Research Proposal

Effects of Creatine on the Pulsation and Regeneration rates of Lumbriculus variegatus
By Julian Nwoko

Introduction/Background
Creatine seems to be one of our generation’s most-used health supplements. Although Creatine supplements were first studied in the early 20th Century, eight decades passed before it fully broke into the commercial market in the early 90’s. Today, its main use is the increase of muscle efficiency and storage potential. For those reasons, it is most popular amongst athletes and bodybuilders ranging from minor athletes to Olympic ones. This large-scale use of Creatine gave us the idea to test its direct effect on the vascular system on certain organisms such as Lumbriculus variegatus. We plan on introducing Lumbriculus variegatus to elevated levels of Creatine to observe any major effects on their rates of pulsation and regeneration. Our environmental constants would be the spring water that the worms would be immersed in, and room conditions that they’ll be subjected to, such as temperature. The independent variable in our study would be the various concentrations of Creatine that the worm samples would be subjected to. The dependent variable would, then, be the rates of pulsation and regeneration. With our experiment we also plan to examine the effect of dose gradients on our dependent variables.

Literature Review
The book observed the processes of water monitoring. It formally stated that a common way of testing the toxicity of and aquatic biome was to test the effects of the spring water on Lumbriculus variegatus and various species of arthropods. They conducted a study that tested the toxicity of various pesticides and heavy metals. Prior to their study, they concluded that the California Blackworm would be appropriate for the study, due to the fact that they were more sensitive the metals and pesticides
i

They made a key point within their abstract: "Creatine kinase catalyses the reversible transphosphorylation of creatine by ATP." They continue to explain the cellular effects of Creatine on the rates of ATP production. Creatine could triple the duration of active exertion or strength of the exertion. This article was most important because it attempts to explained the mechanism that powers the effects Creatine on organisms. I was most intrigued to find that Creatine also existed in the body, naturally.ii

1

Research Proposal
This article was most important because they also had to worry about the pulsation rates of the Black worms. They tested the effects of different Dissolved Oxygen concentrations on the rates. I enjoyed this article because it was essentially an article that formally modeled what we were asked to do. Their test material required the same measurement method as my group does. This was model to show the basic format that our project should have taken.iii

Hypothesis
If California Black Worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) are sensitive to elevated Creatine levels, then their pulsation rates and regeneration rates would increase with increasing, non-lethal concentrations of Creatine.

Methods
The first part of our experiment involves the testing of the direct effect of Creatine on the pulsation rates of the California Black Worms. Materially, we would need a sizeable population of worms, dissecting microscopes, Creatine supplements, spring water samples, pipettes, Petri dishes, and other various lab equipment. We would begin by preparing the control and Creatine habitats for the worms’ inhabitance. Finally, we’d separate the groups into a 6-worm groups. The Control groups would be immersed in standard spring water for ten and twenty minutes. The test groups would be also immersed in either 1.5 µM or 3.0 µM aqueous solution of Creatine for the same time periods. Afterwards their pulsation rates per minutes would be observed and recorded. Following the end of this procedure the worms would be discarded, in addition to the unused and used solutions. The second part of our experiment involves the testing of the direct effect of Creatin on the regeneration rates of California Black Worms. We would need a sizeable population of worms, dissecting microscopes, Creatine supplements, spring water samples, pipettes, Petri dishes, razor blades, 3 mL wellplates, and other standard lab equipment. We would begin again by preparing the control solutions and the 1.5 µM or 3.0 µM aqueous solution of Creatine. Following this preparations, 2 mL of each solution would be poured into each well of each treatment-specific wellplate. Twelve worms would be subjected to each treatment. The worms would be cut into intermediate-length anterior and posterior segments to be placed into corresponding parts of each well. The worms would be immersed in these wells. The wellplates would be left for a week to allow the worms to grow under the influence of their environment. After the week, the lengths of
2

Research Proposal
new growth would be measured, recorded, and compared to the control. Following this, all of the used and unused material would be discarded.

Timeline
• • • Thursday, June 26 – Conduct and complete the first part of the experiment. Record data on Creatine vs. Pulsation Rates. Thursday, July 03 – Begin second part of the experiment. Place worm segments in wells to regenerate for a week. Thursday, July 10 – Record the amount of worm growth. Finish experiment. Begin analysis of the data.

Discussion/Problem:
Since Creatine has come onto the market, there has been ongoing research to ensure the safety of the popular supplement. With this experiment, we hope to pinpoint any specific hazards that Creatine-usage or over-dosage has on the vascular system, perhaps revealing any potential hazard to people with heart conditions. Due to lack of experience with such supplements, we can only speculate as to its direct effects on the California Black Worms.

Working Bibliography
Andres, Robert H., Angélique D. Ducray, and Uwe Schlattner. "Functions and Effects of Creatine in the Central Nervous System." Brain Research Bulletin 76.4 (2008): 329-343. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. West Virginia University, Morgantown. 1 July 2008. Keyword: Creatine. Eaton, J. G., P. R. Parrish, and A. C. Hendricks. Aquatic Toxicology: Third Conference - Stp 707. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. ASTM International, 1980. Aquatic Toxicology: Third Conference - Stp 707. 1 July 2008 <http://books.google.com/books?id=ND5mOkvURDoC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_sum mary_r&cad=0#PPP1,M1>. Mattson, Vincent R., Russell J. Hockett, Terry L. Highland, Gerald T. Ankley, and David R. Mount. "Effects of Low Dissolved Oxygen on Organisms Used in Freshwater Sediment Toxicity Tests." Chemosphere 70.10 (2008): 1840-1844. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. West Virginia University, Morgantown. 1 July 2008. Keyword: Lumbriculus variegatus.
3

Research Proposal

4

Eaton, J. G., P. R. Parrish, and A. C. Hendricks. Aquatic Toxicology: Third Conference - Stp 707. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. ASTM International, 1980. Available from: Google Books [Online Database]. http://books.google.com Accessed 2008 1 July.
i

Andres, Robert H., Angélique D. Ducray, and Uwe Schlattner. "Functions and Effects of Creatine in the Central Nervous System." Brain Research Bulletin 76.4 (2008): 329-343. West Virginia University, Morgantown. Available from: Academic Search Premier. EBSCO [Online Database]. http://Ebscohost.com Accessed 2008 1 July
ii

Mattson, Vincent R., Russell J. Hockett, Terry L. Highland, Gerald T. Ankley, and David R. Mount. "Effects of Low Dissolved Oxygen on Organisms Used in Freshwater Sediment Toxicity Tests." Chemosphere 70.10 (2008): 1840-1844 West Virginia University, Morgantown. Available from: Academic Search Premier. EBSCO [Online Database]. http://Ebscohost.com Accessed 2008 1 July
iii

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.