF AGGREGATE.— Aggregates are divided into two types as follows:.

FINE AGGREGATE. “Fine aggregate” is defined as material that will pass a No. 4 sieve
and will, for the most part, be retained on a No. 200 sieve. For increased workability
and for economy as reflected by use of less cement, the fine aggregate should
have a rounded shape. The purpose of the fine aggregate is to fill the voids in the
coarse aggregate and to act as a workability agent.
NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

COARSE AGGREGATE. Coarse aggregate is amaterial that will pass the 3-inch screen and
will beretained on the No. 4 sieve. As with fine aggregate, forincreased workability
and economy as reflected by theuse of less cement, the coarse aggregate should
have arounded shape. Even though the definition seems tolimit the size of coarse
aggregate.

TYPE PROPERTIES and TRADE NAME COST


FEATURES
(Estimated Prices)

Type IP  Blended Cement (Type IP) LAFARGE Republic P 220-230


 Lower water requirement than Portland Plus
Ordinary Portland Cement (per 40 kg bag)
(OPC)
 Denser Concrete with reduced
permeability
 Better concrete cohesion
Type I  High performance Portland LAFARGE RAPIDSET P 220-230
cement
 High early and final day (per 40 kg bag)
strength and faster setting time
 Consistent strength and
compatibility to most chemical
and mineral
admixtures/additives
Type N  Advanced masonry cement LAFARGE P 210-220
specially formulated for WALLMASTER
(Masonry Cement) masonry applications (per 40 kg bag)
 Micro-fillers fill in voids and
pores
 Lighter and stickier plaster
 Regulates hydration and
drying
Type P  High performance blended LAFARGE MINDANAO P 220-230
cement (Type P) POZZOLAN PREMIUM
 Lower heat of hydration (per 40 kg bag)
 Denser concrete with reduced (available in Visayas and
permeability Mindanao)
 Reduces wastage and water
addition, better finishing
Type IP  Lower water requirement than LAFARGE FORTUNE P 220-230
OPC
 Denser concrete (available in selected (per 40 kg bag)
 Better concrete cohesion markets of South Luzon)

Type II  Moderate Sulfate resistance LAFARGE TYPE II *Price not available*


 Moderate heat of hydration Portland Cement
 Exceeds compressive strength (Made-to-Order
requirements of Ordinary Bulk)
Portland Cement (OPC) at 28
days as per ASTM C150
NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

Type V  High performance Portland LAFARGE TYPE V *Price not available*


cement Portland Cement
 High Sulfate Resistant Cement (Made-to-Order
Bulk)

Type IP  Higher early strength HOLCIM EXCEL P 218-230


 Less cost per concrete hollow
block: 5-10 more CHB (per 40 kg bag)
 Improved chloride and sulfate
resistance
Type S  Superior bond strength makes HOLCIM WALLRIGHT P 205-220
plastering application easier
(Masonry Cement and faster (per 40 kg bag)
PNS ASTM C91)  Extendable mixture ~ 1:4
(cement:sand)
 Allows easy placement and
better bonding for hollow
block laying
 Improves quality of surface
finish compared to ordinary
cement

Type IP  Higher ultimate strength CEMEX Rizal Portland P 220-230


 Reduced permeability Super
 Reduced expansion and heat of (per 40 kg bag)
hydration and improved long-
term durability
 Moderate sulfate-resistant type
of cement
Type M  Savings both in labor costs and CEMEX Rizal Masonry P 215-220
usage Cement
(Masonry Cement)  Higher workability compared to (per 40 kg bag)
traditional cement products
 Less plaster cracking
 Environment-friendly type of
cement
 Allows better moisture retention
and adhesion strength for
improved usage through XD
100 nanotechnology
Type IP  Higher ultimate strength CEMEX APO Portland P 220-230
 Reduced permeability Premium
 Reduced expansion and heat of (per 40 kg bag)
hydration and improved long-
term durability
 Moderate sulfate-resistant type
of cement
Type M  Savings both in labor costs and CEMEX APO Masonry P 215-220
usage Cement
(Masonry Cement)  Higher workability compared to (per 40 kg bag)
traditional cement products
 Less plaster cracking
 Environment-friendly
NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

Type I  Early strength achieved in less CEMEX Island Portland P 220-230


time Cement
 Best in overall quality and (per 40 kg bag)
consistency
 Proven compatibility with
mineral and chemical
admixtures
Type S  Formulated and manufactured CEMEX Palitada King P 215-220
to produce a mortar with Masonry Cement
(Masonry Cement) superior properties for use in (per 40 kg bag)
masonry applications
 Superior adhesion
 Enhanced workability and
longer board life
 Increased water retention and
less cracking
 Smoother and lighter color
Type I  Made for high performance CEMEX APO Portland P 220-230
applications and highly Type 1 Cement
engineered construction (per 40 kg bag)
 Early strength achieved in less
time
 Best in overall quality and
consistency
 Proven compatibility with
mineral and chemical
admixtures
Type IP  Multi-purpose blended cement Eagle Cement P 220-230
 Composed of clinker, gypsum Advanced (Type 1P)
and highly reactive Philippine (per 40 kg bag)
tuff material
 Enhances concrete workability
 Improved strength and long-
term durability
 First in the Philippines to use
Block Bottom Packaging
 Environmentally friendly
Type I  Composed of clinker and Eagle Cement P 220-230
gypsum Strongcem
 The desired concrete (per 40 kg bag)
characteristics can be modified
from fresh to hardened state
making it the best
reinforcement for industrial
construction
Type IP  Made by mixed Portland cement Northern Ordinary P 200-230
clinker with a certain Portland Cement
percentage of gypsum (per 40 kg bag)
 The Portland cement clinker is
made by sintering a precisely
specified mixture of raw
materials
NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

Type P  Reduces the water requirement Northern Portland P 200-230


 Improves the workability of the Pozzolana Cement
concrete (per 40 kg bag)
 Develops strength longer curing
period
 Comparatively lower heat of
hydration
Type I  Used for general concrete PACEMCO Extra Super P 200-230
construction when the special Concrete
properties specified for any (per 40 kg bag)
other type are not required
Type P  Used for concrete construction PACEMCO Supreme P 200-230
where high strength at early Pozzolan
ages is not required (per 40 kg bag)

Type S  A masonry cement for PACEMCO Pacific P 200-230


plastering, concrete hollow Espesyalista Masonry
(Masonry Cement) block laying & filling, floor tiles Blend (per 40 kg bag)
laying / setting, and finishing

 Type GU: General Use


 Type HE: High Early Strength
 Type MS: Moderate Sulfate Resistance
 Type HS: High Sulfate Resistance
 Type MH: Moderate Heat of Hydration
 Type LH: Low Heat of Hydration

Concrete:
Concrete is a chemically combined mass which is manufactured from binding materials and
inert materials with water.

Function of Water in Concrete:

Three water serves the following purpose:

1. To wet the surface of aggregates to develop adhesion because the cement


pastes adheres quickly and satisfactory to the wet surface of the aggregates than to a
dry surface.
2. To prepare a plastic mixture of the various ingredients and to impart workability
to concrete to facilitate placing in the desired position and
3. Water is also needed for the hydration of the cementing materials to set and
harden during the period of curing.
The quantity of water in the mix plays a vital role on the strength of the concrete. Some water
which have adverse effect on hardened concrete. Sometimes may not be harmless or even
beneficial during mixing. So clear distinction should be made between the effect on hardened
concrete and the quality of mixing water.
NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

Potable water as mixing water:

The common specifications regarding quality of mixing water is water should be fit for
drinking. Such water should have inorganic solid less than 1000 ppm. This content lead to a
solid quantity 0.05% of mass of cement when w/c ratio is provided 0.5 resulting small effect
on strength.

But some water which are not potable may be used in making concrete with any significant
effect. Dark color or bad smell water may be used if they do not posses deleterious
substances. PH of water to even 9 is allowed if it not tastes brackish. In coastal areas where
local water is saline and have no alternate sources, the chloride concentration up to 1000
ppm is even allowed for drinking. But this excessive amount of alkali carbonates and
bicarbonates, in some natural mineral water, may cause alkali-silica reaction.

Determination of Suitability of Mixing Water:

A simple way of determining the suitability of such water is to compare the setting time of
cement and the strength of mortar cubes using the water in question with the corresponding
results obtained using known suitable or distilled water. About 10% tolerance is generally
allowed. Such tests are recommended when water for which no service record is available
containing dissolved solids in excess of 2000 ppm or, in excess of 1000 ppm. When unusual
solids are present a test is also advisable.

Quality Parameters Maimum Limit (ppm)

Chlorides 500

SO3 1000

Alkali Carbonates
1000
and Bicarbonates

Turbidity 2000

The effect on concreting for different types of contamination or impurities are described
below:

Suspended Solids:
NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE
Mixing water which high content of suspended solids should be allowed to stand in a setting
basing before use as it is undesirable to introduce large quantities of clay and slit
into the concrete.

Acidity and Alkalinity:

Natural water that are slightly acidic are harmless, but presence of humic or other organic
acids may result adverse affect over the hardening of concrete. Water which are highly
alkaline should also be tested.

Algae:

The presence of algae in mixing water causes air entrainments with a consequent loss of
strength. The green or brown slime forming algae should be regarded with suspicion and such
water should be tested carefully.

Sea Water:

Sea water contains a total salinity of about 3.5%(78% of the dissolved solids being NaCl and
15% MgCl2 and MgSO4), which produces a slightly higher early strength but a lower long-
term strength. The loss of strength is usually limited to 15% and can therefore be tolerated.
Sea water reduces the initial setting time of cement but do not effect final setting time.

Chloride:

Water containing large amount of chlorides tends to cause persistent dampness and
surface efflorescence. The presence of chlorides in concrete containing embedded steel can
lead to its corrosion.

Moisture Content of Aggregate:

Aggregate usually contains some surface moisture. Coarse aggregate rearlycontains more
than 1% of surface moisture but fine aggregate can contain in excess of 10%. This water can
represent a substantial proportion of the total mixing water indicating a significant importance
in the quality of the water that contributes surface moisture in aggregate.

CONCRETE WORKS Table I (Concrete Proportion)

Mixture Cement (bags/cu.m.) Sand Gravel

40 kg/bag 50 kg/bag Cu.m. Cu.m.

AA 1:1 ½ :3 12.0 9.5 0.50 1.0

A 1: 2 : 4 9.0 7.0 0.50 1.0

B 1: 2 ½ :5 7.5 6.0 0.50 1.0

C 1: 3 : 6 6.0 5.0 0.50 1.0


NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS (CHB)

Table 2 (Quantity of Cement and Sand for CHB Mortar per sq.mts.))

Size of Number Cement in Bags Sand


CHB per sq.
mts. 40 Kg (Mixture) 50 kg (Mixture) In
(cms.)
B C D B C D Cu.mts.

10x20x40 12.5 0.525 0.394 0.328 0.416 0.306 0.263 0.04375

15x20x40 12.5 1.013 0.759 0.633 0.802 0.591 0.506 0.08438

20x20x40 12.5 1.5 1.125 0.938 1.188 0.875 0.75 0.125

Table 3 (Quantity of Cement and Sand for Plastering per sq.mts.,- thickness at 16 mm)

Class Mixture Cement in Bags Sand

40 kgs. 50 kgs. Cu.mts.

A 0.288 0.232 0.016

B 0.192 0.152 0.016

C 0.144 0.112 0.016

D 0.120 0.096 0.016

Table 4 (Quantity of Cement and Sand for CHB Mortar per 100 CHB Mortar)

Size of Number Cement in Bags Sand


CHB per sq.
mts. 40 Kg (Mixture) 50 kg (Mixture) In
(cms.)
B C D B C D Cu.mts.

10x20x40 12.5 4.200 3.152 2.624 3.328 2.448 2.104 0.350

15x20x40 12.5 8.104 6.072 5.064 6.416 4.728 4.048 0.675

20x20x40 12.5 12.000 9.000 7.504 9.504 7.000 6.000 1.000


NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

Table 5 (Quantity of Cement and Sand for Plastering per 100 CHB,- thickness at 16 mm)

No. of Face to Cement in Bags Sand


be plastered
40 kgs. 50 kgs. Cu.mts.

Mixture Mixture

A B C A B C

One Face 2.304 1.536 1.152 1.856 1.216 0.896 0.128

Two Faces 4.608 3.072 2.304 3.712 2.432 1.792 0.256

LIGHTWEIGHT AND HEAVYWEIGHT CONCRETE

Density

The key difference between lightweight and heavyweight concrete is the density of the aggregate.

Lightweight concrete is made using aggregate whose density is less than 2,100 kilograms per cubic

yard (or 131 pounds per per cubic foot), while aggregates with greater densities give rise to so-called

heavyweight concrete. Expanded clay, slate and shale are common aggregate materials in lightweight

concrete, while heavyweight mixtures use either denser minerals such as barite or manufactured

materials such as iron and lead shot. Lightweight concrete has a broader range of applications.

Lightweight Concrete

The aggregate material in lightweight concrete typically has a lower density because it is more porous.

For example, it may have many microscopic air spaces incorporated into its structure. The result is an

aggregate with a high absorption value, which may sometimes necessitate caution in determining the

amount of each ingredient to use. Prewetting the aggregate before combining it with the other

ingredients may help alleviate the change in consistency that might otherwise accompany absorption.
NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

Heavyweight Concrete

Heavyweight concrete is made from aggregates with a density between 2,080 and 4,485 kilograms

per cubic meter (or between 130 and 280 pounds per cubic foot). These aggregates are much less

porous and absorbent, and the resulting concrete has a higher mass-to-volume ratio. The aggregate-

to-cement ratio also favors aggregate to a much greater degree than in lightweight

concrete, even though the contents of the cement are roughly the same. Mixers and pumps may

exhibit greater rates of wear when working with this type of material.

Applications

Lightweight concrete can be subdivided into groups such as ultra-lightweight and structural lightweight,

depending on the density of the aggregate. Concrete with aggregate density less than 500 kilograms

per cubic meter (31 pounds per cubic foot), for example, is considered ultra-lightweight, while structural

concrete generally falls in the range of 1,100 to 1,750 kilograms per cubic meter (70 to 110 pounds

per cubic foot). Most structural, masonry and insulating concretes are lightweight. Heavyweight

concrete, by contrast, is most often used for radiation shielding, although it also is used in the

construction of ballasts for offshore pipelines.

IMPORTANCE OF WATER CEMENT RATIO

Water-Cement Ratio - The Water-Cement Ratio is an important factor in the design of concrete

mixture. It is defined as the ratio of the weight of water and weight of cement in a particular mixture of

concrete. The ratio varies from 0.46 - 0.5. W/C ratio is an important factor as on it depends the

workability and strength of concrete. Lower W/C ratio produce concrete of higher strength but if it is

below a particular limit the workability of concrete decreases. hence an optimum W/C ratio which

produce maximum strength in concrete with a sufficient workability must be adopted.

CONCRETE STRENGTH IN 28 DAYS

Concrete gains strength with time after casting. It takes much time for concrete to gain 100% strength
and the time for same is still unknown. The rate of gain of concrete compressive strength in higher
during the first 28 days of casting and then it slows down.
NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

The table below shows the compressive strength gained by concrete after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days with
respect to the grade of concrete we use.

Age Strength per cent

1 day 16%

3 days 40%

7 days 65%

14 days 90%

28 days 99%

From above table, we see that, concrete gains 16 percent strength in one day, 40 percent in 3 days,
65% in 7 days, 90% in 14 days and 99% strength in 28 days.

Thus, it is clear that concrete gains its strength rapidly in the initial days after casting, i.e. 90% in only
14 days. When, its strength have reached 99% in 28 days, still concrete continues to gain strength
after that period, but that rate of gain in compressive strength is very less compared to that in 28 days.

After 14 days of casting concrete, concrete gains


only 9% in next 14 days. So, rate of gain of strength
decreases. We have no clear idea upto when the
concrete gains the strength, 1 year or 2 year, but it is
assumed that concrete may gain its final strength
after 1 year.

So, since the concrete strength is 99% at 28 days,


it’s almost close to its final strength, thus we rely
upon the results of compressive strength test after 28 days and use this strength as the base for our
design and evaluation.

Though there are also some rapid method of testing concrete compressive strength which gives
relation between rapid test methods and 28 day strength. This rapid test is done where time is limited
for construction and strength of structural member must be known to carry out further construction
work.
NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

METAL REINFORCEMENT

Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), collectively known as reinforcing steel and reinforcement steel, is
a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension device in reinforced concrete and
reinforced masonry structures to strengthen and aid the concrete under tension.

TYPE OF REINFORCEMENT BARS

There are mainly 4 types of steel reinforcement used in concrete structures:

1. Hot Rolled Deformed Bars: This is the most common


type of reinforcement for regular RCC structures. Hot rolling
is done in the mills which involves giving it deformations on
the surface i.e. ribs so that it can form bond with concrete. The
stress - strain curve shows a distinct yield point followed by a
plastic stage in which strain increases without increase in
stress. This is followed by a strain hardening stage. It has
typical tensile yield strength of 60,000 psi.

2. Mild Steel Plain bars: These are plain bars and have no ribs
on them. These are used in small projects where economy is the
real concern. As plain bars cannot bind very well with concrete
hence hooks have to be provided at the ends. In this type of steel
too stress - strain curve shows a distinct yield point followed by a
plastic stage in which strain increases without increase in stress.
This is followed by a strain hardening stage. Plastic stage in Mild
Steel Bars is even more pronounced than Hot Rolled Deformed
Bars. Typical tensile yield strength is 40,000 psi.

3. Cold Worked Steel Reinforcement: When hot rolled steel


bar undergoes process of cold working, Cold worked
reinforcement is produced. Cold working involves twisting or
drawing the bars at room temperature. This effectively eliminates
the Plastic Stage in the Stress-Strain curve, although it gives more
control over the size and tolerances of bars. Due to removal of
plastic stage it has lower ductility than Hot Rolled bars. Its use is
specific to projects where low tolerances and straightness are a
major concern. The stress – strain curve does not show a distinct
yield point as plastic stage is entirely eliminated. Yield point is
determined by drawing a line parallel to the Tangent Modulus at
0.2% strain. Yield stress is the point where this line intersects the
stress – strain curve. This is known as 0.2% proof stress. If yield
stress is determined at 0.1% strain it is called 0.1% proof stress.
Typical tensile yield strength is 60,000 psi.
NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE

4. Prestressing Steel: Prestressing steel is used in the form of bars or tendons which are made
up of multiple strands, however, tendons / strands are more frequently used as these can be laid in
various profiles, which is a primary requirement of prestressing steel. Prestressing strands are, in
turn, made up of multiple wires (typical 2, 3 or 7 wire strands). Typical seven wire strand consists
of six wires spun around the seventh wire which has a slightly larger diameter, thus forming a
helical strand. These wires are cold drawn and have very high tensile ultimate strength (typically
250,000 - 270,000 psi). Their high tensile strength makes it possible to effectively prestress
concrete even after undergoing short term and long term losses. These are used in prestressed
concrete in bridges or prestressed slabs in buildings. Prestressing steel is also available as non-
bonded strands encased in PVC sheath. It is used in Post-Tensioning of members. Prestressing
strands are also available as Low Relaxation Strands which exhibit low relaxation losses after
prestressing. These are typically used in prestressing members with large spans.

Due to the process of cold drawing, which is similar in effect to cold working, plastic stage in this
type of steel is eliminated. Thus stress – strain curve does not show a distinct yield point. Yield
point is determined at 0.1% or 0.2% proof stress. However, the design of prestressed concrete does
not depend on yield stress as much as it depends on the ultimate strength; hence the property of
interest in this type of steel is the ultimate strength.

(Specifications for reinforcement bars ASTM A615, BS 4449)

(Specifications for Prestressing 7 wire strand ASTM A416)

STANDARD SIZES
NAME TACORDA, ERIKA JOY T. DATE:
SUBJECT CEA511
INSTRUCTOR ENGR. WILLIAM R. TAN Sheet ____of____ SCORE