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Alberca, Serry J.
Balazo, John Rod Noli V.
Baradillo, Delmar E.
Cruzado, Carlo C.
Galindo, Joven C.
Teniola, Blairwayne Jason U.
Villaranda, Keith James T.

Surigao State College of Technology

Main Campus, Surigao City
SY: 2018-2019


Since robotics are use more commonly in the fields and part in our daily life. In this paper the
focus on the design of a solar mobile robot car where charging system for batteries with the help of
tracked solar panels. And we will apply it to a mobile robot car. The use of solar tracking system for
increasing the robot’s power system performance is with pack of two rechargeable batteries. The
aim is complete the process of charging a battery independently while the other battery provides
energy consumed by the mobile robot car. We are designing a robot can be sent to the places where
there is threat to life of a human to know the surrounding things. This robot can be moved forward
and reverse directions using geared motors of 60RPM. Also this robot can take sharp turnings
towards left and right directions. This project uses AT89S52 MCU as its controller. Robot can be
controlled using wireless technology like Bluetooth technology. Android App which is in your
hand(mobile phone) is used as remote to control the action of robot using Bluetooth. The Bluetooth
module is used here. Bluetooth is wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short
distances this project uses 9V battery. This battery is powered using solar panel.

Keywords: mobile robot car, microcontroller, andriod mobile, solar panel, battery, photovoltaic (PV)


It is through efficient electronic programming that a mobile phone can control a car, hence a
robot can be thought of as an electro-mechanical machine. Some of the essential characteristics that
a robot must have are- sensing, movement, energy, intelligence. It performs a task using control
systems, various power supplies and software all working together. We developed an Android
application which uses remote buttons to guide an RC car’s motion. Hence, the mobile device
harbouring the Android application acts as the car’s remote control. Bluetooth is the basis of
communication between the controller and Android, using the USART protocol.

The solar mobile robot car systems are often used for many years. However, when there is
scarcity of sunlight the batteries cannot be recharged when depleted. Photovoltaic are used for the
conversion of sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic were initially used to power small and medium
applications, that are powered by a single solar cell to off-grid homes by photovoltaic array.

Nowadays, increasing efficiency of solar energy technology has given rise to use in it
practical applications like powering personal devices, solar generated energy provides abundant and
pollution free energy.

The objective of this research work is to build solar mobile robot car. This aims the following:

1. The mobile robot car can be move forward and reverse direction using geared motors and can
take sharp turning.
2. To control the mobile car using by android mobile phone and micro-controller such as instruction
to avoid the obstacle.
3. Bluetooth wireless transmission
4. Powered supply through solar panel


Items Pieces Partial Cost Cost

Arduino Uno Board 1 500 650

HC-05 Bluetooth
1 650 700
L298N motor driver 1 750 850

Sensor Shield Board V5 1

Line Inductive Module 3

Solar Panel 6-12V 1 285 414

HS-SR04 Ultrasonic
1 175 220
Sonar Sensor
Car chassis Kit 2 450 500

Plastic Tire wheels 4 450 480

DC Geared Motors 4 350 480

9v battery holder 1 300 350

9v rechargeable battery 2 450 500

Pillars 15 155 175

Screw and Nuts 30 135 155

Jumper Wires female to
40 135 175
Solder Wire 1 100 100

Solder Iron 1 100 120

Mini Screwdriver 1 150 180

Hot glue gun 1 175 200

Grand Total P 6, 655 P 7, 000

Materials and Methods:


Arduino Uno board

This is the brain of this robot in which the program is loaded to do the required functioning
and is interfaced with Bluetooth module and the motor driver to make the system work as required.

HC-05 Bluetooth Module

This module is capable of communicating with PC, mobile phone or any other Bluetooth
enabled device. It is interfaced with the micro-controller over the serial UART port of micro-controller.

L298N motor driver

This module is a dual H-Bridge motor driver which allows speed and direction control of 4 DC
motors at the same time. The module can drive DC motors that have voltages between 5 and 3v,
with a peak current up 2A.

Sensor Shield Board V5

This module allows you to connect various modules like sensors, servos, relays, buttons,
potentiometer etc. Arduino Uno. Each pin has a corresponding VCC and GND pin to easily connect
a module and supply power to it.

Solar Panel

Solar panels are made of photovoltaic (PV) cells, which turn sunlight into electricity.

3x Line inductive module

HS-SR04 Ultrasonic Sonar Sensor

This is an inexpensive device that is very useful for robotics and test equipment projects.
This tiny sensor is capable of measuring the distance between itself and the nearest solid object,
which is really good information to have if you’re trying to avoid driving into a wall.

Car chassis Kit

This is a kit where all the parts and components are being installed. This is a mechanical
body which can we view the formation of the car. Chassis is considered to be one of the significant
structures of an automobile.

Plastic Tire wheels

Wheels which were attached in the geared motors which can be moved in any direction of
the car.

DC Geared Motors

This geared motor is controlled with DC voltages and can move in forward and backward
direction according to the polarity of the voltage applied.

9v battery holder

One or more compartments or chambers for holding a battery. For wet dry cells, cabies are
often connected to the battery terminals, as Is found in automobiles or emergency lighting
9v Rechargeable Battery
A type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged
many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and
discarded after use. It is composed of one or more electrochemical cells.

15 x Pillars(6 x 35mm / 3 x 20mm / 6 x 6mm)

A multifunction type of screws and nuts that are useful for robotic equipment’s and other
mechanism machines.

Screws and Nuts

Used in several applications, with a primary function to hold things or components together.

Jumper Wires (Dupont line)

 Female to female
an electrical wire, or group of them in a cable, with a connector or pin at each end (or
sometimes without them – simply "tinned"), which is normally used to interconnect the components
of a breadboard or other prototype or test circuit, internally or with other equipment or components,
without soldering.
Solder Wire

Used in all types of electronic assemblies. It is electronic assemblies that together produce a
bonding material when heated and cooled.

Solder Iron

A hand tool used in soldering. It supplies heat to melt solder so that it can flow into the joint
between two workpieces.

Mini Screwdriver

A sets of hand tool which are designed to use and make repairs of smaller devices such as
computers, cell phone and etc.

Hot glue gun

Portable devices that utilize and dispense hot melt adhesives. Hot melts—thermoplastics in
the shape of tubular sticks—were created as an improvement to water-based adhesives that weaken
when exposed to humidity.
Block Diagram & Implementation




V5 9V




Wiring Diagram of Robotic Car

Step 1: Materials Required:

Arduino Uno Board, HC-05 Bluetooth Module, L298N motor driver, Sensor Shield Board V5,
Line Inductive Module, HS-SR04 Ultrasonic Sonar Sensor, Smart robot car chassis with 4x toy car
wheels, 4 DC Motors, 9v battery holder 2x 9v rechargeable battery, 15xPillars, Screws and Nuts,
Jumper Wires (female to female), Solar Panel 6-12V, Electrical instrument such as Solder Wire and
Iron, Mini Screwdriver, Hot glue gun(optional) and Mobile with Bluetooth.

Step 2: Solder All Motors & Attach Them to the Base

Solder each motor with a black and a red wire and attach them with the chassis. Join left
side motor wires together as: red wire --> red wire and black wire --> black wire.

Step 3: Join Wheels to All the Motors

Don’t apply too much pressure while pressing the wheels otherwise the chasis may get

Step 4: Apply one or more Rechargeable Batteries

Join the red wire to positive terminal and black wire to negative terminal of the battery. Use
appropriate battery for DC motors.

Step 5: Connect Motors to Motor Drive

Join the red and black terminal of motors on each side, to the motor drive outputs.

Step 6: Connect Motor Drive to Arduino

Then join the four control pins of motor drive to the arduino 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th pin socket.

Step 7: Join Bluetooth Module to Arduino

Connect bluetooth module(BT) HC-05 to arduino as shown in circuit diagram, join BT module
to arduino as: VCC--> 5V and GND-->GND

Step 8: Connect Motor Drive to Battery

Connect motor drive’s power input socket, positive and negative terminal of battery, also
connect the negative terminal of battery to GND of Arduino. Finally connect 3rd terminal to Vin of

Step 9: Programming Arduino UNO

Upload the Code and Download the App

Step 10: Disconnect Aduino from Pc and connect: Rx of hc-05 to Tx of arduino and Tx of hc-05 to Rx
of arduino

After uploading, disconnect the arduino from pc.Now connect Rx of hc-05 to Tx of arduino
and Tx of hc-05 to Rx of arduino. (Do not connect these before uploading the code otherwise it may
burn your arduino while uploading the code)

Step 11: Connect the Solar Panel

Connect the solar panel into a battery and connect all necessary connection for battery

Step 12: Pair with Bluetooth Module

Start the Car Check that LED of Bluetooth module is blinking fast without pairing. Pair the
HC-05 Bluetooth module with your smartphone. Enter password 1234(if it not works try 0000). After
paring open the app and choose HC-05 to pair with Check the LED of Bluetooth module, its blinking
rate would have been very slow now.

Step 13: Test Drive

Go to App ---> Buttons. Press all indicating forward and reverse movement in mobile phone.
Now you can control robot from your android mobile over Bluetooth and it will automatically avoid
any obstacle before crash!!!


In this paper, a new concept of utilization solar mobile robot car in order to manage unstable
networks is proposed. This paper has presented a smart organizing system applied to a solar mobile
robot car. The propose paper includes the construction of a solar tracker mechanism based on
mobile PV panels aimed at increasing system energy. Here main advantage is that amount of
generated power is independent from the robots mobility, since the system is capable of tracking
maximum light intensity. Making a self-sustainable human independent robotic system develops two
main ideas. First is creating a robot that can work on some projects without any human help. Second
is using renewable source as main energy supplier. Combining these two concepts, very powerful
robotic systems can be assembled contributing to whole aspects of the life in future.

This paper describes the beginning of the process in which a self-sustainable robotic system
is created. This is a very stable platform which can be easily modified and upgraded. Adding new
features, such as advance controller and sensors, will make this robot more intelligent and adaptive
to human needs.